Dramaturgical Packet By Matt Fotis, Tyler Ryan, Connor Feeney, Ezra Ali-Dow, Trent Gray, Stormy Russell, & Siobhan O’Hara
Albright College, Domino Players Production September 26-29th, 2013
Cast & Crew Cast Veronica: Stormy Russell Michael: Trent Gray Alan: Ezra Ali-Dow Annette: Siobhan O’Hara Crew Director: Matt Fotis Assistant Director: Tyler Ryan Scenic Designer: Cocol Bernal Costume Designer: Samantha Gardecki Technical Director: Wayne Vettleson Assistant Technical Director: William Balmer Costume Shop Director: Paula Trimpey Stage Manager: Connor Feeney Assistant Stage Managers: Emily Piket, Alexis Jenofsky Assistant to Scenic Designer: John Tallarida Shop Assistants: Russell Blair, Connor Feeney Costume Crew/Dresser: Alexio Barboza, Jena Dittus Stitchers: Susie Benitez, Lydia Johnson, Alison Kluxen, Maura Sheehan, Sarah Swank Props Mistress: Mariah Gibson Assistant Props Mistress: Rebecca Brown Booth Crew: Anna’le Hornak Cover Design by Sheldon Carpenter Production Photos by John Pankratz
Table of Contents
Basic Info • Yasmina Reza Biography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 • God of Carnage Production History………………………………………………………………………………………….5 • Critical Reaction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 Interview • With Director Matt Fotis & Scenic Designer Cocol Bernal……………………………………………………6 Mini Essays • The God of Carnage: Conflict in the Living Room…………………………………………………………………..7 • Is Technology Isolating Us or Bringing us Together?...........................................................................9 • Adult Isolation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 • Cultural Voyeurism…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12 • Bullying in the Adult World…………………………………………………………………………………………………….13 • The 21st Century Parent…………………………………………………………………………………………………………14 • The Masks We Wear……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15 Glossary/Terms/Ideas to Further Explore…………………………………………………………………………………………..16 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
About the Playwright - Yasmina Reza Yasmina Reza (b. 1959) is a French playwright, actress, novelist and screenwriter, best known for her works for the stage. She was born to Jewish expatriate parents in Paris. Her father was an engineer, businessman, and amateur pianist of Spanish and Iranian heritage born in Moscow during the Russian Revolution. He grew up in France after fleeing to Paris with his parents. Her mother was a professional violinist from Budapest, Hungary, but quit playing when Yasmina was born. Reza herself admits that she grew up a fairly privileged girl. “But,” she adds, “I was an unhappy child, for some reasons I know and some I don’t know. It’s nothing to do with my family. I’ve always known somehow that life is not easy. I was born feeling that life was sad….My ancestry makes me feel like an outsider, but that’s good, it’s a privilege. It doesn’t make me sad at all.” Referring to her unique background and privileged upbringing, Christopher Hampton, Reza’s most frequent translator, calls her “a lepidopterist of the middle class.” She studied theater and sociology at the University of Paris X, Nanterre, and later attended the Jacques Lecoq Drama School. She began working as an actress, but had trouble landing roles due to her outwardly “ethnic” appearance, so hoping for more artistic fulfillment she turned to screenwriting. She wrote three initial films, but didn’t find much commercial success. Reza wrote her first stage play in 1987, Conversations after a Burial, which won the prestigious Molière Award. She was lauded for her genre-defying blend of wit and pathos, and quickly emerged as a playwriting force. Her second play, The Winter Crossing, won her a second Molière Award in 1989. Reza’s third play, Art, was a smash hit and rocketed her to international fame. The French premiere won the 1995 Molière Award, and Hampton’s translation won a Laurence Olivier Award in 1997 and a Tony in 1998, with the West End production ran for 6 years. Reza’s next three plays – The Unexpected Man (1995), Life x 3 (1999), and A Spanish Play (2004), all received critical acclaim, but did not receive the same attention or level of success that Art achieved. In 2006 Reza returned to the spotlight with God of Carnage, another international hit. Reza’s style has been compared to Chekhov, Edward Albee, and other playwrights who examine the banality of life with dramatic flair. Her characters reflect Reza herself, generally well-off, educated, and eloquent. According to Reza, “I would say that above all, my plays are about people who are well-raised but who lose control of themselves.” Reza’s reliance on the banal defies traditional structure and often leads to strange, alienating, and often shocking climaxes.
