Page 1

Volume 9. Issue 5. Sept/Oct 2016

n

Art and science: news ways to connect and collaborate

n Sources

of concern – why we need to be light aware 1


Editorial

Secretary Brendan Keely MSLL bkeely@cibse.org SLL Coordinator Juliet Rennie Tel: 020 8675 5211 jrennie@cibse.org Editor Jill Entwistle jillentwistle@yahoo.com Communications committee: Iain Carlile (chairman) MSLL Rob Anderson Jill Entwistle Chris Fordham MSLL Wiebke Friedewald Mark Ingram MSLL Stewart Langdown MSLL Gethyn Williams Linda Salamoun Bruce Weil All contributions are the responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the society. All contributions are personal, except where attributed to an organisation represented by the author.

Copy date for NL6 2016 is 23 September Published by The Society of Light and Lighting 222 Balham High Road London SW12 9BS www.sll.org.uk ISSN 1461-524X © 2016 The Society of Light and Lighting The Society of Light and Lighting is part of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS. Charity registration no 278104

Jill Entwistle jillentwistle@yahoo.com

Current SLL lighting guides SLL Lighting Guide 1: The Industrial Environment (2012) SLL Lighting Guide 2: Hospitals and Health Care Buildings (2008) SLL Lighting Guide 4: Sports (2006) SLL Lighting Guide 5: Lighting for Education (2011) SLL Lighting Guide 6: The Exterior Environment (2016) SLL Lighting Guide 7: Office Lighting (2015) SLL Lighting Guide 8: Lighting for Museums and Galleries (2015) SLL Lighting Guide 9: Lighting for Communal Residential Buildings (2013) SLL Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting – a guide for designers (2014) SLL Lighting Guide 11: Surface Reflectance and Colour (2001) SLL Lighting Guide 12: Emergency Lighting Design Guide (2015) SLL Lighting Guide 13: Places of Worship (2014)

Produced by

NEW SLL Lighting Guide 14: Control of Electric Lighting (2016)

PRINT CONSULTANTS

Guide to Limiting Obtrusive Light (2012) Guide to the Lighting of Licensed Premises (2011)

Printed in UK

2

One of the compensations, if it can be called that, of increasing maturity is the recognition that actually you know a great deal less than you thought you did when younger. The acknowledgement of the yawning chasm of one’s ignorance is a wisdom of sorts. The same is undoubtedly true of lighting as the profession matures. As knowledge and expertise broaden, it becomes increasingly evident that there is an enormous amount we still need to learn and whole rafts of research that need to be done. To coin a Rumsfeld, there are many known unknowns.That is true of its below-theline properties, evident in areas such as as optics and photonics (see An Eye to the Future, p10), as well as the realm of visible light and its apparently overt characteristics.

On the one hand we have the rapid acceleration of technological development and, on the other, relatively recent discoveries about the relationship between light and human physiology. As reported in the last issue of the Newsletter, a new charity has recently been set up called LightAware. As trustee Eleanor Levin explains (see Sources of Concern, p12), those suffering from light sensitivity – which according to her anecdotal evidence seems often to be exacerbated by non-incandescent sources – are weary of being dismissed as psychosomatic cases and would like not only to be taken more seriously, but also to get to the bottom of their problems. It is important to draw a distinction here between the demented anti-LED stance propagated by the likes of the Daily Mail, and the genuine concern to promote more discussion, research and questioning of new sources, which is the agenda of an organisation such as LightAware. ‘It is interesting, rare and important to note when people from the public at large are taking action on light and lighting that is having a negative impact on them,’ said SLL Fellow Howard Brandston in a communication to me, bringing the charity to my attention. It is only relatively recently that we have realised the significance of light for human health and well-being. To unearth and establish scientific truth in this regard clearly benefits everyone.


Secretary’s column

I’m sure you will have enjoyed a summer break and we welcome you back. We are delighted to be exhibiting at Light Middle East from 31 October-2 November in Dubai. We will also be hosting Ready Steady Light in Dubai with Messe Frankfurt on 1 November. This is a great opportunity for us to communicate with our members in the region. We are also excited to be coorganising the 1st International Museum Lighting Conference (London, June 2017) with the Centre for Doctoral Training in Science and Engineering in Arts, Heritage and Archaeology (SEAHA), founded by UCL, Brighton University and Oxford University. Lighting technology and science is a rapidly evolving field. Developments in colour science, vision and materials properties pose new challenges and offer opportunities for lighting applications in museum environments. Pressures to go beyond the recently attained goals in sustainable energy use illustrate this, yet both the challenges and opportunities must be compatible with existing principles of preventive conservation. Innovative design and energy management integration is even more critical than in the past. The aims of the conference are to explore all recent research and application in the field of museum lighting, providing a discussion platform for scientists, conservators, curators, architects, lighting professionals and other academics working in the field. The deadline for abstracts (1000 words) is 15 January 2017 (more details will become available at www.seaha-cdt. ac.uk). Abstracts can be on, but not limited to, the following topics: • Human colour perception: colour appearance, constancy, deficiencies • Technology and innovation: spectrum fine-tuning, energy efficiency,

We will be taking a brand new series of lectures around the UK and Eire from October this year. Building on the success of the Masterclasses, the lectures will be titled Masterclass: The Lighting Knowledge Series, and will keep you right up to date with the latest developments in technology, design and guidance, and give you the information you need to keep ahead of the game. This year’s topic will be Human Responses to Light. Our Sponsors in Partnership – Holophane,Thorn, Trilux and Xicato – will be bringing the knowledge to you and delivering the lectures and, as with the Masterclass series, there will be a guest speaker plus, of course, Lighters’ Question Time. We will be sending a flyer to you with the October CIBSE Journal and email you in advance. We would also like to welcome Osram and UL (Universal Laboratories) to our Sustaining Member programme. We are also pleased to announce that we will be hosting our second Night of Heritage Light this autumn. At the time of writing we still do not have all the details but please check out the website for more information. As usual, we will be exhibiting at LuxLive from 23-24 November at ExCel, London. We will have the finals of Young Lighter of the Year on the second day and the winner will be announced at the Lux Awards the same evening. In addition, we will again be running a version of the Masterclasses. We are delighted to confirm that the SLL will be supporting the Professional Lighting Design Conference (PLD-C) in Paris 2017. The SLL will again be the Official Knowledge Partner of The Challenge young speakers’ competition with president Jeff Shaw as one of this year’s coaches. Round III will take place on 9-10 February 2017 in London with the finals at PLD-C from 1-4 November 2017. All lectures at the event will carry CIBSE CPD and we encourage all to attend. bkeely@cibse.org

