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sustainable construction resource and learning centre kingston upon hull april 2009

technology report

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building as a case study The building is a Sustainable Construction Resource and Learning Centre which aims to promote sustainability in its widest sense and act as a hub for the north of England. It is located within the Fruit Market development area in Kingston upon Hull on the estuary where the River Hull meets the River Humber just south of the A63 which passes through the centre of the city. The building is broken down into three massing blocks which are joined by a central atrium for public use. The separate blocks can be broken down into two halves as there are two main processes which function through the building: 1. Educational: The westerly (Block 1) and southerly block (Block 2) which house the process of design, education, CPD, general support, the building’s admin and the building services. 2. Experimental: Which is the north-easterly block (Block 3) which houses the physical exploration warehouse and its general amenities. This area of the building is intended as an inspirational motivator for visitors and regular users of the building and can be seen at choice intervals from various areas of the rest of the building. proposed site plan

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building as a case study Substructure The building will use pile foundations on which to sit as the ground, being a consistency of clay, sand and silt, is not suitable for a raft type system. The piles will need to reach the chalk much deeper for stability. Superstructure The majority of the structure will be Glulam beams and columns creating a solid frame work for which the building to be constructed on. At certain parts within the design (mostly the core areas) GGBS (Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag) based concrete will be used for its monolithic qualities to provide lateral stability to the building meaning that the timber frame will not require cross bracing.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building as a case study Construction External: Blocks 1 & 2 will be double skinned with a Paperstone rainscreen cladding system on the interior skin and a series of reclaimed boards strategically hung away from the building as an outer skin for aesthetical reasons. The 3rd block will be of a much purer form and require a smooth appearance like that of exposed concrete and rain screen cladding. The walls facing in on the atrium space will be of exposed concrete to demonstrate the construction to the users of the building. Internal: Walls requiring reasonable acoustic separation will be cross laminated panels which will fit within the superstructure and add to the rigidity. These panels will be used to protect lobby’s providing escape due to their high resistance to fire. Partitioning of space where there is no need for privacy or high acoustic separation i.e. rooms leading out onto atrium walkways will use internal glazed partition walling which will benefit the areas allowing light to flood in. Floors: All ground floor finishes will sit on the GGBS eco sustainable concrete floor slab, the atrium and workshop area will be that of a polished glass/resin finish where the areas requiring higher levels of comfort will be fully carpeted using brands who specify recycled products (i.e. PET). All upper floors will be timber cassettes which will sit within the main structure housing the timber joists, filled with recycled newspaper insulation, to support a timber board floor which will be carpeted. Fire Strategy: Due to the large building footprint there are five protected stair escapes in order to quickly and efficiently evacuate the occupants if in the event of a fire.

Part of cantilever detail showing double skin approach

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building as a case study Environment and Services: Ventilation: The 1st and 2nd blocks have been designed specifically shallow in plan in order to be naturally stack ventilated through from the exterior walls to pass out through the top of the atrium. Mechanical ventilation will be required for the toilets and any food preparation areas as well as the workshop area due to potential air contaminations. Heat: The external envelope of the building along with the high performance glazing systems that will be used will help preserve heat and naturally control a constant environment, which will aim to reduce energy consumption. Any alternative heat required will be supplied through a biomass boiler system which will in part run off some of the workshop waste products. Light: The atrium will be the main source of light into the building using a series of mechanically assisted louvers to control solar heat gain where necessary. The placing of windows in southerly facing elevations will help light and heat the building where appropriate, this depends on the use of space and general requirements. The less mechanical lighting required then the less CO2 emissions that will be released. The workshop area will require some mechanical lighting because of the nature of the work inside but will be assisted by the huge, partially glazed doors leading out onto the service yard. Sustainable approach: Due to the nature of the building, the general build up will be aimed at conserving energy, retaining and reusing heat and lowering the carbon footprint. The building has to be successful in this approach as it will be used as an educational tool for which to take precedent.

