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PSY 352 Week 1 Assignment Attention and Perception

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PSY 352 Week 1 Assignment Attention and Perception Attention and Perception. Due by Day 7. Prior to completing this assignment, please read Chapter 3 carefully. View the video The Study of Attention, and review the article “Driven to Distraction: Dual-Task Studies of Simulated Driving and Conversing on a Cellular Telephone.� Then complete the following experiments: Stroop Selective Attention Ambiguous Figures Muller-Lyer Illusion


Attention in its different forms (e.g., selective attention, divided attention, etc.) and perception are both essential aspects of cognition. The goal of this assignment is to introduce you to the topics of attention and perception and the procedures used to study them. Keep in mind that each experiment illustrates a procedure or task that is used by scientists to understand attention and/or perception. Your paper must begin with an introduction to the topic and must address the four bullet points below. In your paper,Reflect on your experience as the subject in the experiments—did your performance surprise you? Why or why not? Describe what your performance on the selected task tells you about attention and perception. Describe the extent to which the results of each experiment or procedure apply to real-life experiences and settings. Support your points with evidence from at least one peer-reviewed research article. The Attention and Perception Paper Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate title page with the following: o Titleofpaper o Student’sname o Course name and number oInstructor’sname o Datesubmitted


• Must use at least one peer-reviewed source in addition to the course text. oTheScholarly,PeerReviewed,andOtherCredibleSourcestableoffersadditi onalguidanceonappropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 1 Discussion Hot Topics in Cognitive Psychology

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PSY 352 Week 1 Discussion Hot Topics in Cognitive Psychology Hot Topics in Cognitive Psychology. 1st Post Due by Day 3. The goal of this discussion forum is to offer you an introduction to the field of cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology is a discipline within psychology that is concerned with the scientific study of the human mind. The mind is responsible for a variety of functions and abilities, including perception, attention, consciousness, memory, reasoning, and decision-making. Most of our mental life is unconscious. If the objects of our attention are equated to the objects of our consciousness, it is reasonable to assume that we are aware of only a limited number of events in our daily lives. For your initial post, complete the following steps: Watch the video entitled, The Magic of the Unconscious: Automatic Brain. Select a “hot topic” of cognitive psychology based on what you have heard and/or seen in the media and your personal interests. Look for a report in the media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, web pages of professional organizations, etc.) that refers to the selected topic such as “defendant cannot remember what happened,” “false memories explain UFO abduction stories,” and so forth. Describe the content of the selected report and offer your own perspective. Namely, use your critical- thinking skills to examine the extent to which the claims made in the report and the evidence upon


which the report relies are to be trusted. Then, discuss the real-life consequences of the evidence reported. In your post, include a link to the selected report, and explain to the members of the class why you have selected it. Support your points with evidence from at least one peer-reviewed research article. Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. Guided Response: Offer a substantial response to at least two other classmates’ posts. Respond to a post made by a classmate who discussed a different report from the one that you have selected, a post made by a classmate who discussed the same report, and any inquiry made by your instructor. In your responses, discuss whether you agree or disagree with the points made in your classmates’ initial posts. Be sure that you cite scientific evidence to support your views. Each response post should be a minimum of 200 words. Continue monitoring the discussion board until 5 p.m. (Pacific Time) on Day 7 of the week. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 1 Quiz

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PSY 352 Week 1 Quiz Question 1 Experiences in which input from one sensory system produces an experience not only in that modality but in another, as well, are called: synesthesia. synchrony. modulation. syncopation. Question 2 If two people have exactly the same sensory abilities and hear exactly the same faint noise, they may differ in their experience due to: sensitivity. response bias. sensation. bottom-up processing. Question 3 The tendency to attend to and visually analyze scenes in a particular way is called: flicker detection. mental focus. change blindness. perceptual set. Question 4 __________ refers to a procedure that requires a rigorous, and systematic self-report of the basic elements of an experience, and was the primary method used by __________. Schema analysis; Gestalt psychologists Savings; behaviorists Functional reporting; functionalists


Introspection; structuralists Question 5 The ability to detect the presence or absence of a stimulus or a change in a stimulus is termed: sensitivity. response bias. sensation. bottom-up processing. Question 6 Which theory of attention posits that selection occurs after all incoming stimuli have been identified? attenuation theory late selection theory early selection theory All theories of attention make this assumption. Question 7 Research on split-brain patients reveals that: the left hemisphere typically specializes in verbal processing, while the right hemisphere specializes in spatial tasks the left hemisphere typically specializes in spatial tasks, while the right hemisphere specializes in verbal processing people who have had their corpus callosum severed have a great deal of difficulty functioning in everyday life for normal people, there is no difference between the functioning of the left and right hemispheres Question 8 The term ________ is typically associated with the physiological processes that underlie information intake, while the term ________ is typically associated with the interpretation and organization of incoming information. top-down processing; bottom-up processing


bottom-up processing; top-down processing sensation; perception perception; sensation Question 9 The information processing approach to cognition likens thought to: the operation of a computer. the storage system of a library. the assembly-line production of a factory. the trial-and-error learning of the rat in a maze. Question 10 You set out from your living room to go down to the basement to get something. When you get to the basement, you forget what you have walked down there to get. What kind of action slip is this?. description error associative activation error capture error loss of activation error Question 11 What was the term Bartlett used for generalized knowledge structures about events and situations based on past experience? savings introspections configurations schemata Question 12 The attentional blink is indicated by: Decreased RT to a second target stimulus, the sooner it occurs after an initial target stimulus. decreased RT to a first target stimulus because participants expect it to be followed by a second target.