Editorial

2

Secretary’s column

3

News

4

Where art meets science 5 Alessandra Caggiano, director and curator of e-Luminate, on new ways of collaborating Counter intelligence 8 Barrie Wilde summarises the Jean Heap Bursary study by Dr Feride Sener Yilmaz on a humancentric approach to retail lighting An eye to the future 10 Continuing her IYL series, Juliet Rennie looks at developments in optics and photonics Sources of concern 12 Eleanor Levin on why she feels there was a need for recently launched charity LightAware Controlling interests 14 Managing light is a key theme in the latest LR&T online papers, discovers Iain Carlile Out of the shadows 15 2012 winner of YLOTY Sabine De Schutter looks back Cover: Artron Book Wall, Shenzhen City, China, lighting design by Originator Lighting Design Consultants, winner of a 2016 IALD Award of Excellence

Photography: Chin-Ming Cheng

constraints, daylight, connected lighting, luminaire design, sources • Physics of light measurement: metrology, colorimetry and photometry • Preventive conservation and policy: materials behaviour, light sensitivity testing, collections management, display techniques • Visitor experience: cognition, behaviour, interpretation, display context, emotions, education, colour preference, visual performance

Contents

Events

For up-to-date information follow us on Twitter @sll100

16

3


NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...NEWS...

The LRC refutes AMA warnings on LEDs The New Yorkbased Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic has produced a critical response to a document produced by the American Medical Association (AMA), which cautioned the public about In-Ga-N-based LEDs. The response draws attention to the problem of ‘misapplying shorthand metrics to the topic of light and health’ and also points up the wider references that should inform any ‘rational discourse’.

‘Predicting the impact on health of light exposure depends on an accurate characterisation of the physical stimulus, as well as the biological response to that stimulus,’ say LRC professors Mark Rea (pictured left) and Mariana Figueiro. ‘Without fully defining both the stimulus and the response, nothing meaningful can be stated about the health effects of any light source.’ They go on to say that with the exception of certain minority populations that merit special attention, blue light hazard from In-Ga-N LEDs is probably not a concern to the majority in most lighting applications ‘due to the human natural photophobic response’. Rea and Figueiro also point out that

both disability glare and discomfort glare are mainly determined by the amount and distribution of light entering the eye, not its spectral content. The statement goes on to take issue with a number of other areas including allegations of melatonin suppression and the irrelevance in this context of correlated colour temperature (CCT). The full response can be found at www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/ newsroom/AMA.pdf l LRC director Mark Rea has taken a year’s academic sabbatical starting last month. Light and health programme director Mariana Figueiro is acting director

Venning introduces changes to LET UK photonics Lighting Education Trust chairman Bob Venning has implemented a number of operational changes to the LET, which marks its 21st anniversary this year. ‘The running and organisation of the LET has been changed to reflect the fact that we now run the Diploma of Lighting Design course, which obviously takes a lot of time and effort,’ said Venning. An annual trustees meeting has been inaugurated, and former SLL and CIBSE president Mike Simpson is now a trustee as a ‘natural person’. A new management committee now includes Mark Sutton-Vane, Gary Campbell, Paul Ruffles, Iain Macrae, Eddie Henry (ILP), John Aston (SLL) and Julie Humphreys (LIA), who join original

On the lighter side...

A little (LED) light reading? Kouichi Okamoto’s dinky device, developed with Tokyo University’s agIC Inc, is both bookmark and, by using conductive ink, book light. The ink, with nano-size silver particles, is printed on a transparent film. A lithium coin battery (not supplied) acts as both power and switch. www.kyouei-ltd.co.jp

4

members Dominic Meyrick of Hoare Lea Lighting and the IALD’s Emma Cogswell. They will meet two or three times a year and meeting notes will be published on the LET website. Venning also payed tribute to Kelvin Austin, editor and author of a number of the modules for the new Diploma, and course tutor Barrie Wilde. ‘Both Kelvin and Barrie will be missed,’ he said, ‘and the LET would like to record publically its thanks for all the time and effort that they have contributed.’ Anyone who would like to volunteer their services can contact Pom Daniells, Diploma course administrator, at LET@cibse.org

CIBSE lighting awards open Entries are now open for the lighting category of the CIBSE Building Performance Awards, recognising high-quality schemes that most effectively demonstrate energy efficiency and reduced carbon emissions. They also emphasise the importance of daylight. Schemes, both UK and international, must have been first commissioned or launched between 1 June 2013 and 31 August 2015, and have a full year of operational data. The closing date for entries is 15 September. More details at www.cibse.org/ building-performance-awards

centre to open

The infrastructure design of the National Healthcare Photonics Centre, due to open in 2018, has officially started, according to the Centre for Process Innovation (CPI). CPI’s new centre will provide the facilities and expertise needed to help companies of all sizes to develop their photonics-based technologies for healthcare and turn them into commercially viable products. One of the fastest-developing areas in healthcare is the use of light to diagnose and treat medical conditions and illnesses, collectively known as healthcare photonics. Applications range from monitoring of physiological parameters to wound, skin and cancer care, among other applications in neurology and ophthalmology (see Eye to the Future, p10). ‘The UK has world-class research capability in this area of healthcare photonics,’ said Dr Arun Harish, head of development, healthcare photonics at CPI. ‘A key challenge is to reduce the barriers that are preventing early research and inventions from moving beyond the laboratory and into innovative healthcare solutions for patients.’


