Issuu on Google+

 

Dramaturgical Packet By Matt Fotis, Tyler Ryan, Connor Feeney, Ezra Ali-Dow, Trent Gray, Stormy Russell, & Siobhan O’Hara

 

Albright College, Domino Players Production September 26-29th, 2013    


Cast & Crew Cast Veronica: Stormy Russell Michael: Trent Gray Alan: Ezra Ali-Dow Annette: Siobhan O’Hara   Crew Director: Matt Fotis Assistant Director: Tyler Ryan Scenic Designer: Cocol Bernal Costume Designer: Samantha Gardecki Technical Director: Wayne Vettleson Assistant Technical Director: William Balmer Costume Shop Director: Paula Trimpey Stage Manager: Connor Feeney Assistant Stage Managers: Emily Piket, Alexis Jenofsky Assistant to Scenic Designer: John Tallarida Shop Assistants: Russell Blair, Connor Feeney Costume Crew/Dresser: Alexio Barboza, Jena Dittus Stitchers: Susie Benitez, Lydia Johnson, Alison Kluxen, Maura Sheehan, Sarah Swank Props Mistress: Mariah Gibson Assistant Props Mistress: Rebecca Brown Booth Crew: Anna’le Hornak Cover Design by Sheldon Carpenter Production Photos by John Pankratz

 

2  


Table of Contents

    Basic Info • Yasmina Reza Biography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 • God of Carnage Production History………………………………………………………………………………………….5 • Critical Reaction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 Interview • With Director Matt Fotis & Scenic Designer Cocol Bernal……………………………………………………6 Mini Essays • The God of Carnage: Conflict in the Living Room…………………………………………………………………..7 • Is Technology Isolating Us or Bringing us Together?...........................................................................9 • Adult Isolation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 • Cultural Voyeurism…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12 • Bullying in the Adult World…………………………………………………………………………………………………….13 • The 21st Century Parent…………………………………………………………………………………………………………14 • The Masks We Wear……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15 Glossary/Terms/Ideas to Further Explore…………………………………………………………………………………………..16 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20

 

3  


About the Playwright - Yasmina Reza Yasmina Reza (b. 1959) is a French playwright, actress, novelist and screenwriter, best known for her works for the stage. She was born to Jewish expatriate parents in Paris. Her father was an engineer, businessman, and amateur pianist of Spanish and Iranian heritage born in Moscow during the Russian Revolution. He grew up in France after fleeing to Paris with his parents. Her mother was a professional violinist from Budapest, Hungary, but quit playing when Yasmina was born. Reza herself admits that she grew up a fairly privileged girl. “But,” she adds, “I was an unhappy child, for some reasons I know and some I don’t know. It’s nothing to do with my family. I’ve always known somehow that life is not easy. I was born feeling that life was sad….My ancestry makes me feel like an outsider, but that’s good, it’s a privilege. It doesn’t make me sad at all.” Referring to her unique background and privileged upbringing, Christopher Hampton, Reza’s most frequent translator, calls her “a lepidopterist of the middle class.” She studied theater and sociology at the University of Paris X, Nanterre, and later attended the Jacques Lecoq Drama School. She began working as an actress, but had trouble landing roles due to her outwardly “ethnic” appearance, so hoping for more artistic fulfillment she turned to screenwriting. She wrote three initial films, but didn’t find much commercial success. Reza wrote her first stage play in 1987, Conversations after a Burial, which won the prestigious Molière Award. She was lauded for her genre-defying blend of wit and pathos, and quickly emerged as a playwriting force. Her second play, The Winter Crossing, won her a second Molière Award in 1989. Reza’s third play, Art, was a smash hit and rocketed her to international fame. The French premiere won the 1995 Molière Award, and Hampton’s translation won a Laurence Olivier Award in 1997 and a Tony in 1998, with the West End production ran for 6 years. Reza’s next three plays – The Unexpected Man (1995), Life x 3 (1999), and A Spanish Play (2004), all received critical acclaim, but did not receive the same attention or level of success that Art achieved. In 2006 Reza returned to the spotlight with God of Carnage, another international hit. Reza’s style has been compared to Chekhov, Edward Albee, and other playwrights who examine the banality of life with dramatic flair. Her characters reflect Reza herself, generally well-off, educated, and eloquent. According to Reza, “I would say that above all, my plays are about people who are well-raised but who lose control of themselves.” Reza’s reliance on the banal defies traditional structure and often leads to strange, alienating, and often shocking climaxes.