God of Carnage Production History Reza’s play has been an international hit, with productions around the globe. The play’s original production was in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2006 at the Schauspielhaus. It received its French premiere in Paris in 2006, which also marked Reza’s directorial debut. God of Carnage had its West End premiere at the Gielgud Theatre in March of 2008. The cast featured Ralph Fiennes, Janet McTeer, Ken Scott, and Tamsin Greig. It won the Olivier Award in 2008 for Best New Comedy. On the heels of its European success, the play made its Broadway debut in 2009, running from March 2009 to June 2010, making it the third longest running play of the 21st century. The production featured Jeff Daniels, Hope Davis, Marcia Gay Harden, and James Gandolfini. The entire cast received Tony nominations, and the
play won Tony Awards for best play, best lead actress (Harden), and best director (Matthew Warchus, who also directed the London production). God of Carnage has since been a popular play for regional theaters across the country, being produced at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, the Goodman Theatre in Chicago, Seattle Repertory Theatre, and the Walnut Street Theater in Philadelphia. The play was translated to the silver screen in 2011’s Carnage. Directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jodie Foster, John C. Reilly, Kate Winslet, and Christoph Waltz, the film stays very true to the theatrical text. In fact, Polanski had the actors memorize the entire script and it was filmed in a linear fashion as opposed to the more traditional scene-by-scene style so that the film appears to occur in “real time.”
Critical Reception While the play has been a major commercial success on several continents, there has been a rather divided critical response to the play. The play, and Reza’s work in general, has been labeled as pop-‐theatre, to which many critics have responded. The Guardian’s review of the West End production defended the play, saying, “To those who dismiss Reza as a boulevard writer, I would counter that she has the courage to tackle big themes.” Others have continued to criticize Reza’s middle class infatuation and rather cynical plays and characters. The Seattle Times said, “such chic cynicism is entertaining but gets predictable.” While the Chicago Sun Times attacked Reza’s cannon, saying that her plays “are simply feeding on the most shallow, pandering little excesses of upper-‐middle-‐class chic imaginable.” Despite mixed reviews, the play has been a smash hit with audiences.
An Interview with the Director & Scenic Designer Robert Roth (‘14) sat down with director Matt Fotis and scenic designer Cocol Bernal to discuss the production, its challenges, and the sand.
Having Trouble? Check out the full interview on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Il3k2-‐skNJE
The God of Carnage: Conflict in the Living Room Alan clearly states his philosophy on conflict when he says, “I believe in the god of
carnage. He has ruled, uninterruptedly, since the dawn of time.” Alan’s idea, that individuals will ultimately revert to and follow their aggressive instincts, not only gives the play its title, but also puts the concept of conflict at the center of the play.
Human history is littered with violence. But the violence isn’t simply limited to war.
There are many spiritual beliefs that support violence – Kali, the Hindu goddess of destruction, or the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, or even the many acts of violence that God inflicts throughout the Bible. These figures point to the role violence has played in civilization for thousands of years across cultural boundaries. The concept of humans as instinctively (and inescapably) brutal and aggressive permeates our culture, from the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes to The Hunger Games.
Alan’s philosophy reflects our civilization’s history of violence, but beneath the gore
asks a much larger question: in a society where people no longer need to compete for survival with one another, will the aggressive and destructive impulse in humans inevitably dominate our personal decisions, interactions, and society? As society has developed, as we’ve become “enlightened,” we’ve moved away from the concept of might is right – both in our justice systems, but also in our governments, laws, and the rising value of intellectual reason. Yet we continually resort to violence to settle disputes.
When a conflict arises, there tend to be three basic responses: avoidance, tolerance,
or aggression. Avoidance is common where there is a clear social hierarchy and the subordinate party can simply avoid the dominant one. Tolerance involves both parties reaching a compromise, and usually arises when both parties have an equal stake in the outcome and want to maintain a working relationship. Aggression occurs when an individual’s desire to get what they want is more important than maintaining a positive relationship with the other party.