design thesis proposal

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leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


contents page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

project location location aerial view aerial views 1 site boundary site photographs surrounding massing existing site sections building narrative building introduction ground floor plan first floor plan second floor plan roof plan structues (super structure) atrium walkway build up junctions and lateral stability workshop structure loads (load path diagram) structural reasoning construction (site) external wall envelope internal walls floors windows/roof/means of escape envirnment and services (general/site) heating biomass heat recovery and building air flow ventilation lighting/rainwater harvesting

bibliography

supporting work

evidence

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


bibliography books: sustainable architecture and urbanism

birkhauser

main websites: www.greenspec.co.uk www.buildinggreen.com www.eng-tips.com www.lamisellbeams.com www.timberinconstruction.co.uk www.shieldenvironmental.co.uk www.timberweld-southwest.com www.LowCarbonBusinesses.com www.sustainableconcrete.org www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk www.biomass.uk.com

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


project location

1.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


aerial views

victoria dock

deep aquarium

albert dock

humber estuary river humber

prince’s quay A63 roadway

fruit market queen’s gardens

hull train station

william wright dock

new city centre boundary (hull city coucil)

A63 roadway

hull marina

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design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


aerial views

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design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


the site

4.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


site photographs

29.

panoramic view of site looking over site at northern boundary

view of disused dry dock full of mud and silt

view of existing buildings on site

view of existing dry dock entrance gates

view of site from the opposite side of the river hull (from the deep aquarium)

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design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


aerial view of site

6.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


existing site sections Geographically the site and surroundings are almost level excluding areas around the Myton Swing Bridge where Humber Street becomes the High Street. From Humber Dock Street to the dry dock edge on Humber Street the ground is dead level with a drop of 100mm to the meeting of Queen Street and Nelson Street and a 200mm drop to the furthest point of Wellington Street. section scale: 1:1250 (C - C)

n

(A - A) (B - B)

section (A - A): looking east through dry dock

section (B - B): looking east through site massing

section (C - C): looking north through site and along wellington street

7.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building narrative A building to house the process of design and exploration of using waste products to create functional eco-sustainable architecture in order to build a wider knowledge of sustainability through education. Located on the River Hull’s estuary to exploit world wide links and using the rich history to create architectural merit‌

8.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


introduction to building The chosen site is the Hull Central Dry dock which is located on the outer edge of the fruit market development scheme where the River Hull meets the River Humber. It lies just to the south of the A63 which is the main vehicular artery running through hull and the site itself is immediately bordered by Humber Street and Queen Street, these are the main access roads for the site. The scheme which is a ‘Sustainable Resource and Learning Centre’ for the north of England aims to promote sustainability in its widest sense offering support for new-comers, CPD educational programmes and a physical hands-on environment, where people can experiment with their designs. From a more social angle the building’s public areas will push to inspire and interest through the use of architecture, to involve not only the permanent users but the visitors too. The building wants to be a recognisable object on the landscape and provide people with a reason for taking a public route through, making people want to be inspired. It should be the instinctive choice for anybody investing or wanting to invest in sustainable architecture or just a plain query about the subject or something that requires professional experience. The centre can be used as an educational tool providing qualifications in bespoke programmes in green building which would be highly beneficial to the high unemployment in Hull. It would be giving the residents reason for involvement with the building. The 2nd floor is private office space to give the building an extra income that would be received in the way of rent. The building – A Brief Description The building is during the stages of design and this report is based on the present design stage, this will change before the end of the course. The building can be broken down into 3 blocks: 1. 2. 3.

Private offices, design, conference, admin, shop Educational, café, service Exploration workshop

All of the blocks are adjoined by a public atrium which allows people to pass and interact with the building but keeping them visually connected but protected from the more dangerous areas (the workshop). There are two main processes which are married within the building, one being the design and educational side, which looks at inspiring and building peoples knowledge of sustainability and the other is the physical exploration of projects or ideas. This physical exploration area will give people the facilities to put their ideas to the test. There are the facilities to import and export goods freely with the expanse of the reinstated dock to use water transport, either the sea or canal, if they wish. The general philosophy is to better what entered the building in some way whether it be educating a person or developing a product for the market.