increased RT to a second target stimulus, the sooner it occurs after an initial target stimulus. increased RT to a first target stimulus because participants expect it to be followed by a second target. Question 13 Which school of psychology included principles of visual organization in their understanding of psychological processes? Gestalt Functionalism Structuralism Behaviorism Question 14 The atomistic approach employed by the structuralists — breaking consciousness down into its elemental components — has been likened to the approach of which other scientific discipline? physics chemistry biology archaeology Question 15 The active mode of attention might also be termed: bottom-up. goal-driven. stimulus-driven. pre-attentive. Question 16 William James was a prominent ________ who characterized consciousness as a _______. functionalist; stream functionalist; complex combination of simple elements structuralist; stream


structuralist; complex combination of simple elements Question 17 Our tendency to group elements that occur at the same time is called: common fate. similarity. closure. synchrony. Question 18 According to feature integration theory, visual search is a ____-stage process. one two three four Question 19 The sense of subjective awareness of what our mind is currently doing is termed: access consciousness. phenomenal consciousness. metacognition. unconsciousness. Question 20 The sub-discipline of cognitive science that is interested in the association between mental processing and brain activity is: developmental clinical. neuropsychology. social. Question 21


_________ refers to the tendency for objects that are near to one another to be grouped. Similarity Proximity Closure Common fate Question 22 The forgetting curve, as mapped out by Ebbinghaus, demonstrates that material is forgotten: very slowly at first, then at a very rapid rate. rapidly at first, then at a very slow steady rate. at a fairly constant rate over time. only if there is interference. Question 23 Feature search is to _____ as conjunction search is to _____. post-attentive; pre-attentive affected by display size; unaffected by display size feature integration; pop-out subitizing; enumeration Question 24 The higher cognitive processes, such as remembering, planning, and deciding are located in: the cerebral cortex. the midbrain. the hindbrain. none of the above. Question 25 Metacognition refers to: the role that emotion plays in cognition. the fact that we have evolved particular cognitive tendencies and abilities. the role that the body plays in thinking.


the knowledge we have about our own cognitive processes. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 2 Assignment Understanding Memory Loss

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PSY 352 Week 2 Assignment Understanding Memory Loss Understanding Memory Loss. Due by Day 7. Memory loss is frightening. The purpose of this assignment is to make you think of memory loss realistically. Complete the steps listed below: • Watch the video, Living Without a Memory, which provides an overview of memory and discusses actual cases of memory loss. • Select a movie that has featured a character with memory loss. Describe the main features of the impairment exhibited by the movie character.


Engage your critical thinking skills. How accurately is memory loss featured in the selected movie? Specifically, does the memory loss in the movie resemble actual cases? Is appropriate terminology used? Is the prognosis realistic? Note that statements regarding the accuracy or inaccuracy of the memory loss illustrated in the movie are to be supported by evidence collected by cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists (i.e., experts). Thus, review the literature on memory loss and use at least two peerreviewed articles that can answer the questions above. Although your opinion is valuable and always welcome, it needs to be supported by scientific evidence. Express your thoughts about how the movie could have more realistically depicted memory loss, its cause(s), time-course, and prognosis. Describe the memory loss featured in the selected movie as well as discussing its accuracy Keep in mind that accuracy refers to the description of symptoms, potential cause(s), prognosis and actual timecourse Your paper must begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper. You must also include a conclusion expressing your thoughts about how the movie could have more realistically depicted memory loss, its causes, time-course, and prognosis. The Understanding Memory Loss Paper: Must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center ------------------------------------------


PSY 352 Week 2 Discussion Understanding Working Memory

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PSY 352 Week 2 Discussion Understanding Working Memory Understanding Working Memory. 1st Post Due by Day 3. The goal of this discussion forum is to deepen your understanding of how working memory operates. For your initial post, watch the Models of Memory 1 Atkins+ Shiffrons Multi Store Model video. Then complete the following experiments: Digit Span Serial Position Effect Keep in mind that each experiment illustrates a procedure or task that is used by scientists to understand how working (short-term) memory functions. Consider what your performance on the selected task tells you about working memory and its strengths and weaknesses. Also, consider the extent to which the results of the selected experiment apply to real-life experiences and settings. Support your points with evidence from at least one peer- reviewed research article.


Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. Guided Response: Offer a substantial response to at least two other posts written by members of the class. In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post. Be sure that you cite scientific evidence to support your views. A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts. Be certain to continue monitoring the discussion board until 5 p.m. (Pacific Time) on Day 7 of the week. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 2 Quiz

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PSY 352 Week 2 Quiz Question 1


Experience in media multi-tasking is associated with: no change in the ability to control attention. an increased ability to control attention. a decreased ability to control attention. 23. Which of these is a basic level category member? a. tool b. apple c. vehicle red-winged blackbird Question 2 A problem with an extreme version of the exemplar approach is that: people are not sensitive to the biasing effects of context. it is not based on the idea of similarity to an example. it uses only the average examples, not all of the examples in memory. it is not economical to store every single example in memory. Question 3 Several researchers have examined how well deaf participants remember signs, just as listeners remember words they hear. In listening, words that sound alike are less likely to be remembered. What happens withAmerican Sign Language? Signs that are close in meaning, regardless of motion involved in the sign, are less likely to be recalled. Signs whose words sound the same if said aloud are less likely to be recalled, regardless of motion involvedin the sign. Signs that are made up of similar motions are less likely to be recalled. There is no sign length effect—all signs were remembered equally well. Question 4


One of the major criticisms of the classical view of concepts is that: it has a graded structure. members in certain categories have too much family resemblance. it is not based on similarity. it is difficult to determine what are necessary and sufficient features for many categories. Question 5 In image-based approaches to object recognition: objects are recognized holistically through comparison with a stored analog representation. identification of the object is viewpoint independent. a rotated image can be recognized just as quickly as an image in its normal orientation. an object must first be broken down into components. Question 6 Which of these combinations of repetition/rehearsal would lead to the best memory? massed/elaborative distributed/elaborative distributed/maintenance massed/maintenance Question 7 When you're attempting to remember what you did last night, this would be an ________ memory task that taps into ________. explicit; episodic explicit; semantic implicit; episodic implicit; semantic


Question 8 Semantic memories: are generally retrieved in the absence of a recollective experience. tend to be more vulnerable to forgetting than episodic memories. typically include an affective (i.e., emotional) component. aren't all that important in day-to-day living. Question 9 The testing effect most likely is most clearly related to this general memory framework: material-appropriate processing transfer-appropriate processing levels-of-processing the distinction between episodic and semantic memory Question 10 Prosopagnosia refers to: an inability to identify smells. an inability to recognize familiar faces. an inability to recognize common objects. an inability to detect objects in one particular area of one's visual field. Question 11 If I show one group of subjects a list of phrases, such as “break the toothpick,� and then had a second group of subjects actually perform the actions, which group would be more likely to remember the action phrases? the group that studied the verbal phrases the group that performed the actions they would remember the phrases about the same


the verbal group on a recall test; the action group on a recognition test Question 12 In parts-based approaches to object recognition: the identification of the object is viewpoint dependent. the whole image of the object is examined holistically. the representation stored in memory is analogous to the object being recognized. the orientation or the perspective of view on the object is not important. Question 13 Research on the long-term retention of knowledge learned through formal instruction leads to the conclusion that retention depends on the length of time over which initial learning takes place. According to your text, this is another instance of the powerful mnemonic benefits of: distributed repetition a deep level of processing subjective organization visual imagery

Question 14 The ________ approaches to object recognition might also be termed feature analysis, and propose thatrecognition ________ depend on the particular perspective we have on the object to be recognized. image-based; does image-based; does not parts-based; does parts-based; does not


Question 15 When faced with a picture of someone, which of these is most difficult? recognizing that the face is someone familiar retrieving the person's name retrieving a piece of biographical information about the person All information about faces is retrieved with about an equal level of difficulty. Question 16 The operation span task: is a measure of visual attention. requires that participants memorize a series of numbers. requires participants to perform three tasks concurrently. requires attentional control and inhibition. Question 17 Deaf individuals: show effects of similarity, but not word length. have no articulatory loop at all. show effects of word length, but not similarity. show effects of word length and similarity, just like hearing individuals. Question 18 The fuzzy boundaries in categories is best illustrated by which of the following statements? Bowling is “sort of” like a sport, but also “sort of” like a game. An orange is more representative of the category “fruit” than a kiwi is. “Furniture” is the superordinate level category for the basic level category of “couch”. Only natural categories have fuzzy boundaries. Question 19


The function of working memory whereby we strategically direct our attention is called: working attention. sensory attention executive attention focus of attention Question 20 The classic measure used to assess immediate memory capacity limits is termed: the Stroop task. memory span. the Brown-Peterson task. the juggling task. Question 21 Maintenance rehearsal: helps performance on a recall memory test, but not on a recognition memory test helps performance on a recognition memory test, but not on a recall memory test helps performance on both recall and recognition memory tests helps performance on neither recall nor recognition memory tests Question 22 According to the memory systems account of implicit/explicit dissociations: explicit memory performance is based on procedural memory, while implicit performance is based on declarative memory explicit memory performance is based on declarative memory, while implicit performance is based on procedural memory


both explicit and implicit memory performance are based on semantic memory both explicit and implicit memory performance are based on procedural memory Question 23 The functions of concepts in our everyday thinking include all of the following EXCEPT: slower and more careful thinking. making predictions. communicating with others. supporting new learning. Question 24 The most conservative estimate of the limits on immediate memory is: 1 or 2. 3 or 4. 7. 9. Question 25 According to Wegner and his colleagues, the ironic effects of thought suppression: are more likely to occur when attention is overloaded. occur because of the failure of an ironic monitoring process. can be explained by a three-factor theory of cognitive control. occur because the intentional operating process operates too efficiently. Question 26 The case where later information interferes with the ability to retain information that occurred earlier is called: aanterograde amnesia.