Which leads us to the upper-‐middle class living room of Michael and Veronica. The
Novak’s and the Raleigh’s wish to maintain a positive relationship with one another. They struggle with this throughout the play – is it more important to maintain this working relationship or to destroy it in order to be right? Can the two boys (and two families) peaceful co-‐exist, or is violence between them inevitable?
Reza’s play raises questions about the causes of aggression in our “peaceful” 21st
century society. Is the god of carnage innate, is it taught, or is it all John Wayne’s fault?
Cell Phone Culture Is Technology Isolating Us or Bringing Us Together? “You’re not supposed to be listening to my conversation.” Alan conducts his business completely unobstructed and without hesitation throughout the play, seemingly attached to his cell phone. Alan’s reliance on his phone is a great source of conflict in the play – after all he is at a meeting to discuss his son’s behavior and decides to conduct business – raises several questions. Does talking on the phone imply, demand even, solidarity? Is it acceptable to initiate or accept a phone call when in the company of others? And perhaps most importantly, are cell phones and technological advances making our lives easier and connecting us to one another, or are they making our lives more difficult and creating a society of isolated individuals who are only capable of connecting with (or via) technology? There is still no singular answer to these questions. Aside from opinion, research does not even merit a “yes” or a “no”, in fact, it appears that most agree on the ambiguity of the subject, the answer may differ for any group of people. A study released on February 11, 2013 from the USC Annenberg Center for the Digital Future found that 62% of Americans feel that it’s not at all appropriate to have a cellphone on the table during dinner, while 84% say you shouldn’t talk on the phone at a meal.
These opinions come from pre-established ideas about etiquette, the importance of investing in the person(s) that you are physically with. However, when breaking the survey down by age, fewer from a younger age group felt the same way. Why is this? In this new age of digital natives, by the age of two about 90 percent of children have an online history. A post on Socially Active sums up the situation thusly (and yes, we are aware that we are using an online source to talk about technology): “They are often more comfortable with technology than they are talking to people. They have not learned proper communication and conversation skills, how to deal with interpersonal situations and how to date and get to know other people behind the screen.” There is no doubt that, in a rapidly progressing world, many children, with the proper access, learn technology before humanity. So is technology pushing us away from one another? Have we lost our ability to connect face-to-face, one-on-one?
Over 85% of Americans own a cell phone, and the increasing use of cell phones in
both private and public arenas is representative of our society’s obsessive need to stay connected to our peers. Students in college classrooms will chat with one another online or text when they are sitting right next to one another! Yet many Americans are feeling more alone and isolated than ever. Journalist Jon Markman, who said that cell phones are this generation’s cigarettes, notes “the cell phone connects us to the world even as it disconnects us from people three feet away.” A study by Duke University found that one-‐ quarter of Americans feel that they have no one to talk to about their personal problems. Studies also point out that while we might have 700 Facebook friends, we tend to have less actual friends than previous generations. Sociologist John Williams says, “Just as more information has led to less wisdom, more acquaintances via the Internet and cell phones have produced fewer friends.”
It seems that our need for human connection is as strong as ever, but we are using
technology to make those connections. Jeffrey A. Tucker explains it thusly: We are alienated from society…and obviously tormented by loneliness, and thereby seek solidarity and community. But rather than seek out genuine connection to others, we reach for technology, the very thing that alienated us to begin with. We grow ever more dependent
on our gizmos but they ultimately disappoint because they only cause addiction to machines and there-‐by increase alienation.”
Michael’s response to Alan is telling, and speaks to the issue at hand, “You’re not
obliged to have it in front of me.”