9.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building plans

ground floor plan scale 1 : 500

10.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building plans

first floor plan scale 1 : 500

11.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building plans

second floor plan scale 1 : 500

12.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


building plans

roof plan scale 1 : 500

13.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


structures The main body of the building’s structure will consist of Glulam beams and columns which transfer the loads down to the concrete pile caps via steel footings (see figure 1.1 & 1.2). A series of primary columns run across the width of the different blocks of the building, supported at points by the columns which are in turn supported by the foundations (see appended beam sizes table). Where each column exists, a secondary beam runs perpendicular to add rigidity to the whole structure, this minimises any movement between the primary beams. There are numerous 3 meter primary beam overhangs that make up the suspended walkways visible from the atrium. To achieve this cantilever the supporting beams sandwich a steel flitch plate (bolted in between the two Glulam beams) to add strength, which is also suspended at the ends from either the flitch beam or the main atrium steel structure above with the use of tensile steel cables (see Detail H and Technology Section). These attachments are located on the outside of the walkway’s balustrade to allow for an unobstructed passage. This method of exposed flitch beams and tensile cables shows the occupants the physical workings and the relationships between different materials and why they are used (see figure 1.3).

figure 1.1 steel footing

figure 1.2 steel footing sitting on pile cap

3D structures model showing main glulam column and beam arrangement supported by pile foundations.

14.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


structures

figure 1.3 structural make up showing flitch beams and tensile cables

detail h showing atrium walkway construction: full details in appendix

15.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


structures

figure 1.4 typical joint between glulam column and primary beam

Major joints between the primary beams and columns will be assisted with steel joint plates which sit within both parties with perpendicular steel pins to hold them tightly together (figure 1.4 and Detail B). Where the secondary beams span between the major primary members the structural support will be external in the form of a steel connecter that is joined to both beams with driven nails through its built-in flanges (see figure 1.5). Between the beams will sit the off-site engineered timber cassettes housing the joists to support the finished floor above, these will be designed so that they can be quickly and precisely positioned and secured into place. In order to maintain rigidity throughout each of the buildings, there will be at least one element fabricated out of GGBS concrete creating a monolithic structure with lateral stability for which the timber frame can connect to, without the use of tensile cross bracing which would have limited where the glazing was positioned. These areas will be the service cores within each of the structures which are enclosed within the buildings allowing the rest of the timber to be positioned freely around them. As the overall structure is essentially three separate buildings adjoined by the atrium, there will be measures taken to accommodate the movement between them and the expansion and contraction of the materials of which they consist. The movement diagrams (appended) show the locations of the movement joints and the solid elements which they sit between. Where the structures meet they will be partially fixed via bolts which will have a certain area in which to move on the bearing plate allowing any change to be absorbed. On the surface will be a visible expansion joint between floor finishes as seen in figure 1.6. Movement will also be taken into account where the timber elements are in contact with materials such as metal or concrete which have different expansion and contraction characteristics

figure 1.5 steel connector supporting secondary glulam beam

figure 1.6 visible movement joint between walkways and opposite structure

ggbs concrete fabricated zone

diagram to show ggbs concrete areas for lateral stability

16.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


structures Where Block 3 meets the atrium’s internal space, the structural build up will be unique to overcome acoustic issues and to achieve the balance between physical and visual barriers which were a strong concept of the design. Up to the first floor level where the mezzanine design office is located, there will be a duel eco concrete wall with a 500mm void space filled with sheep’s wool to add acoustic performance. These walls will be a continuation of the ground slab which will sit on the pile foundations distributing any loads from the columns above (see Detail B) the walls equally, once at ground level. The inside concrete wall will support Glulam columns and beams (see Detail B) which make up the structure off the mezzanine and the main body of the ‘Exploration Workshop’. The opposite side of the mezzanine will be held by Glulam columns which will run to the roof to hold the 900mm roof beams which span the entire distance of the double height workshop space. The beams are designed to accommodate the roof span only and any lifting be carried out from the ground only. The Glulam construction in the these areas will be of the same consistency as that of blocks 1 & 2, only larger where appropriate, like that of the workshop roof beam and column junctions. The junctions between the insitu concrete wall and the Glulam beams, which support the mezzanine design office space, will require bearing plates to be attached to bolts pre-cast into the concrete, for which the beam can then be anchored via clip angles holding them in place (see Detail B). Above where the beam sits on the structural wall, Glulam columns provide support for the roof beams above which span primarily across the workshop and around the perimeter of the building, also supporting the structure for the atrium glazing and louvers (see Detail A and C).

