Volume 8. Issue 6. Nov/Dec 2015
NoHL: how the SLL made history
buildings: the brand new LG14 1
Secretary Brendan Keely MSLL firstname.lastname@example.org SLL Coordinator Juliet Rennie Tel: 020 8675 5211 email@example.com Editor Jill Entwistle firstname.lastname@example.org Communications committee: Iain Carlile (chairman) MSLL Rob Anderson Jill Entwistle Chris Fordham MSLL Wiebke Friedewald Mark Ingram MSLL Stewart Langdown MSLL Gethyn Williams All contributions are the responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the society. All contributions are personal, except where attributed to an organisation represented by the author.
The last issue of the Newsletter in the International Year of Light and the point at which we start to reflect on what effect it has had, if any. However, rather like quantifying the success or not of participating in an exhibition – lots of leads, but will they convert and was it all worth the cost? – it is probably almost impossible to measure the legacy of IYL or predict its future repercussions. As SLL president Liz Peck said of the Night of Heritage Light event (see p5), ‘Perhaps one day when a future SLL president is asked how they got into lighting, the answer might just be the Night of Heritage Light.’ What is certain is that the lighting industry and profession had a really good crack at promoting the cause in a series of very diverse and imaginative events throughout the year, not least the NoHL. Lighting up nine Unesco World Heritage sites around the UK and Ireland was always going to have its hairy moments, but the SLL pulled it off. As well as stimulating interest at a local level, the event also attracted the attention of the BBC’s The One Show, fulfilling a key criteria to reach out beyond the lighting fraternity. There is little doubt that the event will have sown a few seeds, whether with those responsible for heritage sites, now enlightened as to the potential of a good lighting scheme, or with the public at monuments such as Ironbridge, where countless visitors apparently commented that they wished the colour-changing installation could be permanent.
Earlier in the year the lecture on Fresnel at the Royal Institution was an event in a more academic vein but also in the spirit of IYL in emphasising the scientific and technological aspects of lighting, as well as its interdisciplinary nature. That is one theme that is being perpetuated with the 2015-16 programme of Masterclasses, which for the first time is being supported by RIBA. Whether professional or public, there is undoubtedly so much more awareness about lighting now than ever before, and even as IYL comes to a close there is no sign of events and activities abating. This is a growing profession in every sense. Jill Entwistle email@example.com
Copy date for NL1 2016 is 23 November Published by The Society of Light and Lighting 222 Balham High Road London SW12 9BS www.sll.org.uk ISSN 1461-524X © 2015 The Society of Light and Lighting The Society of Light and Lighting is part of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS. Charity registration no 278104
Current SLL lighting guides SLL Lighting Guide 1: The Industrial Environment (2012)
SLL Lighting Guide 2: Hospitals and Health Care Buildings (2008) SLL Lighting Guide 4: Sports (2006)
SLL Lighting Guide 5: Lighting for Education (2011)
SLL Lighting Guide 6: The Outdoor Environment (scheduled late 2015) SLL Lighting Guide 7: Office Lighting (2015)
SLL Lighting Guide 8: Lighting for Museums and Galleries (2015)
SLL Lighting Guide 9: Lighting for Communal Residential Buildings (2013) SLL Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting – a guide for designers (2014) SLL Lighting Guide 11: Surface Reflectance and Colour (2001)
SLL Lighting Guide 12: Emergency Lighting Design Guide (2015) SLL Lighting Guide 13: Places of Worship (2014)
New SLL Lighting Guide: Transportation Buildings (scheduled 2016) PRINT CONSULTANTS
Printed in UK
Guide to Limiting Obtrusive Light (2012)
Guide to the Lighting of Licensed Premises (2011)
Oh what a night! I think there’s a song in there somewhere… We would like to thank all the members, suppliers and supporters involved in the Night of Heritage Light for enabling us to deliver the event, possibly the biggest and most ambitious that the Society of Light and Lighting has ever undertaken. The night saw Twitter alight with #NoHL as people posted pictures of their regional Unesco World Heritage Sites. The event details, profiles of designers, partners’ page and, of course, results of the night can be seen on the special website (www.nohl-sll.org) and there’s further coverage in this issue of the Newsletter (see p5). The rewrite of LG7: Offices (see p8) is now available to you all through the CIBSE Knowledge Portal and we are already seeing many downloads of the publication. The portal gives you access to all SLL and CIBSE publications, as well as the IES Transactions dating back to 1936, and Lighting Research and Technology, and we encourage you all to maximise the wealth of knowledge available to you. The second Jonathan Speirs Memorial Lecture took place at the Trades Hall, Glasgow, on 21 October. The event was a great celebration of light and architecture with Carrie Donahue-Bremner of Speirs and Major, and architect Neil Gillespie of Reich and Hall presenting their work on Maggie’s Centre, Lanarkshire, shortlisted for the RIBA Stirling Prize. Maggie’s in Lanarkshire was one of the last projects Jonathan worked on and we were delighted that Carrie and Neil could present their work to us all. At the time of going to press we were still mentoring Pernille Krieger and Eik Lykke Nielsen from Denmark in The Challenge student speaker competition at the PLDC in Rome. We will have a review of the speaker finals and the conference under the News section of the website soon. The new peer-reviewed season of Masterclasses kicked off in Cardiff on 15 October and we’re all very much looking forward to Leicester on 26 November, and then in the New Year moving to Manchester, York, Edinburgh, Belfast and London. This year’s Masterclass, Inside Out: Light and Architecture, is supported by RIBA, and we encourage all members to attend for educational and inspirational presentations. We are gearing up for LuxLive and super excited at what we have lined up. At the event we’ll host the miniMasterclasses and research work on