Discussion: Events: education Masterclass and collaboration 2013/14

Where art meets science Alessandra Caggiano, festival director and curator of e-Luminate Cambridge, on creating new ways of collaborating across disciplines

My vision is ambitious. How can we ignite knowledge about light from the intersection between art, science and technology, nurturing shared experiences and new connections? In his presidential address last May, Jeff Shaw told the audience that ‘getting the lighting message out to all’ should be a clear goal for the SLL and he promised to help create a lasting legacy of exchange between the industry and the public. He also said that ‘light can be a great educational tool’ encompassing diverse disciplines such as design, architecture, science, engineering and visual arts. As such, light is a tool that can teach young people valuable skills. As an enthusiastic supporter of the Steam (science, technology, engineering, arts and maths) movement, I found his words music to my ears, inspiring me to write this article. While many people consider art and science as two completely separate areas of human endeavour, the aim of the e-Luminate lighting festival is to create a greater dialogue between the two – one doesn’t have to choose between one or the other, because art and science are intrinsically related. Think of Leonardo Da Vinci: did he give up being a scientist while producing some of the most amazing works of art of his generation? Rather he pushed the boundaries of innovation with his fervent imagination. There is considerable research showing the benefits of creativity to promote innovation in business. The World Economic Forum has predicted that by 2020 creativity will be in the top three most needed skills in human resources (see overleaf). Furthermore, a recent report from innovation charity Nesta (The Fusion Effect: the economic returns to combining arts and science skills) found that companies that combine art and science skills in their workforce: • Show higher sales growth than science-only firms • Are more likely to bring radical innovations to market

t

Above and overleaf: installations at this year’s e-Luminate

According to Nesta, there is compelling evidence to suggest that firms combining these skills are more likely to grow in the future, are more productive, and have a greater likelihood of producing radical innovations. In this context, art becomes a catalyst for the efficient development of science and technology knowledge into new products, services and processes. In the light of these findings, having a Steam approach from education to industry can only have a positive impact on society. Indeed, my interest lies in incorporating both an artistic and scientific grounding for children and young people, enabling the development of a more skilled workforce. This is the source of the inspiration for the concept of Light Lab, a completely portable educational and outreach resource that we have set up based on group experimentation, creation and discovery. The ambition is to encourage a greater appreciation of light and lighting and to foster new talents. Thanks to the generosity of the Institute of Physics in the east of England, the e-Luminate Foundation has started rolling out some pilot events in this area.

5


Photographs courtesy of:Chryssie Koussia

Discussion: education and collaboration

I profoundly believe that the cross-disciplinary collaborations that are formed during these events are key to raising awareness of the lighting sector at large and directly benefit those involved t

The feedback has been overwhelming in places as diverse as Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk, which is an encouraging start, but my vision for the future is ambitious. How can we ignite knowledge about light from the intersection between art, science and technology, nurturing shared experiences and new connections? Perhaps some of the society’s members have ideas and suggestions they can contribute. I will soon be having discussions on this with Jeff Shaw and I would certainly welcome conversations with members generally. In my role of curator and director of the e-Luminate Cambridge light festival, I have the privilege of working with designers, lighting manufacturers, scientists and artists. The festival acts as a platform bridging lighting technology, designers and the arts. In 2013, our inaugural year, I read an article on light festivals

6

which quoted Mark Major from Speirs and Major. He raised the question of whether the role of these events is limited simply to entertainment or if they could contribute to something more meaningful on a long-term basis. Well, I would argue that this is indeed possible, under certain conditions. Although other light festivals have been around much longer than the one I initiated, e-Luminate Cambridge belongs to a new generation of live edutainment: events that encourage audience participation and aim to promote awareness and enlightenment. I profoundly believe that the cross-disciplinary collaborations that are formed during these events are key to raising awareness of the lighting sector at large and directly benefit those involved – from brand awareness and product placing to inclusion in lighting strategies and city masterplans. Just ask some of our sponsors.


Discussion: education and collaboration

As a passionate advocate of the importance of increasing public awareness of the photonics industry, I applaud the huge success of the International Year of Light. When Dr Beth Taylor, the UK IYL chair, came to Cambridge for the opening of the 2015 edition of our festival, the year had just started and her inspirational speech was all about the opportunity that the year ahead would present in terms of bringing together a uniquely wide range of different communities ‘to multiply the impact they would have by working apart’. Now we know how much the industry is worth in terms of economic impact to the country – at the last count it was in the region of £10.5bn which is, according to the Lighting Liaison Group, almost as much as the pharmaceutical industry. The cool thing is that this extraordinary output is produced by some 1700 SMEs across the country as opposed to a few global giants as in pharma. At the same time though, this might in part be the reason our sector lacks a joint approach that would make the most out of opportunities to innovate. So the question for this esteemed readership is this: can we work together and make it our mission to continue the work carried out during IYL and reach out to other sectors? Is there an appetite out there to open up channels of communication between visual artists working with light and lighting, designers and manufacturers to develop profitable relationships and to raise awareness of the industry among the public? Perhaps events such as the Night of Heritage Light are indeed an indication that the time has come to bridge the gap between arts and technology in our sector. The benefits will manifest in a new generation of young people as passionate as we are about light and lighting. That’s surely worth exploring. The aim is to bring together interested parties in an event in the autumn which will be kindly hosted by KTN in its London office. If anyone is interested in contributing to the discussion, please email Juliet Rennie (jrennie@ cibse.org) using the title of this article in the subject box. Or email Alessandra Caggiano directly (alessandra@eluminatefoundation.co.uk)

The Light Lab is a pop-up collection of interactive and creative installations and activities exploring light in arts and science. It is aimed primarily at a young audience but it is entertaining for all ages. It is based on the concept of edutainment and is led by a group of experienced professionals in subjects such as arts and physics. Each event is tailored to the hosting community/

venue which means that the Light Lab is different each time. This project runs on commissions and features at festivals and events in and outside Cambridge (pictured is a Light Lab event in Whittlesey, near Peterborough, run with the Institute of Physics). For more information or to request an event in your vicinity, email hello@eluminatefoundation.co.uk

TOP 10 SKILLS In 2020 1 Complex problem solving 2. Critical thinking 3. Creativity 4. People management 5. Coordinating with others 6. Emotional intelligence 7. Judgement and decision making 8. Service orientation 9. Negotiation 10. Cognitive flexibility