Adult Isolation Social isolation itself refers to a complete or near-complete lack of contact with or withdrawal from society for members of social species. It is usually involuntary, making it distinct from isolating tendencies or actions consciously undertaken by a person. Although isolation may cause loneliness, the two differ greatly. Isolation is the lack of contact with other humans, while loneliness is a temporary disconnection. Social isolation can be an issue for anyone despite their age, affecting both children and adults. Isolation takes on many forms with varying degrees. In some situations it is selfimposed, while others seem to fall in a more genetic category. Social isolation is potentially both a cause and a symptom of emotional or psychological challenges. If a cause, the perceived inability to interact with the world and others can create challenges for those suffering and the people around them. If a symptom, the periods of isolation can be chronic or episodic, depending upon any cyclical changes in mood, especially in the case of clinical depression, and possibly bipolar disorders. Social isolation can lead to staying home for days or weeks at a time; having no communication with anyone including family and friends. By ostracizing themselves from the people closest tot them, those who suffer these types of anxieties willfully avoid any contact with other humans when the opportunity arises. The feelings of loneliness, fear of others, or negative self esteem can produce potentially severe psychological injuries which, in turn, adds to their already anxiety ridden lifestyle.
Cultural Voyeurism In a society such as todays - a society, that is, which loves to use its eyes - it is impossible to escape some type of cultural voyeurism. When Reza wrote God of Carnage in 2006, she could hardly have expected that quality of humankind to become worse, but it has. The advent of social media has, in many ways, helped exacerbate the phenomenon of cultural voyeurism, so today’s people are more voyeuristic than ever. The truth is, being admitted into the personal lives of others- particularly when what they are witnessing is supposed to be classified as “private” perversely amuses much of the population. This is true for both couples in the play. During the events taking place within the Novak’s home, the Raleigh’s have numerous chances to leave to recompose themselves, or just escape. This never takes place, nor do the Novak’s ask the Raleigh’s to leave with certainty, despite the heightening tension, blatant verbal abuse, and physical altercation. These truths suggest one of the main themes of the piece: humanity not only revels in chaos, it loves to be witness to that which it is forbidden to see. As all four characters - Veronica, Michael, Annette, and Alan - show their true colors, each draws a certain amount of satisfaction from seeing the others reveal themselves. This exaggerated example of cultural voyeurism could fairly be considered satire, and most certainly should be considered purposeful.
Bullying in the Adult World
Bullying is defined as repeated harmful or hostile actions. It is not limited to verbal
actions and is meant to control or mistreat another and could diminish a person`s self-worth. Many view bullying as something you would find on a children`s playground. While that statement is true, what some don’t know is that bulling is still very alive in the adult world. Bulling in the adult sense is not very different from bullying in the child sense. Many childhood bullies tend to keep these tendencies as they mature and enter either the work place or various social situations. The Waitt Institute for Violence Prevention shows that one out of every three employee’s experiences bullying during some point of their working career. 1 in 10 people become a target for workplace bullying. Obvious examples of this is an employee spreading rumors about another employee in the workplace, being targeted for practical jokes, excessive monitoring, and exclusion or social isolation. These have serious effects on the person being targeted. The targets emotional strength greatly decreases leading to mood swings, depression, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, guilt, shame, stress, high blood pressure and digestive problems. Bullying is hard to stop due to the fact that the bully`s stance or the targeting of a person is accepted by many, leaving the target isolated. Many say that the target just has to have a strong mind and joking around has no harm; while this may be true for some, it is not for all. Often the target or targets get involved in the joke or laugh along too, as to not be isolated. They may laugh or seem all right with the actions but often, when on their own, it affects the person.
21st Century Parenting The term “parenting” means something different to every single person on the face of the planet. No one method is considered the best, most moral, or perfect way, which is why parenting is such a difficult topic to broach. For Alan, Annette, Veronica, and Michael, the term can be interpreted numerous ways, and no one seems to align completely in their definition. For Alan, being a father means providing for his children and wife financially, while his wife handles the domestic duties. Making enough money to allow the family to live comfortably is the first priority. For Annette, it means being physically present in the life of her son and organizing the home. She is disappointed with Alan’s job because she favors an emotional theory of parenting as compared to Alan’s pragmatic one. Veronica’s focus is being the kind of parent which produces a child who can function in society, so she differs from both of the aforementioned parents. Her focus is on the ultimate product of the parenting, so she treats parenting as a type of process. Lastly, Michael’s idea of parenting is keeping the children happy and healthy. He does not always enjoy raising the children, so he also has his eye on the endpoint, but in a totally different way than Veronica. Something that all characters seem to lack is a connection with the children they are raising. All are somewhat selfish and neglect the point of their meeting: their children’s wellbeing. This is not surprising when the fact of the 21st century is taken into account. According to Leyla Norman, parents in the 21st century have endless challenges including cell phones, the ever-present online world, and the disintegration of “traditional two-parent families.” To modern audiences, it actually comes as a bit of a shock that these couples are still married in a
society where roughly half of marriages end in divorce. They are dealing with the stresses of unhappy unions on top of raising children in what is arguably the most difficult time in history.