 

4  


God of Carnage Production History Reza’s play has been an international hit, with productions around the globe. The play’s original production was in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2006 at the Schauspielhaus. It received its French premiere in Paris in 2006, which also marked Reza’s directorial debut. God of Carnage had its West End premiere at the Gielgud Theatre in March of 2008. The cast featured Ralph Fiennes, Janet McTeer, Ken Scott, and Tamsin Greig. It won the Olivier Award in 2008 for Best New Comedy. On the heels of its European success, the play made its Broadway debut in 2009, running from March 2009 to June 2010, making it the third longest running play of the 21st century. The production featured Jeff Daniels, Hope Davis, Marcia Gay Harden, and James Gandolfini. The entire cast received Tony nominations, and the

play won Tony Awards for best play, best lead actress (Harden), and best director (Matthew Warchus, who also directed the London production). God of Carnage has since been a popular play for regional theaters across the country, being produced at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, the Goodman Theatre in Chicago, Seattle Repertory Theatre, and the Walnut Street Theater in Philadelphia. The play was translated to the silver screen in 2011’s Carnage. Directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jodie Foster, John C. Reilly, Kate Winslet, and Christoph Waltz, the film stays very true to the theatrical text. In fact, Polanski had the actors memorize the entire script and it was filmed in a linear fashion as opposed to the more traditional scene-by-scene style so that the film appears to occur in “real time.”

Critical Reception While  the  play  has  been  a  major  commercial  success  on  several  continents,  there  has  been   a  rather  divided  critical  response  to  the  play.  The  play,  and  Reza’s  work  in  general,  has   been  labeled  as  pop-­‐theatre,  to  which  many  critics  have  responded.  The  Guardian’s  review   of  the  West  End  production  defended  the  play,  saying,  “To  those  who  dismiss  Reza  as  a   boulevard  writer,  I  would  counter  that  she  has  the  courage  to  tackle  big  themes.”  Others   have  continued  to  criticize  Reza’s  middle  class  infatuation  and  rather  cynical  plays  and   characters.  The  Seattle  Times  said,  “such  chic  cynicism  is  entertaining  but  gets  predictable.”   While  the  Chicago  Sun  Times  attacked  Reza’s  cannon,  saying  that  her  plays  “are  simply   feeding  on  the  most  shallow,  pandering  little  excesses  of  upper-­‐middle-­‐class  chic   imaginable.”  Despite  mixed  reviews,  the  play  has  been  a  smash  hit  with  audiences.  

 

5  


An Interview with the Director & Scenic Designer Robert Roth (‘14) sat down with director Matt Fotis and scenic designer Cocol Bernal to discuss the production, its challenges, and the sand.

Having Trouble? Check out the full interview on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Il3k2-­‐skNJE  

 

6  


The God of Carnage: Conflict in the Living Room Alan  clearly  states  his  philosophy  on  conflict  when  he  says,  “I  believe  in  the  god  of  

carnage.  He  has  ruled,  uninterruptedly,  since  the  dawn  of  time.”  Alan’s  idea,  that   individuals  will  ultimately  revert  to  and  follow  their  aggressive  instincts,  not  only  gives  the   play  its  title,  but  also  puts  the  concept  of  conflict  at  the  center  of  the  play.    

Human  history  is  littered  with  violence.  But  the  violence  isn’t  simply  limited  to  war.  