In 2015 1 Complex problem solving 2. Coordinating with others 3. People management 4. Critical thinking 5. Negotiation 6. Quality control 7. Service orientation 8. Judgement and decison making 9. Active listening 10. Creativity

7


Research: Jean Heap Bursary

Counter intelligence The first Jean Heap Research Bursary was awarded to Dr Feride Sener Yilmaz, research assistant at the Istanbul Technical University of Architecture in 2015. Barrie Wilde summarises her one-year study which looked at a human-centric, sustainable approach to retail lighting Dr Yilmaz’s research proposal was for the development of a human-centric sustainable retail lighting design approach on an experimental basis. In her bursary application and final report introduction, Dr Yilmaz identified the relationship between shoppers and shopping, and the close link these have to lighting conditions. Lighting design, she argued, has a direct bearing on spatial perception, visual stimulus and user behaviour, and contributes to creating brand and corporate identity. Quantitative and qualitative measures in the lighting design of retail outlets help in attracting the customer, maximise their ‘spend’ (time and money) in shops, and influence decisions to purchase. Finally, she argues that with the world’s dwindling energy resources, rising energy costs and the negative impact of energy consumption on ecology, sustainability needs to be carefully considered in the design phase. Dr Yilmaz’s bursary proposal concluded with a seven-stage methodology: Step 1: Literature research (desk-top survey) Step 2: Preparation of design criteria matrices Step 3: Development of lighting design alternatives Step 4: Performance determination of lighting design alternatives Step 5: Experimental tests-survey-based data collection and analysis Step 6: Coupling retail lighting design performance results with experimental data Step 7: Expected results and benefits

The discussion suggests that an ‘accent lighting’ design strategy increases users’ expectations in terms of product price and quality The following is a short summary and review of the final published research project report. As well as restating her aims and objectives in the final report introduction, there is an increased emphasis on sustainability. If dealt with at the lighting design phase, Dr Yilmaz states, a route in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions can be established, able to provide visual comfort conditions, meet end users’ psychological and physiological satisfaction, achieve energy efficiency and optimum cost considerations. The final objectives outlined in the introduction are the need to study aims and explore various parameters, using experimental techniques, to produce a holistic design

8

approach for human-centric sustainable retail lighting design. The introduction continues with recommendations for retail lighting design criteria, where CIE, IES, SLL publications and European Standard EN12464-1 are all cited as important resources. Factors to be considered in retail lighting design are extracted from these various publications and included as bullet points: display; to attract; appearance; branding, and so on. These recommendations are all included within three subsections of Chapter 1.1: 1.1.1 Visual comfort criteria in retail lighting design This identifies four visual comfort conditions to be investigated: illuminance, uniformity, luminance and colour. Recommended values for these criteria are extracted from the ‘best practice’ guidance (CIE; IES; SLL) and standards (EN 12464-1:2011) publications and collected into various tables. While a useful check list for retail lighting criteria, as extracted from current best practice publications, there is nothing new or novel being introduced for the experimental phase of this research. 1.1.2 Energy efficiency criteria in retail lighting design This is a fairly detailed discussion on the requirements as directed by The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2002/91/EC, and as recast in Directive 2010/31/EC. It is decided that the methodology to be used will be the lighting energy numeric indicator (Leni) for lighting design criteria class for retail environments as set out in EN 15193:2007, with a table included for basic, good and comprehensive fulfilment for two control system types. 1.1.3 Sustainability and cost efficiency in retail lighting design A discussion on the interaction between energy minimisation in buildings, and environmentally responsive, sustainable, costeffective building design. This discussion further stresses the need for such an exercise to bridge the lighting design stage to the post-occupancy stage. This sub-section concludes with a general discussion on financial evaluative methods, with a direction to use EN 15459:2007 in accordance with EU Directive 244/2012. The report progresses with Chapter 2: Steps of the human-centric sustainable retail lighting design approach. The methodology introduced in this chapter sets out six iterative steps: 2.1 Step 1: Literature research This outlines the usefulness of such an iterative step and indicates that the literature research was submitted in the three-month progress report. 2.2 Step 2: Preparation of human-centric sustainable retail lighting design criteria matrices Design matrices are introduced including criteria for illuminance, luminance distribution, UGR, uniformity, colour temperature, CRI, and balance of general and display lighting. 2.3 Step 3: Development of lighting design alternative sets


Research: Jean Heap Bursary

This introduces a computer (CIE-accredited lighting simulation software) ‘test’ model clothes retail outlet of around 150sqm with eight alternative lighting design alternatives in three groups: Group A – General lighting only schemes A1; A2; A3 Group B – General lighting and accent lighting schemes B1; B2; B3 Group C – Accent lighting only

• Appropriate lighting system design for shopping areas (showcases, sales area, fitting rooms, till)

2.4 Step 4: Performance determination of lighting design alternatives This sub-section of the report indicates that visual comfort and energy efficiency were evaluated using EN 12464 and IESNA recommendations as benchmark values to the performance determinations. UGR and colour properties of the space were evaluated, together with Leni energy performance. The results of this performance determination step are not published in the report, but rather in a separate and unconnected publication, A/Z ITU Journal of Faculty of Architecture (for details see below). 2.5 Step 5: Experimental tests – data collection and analysis This outlines the experimental test survey participants with respect to age, gender, education, dress, shopping frequency and shopping priority – 40 participants (20 female; 20 male), all in the 20-36 age group.