The Masks We Wear Every day, we don a mask. They make us feel comfortable and secure, and the characters in God Of Carnage are no exception.
We Wear the Mask by Paul Laurence Dunbar
Although Veronica, Michael, Alan and Annette hold on tightly to who they project themselves to be, the audience able see glimpses of who each character truly is. As tensions rise, the couple's true colors are shown in a harsh, yet brutally honest, light. The discarding of the masks manifests itself in both verbal and physical altercations, showing just how important they are. Regardless of how genuine we claim to be, everybody is guilty of trying to project themselves in a more flattering light. Admittedly, we are not always aware
We wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,— This debt we pay to human guile; With torn and bleeding hearts we smile And mouth with myriad subtleties, Why should the world be over-wise, In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask. We smile, but oh great Christ, our cries To thee from tortured souls arise. We sing, but oh the clay is vile Beneath our feet, and long the mile, But let the world dream otherwise, We wear the mask!
that we are shielding who we truly are from the world. It is a form of protection and a natural human defense. However, the longer we wear these masks, the more likely we are to fall victim to them, causing ourselves to forget who we are. Annette's vomiting in the play is not just a physical reaction to her nervousness, but a subconscious cry for help, without which, she would not have the ability to express her true self.
Tsuguharhu Foujita (1886-1968) is a Japanese painter and printmaker. He applied Japanese methods of printmaking to Western painting. Foujita blended traditional Japanese art with European Modernism in a unique manner, especially in his works on paper. He is best known for his nudes and cats, and he was in fact was an accomplished landscapist, poster artist and muralist as well. Foujita -‐ Cafe
Francis Bacon (1909-1992) is an Irish painter known for his bold, figurative art style. His work is often abstract and geometric. His figures usually appear isolated or alone, and often are contained within cubes or steel frames or cages. Margaret Thatcher famously described him as “that man who paints those dreadful pictures.”
Bacon -‐ Head VI
Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) is an Austrian artist most well known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes. Considred by many as contriversial due to the violence often depicted in his work.
Kokoschka -‐ Knight Errant
Darfur is a region of western Sudan on the continent of Africa. Due to the tumultuous war taking place there between the Sudanese government and the indigenous people, the region has been considered in a state of “humanitarian emergency” since 2003. Kinshasa is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the most dangerous cities in Africa, with a homicide rate of 112 per 100,000. The Lancet was founded in 1823 and is a globally respected medical journal publishing original research articles, review articles, editorials, as well as news features and case reports. It is one of the best known, respected, and oldest general medical journals. The Financial Times is one of the leading business and economic daily newspapers in the world. Published in London, the paper focuses on both British and international economic news. It is one of the most well respected papers in the world. The Hague is the top judicial branch in the Netherlands. It serves the United Nations and it is the location of the International Criminal Court. Hypertensive Beta Blockers are used to help relieve stress that leads to heart symptoms and other functional problems. The drug hones in on a part of the “sympathetic nervous system” that have beta-receptors, one of which is the heart. Ataxia is a neurological sign of cerebral dysfunction that causes a lack of control over muscle movements. It can cause impaired balance, “drunken sailor” type of deviations in walking, and the loss of feeling in body parts. An insurance contingency is to make sure that there is a prepared response for multiple situations, in this case: a lawsuit. A Ceramic Crown is a dental restoration that covers a large portion of a tooth. Endodontic Surgery is a sequence of treatments on a tooth, particularly to repair a damaged root. The surgery itself is the infamous “root canal.” After the surgery a tooth is “dead,” its nerve will have been completely removed and replaced with a metal or rubber filling. Kouros is a designer perfume for men by Yves Saint Laurent. Originally launched in 1981, Kouros is “a masculine, spicy and rich scent for him.” It costs a little less than $25 per ounce. BQE is the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, a heavily trafficked thoroughfare in New York.