There  are  many  spiritual   beliefs  that  support  violence   –  Kali,  the  Hindu  goddess  of   destruction,  or  the  Four   Horsemen  of  the   Apocalypse,  or  even  the   many  acts  of  violence  that   God  inflicts  throughout  the   Bible.  These  figures  point  to   the  role  violence  has  played   in  civilization  for  thousands   of  years  across  cultural   boundaries.  The  concept  of  humans  as  instinctively  (and  inescapably)  brutal  and   aggressive  permeates  our  culture,  from  the  philosophies  of  Thomas  Hobbes  to  The  Hunger   Games.      

Alan’s  philosophy  reflects  our  civilization’s  history  of  violence,  but  beneath  the  gore  

asks  a  much  larger  question:  in  a  society  where  people  no  longer  need  to  compete  for   survival  with  one  another,  will  the  aggressive  and  destructive  impulse  in  humans  inevitably   dominate  our  personal  decisions,  interactions,  and  society?  As  society  has  developed,  as   we’ve  become  “enlightened,”  we’ve  moved  away  from  the  concept  of  might  is  right  –  both  in   our  justice  systems,  but  also  in  our  governments,  laws,  and  the  rising  value  of  intellectual   reason.  Yet  we  continually  resort  to  violence  to  settle  disputes.  

 

7  


When  a  conflict  arises,  there  tend  to  be  three  basic  responses:  avoidance,  tolerance,  

or  aggression.  Avoidance  is  common  where  there  is  a  clear  social  hierarchy  and  the   subordinate  party  can  simply  avoid  the  dominant  one.    Tolerance  involves  both  parties   reaching  a  compromise,  and  usually  arises  when  both  parties  have  an  equal  stake  in  the   outcome  and  want  to  maintain  a  working  relationship.  Aggression  occurs  when  an   individual’s  desire  to  get  what  they  want  is  more  important  than  maintaining  a  positive   relationship  with  the  other  party.    

Which  leads  us  to  the  upper-­‐middle  class  living  room  of  Michael  and  Veronica.  The  

Novak’s  and  the  Raleigh’s  wish  to  maintain  a  positive  relationship  with  one  another.  They   struggle  with  this  throughout  the  play  –  is  it  more  important  to  maintain  this  working   relationship  or  to  destroy  it  in  order  to  be  right?  Can  the  two  boys  (and  two  families)   peaceful  co-­‐exist,  or  is  violence  between  them  inevitable?    

Reza’s  play  raises  questions  about  the  causes  of  aggression  in  our  “peaceful”  21st  

century  society.  Is  the  god  of  carnage  innate,  is  it  taught,  or  is  it  all  John  Wayne’s  fault?      

 

 

8  


Cell Phone Culture Is Technology Isolating Us or Bringing Us Together? “You’re not supposed to be listening to my conversation.” Alan conducts his business completely unobstructed and without hesitation throughout the play, seemingly attached to his cell phone. Alan’s reliance on his phone is a great source of conflict in the play – after all he is at a meeting to discuss his son’s behavior and decides to conduct business – raises several questions. Does talking on the phone imply, demand even, solidarity? Is it acceptable to initiate or accept a phone call when in the company of others? And perhaps most importantly, are cell phones and technological advances making our lives easier and connecting us to one another, or are they making our lives more difficult and creating a society of isolated individuals who are only capable of connecting with (or via) technology? There is still no singular answer to these questions. Aside from opinion, research does not even merit a “yes” or a “no”, in fact, it appears that most agree on the ambiguity of the subject, the answer may differ for any group of people. A study released on February 11, 2013 from the USC Annenberg Center for the Digital Future found that 62% of Americans feel that it’s not at all appropriate to have a cellphone on the table during dinner, while 84% say you shouldn’t talk on the phone at a meal.

 

9  


These opinions come from pre-established ideas about etiquette, the importance of investing in the person(s) that you are physically with. However, when breaking the survey down by age, fewer from a younger age group felt the same way. Why is this? In this new age of digital natives, by the age of two about 90 percent of children have an online history. A post on Socially Active sums up the situation thusly (and yes, we are aware that we are using an online source to talk about technology): “They are often more comfortable with technology than they are talking to people. They have not learned proper communication and conversation skills, how to deal with interpersonal situations and how to date and get to know other people behind the screen.”   There is no doubt that, in a rapidly progressing world, many children, with the proper access, learn technology before humanity. So is technology pushing us away from one another? Have we lost our ability to connect face-to-face, one-on-one?  