B

A

C

D Plan, sections and model of the investigated department store

2.5.1 Pre-screening results Two sets of bar charts indicate survey participants’ expectations with respect to importance (low, middle, high) for:

• Lighting design factors for shopping areas (illuminance, glare control, colour perception, uniformity, daylighting) 2.5.2 Survey-based data collection and analysis for retail lighting design alternatives Each participant completed a survey of the alternative lighting design schemes (eight in all) and a statistical analysis of results carried out for use in determining the development of a human-centric sustainable lighting design approach. 2.5.2.1 Comparison of lighting design alternatives with use of general lighting only (A1, A2, A3) and use of general and accent lighting (B1, B2, B3) The statistical analysis of the survey findings is indicated in three ‘skew’ diagrams for lighting design (unsuccessfulsuccessful); price expectation (cheap-expensive), and quality expectation (low-high quality). A close correlation is indicated between the general and general plus accent with a small bias towards the general plus accent with respect to ‘success’, ‘expensive’, high quality’. 2.5.2.2 Comparison of lighting design alternatives with use of general lighting only (A1, A2, A3) and use of accent lighting only (C1, C2) The statistical analysis of the survey findings is again indicated in three ‘skew’ diagrams using the same scales outlined above. The skew diagrams show a significant improvement towards the accent-only schemes with respect to ‘success’, ‘expensive’, high quality’. 2.5.3 Discussion of results The discussion put forward in the report suggests that the techniques, parameters and methodologies used in the research project clearly identifies a possible positive impact of lighting design on users. The discussion further suggests that an ‘accent lighting’ design strategy increases users’ expectations in terms of product price and quality, and therefore both attracts customers and creates the right atmosphere for selling the products. Conclusion The report draws several conclusions, including that the methodology used in the research project can be used in retail lighting design practice. It’s also acknowledged that the study was limited to one type of retail environment only. Further research is recommended for other types of retail environment. Also noted is that the study survey and data collection was limited to 40 participants aged 20-36 (equal numbers of male/ female) and that further studies are recommended to consider other diverse age and socio-cultural groups. Human-centric Sustainable Retail Lighting Design Approach: Experimental Study is available to read in full at www.cibse.org/society-of-light-and-lighting-sll/education/ the-jean-heap-bursary. The Leni results for all design alternatives have been published in a separate publication (A/Z ITU Journal of Faculty of Architecture Vol 13 Issue 1: March 2016 (Yilmaz FS, 2016)

9


IYL closing ceremony

An eye to the future Juliet Rennie looks at developments in optics and photonics as part of her series of articles examining topics covered in the IYL closing ceremony The International Year of Light provided the opportunity to ‘ensure that international policy-makers and stakeholders are made aware of the problem-solving potential of light technology,’ said John Dudley, chair of the IYL 2015 steering committee. Two outstanding examples of the problem-solving potential of light-based technologies were outlined during presentations by Vanderlei Bagnato, professor of physics at IFSC, University of São Paulo, where he coordinates a research centre in optics, and Susana Marcos, professor of research at IO-CSIC and the director of the Visual Optics and Biophotonics Lab. Bagnato’s presentation, Biophotonics Translated into Social Benefit: Light making Life Better, touched on developments in biophotonics for the treatment of cancer and microorganisms. Highlighting the fact that successful detection of disease is largely achieved using light-based technology, Bagnato began by emphasising the importance of light in the advancement of modern medicine. He went on to highlight the integral role that optics and photonics play in all technologies and how due to this, they will inevitably be part of the solution for the main challenges facing humanity and society: food shortages, climate change and illness. With regard to health, Bagnato said that unlike other diseases, cancer rates are increasing beyond linearity. In particular, light-based technology has played a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer. When a photoactive compound is introduced and exposed to a specific wavelength of light, oxygen is produced which destroys targeted cells. This process of photodynamic therapy (PDT) currently has a 95 per cent success rate for the treatment of skin cancer. This treatment is also being used to detect and treat human pappilomaviruses (HPVs), which can lead to cervical cancer. Additionally, with the widespread overuse of antibiotics, microorganisms are a major challenge, with viruses developing beyond our current means to treat them. Bagnato outlined how diverse mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, as well as the recent outbreak of the zica virus, could be controlled using similar photosensitisation-based methods. He explained that photoactive compounds could be introduced into water where mosquito larvae are found and, once this is exposed to sunlight, the larvae would be destroyed. By outlining the potential for light-based technologies to detect, diagnose and treat both cancer and viral infections,

10

Prof Bagnato sought to illustrate the social responsibility attached to the continuing research and development in optics and photonics. With regard to social responsibility in the advancement of these aeas, Susana Marcos began by introducing the functions of a healthy human eye, in that it transfers light into information, which is then transferred to the brain. However, the eye is imperfect and everyone has their own unique model of imperfections, depending on their age and what they have been exposed to. Among these imperfections, Marcos highlighted that the most common are refraction errors such as myopia, which affects 30 per cent of the population in Western societies and up to 90 per cent in Asian countries. The World Health Organisation has recognised that there are more than 153m people worldwide who are affected by uncorrected refractive errors. Marcos went on to introduce technologies that can be used to tackle these statistics, such as the Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, which measures imperfections in the eye. However, while accurate, wavefront aberrometers are expensive and need to be operated by ophthalmologists, of which there is a shortage. Marcos explained that often eye glasses are the most effective way to counter refractive errors in the eye but errors need to be accurately diagnosed to ensure that a correct prescription is given. Marcos went on to discuss the development of the QuickSee, a low-cost handheld prototype version of the larger wavefront sensor. Currently being trialled in developing countries, already the results are comparatively very positive showing little variation in effectiveness from the larger wavefront technology.

There are 22m cataract surgeries performed every year, making it the most performed surgery in the world

Marcos then outlined the properties of the crystalline lens and the development of presbyopia, or long-sightedness, caused by loss of elasticity of the lens, a condition which is very common in the ageing eye. Another common occurrence is when the crystalline lens loses transparency, also known as a cataract. Marcos said that there are 22m cataract surgeries performed every year, making it the most performed surgery in the world. With the development of custom spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT), Marcos explained that we are now able to obtain quantitative OCT images to measure the dynamic properties of the crystalline lens, exploring how it changes shape depending on what it is viewing and how this accommodative response changes with age. This indepth and detailed description of a patient’s eye has enabled


IYL closing ceremony

Biophotonics: an example of light radiation for cancer diagnosis – the healthy light scattering scan (left) and the cancerous scan (right)

the development of patient-specific eye models, so that treatment can be tailored to each individual’s needs. Looking forward, Marcos described the benefits of adaptive optics, which would inherit technology currently used in astronomy. This would take into account the level to which a particular patient may have adapted to their optical imperfections, allowing them to experience the effects of the surgery on their sight prior to entering the operating theatre, giving them a say in the type of treatment that they would undergo. Where the treatment of cataracts is concerned, Marcos also touched on intraocular lenses (IOLs), a device that is