pile foundation showing glass resin floor finish, floor slab, insulation and sandblinded hardcore. the column sits on the pile cap through a steel footing

mezzanine design office location

main workshop area

17.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


structures The atrium glazing is supported via an external steel structure with the use of spider clamps and suspended cables (see Technology section and Detail H). This independent framework is located on the main Glulam structural grid of each of the individual buildings allowing a solid platform for it to sit. Just within this, supported by steel angle supports are two timber members upon which the glazing is mounted within a frame. Throughout the floors of the building the only static loads will be that of the structure itself and the only columns that are receiving dead loads will be the top floors where there is no human activity of the areas above. The majority of live loads will be occurring within the first and second floors including all walkways and the mezzanine office area, where the use will uniformly be of an office nature. Wind loads on the atrium glazing will be combated by the use of the steel structure preventing collapse.

horizontal load direction

vertical suspension load

vertical compression load

structural load path diagram

18.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


structures Structural Reasoning: By using a UK supplier of Glulam and the use of product erecting techniques, the building can demonstrate the art of green building on a large scale. With this product, the structural elements can be left exposed giving the true character of the building and revealing what it represents in the education of sustainable architecture. The colours of the Glulam also create a striking contrast against the clean, sharpness of insitu concrete and tensile steel members, this allows it to be noticed by the occupants who will have a clearer definition between the key elements of the building. The way in which Block 1 protrudes into the atrium space is intended to appear as though parts of the building are in section. This will show the open-ended flitch beams and secondary Glulam beams and columns from all areas, clearly identifying the building back bone (see Detail H). The use of Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) based concrete for the foundations, choice key structural elements and floor slabs, allows enhanced structure where appropriate and the chance to use a product which is usually deemed as not particularly eco-friendly. It will be used mainly for its monolithic properties in the building cores and the main structural wall between the atrium and the workshop. As the GGBS substitutes the more traditional Portland Concrete by up to 70% and is a waste by-product from the production of steel, it is an exemplary product for which to have on show to the users of the building. To promote this product even more it will reduce carbon emissions by 70% per tonne (a key aim of the building) and is readily available only 28 miles away in Scunthorpe. Its use will not be on show within the floor slabs and the pile caps which form part of the pile foundations (which are appropriate for this development due to the immediate nature of the ground on the site). Due to the immediate unstable clay, sand and silt on site, the piles will need to be driven down to a chalk layer which will provide stability. Each of these pile foundations will sit under a structural load-bearing column, underneath the floor slab.

lamisell uk supplier of glulam products

ggbs environmentally friendly concrete

19.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


construction Site Due to coastal site location, there will be the permanent threat of salt corrosion on the exterior of the building. The cladding system specified for the build is unaffected by all weather and will stand up to the sea front conditions as well as being 100% recycled. The outer skin of the majority of Blocks 1 & 2 is made up of reclaimed timber boards that can be replaced as necessary when the existing ones perish but to increase the fragmented appearance, any corrosion will be accepted.

west elevation onto queen street

20.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


construction External Walls The external envelope make up the Blocks 1 & 2 is designed to work in conjunction with the timber frame structure to provide thermal performance for the interior and reduce the impact of the building through lowering energy use. There is a total of 190mm insulation within the external walls, firstly a 50mm Thermowall insulation panel (see figure 2.1) which sits on the inside of the columns (allowing for increased air tightness and therefore a better U-value) and the second which fills the void between the columns and studs themselves which will consist of recycled newspaper (figure 2.8), which has great thermal properties and makes use of a waste product. Enclosing the insulation to the interior is a vapour permeable paper-based membrane, to keep moisture out of the insulation, and two layers of plasterboard. To the exterior will be board sheathing which will be encased with in a breather membrane underneath the timber cladding brackets. The initial skin of the double outer skin will be a 100% recycled waste rainscreen cladding system called Paperstone (see figure 2.3). The cladding is FSC certified and is unaffected by all weather types. The outer skin will consist of a series of reclaimed timber members which will be placed within steel cables to give a random and ‘cobbled together’ appearance to the facade of the building (see Elevations). The tensile cables will be hung from brackets which are attached directly to the super structure and the boards subsequently attached to the cables via pins. The timber boards will be strategically placed around the windows but will give a rugged appearance to window locations, especially when lit up at night. The buildings structure steps out at first floor to visually increase the idea of irregularity. At this point the cladding returns 90 degrees beneath the cantilever and returns to the top of the window jam. The exterior skin boards are arranged to cover up the ease of this return and create an altogether more random appearance (see Detail F). (All of the above information is drawn on the Technology Section and can be seen more thoroughly on Details D, E & F).