Editorial 2 Secretary’s column
We would like to thank all of the members, suppliers and supporters involved in the Night of Heritage Light event the human impact of LEDs from Public Health England on 18 November. The Young Lighter of the Year Finals and sixmonth update on the 2015 Jean Heap Bursary from Feride Sener Yilmaz will take place on 19 November. As usual the Young Lighter of the Year winner will be announced and presented with their award at the Lux Awards that evening and we are thankful to the Lighting Education Trust for providing the cash prizes. If you are heading to LuxLive at ExCel please do come along and see us at Stand F51. We welcome Mackwell to our Sustaining Member Programme and are delighted that their support will allow us to deliver a range of events, including Ready Steady Light. Finally, we are thrilled to confirm that Kevin Kelly received the CIBSE Silver Medal at the CIBSE Presidents Awards Dinner on 9 October for services to the institution. Past president, Kevin Kelly has been instrumental in raising the profile of the society and CIBSE in Ireland, and we thank him for his hard work and congratulate him on the receipt of his medal. I also wish to thank Kevin personally for his support and guidance during my first year as secretary.
History brought to light When the SLL lit up Britain’s heritage. Jill Entwistle reports
Transport of delight Keith Miller outlines the SLL’s new forthcoming lighting guide
An open and shut case Arfon Davies on a unique approach to daylight control
Colour: a measured response 13 The IES has mooted a new metric for colour rendering On the bright side 14 From guiding daylight to assessing glare, Iain Carlile looks at the latest edition of LR&T The road from Wembley Lorraine Calcott is the latest former YLOTY finalist to look back on the competition
Cover Blaenavon industrial site in south-east Wales: Night of Heritage Light event
For up-to-date information follow us on Twitter @sll100
Women sweep the board for YLOTY final Inessa Demidov
This year four women will go head-tohead at the Young Lighter of the Year final at LuxLive later this month. Inessa Demidova, who works for GIA Equation, will give a paper on the Practical Implementation of Circadian Lighting in Office Environments. She has a BA in spatial design and MA in design and environment. Her past experience includes time as an artist/designer for Uncover, a Dutch company that customises MacBooks. Christina Herbert’s presentation will
be Light: A Symbol of Urban Identity. A senior lighting designer at Nulty+, she was formerly an intern for L-Plan Lighting Design and then became a lighting application engineer for Flux Lighting. Youmna Abdallah, a Lebanese lighting designer who grew up in Beirut, will present a paper entitled Light Poverty in Precarious Environments within Developing Countries. Now an assistant lighting designer with MBLD, Abdallah was previously a lighting design intern for Lichtkompetenz
Junior RSL expands
Next year’s Junior Ready Steady Light is to be expanded from a one-day event to two rounds. ‘We are introducing Round 1 and Round 2 so we can get more people excited about lighting the pathway to their chosen career,’ says Samantha Perez-Lumbreras, outreach and diversity officer for Rose Bruford College, where both JRSL and the original Ready Steady Light competition are held each year. Round 1 will require teams of five young people aged 13-25 to enter by post. Six teams will then be selected and invited to take part in Round 2, held at Rose Bruford in Sidcup on Saturday 19 March 2016. Here they will participate in a series of practical and theoretical minilectures led by industry professionals, until dusk when the final competition begins and each team lights their randomly allocated site. JRSL was introduced two years ago, developing out of the original RSL which began in 2004. The main Ready Steady Light event will take place on 22 March. Application forms for JRSL can be downloaded at www.bruford.ac.uk
The Fulton Center transit hub, New York (pictured), with lighting and daylighting by Arup, was one of 12 winners at the Darc Awards, held in September and supported by the SLL. The event was curated by Light Collective and was part of the International Year of Light 2015 programme. There were more than 400 entries, with projects shortlisted by an international panel of architectural
and an architecture intern for Bernard Khoury/DW5. Zeynep Keskin’s presentation will focus on Daylight and Seating Preference in Open-Plan Spaces. She is currently studying for her PHD at the University of Sheffield. She formerly worked as an architect for ATUS Mimarlik and as a research assistant for Middle East Technical University The final is at 10.30am, 19 November, in the Lux Arena, ExCel London
lighting designers and light artists. These were then voted on by the lighting design profession in the first ever peer-to-peer lighting design awards.