b. retroactive interference. c. proactive interference. d. retrograde amnesia. Question 27 Baddeley proposed that the functions of the central executive might be better specified through what he termed _____ of the central executive. delineation fractionation dissociation separation ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 3 Assignment Memory Errors in Real Life

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PSY 352 Week 3 Assignment Memory Errors in Real Life


Memory Errors in Real Life. Due by Day 7. Laypersons are often unaware of the extent to which memory errors (including memory of events that did not occur and memory distortions) are commonplace and widespread. The purpose of this assignment is to make you think of not only memory errors in real life, but also the reasons behind their occurrence. Consider the steps listed below: Read the “Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory” and “Creating False Memories” articles, which offer an overview of memory errors and their origins. Keep in mind that your textbook is another valuable source of information regarding memory errors. Select a case mentioned in a news article where memory errors have been known or can be assumed to have occurred (e.g., eyewitness testimony, instances of recovered memories of traumatic experiences, etc.). Describe the main features of the errors, their consequences, and their possible sources (i.e., what are the features of human memory that make the errors possible?). Engage your critical thinking skills: Explain what cognitive psychology suggests that people do to decrease the occurrence of the memory errors that you discuss in your paper. If these errors cannot be avoided, what does cognitive psychology suggest that people do to prevent the often damaging consequences of such errors? Note that statements regarding the inaccuracy of human memory, and strategies to decrease the occurrence of errors and their consequences are to be supported by scientific evidence collected by experts.


Thus, review the literature on memory errors and use at least two peerreviewed articles that can answer the questions above. Must begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper. Include a brief description of the memory errors featured in the selected news article as well as discussing potential sources and known or likely consequences according to the guidelines described above. Include a conclusion expressing your thoughts about how these memory errors can be prevented or reduced, and the extent to which their often dreadful consequences can be minimized. Keep in mind that although your opinion is valuable, it needs to be supported by scientific evidence. The Memory Errors in Real Life Paper Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 3 Discussion The Fallible Nature of Memory

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PSY 352 Week 3 Discussion The Fallible Nature of Memory The Fallible Nature of Memory. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In this discussion forum, you will explore the imperfect content of our memories of experiences. For your initial post, complete the following steps: • Watch the following videos: o FalseMemories o LoftusSpeaks:TheMalleabilityofMemory In the videos, Loftus describes the ease with which false memories can be created or altered. Yet people like Paul Shanely are incarcerated, convicted of heinous crimes based on the testimony of men who have claimed to have repressed memories of years of childhood sexual abuse until adulthood. The two sides of the argument are referred to as “The Memory Wars.” For this discussion, choose one of the following prompts: Analyze both sides of the Shanely case. Which side is best supported by the scientific evidence? Which one do you support and why? Analyze the case of the Ramona family. How could the daughter repress such memories for so long? Does the fact that her father successfully sued the therapist prove that the memories are false?


Analyze the case of Jennifer Thompson-Cannino and Ronald Cotton. How is it possible to be so sure that you recognize a face when it is not the right person? Provide an overview of Loftus’ research. How does that prove (or not) that memories can be created or altered? Use your critical thinking skills and present a cogent analysis and argument for the position you choose to defend. Support your points with evidence from at least one peer-reviewed research article. Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates. Choose posts that address a different prompt than you chose. In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post. A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts. Be certain to continue monitoring the discussion board until 5 p.m. (Pacific Time) on Day 7 of the week. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 3 Quiz

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PSY 352 Week 3 Quiz Question 1 If an eyewitness to a crime experiences a weapon focus, he or she will be: more likely to remember information about the gun, but less likely to remember what the person is wearing more likely to remember what the person is wearing, but less likely to remember information about the gun more likely to remember peripheral details, but less likely to remember central details equally likely to remember peripheral and central details Question 2 When recalling an autobiographical memory, Conway’s self-memory systems says that: we access sensory-perceptual details at the level of lifetime periods we reconstruct the event starting from event-specific knowledge, then general events, and finally lifetimeperiods we reconstruct the event starting from lifetime periods, then general events, and finally accessing event specific knowledge retrieval of autobiographical memories is fast and accurate Question 3 Which of these autobiographical memory research techniques allows for firmer conclusions about memoryaccuracy? targeted event recall diary technique