Over  85%  of  Americans  own  a  cell  phone,  and  the  increasing  use  of  cell  phones  in  

both  private  and  public  arenas  is  representative  of  our  society’s  obsessive  need  to  stay   connected  to  our  peers.  Students  in  college  classrooms  will  chat  with  one  another  online  or   text  when  they  are  sitting  right  next  to  one  another!  Yet  many  Americans  are  feeling  more   alone  and  isolated  than  ever.  Journalist  Jon  Markman,  who  said  that  cell  phones  are  this   generation’s  cigarettes,  notes  “the  cell  phone  connects  us  to  the  world  even  as  it   disconnects  us  from  people  three  feet  away.”  A  study  by  Duke  University  found  that  one-­‐ quarter  of  Americans  feel  that  they  have  no  one  to  talk  to  about  their  personal  problems.   Studies  also  point  out  that  while  we  might  have  700  Facebook  friends,  we  tend  to  have  less   actual  friends  than  previous  generations.  Sociologist  John  Williams  says,  “Just  as  more   information  has  led  to  less  wisdom,  more  acquaintances  via  the  Internet  and  cell  phones   have  produced  fewer  friends.”      

It  seems  that  our  need  for  human  connection  is  as  strong  as  ever,  but  we  are  using  

technology  to  make  those  connections.  Jeffrey  A.  Tucker  explains  it  thusly:  We  are  alienated   from  society…and  obviously  tormented  by  loneliness,  and  thereby  seek  solidarity  and   community.  But  rather  than  seek  out  genuine  connection  to  others,  we  reach  for   technology,  the  very  thing  that  alienated  us  to  begin  with.  We  grow  ever  more  dependent    

10  


on  our  gizmos  but  they  ultimately  disappoint  because  they  only  cause  addiction  to   machines  and  there-­‐by  increase  alienation.”      

Michael’s  response  to  Alan  is  telling,  and  speaks  to  the  issue  at  hand,  “You’re  not  

obliged  to  have  it  in  front  of  me.”      

Adult Isolation Social isolation itself refers to a complete or near-complete lack of contact with or withdrawal from society for members of social species. It is usually involuntary, making it distinct from isolating tendencies or actions consciously undertaken by a person. Although isolation may cause loneliness, the two differ greatly. Isolation is the lack of contact with other humans, while loneliness is a temporary disconnection. Social isolation can be an issue for anyone despite their age, affecting both children and adults. Isolation takes on many forms with varying degrees. In some situations it is selfimposed, while others seem to fall in a more genetic category. Social isolation is potentially both a cause and a symptom of emotional or psychological challenges. If a cause, the perceived inability to interact with the world and others can create challenges for those suffering and the people around them. If a symptom, the periods of isolation can be chronic or episodic, depending upon any cyclical changes in mood, especially in the case of clinical depression, and possibly bipolar disorders. Social isolation can lead to staying home for days or weeks at a time; having no communication with anyone including family and friends. By ostracizing themselves from the people closest tot them, those who suffer these types of anxieties willfully avoid any contact with other humans when the opportunity arises. The feelings of loneliness, fear of others, or negative self esteem can produce potentially severe psychological injuries which, in turn, adds to their already anxiety ridden lifestyle.  