The WHO estimates there are 153m people worldwide who are affected by uncorrected refractive errors

The successful detection of disease is now largely achieved using light-based technology, says Prof Bagnato implanted in the eye to replace the natural lens when it is removed during cataract surgery. Marcos suggested that with the development of current technologies and the use of patient-specific eye models, in future there will be more common use of IOLs which are activated by the forces within the eye to restore the crystalline lens to its correct state. Marcos concluded her presentation by stating that out of all of the medical interventions and surgical processes that were designed in this modern age of medicine, developments in cataract operations have been the most effective and convenient method of intervention in the medical field. Professors Bagnato and Marcos both highlighted the importance of ongoing research in the fields of optics and photonics, vividly illustrating how this research affects all of our lives. They both expressed passion and excitement at the prospect of future developments and what they could potentially mean in relation to the treatment of cancer, viral infections and optical surgery. Both placed light and light-based technologies at the centre of these developments and encouraged all who were involved in celebrating and promoting the International Year of Light to continue to do so, for the benefit of all.

11


Light and health: opinion YLOTY

Sources of concern Eleanor Levin, a trustee of recently launched charity LightAware, on why she feels there was a need for such an organisation LightAware is a new charity, which aims to raise awareness about the effects of artificial lighting on human health and wellbeing, and to stimulate investigation and discussion into this under-reported issue. It was founded to respond to the needs of those whose lives and health have been profoundly affected by the ban on incandescent lighting and the development of new forms of light. Many people experience pain and ill health when exposed to ‘low energy’ lighting, with LEDs and modern fluorescents (including CFLs) causing particular concern. Some with preexisting health issues, including migraine and light-sensitive skin problems, find their conditions exacerbated. Others with no previous health issues find themselves suffering when exposed to certain forms of lighting. This can result in severe symptoms, including searing eye pain, debilitating headaches, skin burning and rashes, dizziness, fainting and vomiting, or milder effects: anxiety, edginess, eczema, or just a general sensation of discomfort or ‘wrongness’ that’s hard to locate.

Dizziness and debilitating headaches are among symptoms those with light sensitivity reportedly suffer, according to LightAware

Senior medical professionals are expressing concern about the effect of new forms of lighting on eyes, skin, circadian rhythm and the nervous system, but it’s not yet fully understood why certain forms of light apparently cause such a diverse range of health problems. There are still many questions unanswered. How many people are adversely affected by new lighting? How can one type of light bulb cause different problems in different people? Why are some people affected by some forms of light and not others?

12

LightAware believes these questions need answers and the whole issue needs much greater scrutiny by scientists, doctors, government and the media. We seek to raise awareness of this issue and bring together a wide range of professionals from relevant areas such as lighting design and technology, neurology, dermatology, ophthalmology, architecture, psychology and more, to help piece the puzzle together. We need a conversation about light, nationally and internationally. It’s too important to undergo such rapid and dramatic change without due consideration and real understanding. We also need much greater awareness among the general public. The spread of modern fluorescents and LED lighting has resulted in the social exclusion of light-sensitive people, who are unable to access much of civic life, including places of employment, recreation, worship, education and healthcare. The problem is exacerbated by a lack of awareness and information. Few people even have the vocabulary to describe what lighting they have, so it is difficult for light-sensitive people to find out where they can go. As with many accessibility issues, attitude and understanding make a big difference.

Light can enchant and spook and uplift – but it can also burn and damage and hurt Each person adversely affected by new lighting has to go through the same process of trying to understand what is happening to them and to communicate that to others. It’s a difficult and often isolating process. This is a complex issue, tangled in technology, physiology and politics, mired in conflicting ideologies, for which there is no representation, no advocacy, no guidance and very little understanding – from the general public or from policy-makers or health professionals. Many find their symptoms dismissed as ‘psychosomatic’ or ‘anecdotal’ and are told that there is no evidence for the health problems they are experiencing. Yet lighting technology is progressing faster than medical science is addressing the issue, and the charity would question whether new products are tested thoroughly enough for long enough to truly understand their effect before the next new thing comes along. We feel that research into the impact of flicker and the different combinations of light frequencies on human health is essential before new lighting products are put into mass production. There simply hasn’t been enough research yet. We need lighting professionals to bring these issues to the attention of those undertaking research and studying the different aspects of light. In the meantime, we’re gathering these anecdotes – individual stories of personal experience from people adversely affected by new light. We hear so many stories from people shut out of their lives by new lights, who cannot get to work without a severe skin rash, or visit a library without blinding headaches. ‘When the street lights come on I can’t even step into my own front garden without severe eye pain, vertigo and vomiting,’ writes a 35-year-old woman. ‘I hope and pray this gets resolved in our lifetime. I am living the life of an isolated 85-year-old.’ ‘I am now unable to go into many public places such as restaurants and shops, or even visit friends in their own homes,’ says a man in Oxford. ‘I really fear having to leave my job and being confined to my flat at night…’ We hear of people having to leave their jobs, their studies,


Light and health: opinion YLOTY

Solutions for sufferers could mean installing different types of lights on different circuits, ensuring UV screening, or educating staff within an organisation to ensure better light management, says the charity

their homes – one barrister having to leave the country because he could no longer practise in British courts: ‘I couldn’t think, it felt like someone was clanking my head with a hammer.’ And so often sufferers report that their employers, or the unions, the church leaders, the media, the medical professionals, just don’t want to know, because they feel that having installed new lighting they’re ‘doing their bit for the environment’. While it is generally believed that ‘low energy’ lighting is the more ethical form, LightAware believes that the ban on incandescent lighting is itself unethical: it is unjust to ban a safe household product with no provision for those who cannot tolerate the alternatives to light their homes and live their lives. The founders of the charity realised that there was an urgent need to collate the available information on light and health, and to present it in a professional and accessible manner. We are currently building a website which will become a resource for light-sensitive people and for businesses, services and organisations seeking to be fully inclusive. We also hope to alert professionals in relevant fields of politics, science, architecture, medicine and media in order to stimulate further research and investigation. One of the charity’s main aims is to assist access to civic life by encouraging service providers and businesses to become ‘light aware’. Being light aware is a three-step process. First, knowing what type of lighting is in place throughout a building, including vestibule and toilets, and to be able to answer lighting queries clearly and accurately. Second, listening to an individual’s lighting needs and treating their requirements with attention and respect. Third, working together to create a plan to accommodate access. It’s a complex issue – light sensitivity is different in different people, so there is no single solution. LightAware’s objectives: To raise awareness about the effects of artificial lighting on human health and wellbeing To stimulate discussion and investigation into the effects of artificial lighting on human health and wellbeing The promotion of equality and diversity through encouraging provision of access to civic life for those excluded by sensitivity to artificial lighting