cue word technique public record assessment Question 4 People often tout the power of smells as cues for autobiographical memories. How does empirical researchstack up on this issue? Olfactory cues produce more detailed memories than do non-olfactory cues. Olfactory cues produce more recent memories than do non-olfactory cues. Olfactory cues produce more vivid memories than do non-olfactory cues. Olfactory cues tend to produce flashbulb memories. Question 5 One research strategy for investigating childhood memories (in order to check and verify the accuracy ofremembered childhood events) is to: investigate participants' pasts to confirm the events they remember ask about salient events that can be easily corroborated by other parties stage events that can be asked about later on there is no way to corroborate any childhood memory. Question 6 The Proust phenomenon is: the power of odors to elicit memories that are especially old and vivid the ability of odors to generate more detailed memories using olfactory odors to generate autobiographical facts the ability of odors to generate very early memories in life Question 7 In their study of early childhood memories, Usher and Neisser (1993) found that:


family stories and photographs helped the memories of all children family stories and photographs hurt the memories of all children family stories and photographs hurt the memories of children four and older family stories and photographs hurt the memories of children three years and younger Question 8 Relating details of personally experienced events makes us seem more believable and truthful, and tends to make us more persuasive. This assertion relates to which function of autobiographical memory? emotional informational communicative directive

Question 9 The "general events" level of representation in autobiographical memory bears a strong resemblance to: the subordinate level of category representation the superordinate level of category representation the basic level of category representation the notion of an exemplar in category representation Question 10 Williams (1994) attempted to corroborate individual cases of lost traumatic memories by finding individualswho had been admitted 17 years earlier to sexual abuse clinics and interviewing them about their current knowledge of the experience. The findings are interpreted as


evidence ____ the reality of repressed then recovered memories because __________: for; over 1/3 failed to remember the event for which they had been admitted. for; all of them failed to remember the event for which they had been admitted. against; all of them vividly remembered the event for which they had been admitted. Question 11 All of the following statements about the misinformation effect are true except: It is an example of the memory sin of suggestibility. It is an example of the memory sin of misattribution. It is an example of retroactive interference. It is an example of the memory sin of bias. Question 12 Marian and Neisser (2000) conducted a study in which Russian immigrants to the United States were givenRussian or English cue words for autobiographical memories. The results of this study provided a conceptual replication of this classic memory phenomenon in the context of autobiographical memory: a levels of processing effect the beneficial effect of organization on memory encoding specificity a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory


Question 13 According to the Innocence Project, eyewitness misidentification plays a key role in ___ of the cases of wrongful conviction in which DNA evidence later led to exoneration. about 25% about 50% about 75% all Question 14 The reminiscence bump refers to the finding that ________ and seems to apply ________. people show a standard forgetting curve for the last several years of their autobiography; only to episodicmemory people show a standard forgetting curve for the last several years of their autobiography; to both episodicand semantic memory people tend to recall a disproportionate number of events from between ages 10 to 30; only to episodicmemory people tend to recall a disproportionate number of events from between ages 10 to 30; to both episodic and semantic memory Question 15 Garry and Wade compared the effects of photos and narratives in producing false memories and found that: both were about equally likely to lead to false remembering. neither one led to much false remembering. narratives led to more false remembering than did photos. photos led to more false remembering than did narratives. ------------------------------------------


PSY 352 Week 4 Assignment Understanding Experiments in Cognition

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PSY 352 Week 4 Assignment Understanding Experiments in Cognition Understanding Experiments in Cognition. Due by Day 7. It is reasonable to admit that in four weeks you have been exposed to a great deal of information about the human mind! This assignment will give you the opportunity to examine how the knowledge that you have acquired during the past weeks may tie together. You will explore a phenomenon that interests you, highlight the methodologies used to study it, uncover the results obtained, and assess the validity of the knowledge acquired. These activities will make you aware of the intrinsic relationship between knowledge of specific mental and behavioral phenomena, as well as the limitations of the techniques used to study them.


Knowledge in cognitive psychology is largely gathered by means of experiments. Thus, it is important that you become intimately familiar with this datagathering method. The goal of the assignment is to ensure that you have a good understanding of specific cognitive psychological phenomena as well as experiments that are often used to investigate such phenomena. Abide by the instructions listed below: Watch the video, Experimental Research Methods in Psychology, on the experimental method. Go to the Ashford University Library or Google Scholar and select a peer-reviewed article on a topic of interest among those discussed in our class. If you prefer, you may select an article from the recommended resources. Describe the main research questions that the study attempts to answer. Keep in mind that a description of the main question of the study entails an explanation of the importance of the question (i.e., illustrates the gap in the existing literature). State the main hypothesis (prediction) made by the researchers. Identify the key variables. Describe the critical characteristics of both the participants and the procedures used. Summarize the main findings. How do these findings answer the question that the researchers formulated in the introductory section of the article? Explain the extent to which the findings answer the research question.