A spring-blooming perennial that grows from bulbs, Dutch Tulips are some of the most sought after flowers in the world. In the mid-1600s a tulip bulb was so highly sought after that it caused “Tulip Mania”, a financial bubble in the Dutch economy. Prices of tulip bulbs were propelled to extreme heights before the bubble “popped” and sent the Dutch economy into a crisis for several years.
Spartacus: Greek Thracian gladiator who led a group of thousands of freed slaves into battle with the Roman Empire in the Third Servile War. Inspired the film Spartacus (1960) and multiple television series. Cervical Vertebrae: vertebrae of the neck leading directly to the skull. Clafoutis is a French dish consisting of black cherries covered in a viscous batter. The mixture is baked, and then sprinkled with powered sugar. Julia Child’s Cherry Clafoutis Recipe • 1 ¼ cups milk • 2/3 cup sugar, divided • 3 eggs • 1 tablespoon vanilla • 1/8 teaspoon salt • ½ cup flour • 3 cups cherries, pitted • powdered sugar, for garnish Directions: 1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. 2. Using a blender, combine the milk, 1/3 cup sugar, eggs, vanilla, salt and flour, and blend.
3. Lightly butter an 8-‐cup baking dish, and pour a ¼ inch layer of the blended mixture over the bottom. 4. Place dish into the oven for about 7-‐10 minutes, until a film of batter sets in the pan but the mixture is not baked through. Remove from oven (but don’t turn the oven off, yet). 5. Distribute the pitted cherries over the set batter in the pan, and then sprinkle with the remaining sugar. Pour the remaining batter over the cherries and sugar. 6. Bake in the preheated oven for 45-‐60 minutes, until the clafouti is puffed and brown and a knife inserted into the center comes out clean. 7. Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve warm.
“A Closer Look at Generations and Cell Phone Ownership.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Pew Research Center. 3 Febraury 2011. Billington, Michael. “God of Carnage.” The Guardian. 25 March 2008. Birdwell, April Frawley. “Addicted to Phones?” University of Florida News. University of Florida, 18 January 2007. Brantley, Ben. “Rumble in the Living Room.” The New York Times. 22 March 2009. “Francis Bacon Obituary.” The New York Times. April 1992. Grey, Tobias. “Yasmina Reza’s ‘epic Drama from a Miniature Position.” United for Peace of Pierce County. 23 February 2008. Giguere, Amanda. The Plays of Yasmina Reza on the English and American Stage. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010. “Interview with Playwright Yasmina Reza.” The Guardian. 31 December 2000. “Julia Child’s Cherry Clafouti.” Food.com. 9 July 2007. “Meet Yasmina Reza, ‘God of Carnage’ Playwright.” Door County Today. 2011. Ng, David. “The Americanization of Yasmina Reza.” American Theatre. Theatre Communications Group. “Playwrights Yasmina Reza and Christopher Hampton Discuss ‘God of Carnage.’” LA Times. 2 May 2011. Poirier, Agnes. “Yasmina Reza: ‘Please Stop Laughing at Me.’” The Independent. 16 March 2008. Sciolino, Elaine. “Celebrated Playwright Who Resists Celebrity.” The New York Times. 24 May 2011. Tanaka, Wendy, and Sarah Terry-Cobo. “Cellphone Addiction.” Forbes.com. 16 June 2008. Tucker, Jeffrey A. “The Myth of the Cell-Phone Addiction.” Ludwig Von Mises Institute. 17 June 2005.
Picture Sources Tsuguharu Foujita. Café. 1949. http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/artists/foujita.php Francis Bacon. Head VI. 1949. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Head_VI_(1949).JPG#file Oskar Kokoschka. Knight Errant. 1915. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artwork/2224 Dutch Tulips. Dusky’s Wonders. http://www.duskyswondersite.com/nature/dutch-tulips/ *These materials are included under the fair use exemption and are restricted from further use. **Production photos courtesy of John Pankratz, 25 September 2013.