For example, some may tolerate double envelope CFLs but not naked bulbs, while others may manage fluorescent lighting but are debilitated by bright LEDs. And it isn’t easy within current regulation – incandescent lighting has been banned and ongoing changes in legislation are further restricting options in lighting choice, making it increasingly difficult to accommodate light-sensitive people. Thus being light aware is a matter of being willing to listen and respond as far as is possible and practical to enable access. Information and understanding are clearly crucial, and as this issue becomes more widely accepted as part of the accessibility dialogue, there will be an important role for lighting designers in helping clients to accommodate lightsensitive people. This could mean installing different types of lights on different circuits, ensuring UV screening, or educating staff within an organisation to ensure better light management. Maximising daylight is often a priority. What is needed may be the ability to simply switch lights off to enable someone to shop or use a toilet. This is an important consideration with the increase in lighting control systems for energy monitoring. We need lighting professionals themselves to be light aware and to help us communicate to a wider public how fundamental light is to human health and wellbeing. We need wider understanding of how profoundly light affects not just mood and atmosphere and visual attention, but also basic physiological processes such as cell regeneration and circadian rhythms. That light can enchant and spook and uplift, but also burn and damage and hurt. Rapid increases in technology and regulations are changing the lighting professional’s toolkit. But what are the wider implications of these new tools? We don’t yet know, but we’ll keep asking the questions until we find out. We are in the early stages of the organisation and the founders of the body are all ‘normal people’ – we’re not lighting professionals or health experts, just members of the public whose direct experience of the problem has drawn us together to raise awareness of it and to advocate for others. We are building an advisory board of professionals in relevant areas to guide and inform us on specialist areas and to raise awareness of the issue within their field of expertise. If you would like to be involved, please contact us at info@lightaware.org, or for more information go to www.lightaware.org

13


LR&T essentials

Controlling interests From sci-fi strategies to solar systems, managing light is a key theme in the latest online papers, finds Iain Carlile Juntunen et al take a science fiction movie approach to lighting control, investigating the use of gesture-based operation. The proposed system is made up of multipledepth camera sensors that can track in real-time the position of users and their movements and gestures. The data is sent to a computer which translates these movements into lighting control commands. A meeting room application was studied where participants in the experiment could define their preferred motions for dimming and colour control. The results showed that genuinely intuitive control gestures are difficult to generate due to the variability in personal preferences. Using a real-life application, Villalba et al studied the performance of passive sunlight control strategies in a neonatal intensive care unit at a hospital in Mendoza. Natural light in healthcare is generally considered desirable, although it needs to be carefully controlled to minimise potential problems with direct sunlight. Dynamic daylight simulations were undertaken to analyse annual daylight behaviour. The authors found that in this particular case study they were able to increase the useful daylight illuminance within the space by 13 per cent while avoiding incidence of direct sunlight. This was done by implementing appropriate solar control systems and creating an appropriate layout of the space, according to usage and the surrounding building design and local luminous climate characteristics. Considering workplace lighting design, Sarey Khanie et al present a ‘gaze-driven’ method for assessing discomfort glare. They conducted a series of experiments in a simulated office environment using mobile eye tracking. The gaze of each participant was recorded, along with luminance distributions, using high dynamic range (HDR) imaging methods. Existing ‘fixed-gaze’ glare assessment methods were compared with the proposed ‘gaze-driven’ method, between which significant differences were found. The authors note that measuring illuminance at the eye, rather than an assumed position, should be taken into account when assessing glare and lighting conditions. Following the discovery of the non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor in the eye, there has been much research into the non-visual effects of light. Having reviewed existing literature, Amundadottir et al present a unified framework intended for use in evaluating and reporting on the spectral effectiveness of light for human health. They provide a visualisation tool to aid the exploration of their new unified framework (this can be found at: spektro.epfl.ch). Gu et al present a paper in which they test various colour rendering metrics with colour difference data. They carried out a psychophysical experiment in which perceived colour rendering properties of LED light sources were investigated with regards to colour fidelity. Under experimental conditions, they found that all the colour fidelity metrics tested gave similar performances, and also outperformed metrics based on colour gamut. Iain Carlile, MSLL, is an associate of DPA Lighting

14

Pictures of gesture-based lighting control from test material recorded with Kinect (Juntunen et al)

Lighting Research and Technology: OnlineFirst In advance of being published in the print version of Lighting Research and Technology (LR&T), all papers accepted for publishing are available online. SLL members can gain access to these papers via the SLL website Orchestrating light: gesture-based control of smart lighting E Juntunen, P Myöhänen, J Häikiö, E-M Sarjanoja, O Tapaninen and V Pentikäinen A dynamic performance analysis of passive sunlight control strategies in a neonatal intensive care unit A Villalba, JM Monteoliva, R Rodríguez and A Pattini Gaze and discomfort glare, Part 1: development of a gazedriven photometry M Sarey Khanie, J Stoll, W Einhäuser, J Wienold and M Andersen Unified framework to evaluate non-visual spectral effectiveness of light for human health ML Amundadottir, SW Lockley and M Andersen Testing different colour rendering metrics using colour difference data HT Gu, MR Luo and XY Liu


YLOTY: where are they now?