Do the findings support their research question (or prediction)? Illustrate the weaknesses and strengths of the selected study. For instance, ask yourself questions such as the following: o Is the technique used to understand the selected phenomenon able to gather adequate information about it? o How does this technique compare to other techniques used in cognitive psychology? o Do the findings of the selected study generalize to individuals who may be different from those who participated (young versus older adults)? • Please note that research articles often contain more than one study. Thus, in this assignment, you are given the opportunity to describe each experiment separately or focus on what you believe to be the most significant experiment. Your paper must begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define the research question and all concepts that will be discussed in the paper. For instance, let us assume you select the article by Strayer and Johnston “Driven to Distraction: Dual-Task Studies of Simulated Driving and Conversing on a Cellular Telephoneâ€? as the topic of your paper. Then your task is to state the question the researchers want to answer and define the terms attention, divided attention, and distraction. Your paper requires a brief summary of the content of the selected article according to the guidelines described above. It also requires a conclusion expressing your thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence. If possible, suggest the course that future


research should take if the answer to the selected question is less than conclusive. The Memory Errors in Real Life Paper Must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 4 Discussion Problem Solving Popular Beliefs and Evidence

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PSY 352 Week 4 Discussion Problem Solving Popular Beliefs and Evidence Problem Solving: Popular Beliefs and Evidence. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In this discussion forum, you will assess the validity of popular assumptions and beliefs about problem solving. Please note that your


answers need be supported by scientific evidence. For your initial post, complete the steps below: Watch the video, Rory Sutherland: Sweat the Small Stuff, on how simplicity can benefit problem solving. Select one of the following topics: o Laypersonsandscientist’salikeoftenreportthatafterhavingtriedtosolveapro blemforanentire day, “sleeping on it” led to a solution. Does sleep indeed promote problem solving? o Laypersonsandscientist’salikeoftenreportthatasolutiontoaproblemmayco metomindafter having taken a break from thinking about the problem. Does incubation really work? Select a theoretical view/model of problem solving (e.g., Gestalt psychology, information processing approach, etc.). What is the evidence that supports it? What evidence, if any, does not fit the model? Are experts better at solving problems than non-experts? If so, what is responsible for experts’ superior performance? Is their superiority general or limited to their field of expertise? Are there individual differences in problem-solving abilities? For instance, is working memory’s capacity linked to one’s ability to solve problems? After you select a topic, access the Ashford University Library and Google Scholar and review the literature on problem solving. Then select a research article that answers the questions related to the selected topic. Finally, share the evidence you have uncovered and your critical examination of such evidence with the class. Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.


Guided Response: Offer a substantial response to at least two other posts written by members of the class. Respond to a post that discusses a different topic from the one that you have selected, a post that discusses the same topic, and an inquiry from your instructor. Keep in mind that both your peers and your instructor are members of the class. In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post. Be sure that you cite scientific evidence to support your views. A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 4 Quiz

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PSY 352 Week 4 Quiz


Question 1 Suppose I am planning a wedding with 200 guests, and everyone is going to have a designated place at 22 different dinner tables. Trying to figure out who is going to sit where, and with whom, would be considered: an arrangement problem. a divergent problem. a transformation problem. a deduction problem. Question 2 Our tendency to avoid situations in which many people may be killed while simultaneously being relatively impervious to risky situations in which deaths are more spread out is termed: Anchoring. Fatality Fear. Dread Risk. Fatal Risk Assessment. Question 3 A finding regarding medical expertise indicates that those at an intermediate level of knowledge actually remember more information than do experts. This is termed the: intern effect. novice effect. intermediate effect. expert effect. Question 4 The belief that after a run of bad luck a change is “due� to occur is called:


superstition effect. gambler’s fallacy. hot hand. an “in� with the Gods. Question 5 Castel, McCabe, Roediger, and Heitman (2007) investigated whether experts might be more or less susceptible than novices to the DRM memory illusion. They tested people who were more and less knowledgeable aboutand found that experts were football; more likely than novices to falsely recall items football; less likely than novices to falsely recall items cooking; more likely than novices to falsely recall items cooking; less likely than novices to falsely recall items Question 6 Means-end analysis is basically a fancy term for: breaking a problem down into subgoals. applying analogies to solve a problem. applying algorithms to solve a problem. working backwards to solve a problem. Question 7 Immediate memory capacity is _____ with susceptibility to the beliefbias effect. not correlated negatively correlated positively correlated synonymous with Question 8


Which of these is an example of the sunk cost effect? Sally is too sick to go out, but decides to attend the play since she paid $40 for the ticket. Jenny relents to the high-pressure sales person and spends $550 on accessories she doesn’t need. Despite continued losses, Tony continues to play the ponies at the local track. Aaron has a decent seat for the basketball game, but decides to upgrade them by buying much better seats from a scalper. Question 9 Which of these is NOT a difference between the way experts and novices go about solving a problem? Experts tend to work backwards; novices tend to work forwards. Experts can practically bypass working memory in encoding problem information; novices can’t. Novices tend to pick up on surface features, while experts are better at picking up structural features. Experts are better at picking up on analogies and using them to solve problems. Question 10 According to the dual-process view of reasoning, judgment and decision making, which mode of thinking operates relatively slowly, deliberately and in a controlled manner? heuristic mode rational mode bounded mode analytic mode


Question 11 In a valid syllogism: the conclusion follows from the premises. the premises are true. the conclusion is true. all of the above are true. Question 12 Research on the ability to see and apply analogies between the “radiation problem� (tumor problem) and the attack problem indicates that: people commonly miss the analogy with or without a hint. people easily see the connection between the problems, and use it to solve the second one. people rarely see the connection between the problems unless they’re given a hint; then, they usually do make the connection. analogies only work with complex problems, not simple ones. Question 13 Mental set operates at which stage of problem solving? problem representation generation of solutions problem identification applying solutions