figure 2.1 50mm thermowall insulation panel

figure 2.2 50mm installation of recycled newspaper into cavity

figure 2.3 paperstone rainscreen cladding

section of west elevation to show the fragmented outer skin

21.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


construction Internal Walls Blocks 1 & 2 will be sub-divided using a crosslam system (see figure 2.4) which will not only provide a segregation of space but extra stability to the existing structure due to its natural strength. When used to house the protected lobbies the wall will provide up to 70 minutes inherent fire protection as part of a factory standard but will be treated using fire retardant. Where there is less privacy and acoustic separation required there will be glazed partition walls (see Detail H), mainly on rooms looking out onto the atrium space. Block 3 uses a combination of exposed concrete and prefabricated timber cassettes similar to ones used in Block 1. The double thick wall between the workshop and the atrium will be exposed to the atrium side and plasterboard to the workshop to increase the acoustic separation. The exposure is an intentional design aesthetic as are the choice window slots through into the workshop from the atrium. They are meant as a visual aid to inspire people from the atrium, a way of interesting them without the dangers and noise of being in the space. These double skinned internal windows (see figures 2.5 & 2.6) will be created using super acoustic glazing where parts of the acoustic lining within the window cavity will be stripped away to reveal the wall make up. This double skinned acoustic glazing will be used again on the mezzanine level (see Technology section). The majority of the workshop and interior rooms will be of exposed concrete for a minimalist approach, reflecting the process within and the purpose of the space.

figure 2.4 elevation and interior of glazing void

figure 2.5 section through acoustic glazed panel from Kestel Acoustics website

figure 2.6 elevation and interior of glazing void

image showing the visual link through to the workshop from the atrium

22.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


construction Floors In Blocks 1 & 2 off-site prefabricated timber cassettes (see figure 2.7) will slot straight into the main Glulam structure. The advantage with the cassettes is they will be pre insulated both between the joists with recycled newspaper (increasing the resistance to fire) and below with 100mm Rockwool insulation panels (see figure 2.8) to increase the acoustic performance between the spaces above and below. On site board sheathing will be placed above for the PET based recycled carpet to be laid and double plasterboard below to finish the ceiling (see Detail E & F). Block 3’s mezzanine level will consist of similar floor cassette construction as the opposite side of the atrium. The workshop and atrium spaces will be finished with a polished crushed glass and resin screed which contains recycled products that will be on show. As the atrium is designed as a gallery space, this feature will stay in keeping with the space purpose. figure 2.7 prefabricated timber cassette being lowered into structure

figure 2.8 rockwool ridgid insulation panel installation

north elevation onto humber street

23.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


construction Windows The glazing to Blocks 1 & 2 will be a series of long strips at various heights along the elevation to tie in with the longitudinal appearance of the external boards. The frames will sit within the main wall construction (see Elevations and Detail F). All windows of the build will be ultra efficient double glazed timber frame units specified from Ecoplus, a West Yorkshire company which as a whole will deliver the high quality bespoke manufacturing desired and all products are FSC certified (see figure 2.9).

figure 2.9 timber framed windows supplied by ecoplus in yorkshire

Roof The roof is essentially supported on a series of joists which run between the primary beams. The void between is insulated using recycled newspaper and to retain an increased air tightness there is two layers of Kingspan Cooltherm (see figure 2.10) above upon which is a layer of board sheathing. On top of this is a polymeric roof finish, all laid to fall, to assist with the rainwater drainage and subsequently harvesting. (see Detail D).

figure 2.10 kingspan cooltherm roof insulation

Means of Escape There are in total five protected lobby fire escapes with in the entire building providing means of escape for the occupants, all complying to the distances stated in Part B of the Building Regulations (see Fire Strategy Plans). Each escape is large enough to accommodate a disabled refuge without hindering the path of escapees using the stairwell and is protected up to 70 minutes with the choice of KLH crosslam internal walls alone (as part of the factory standard), before the use of fire retardant measures which will also preserve the timber if there happened to be a fire during the construction stages. All the protected lobbies are naturally ventilated to allow smoke to pass and the majority of escape routes are through the atrium space, which is also naturally ventilated, before entering the protected shafts. All areas of the building will be fitted with a sprinkler system which will activate in the event of a fire. This is especially important in the atrium space as the majority of escape routes pass through this area.