11  


Cultural Voyeurism In a society such as todays - a society, that is, which loves to use its eyes - it is impossible to escape some type of cultural voyeurism. When Reza wrote God of Carnage in 2006, she could hardly have expected that quality of humankind to become worse, but it has. The advent of social media has, in many ways, helped exacerbate the phenomenon of cultural voyeurism, so today’s people are more voyeuristic than ever. The truth is, being admitted into the personal lives of others- particularly when what they are witnessing is supposed to be classified as “private” perversely amuses much of the population. This is true for both couples in the play. During the events taking place within the Novak’s home, the Raleigh’s have numerous chances to leave to recompose themselves, or just escape. This never takes place, nor do the Novak’s ask the Raleigh’s to leave with certainty, despite the heightening tension, blatant verbal abuse, and physical altercation. These truths suggest one of the main themes of the piece: humanity not only revels in chaos, it loves to be witness to that which it is forbidden to see. As all four characters - Veronica, Michael, Annette, and Alan - show their true colors, each draws a certain amount of satisfaction from seeing the others reveal themselves. This exaggerated example of cultural voyeurism could fairly be considered satire, and most certainly should be considered purposeful.    

 

 

12  


Bullying in the Adult World  

Bullying is defined as repeated harmful or hostile actions. It is not limited to verbal

actions and is meant to control or mistreat another and could diminish a person`s self-worth. Many view bullying as something you would find on a children`s playground. While that statement is true, what some don’t know is that bulling is still very alive in the adult world. Bulling in the adult sense is not very different from bullying in the child sense. Many childhood bullies tend to keep these tendencies as they mature and enter either the work place or various social situations. The Waitt Institute for Violence Prevention shows that one out of every three employee’s experiences bullying during some point of their working career. 1 in 10 people become a target for workplace bullying. Obvious examples of this is an employee spreading rumors about another employee in the workplace, being targeted for practical jokes, excessive monitoring, and exclusion or social isolation. These have serious effects on the person being targeted. The targets emotional strength greatly decreases leading to mood swings, depression, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, guilt, shame, stress, high blood pressure and digestive problems. Bullying is hard to stop due to the fact that the bully`s stance or the targeting of a person is accepted by many, leaving the target isolated. Many say that the target just has to have a strong mind and joking around has no harm; while this may be true for some, it is not for all. Often the target or targets get involved in the joke or laugh along too, as to not be isolated. They may laugh or seem all right with the actions but often, when on their own, it affects the person.

 

13  


21st Century Parenting The term “parenting” means something different to every single person on the face of the planet. No one method is considered the best, most moral, or perfect way, which is why parenting is such a difficult topic to broach. For Alan, Annette, Veronica, and Michael, the term can be interpreted numerous ways, and no one seems to align completely in their definition. For Alan, being a father means providing for his children and wife financially, while his wife handles the domestic duties. Making enough money to allow the family to live comfortably is the first priority. For Annette, it means being physically present in the life of her son and organizing the home. She is disappointed with Alan’s job because she favors an emotional theory of parenting as compared to Alan’s pragmatic one. Veronica’s focus is being the kind of parent which produces a child who can function in society, so she differs from both of the aforementioned parents. Her focus is on the ultimate product of the parenting, so she treats parenting as a type of process. Lastly, Michael’s idea of parenting is keeping the children happy and healthy. He does not always enjoy raising the children, so he also has his eye on the endpoint, but in a totally different way than Veronica. Something that all characters seem to lack is a connection with the children they are raising. All are somewhat selfish and neglect the point of their meeting: their children’s wellbeing. This is not surprising when the fact of the 21st century is taken into account. According to Leyla Norman, parents in the 21st century have endless challenges including cell phones, the ever-present online world, and the disintegration of “traditional two-parent families.” To modern audiences, it actually comes as a bit of a shock that these couples are still married in a  

14  


society where roughly half of marriages end in divorce. They are dealing with the stresses of unhappy unions on top of raising children in what is arguably the most difficult time in history.

The Masks We Wear Every day, we don a mask. They make us feel comfortable and secure, and the characters in God Of Carnage are no exception.