Question 14


The ________ view of inductive reasoning states that inductive reasoning involves special processes and representations that operate in the abstract, outside of any real-life context. experience based rule-based categorization confirmatory Question 15 Which of the following is NOT one the three sources of difficulty in solving insight problems according to Kershaw and Ohlsson? Perceptual factors Experience factors Process factors Knowledge factors

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PSY 352 Week 5 Discussion Language, Perception, and Cognition

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PSY 352 Week 5 Discussion Language, Perception, and Cognition Language, Perception, and Cognition. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In this discussion forum, you will examine what language says about how the human mind works. More specifically, you will consider whether the language people speak (including the words that are available to them and the way words are organized to convey meaning) merely offers a window into human cognition or it can actually affect the way people perceive and understand the world. Please note that your answer to this question needs be supported by scientific evidence. For your initial post, complete the steps below: Watch the videos, Steven Pinker: What our Language Habits Reveal and Keith Chen: Could your Language Affect your Ability to Save Money? on the links between language and cognition. Read The New York Times article Does Your Language Shape How You Think? to further your understanding of the links between language and cognition. Access the Ashford University Library and Google Scholar, review the psycholinguist literature, and then select a research article that offers an answer to the question about whether language shapes perceptions and thoughts or merely reflects them. Share the evidence you have uncovered and your critical examination of such evidence with the class. Your initial post must include a minimum of 300 words. Guided Response: Offer a substantial response to at least two other posts written by members of the class. Respond to a post that discusses a


different viewpoint from the one that you have selected, a post that discusses the same viewpoint, and an inquiry from your instructor. Keep in mind that both peers and instructor are members of the class. In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post. Be sure that you cite scientific evidence to support your views. A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts. Be certain to continue monitoring the discussion board until 5 p.m. (Pacific Time) on Day 7 of the week ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 5 Final Paper Questions in Psycholinguistics

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PSY 352 Week 5 Final Paper Questions in Psycholinguistics


Questions in Psycholinguistics. Due by Day 7. Language is an important tool for storing, organizing, and retrieving information that has been acquired throughout one’s life, as well as for thinking, modifying, and sharing such information with others. Thus, researchers ask many questions about language and its use. For this assignment, complete the steps listed below: • Select one of the following topics: o Recent research has shown that bilingualism shapes the human mind. What are some of the short-term and/or long-term consequences of bilingualism on information processing? Include at leasttwo sets of findings (e.g., speed of processing and vocabulary size) in your paper. o Human language is more than a communication system. What are the unique properties of human language that make it different from communication systems used by other species? o Most of language use in adults relies on reading, an ability that is often acquired later in life than the ability to speak and understand speech in one’s primary language. Why is learning how to read more challenging than learning how to speak in one’s primary language? o Ambiguities in the meaning of words and phrases are far from rare occurrences. Yet, both speakers and listeners (or readers) often do not appear to notice them. What are these ambiguities, and why do they often go unnoticed? o Can you “forget” words in your first language while you are learning a second language? Summarize the available evidence to explain your answer. o More than half a century ago, two researchers, Noam Chomsky and B. F. Skinner, debated the role of nature and nurture in language acquisition.


What was the viewpoint of each researcher? What was the evidence upon which their contrasting viewpoints relied? Review the literature on the selected topic. For your selected topic, use at least three peer-reviewed articles that can answer the questions related to it. Summarize the evidence you have found and then critically examine it. Engage your critical thinking skills. For instance, ask yourself if the available evidence is sufficient to support the interpretations that researchers have proposed, and/or whether there are ambiguities and unknowns. Begin your paper with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper. Include a brief summary of the content of the selected article according to the guidelines described above. Analyze the key findings, illustrating the consistencies and inconsistencies. Include a conclusion expressing your thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence. If possible, suggest the course that future research should take if answers are less than conclusive. The Questions in Psycholinguistics Final Paper Must be five to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz


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PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz Question 1 Perea, Acha, &Carreiras (2009) investigated the reading comprehension of text messages and found that: orthographically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text. phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text. both orthographically- and phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text. neither orthographically- nor phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text. Question 2 Which of these is NOT one of the stages of language production? planning assembly


self-monitoring conceptualization Question 3 “Greg had such a bad night out at the bar that he decided to buy a new cue stick.” The inference that Greg had a bad night because he shot billiards poorly is a ________. This inferred fact ________ represented as prominently as if it had actually been presented. a bridging inference; would not be an elaborative inference; would not be a bridging inference; would be an elaborative inference; would be Question 4 Place of articulation is to manner of articulation as ________ is to ________. release; vibration vocal cords; air flow interrupt; stop where; how Question 5 All of the following statements are true about “motherese” EXCEPT: it tends to be higher pitched than normal speech. it is found across many different languages. it features exaggerated ups and downs in pitch. it tends to be faster than normal speech. Question 6 Which of these is NOT one of the levels of discourse representation?