24.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


environment and services General The building is to be used by both the public and regular workers and consists of private and public areas which are closed off from the main atrium space. The majority of the private and public circulation runs through the atrium meaning that they will share the same controlled environment together. With the building being open mainly daytime hours, with few exceptions, it will aim to use as much natural resources to heat and supply power for the functions inside, being aided when necessary. By doing this it is intended that the building will lower its carbon footprint and be an example for the visitors and users. The planning of the building was designed specifically shallow to allow for natural ventilation and light penetration which will reduce the need for mechanical assistance. In the event that assistance is required the plant is located on the service yard side of the 2nd block with at least one vertical riser in each block to transfer piping between floors. Site Being situated near the coast in the open expanse of the estuary, the site is a wealth of fresh south-westerly air currents which are unhindered by contaminants due to lack of massing to the south. Although the A63 passes to the north, the majority wind direction pushes the exhaust fumes and noise in the opposite direction keeping the site fresh and clear. Because of this lack of massing to the south, it gives the building full use of the sun to naturally light or heat the interiors, this will have to be monitored to some extent to keep solar gain under control. Energy The building will be partially powered through the use of photovoltaics which will be used to clad some of the walls which will not only cause interest but also promote the product. The panels will then have two jobs in that they will be contributing to the power of the building and protecting it from the elements.

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design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


environment and services Heat With the external wall construction providing such low Uvalues, the building will conserve heat and require less mechanically assisted heating. The majority of rooms which run off the main atrium space will be partitioned off using glazed partition systems allowing sunlight to pass through the atrium and into the space. At the top of the partition will be a venting system and together with the opening windows out onto the street the room can be naturally ventilated. With the suns light passing into the atrium, the potential for overheating is ever present. Using the solar controlling louvers which line the atrium supporting structure, this can be controlled to provide a comfortable interior using a mix of solar and (if needed) mechanical methods and natural stack ventilation (see environmental building section). Any mechanical assisted heat will be transported around the building through pipework in the flooring and dispersed through vents in the floor at the perimeters of spaces. Block 3 has a higher use of GGBS concrete as part of the structure which means the suns energy and heat can be stored thermally within the material and radiated out during cooler parts of the day. This is a different method of retaining heat to using high performance walls like that of Blocks 1 & 2 but is still effective. The assisted heating will be provided through the ducting providing the required air changes.

heat direction once in building

mechanical heat source if needed

As mentioned previously in the document, all glazing (including the atrium) will be of a high performance nature meaning less heat loss during winter and lower heat gain during the summer period. This helps to maintain a constant comfortable internal environment for the inhabitants.

heat source diagram

26.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


environment and services Biomass Using biomass as the mechanical assist, it keeps the production of CO2 to a minimum as the concept behind the fuel burning means that the CO2 that is produced is replacing the oxygen produced in its growth initially. Woody wastes and residues The technologies used to use the woody wastes from the workshop will be similar to that of conventional virgin wood burning in the biomass system meaning that a range of waste wood can be utilised through a spectrum of thermal conversion technologies. Non-woody wastes and residues The workshop will also be responsible for the production of non-woody wastes and residues which are not primarily woody in nature but could still be suitable for biomass fuel, they are listed below: • • •

Paper pulp and wastes Textiles Sewerage sludge

The biomass boiler has the option to be a dedicated heat or electricity generating system, or alternatively it can produce both in a CHP (Combined Heat and Power) system. This is a perfectly viable option but as this building is aiming to demonstrate multiple renewable systems I have decided to leave the boiler as a heat generating entity only and investigate other areas for power. Using biomass means that when used it will run at a constant so careful monitoring of the heat will be required as not to waste the resources.