We Wear the Mask by Paul Laurence Dunbar

Although Veronica, Michael, Alan and Annette hold on tightly to who they project themselves to be, the audience able see glimpses of who each character truly is. As tensions rise, the couple's true colors are shown in a harsh, yet brutally honest, light. The discarding of the masks manifests itself in both verbal and physical altercations, showing just how important they are. Regardless of how genuine we claim to be, everybody is guilty of trying to project themselves in a more flattering light. Admittedly, we are not always aware

We wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,— This debt we pay to human guile; With torn and bleeding hearts we smile And mouth with myriad subtleties, Why should the world be over-wise, In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask. We smile, but oh great Christ, our cries To thee from tortured souls arise. We sing, but oh the clay is vile Beneath our feet, and long the mile, But let the world dream otherwise, We wear the mask!  

that we are shielding who we truly are from the world. It is a form of protection and a natural human defense. However, the longer we wear these masks, the more likely we are to fall victim to them, causing ourselves to forget who we are. Annette's vomiting in the play is not just a physical reaction to her nervousness, but a subconscious cry for help, without which, she would not have the ability to express her true self.  

 

15  


Glossary

 

Tsuguharhu Foujita (1886-1968) is a Japanese painter and printmaker. He applied Japanese methods of printmaking to Western painting. Foujita blended traditional Japanese art with European Modernism in a unique manner, especially in his works on paper. He is best known for his nudes and cats, and he was in fact was an accomplished landscapist, poster artist and muralist as well.   Foujita  -­‐  Cafe

Francis Bacon (1909-1992) is an Irish painter known for his bold, figurative art style. His work is often abstract and geometric. His figures usually appear isolated or alone, and often are contained within cubes or steel frames or cages. Margaret Thatcher famously described him as “that man who paints those dreadful pictures.”

Bacon  -­‐  Head  VI

Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) is an Austrian artist most well known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. Considred by many as contriversial due to the violence often depicted in his work.

 

 

 

 

   

Kokoschka  -­‐  Knight  Errant  

16  

 


Darfur is a region of western Sudan on the continent of Africa. Due to the tumultuous war taking place there between the Sudanese government and the indigenous people, the region has been considered in a state of “humanitarian emergency” since 2003. Kinshasa is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the most dangerous cities in Africa, with a homicide rate of 112 per 100,000. The Lancet was founded in 1823 and is a globally respected medical journal publishing original research articles, review articles, editorials, as well as news features and case reports. It is one of the best known, respected, and oldest general medical journals. The Financial Times is one of the leading business and economic daily newspapers in the world. Published in London, the paper focuses on both British and international economic news. It is one of the most well respected papers in the world. The Hague is the top judicial branch in the Netherlands. It serves the United Nations and it is the location of the International Criminal Court. Hypertensive Beta Blockers are used to help relieve stress that leads to heart symptoms and other functional problems. The drug hones in on a part of the “sympathetic nervous system” that have beta-receptors, one of which is the heart. Ataxia is a neurological sign of cerebral dysfunction that causes a lack of control over muscle movements. It can cause impaired balance, “drunken sailor” type of deviations in walking, and the loss of feeling in body parts. An insurance contingency is to make sure that there is a prepared response for multiple situations, in this case: a lawsuit. A Ceramic Crown is a dental restoration that covers a large portion of a tooth. Endodontic Surgery is a sequence of treatments on a tooth, particularly to repair a damaged root. The surgery itself is the infamous “root canal.” After the surgery a tooth is “dead,” its nerve will have been completely removed and replaced with a metal or rubber filling. Kouros is a designer perfume for men by Yves Saint Laurent. Originally launched in 1981, Kouros is “a masculine, spicy and rich scent for him.” It costs a little less than $25 per ounce. BQE is the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, a heavily trafficked thoroughfare in New York.

 

17  


A spring-blooming perennial that grows from bulbs, Dutch Tulips are some of the most sought after flowers in the world. In the mid-1600s a tulip bulb was so highly sought after that it caused “Tulip Mania”, a financial bubble in the Dutch economy. Prices of tulip bulbs were propelled to extreme heights before the bubble “popped” and sent the Dutch economy into a crisis for several years.