2012 winner of YLOTY Sabine De Schutter on a research topic that grew into a passion In 2008, after I graduated with a masters in interior architecture, I found myself designing practically everything but interiors. My projects were either larger in scale and more focused on architecture and urban planning, or smaller in scale, designing furniture and light fittings. After some work experience at an architectural practice in Antwerp, I discovered that the key ingredient to designing a spatial experience is lighting and this was missing from our design process. I decided then that I needed to specialise in this field. In the summer of 2011, after a fantastic and eye-opening two years, I handed in my masters thesis at the University of Wismar (Hochschule Wismar). During my internship at a lighting design office in Switzerland, I noticed that the main mistake that non-lighting designers tend to make when it comes to lighting is to focus on the design of the light source and to forget to visualise its effect. This became the core of my thesis, which is a design methodology for lighting/shadow designers and a metaphysical analysis of all types of shadow. Even after I handed in my research, I knew it was not over and that I wanted to continue working on and researching this topic. It must have been February 2012 when I read about the call for papers to enter YLOTY. I had never done anything like that before, but I saw it as a chance to further the work I had begun with my research. Around the same time I was asked by my former university, Hochschule Wismar, to give a lecture and present my topic to the next batch of lighting design students. While continuing to work full-time as a lighting designer, I used my spare time to further my research, prepare a lecture and participate in the YLOTY competition. With my research topic, Shadow Defining Space, I found a combination of my love for architecture and my newfound passion for lighting design. I was glad to be able to immerse myself completely in my profession and my research. The fact that the Young Lighter competition is organised in stages allowed me to prepare myself well in between each one, and it was very exciting to keep moving further and further through the process.

Photography: Markus Weber

Out of the shadows

On the day of the presentation, just before I was meant to go on stage, I looked around at the audience; the space was packed with lighting professionals. It was daunting at first for a newcomer like me, but once I got on stage, with my slides as a backdrop, I felt at ease telling my story on shadow and lighting design. The research topic had grown into my passion and so presenting it wasn’t hard at all. Being named winner is, even today, the most memorable event in my career as a lighting designer. It was the very first lighting award I had won and I was instantly surprised with the reach the award had. I received messages from all around the world congratulating me and was later invited to talk at several universities about my research. YLOTY also marked a time of change and soon after winning, I left my position as employee to co-found a lighting design office. Now, four years later, I run my own practice, Studio De Schutter in Berlin. My studio has worked on a wide range of projects throughout Europe, from museum lighting and office lighting, to lighting consultancy for artists. Through my thesis and winning the YLOTY award, I started lecturing at universities, spreading the word about lighting design. I discovered the lighting design profession by coincidence and I believe that students should be aware of the possibilities of this career path. For this reason I’ve been giving lighting design workshops throughout Europe over the past few years. These workshops are a great way for people interested in lighting to get a hands-on experience and to quickly see the impact lighting can have on a space. This year, the city of Tartu in Estonia is organising its first-ever lighting design workshop. Here the installations are partly prototypes for the city and partly a learning experience and lighting event for its inhabitants. I’m one of the curators of this event. TAVA, or Tartu in Lights, wants to bring lighting design knowledge to Estonia, a region that has very few people specialised in this field. They have, nevertheless, a huge interest in learning and are keen to bring good lighting to their public spaces. Lighting design is a fantastic community and a growing profession, and I would encourage everyone to take part in YLOTY. For me, it opened up a whole load of possibilities and provided me with a boost to my career as a lighting designer.

Installation at Rheintorturm in Konstanz, Germany, by Ulrich Vogl: ‘The aim was to create a sharp shadow of the slowly revolving wheel on the facade – it represents an old-style, film projection with flicker effect. Shadows continuously find their way into my projects’

15


EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS...EVENTS

2016 15 September DARC Awards Venue: MC Motors, Dalston, London E8 http://darcawards.com/architectural/ 18-20 September Plasa Venue: London Olympia www.plasashow.com 19-22 September LED Lighting China Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Centre (SNIEC) www.ledlightingchina-sh 20-22 September Sixth International LED professional Symposium and Expo (LpS 2016) Venue: Festspielhaus, Bregenz, Austria www.led-professional-symposium.com 21 September Shine On: New Perspectives on Museum Lighting Venue: Royal College of Surgeons, London WC2 www.museumsassociation.org 28 September How to be Brilliant (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Lee Barker-Field, head of lighting design, Aecom Venue: Marshalls Design Space London EC1 www.theilp.org.uk/brilliant 12-14 October Light Symposium Wismar: Future of Healthy Light and Lighting in Daily Life (including PLDC 2017 warm-up on 14 October) Venue: Hochschule Wismar, Germany http://lightsymposium.de/2016/ 14-16 October Lewes Light: Festival of Light 2016 Location: Lewes, East Sussex www.leweslight.uk 13-15 October IALD Enlighten Americas Venue: Sheraton Buganvilias Resort and Convention Center, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico www.iald.org 27 October How to be Brilliant (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Filip Vermeiren, founder and director of Inverse Lighting Venue: Marshalls Design Space London EC1 www.theilp.org.uk/brilliant

14-16 October: Lewes Light, Festival of Light 2016, Lewes, East Sussex

27-30 October Hong Kong International Lighting Fair Venue: Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre www.hktdc.com

Lighting Masterclasses: Masterclass: The Lighting Knowledge Series is kindly sponsored by Holophane, Thorn, Trilux and Xicato. For venues and booking details: www.sll.cibse.org

31 October-2 November Light Middle East (+ Ready Steady Light) Location: Dubai www.lightme.net 9 November Fundamental Lighting Course (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Regent House, Rugby jo@theilp.org.uk 13-15 November IALD Enlighten Europe Venue: Prague Marriott Hotel, Prague www.iald.org 23-24 November LuxLive 2016 and lightspace dot London (including SLL Young Lighter of the Year final and Masterclass event) Venue: ExCel, London http://luxlive.co.uk 24 November Lux Awards 2016 Venue: InterContinental London: The O2 www.luxawards.co.uk 29 November How to be Brilliant (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Jonathan Rush, Hoare Lea Venue: Marshalls Design Space London EC1 www.theilp.org.uk/brilliant

LET Diploma: advanced qualification by distance learning. Details from www.lightingeducationtrust.org or email LET@cibse.org Mid Career College: the college runs various courses across the whole spectrum of lighting and at sites across the UK. Full details at www.cibsetraining.co.uk/mcc LIA courses: details from Sarah Lavell, 01952 290905, or email training@thelia.org.uk For up-to-date information follow us on Twitter @sll100

SLL sep/oct 2016