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design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


environment and services Heat Recovery A way of monitoring the heat lost and keeping the production of mechanically produced heat to a minimum is by using a heat recovery system which will use the waste heat from the building and reuse it after a reconditioning process. This keeps the air flow fresh throughout the building and reduces the amount of CO2 pumped into the atmosphere, whilst making substantial savings to the running costs of the building. This system is perfectly viable within Blocks 1 & 2 but Block 3 will require more air changes during the day and will often contain contaminants meaning that if the heat was to be recovered suitable traps would be required.

stale air out underground fresh air in underground stale air out

ground floor mechanical assisted heating pipe layout

fresh air in vertcal riser and plant ocation

first floor mechanical assisted heating pipe layout

second floor mechanical assisted heating pipe layout

28.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


environment and services Ventilation As briefly stated before Blocks 1 & 2 will be naturally stack ventilated due to their maximum 15m floor plate width. With opening windows to the street and vents in the glazed partition walls to the atrium the spaces, the spaces will remain fresh and comfortable. The heated air which passes into the atrium will rise up and pass out of the building through vents. This continuous cycle will maintain a steady flow of fresh air to the internal spaces without the use of duct work or large amounts of CO2 production. The workshop area will require a mixture of natural and mechanical ventilation. Having huge service bi-fold (window accommodating) doors to the east of the space will allow for ventilation but no opening windows to the west there will be a lack of cross ventilation. This is where the mechanical can help in serving the required air changes and the removal of harmful air contaminants. The ceilings are high enough to run duct work freely and due to the nature of the space they can run vertically down the load bearing walls.

mechanically ventilated (out) mechanically ventilated (in) naturally ventilated (out) naturally ventilated (in)

ventilation diagram

29.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


environment and services Lighting The aim is that because of the opening hours of the building the majority of spaces can be naturally lit via the windows and atrium space. Block 1 will benefit from the atrium the most, due to its orientation to the sun, but as with all areas, when spaces lack light, it can be enhanced using low energy lighting. The information for several areas’ comfort within the building can be seen below:

led lighting for rooms such as meeting, teaching or office

Atrium: • •

19-23 degrees design temperature 200 lux lighting level

Design Office Space: • •

22-24 degrees design temperature 300-500 lux lighting level

Exploration Workshop: • •

21-23 degrees design temperature 750-1000 lux lighting level

Lighting in the workshop will be through the Helux range from Carbon Red Lighting and is a standard fitting which is half the energy used in conventional large area lighting. For the more intimate spaces low energy LEDs will be used which last longer and are adequate in providing a suitable lux.

led lighting for rooms such as workshop requiring much higher lux

Rainwater Harvesting In order to be efficient in servicing the building I have employed a rainwater harvesting system which will be coassisted by a grey water filtration cycle which will keep water waste to a minimum. The initial stages of the recovery will be a self cleaning process before storing the water in an underground cistern. Once here it undergoes a two stage purification process which is maintenance free leaving the water ready to use. Low energy pumps will transfer the water to toilet areas and the workshop for cleaning purposes. If there is subsequent left over from this process it can be used to irrigate the proposed park on the opposite side to Humber Street. Total Collection Area:

461 sq m

Average Rain Fall:

850mm

Run-off Co-efficient:

0.45

Filter Efficiency:

85%

All multiplied together = Annual yield=

1. self cleaning filter 2. filter 3.cistern 4. floating inlet filter 5. inlet pipe 6. multigo pipe 7. pressurised tube 8. automatic valve 9. overflow 10. control panel 11. magnetic valve 12. drinking water feed 13. non-return valve

207 000 Litres figure x rainwater harvesting concept

30.

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


elevations

steel structural atrium support acoustic windows to allow views into building from humber street

inside paperstone cladding skin high performance glazing

pure element with pale paperstone rainscreen cladding or exposed concrete outside reclaimed timber cladding skin

humber street

north elevation onto humber street

outside reclaimed timber cladding skin

high performance glazing

queen street

west elevation onto queen street

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes


research

design thesis proposal

leeds metropolitan university yr2 pgdp

matthew hayes

Post Graduate Diploma Architectural Thesis Technology Report  

An indepth analysis of construction and sustainability systems - a detailed insight into the workings of the Construction Resource and Lear...

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