situation model surface code text base analog code Question 7 When children lie and deceive their parents to keep out of trouble, they are using which design feature of language? Arbitrariness specialization displacement prevarication Question 8 Which of the statements about the mental lexicon and lexical access is true? Only one meaning of an ambiguous word (e.g., bank) is activated upon word presentation. Low-frequency words are more quickly accessed than are highfrequency words. For bilinguals, a given concept has only one entry in the mental lexicon. The mental lexicon is part of semantic memory. Question 9 Chomsky’s approach to how we engage in language is termed: transformational grammar. constraint-based grammar. phonetic grammar. syntactic based grammar. Question 10


You are taking a test about language. Your ability to think about language in order to complete the test is an example of which design feature? productivity arbitrariness reflectiveness semanticity Question 11 About how many phonemes make up American English? 10 25 45 105 Question 12 The most impressive evidence that animals are indeed capable of learning language comes from the research done with: Kanzi. Alex. Rockie. Washoe. Question 13 The story grammar approach basically applies which notion (from sentence comprehension) to the comprehension of stories and larger units of discourse? case grammar parsing morphology constraint-based grammar


Question 14 What is parsing? the process of accessing word meaning the process of converting syntax into semantics the process of identifying the component elements of a sentence the process of mapping the look of a word onto the sound of a word Question 15 Anaphors are more likely to result in the successful retrieval of an appropriate antecedent when: the antecedent has occurred recently. the antecedent received first mention. both factors mentioned in a and b are important. neither factor mentioned in a and b are important. Question 16 ______ represents a phonetic difference (but not a phonemic difference). The “g” in dog and the “g” in log The “d” in dog and the “l” in log The “t” in pit and the “th” in with The “p” in pit and the “s” in sit Question 17 In their research with Kanzi and other bonobo chimps, SavageRumbaugh and colleagues have investigated whether language can be acquired in the form of: American Sign Language. Braille. motioning. lexigrams.


Question 18 High frequency words like robin receive _____ fixation as/than lowfrequency words like penguin. the same amount of more less Question 19 Which of these describes the bottom-up processes in reading? Reading is aided by expectations. Reading is aided by context. Reading is aided by other words. Reading requires analysis of the printed symbols. Question 20 Dyslexics have particular trouble: reading words in the correct order. recognizing words when they hear them. mapping the look of a word onto its sound. performing normally on standard measures of intelligence. Question 21 Rayner, White, Johnson, and Liversedge (2006) examined fixation times for words that were normal or jumbled. They found that: words with the internal letters transposed had the longest fixation times. words with the initial letter transposed had the longest fixation times. fixation times for normal words and for words with ending letters transposed were the same. there was no difference between words with internal, ending, or beginning letters transposed.


Question 22 The concept of a ________ comes from Bartlett's classic research on story recall. story grammar proposition script schema Question 23 Gricean maxims in language indicate that our conversational partners should conform to all of the following EXCEPT: avoidance of ambiguity. relevance. grammatical correctness. truthfulness. Question 24 All of the following statements are true about “motherese� EXCEPT: it tends to be higher pitched than normal speech. it is found across many different languages. it features exaggerated ups and downs in pitch. it tends to be faster than normal speech. Question 25 Which of these is NOT an assumption of the construction-integration model of text comprehension? We encode ideas from texts as propositions. Ideas from a text, once encoded, are organized hierarchically. We use working memory to construct the text representation. The more propositions in a text, the more easily we comprehend it. Question 26


Pinker proposes that in order to “morph” words into different forms (i.e., past tense), we have: one system that is associative; we encode associations between the past and present tense, and use them to retrieve one another. one system that operates via rules; we use these rules (e.g., “add an -s to make a plural”) to morph words. two systems; we use the rule system for exceptions, and the associative system for non-exceptions. two systems; we use the rule system for non-exceptions, and the associative system for exceptions. Question 27 The design feature of language that allows us to communicate ideas that are remote in space and time is: discreteness. specialization. productivity. displacement. Question 28 Luo, Johnson, & Gallo (1998) tested whether “pseudohomophones” (e.g., “brane”) would show effects of semantic relatedness. In other words, would the letter string “brane” prime a related concept (e.g., neuron)? What did they find? That access to the mental lexicon was most probably direct. Pseudohomophones primed only the actual word (e.g., “brain,” in this example). Pseudohomophones did not prime related concepts. Pseudohomophones did prime related concepts. Question 29 The difficulty in processing garden-path sentences:


confirms that the default structure in English syntax tends to be subjectobject-verb. is evidence against the garden-path approach. is evident in reading times, but not in eye movements. applies to blind readers of Braille. ----------------------------------------------

PSY 352 Learn/newtonhelp.com  

For more course tutorials visit www.newtonhelp.com PSY 352 Week 1 Assignment Attention and Perception   Attention and Perception. Due by...

PSY 352 Learn/newtonhelp.com  

For more course tutorials visit www.newtonhelp.com PSY 352 Week 1 Assignment Attention and Perception   Attention and Perception. Due by...

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