Spartacus: Greek Thracian gladiator who led a group of thousands of freed slaves into battle with the Roman Empire in the Third Servile War. Inspired the film Spartacus (1960) and multiple television series. Cervical Vertebrae: vertebrae of the neck leading directly to the skull. Clafoutis is a French dish consisting of black cherries covered in a viscous batter. The mixture is baked, and then sprinkled with powered sugar.   Julia  Child’s  Cherry  Clafoutis  Recipe   • 1  ¼  cups  milk   • 2/3  cup  sugar,  divided   • 3  eggs   • 1  tablespoon  vanilla   • 1/8  teaspoon  salt   • ½  cup  flour   • 3  cups  cherries,  pitted   • powdered  sugar,  for  garnish     Directions:   1. Preheat  oven  to  350  degrees.   2. Using  a  blender,  combine  the  milk,  1/3  cup  sugar,  eggs,  vanilla,  salt  and  flour,  and   blend.  

 

18  


3. Lightly  butter  an  8-­‐cup  baking  dish,  and  pour  a  ¼  inch  layer  of  the  blended  mixture   over  the  bottom.   4. Place  dish  into  the  oven  for  about  7-­‐10  minutes,  until  a  film  of  batter  sets  in  the  pan   but  the  mixture  is  not  baked  through.  Remove  from  oven  (but  don’t  turn  the  oven   off,  yet).   5. Distribute  the  pitted  cherries  over  the  set  batter  in  the  pan,  and  then  sprinkle  with   the  remaining  sugar.  Pour  the  remaining  batter  over  the  cherries  and  sugar.     6. Bake  in  the  preheated  oven  for  45-­‐60  minutes,  until  the  clafouti  is  puffed  and  brown   and  a  knife  inserted  into  the  center  comes  out  clean.   7. Sprinkle  with  powdered  sugar  and  serve  warm.  

 

19  


Bibliography  

“A Closer Look at Generations and Cell Phone Ownership.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Pew Research Center. 3 Febraury 2011. Billington, Michael. “God of Carnage.” The Guardian. 25 March 2008. Birdwell, April Frawley. “Addicted to Phones?” University of Florida News. University of Florida, 18 January 2007. Brantley, Ben. “Rumble in the Living Room.” The New York Times. 22 March 2009. “Francis Bacon Obituary.” The New York Times. April 1992. Grey, Tobias. “Yasmina Reza’s ‘epic Drama from a Miniature Position.” United for Peace of Pierce County. 23 February 2008. Giguere, Amanda. The Plays of Yasmina Reza on the English and American Stage. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010. “Interview with Playwright Yasmina Reza.” The Guardian. 31 December 2000. “Julia Child’s Cherry Clafouti.” Food.com. 9 July 2007. “Meet Yasmina Reza, ‘God of Carnage’ Playwright.” Door County Today. 2011. Ng, David. “The Americanization of Yasmina Reza.” American Theatre. Theatre Communications Group. “Playwrights Yasmina Reza and Christopher Hampton Discuss ‘God of Carnage.’” LA Times. 2 May 2011. Poirier, Agnes. “Yasmina Reza: ‘Please Stop Laughing at Me.’” The Independent. 16 March 2008. Sciolino, Elaine. “Celebrated Playwright Who Resists Celebrity.” The New York Times. 24 May 2011. Tanaka, Wendy, and Sarah Terry-Cobo. “Cellphone Addiction.” Forbes.com. 16 June 2008. Tucker, Jeffrey A. “The Myth of the Cell-Phone Addiction.” Ludwig Von Mises Institute. 17 June 2005.            

20  


Picture  Sources   Tsuguharu Foujita. Café. 1949. http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/artists/foujita.php Francis Bacon. Head VI. 1949. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Head_VI_(1949).JPG#file Oskar Kokoschka. Knight Errant. 1915. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artwork/2224 Dutch Tulips. Dusky’s Wonders. http://www.duskyswondersite.com/nature/dutch-tulips/   *These materials are included under the fair use exemption and are restricted from further use. **Production  photos  courtesy  of  John  Pankratz,  25  September  2013.  

 

21  


God of Carnage Dramaturgical Packet