On the lighter side... These will either appeel or not. The series of lamps shaped like bananas were created by Belgian designer Studio Job for an exhibition at Belgium’s Samuel Vanhoegaerden Gallery in the coastal town of Knokke. The exhibition was called The Banana Show, a solo exhibition of banana-themed art and design, in case you were wondering where the inspiration came from. The limited-edition collection of Banana Lamps comprises seven different designs, including a hanging wall light and an oversized version. Each has a polished bronze skin and an etched mouth-blown glass diffuser lit with LEDs. Nothing if not versatile, Studio Job also did a sort of leaning Eiffel Tower lamp for another exhibition.
Events: Masterclass IYL2013/14 Events
History brought to light
On 1 October, after months of planning, designing, negotiating and problem solving (who knew you had to think about Portaloos?), SLL members all over the UK came together to illuminate nine Unesco World Heritage Sites in a massive burst of lighting creativity. From Edinburgh to the Tower of London, and from the Giant’s Causeway to Fountains Abbey, the UK and Ireland’s famous landmarks were briefy seen in a new light. Because of restrictions, the illumination of some sites was witnessed only by the Royal Photographic Society members who had agreed to document the event, while others were seen by hundreds and in one case thousands of members of the public. The BBC’s The One Show, with a reporter based at the Durdle Door site (below), also broadcast an item next day. ‘NoHL was a unique chance to be part of something bigger than individuals, companies and specific projects,’ said Iain
Ruxton of Speirs and Major, who together with BDP’s Colin Ball lit the Tower of London with just 17 LED luminaires (12 floodlights, one spotlight and four moving head projectors). ‘Working with our friends and colleagues across the industry and across the country to create this great celebration of our skills, our heritage and of light itself was extremely gratifying.’ While each design team was focused on its particular site many miles away from the rest, Twitter kept them in communication and allowed them to celebrate together as they shared the results of their efforts. ‘Standing at the Tower of London with Colin and our team looking at what we had achieved, and seeing the photos from other sites starting to come in on our phones, was a really emotional moment,’ added Ruxton. To have been part of ‘something so large and so unique was fantastic,’ said Andrew Bissell of Cundall Light4, who led the design for Liverpool Mercantile Maritime City. ‘From the NoHL team through to the National Museum of Liverpool to suppliers and contractors, nobody could do enough to make the event happen. What was great for our own team was that all of the newer members got involved in not just designing the lighting but then also installing and removing it. They learnt a lot.’ An estimated 500 LED cubes, 150 luminaires and 2.5km of
Photography: Mike Massaro
To celebrate the International Year of Light the SLL lit up World Heritage Sites across the UK and Ireland on one memorable night. Jill Entwistle reports
I am absolutely overwhelmed with what we all achieved. It’s not been without its stresses and strains, and absolutely thousands of hours of volunteer time were given to bring it to fruition. For those hours, those stresses and strains, the society is indebted – SLL president Liz Peck
Durdle Door on the Jurassic Coast, Dorset, lit by Michael Grubb Studio
n For more details go to: www.nohl-sll.org n The One Show: www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/ b06dncyc/the-one-show-02102015 Tower of London (BDP Lighting and Speirs and Major)
Photography: Rachel Ferriman
cabling were involved in the complicated logistical exercise that involved installing and dismantling the schemes in one evening. Detailed design and site briefs were drawn up, and qualified electricians ensured all wiring and power provision was of an appropriate standard. Richard Caple of Thorlux, who was involved with lighting Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, was delighted with the inspiring effect the event had on the local population. ‘I felt really proud to be involved, the buzz was phenomenal. There must have been 500-750 people over the course of the night, maybe more. ‘Families were having a great time, kids running across the bridge to race the change in colour, while many were just soaking up the atmosphere. It really captured people’s interest. I lost count of the number of times people said to me, if only this was permanent.’ Inspiring people about lighting was one of the key aims of the exercise, said SLL president Liz Peck, one of the instigators of the idea. ‘To see young children inspired by and playing with light was very emotional. Perhaps one day when a future SLL president is asked how they got into lighting, the answer might just be the Night of Heritage Light.’ n
Edinburgh Old and New Towns Malcolm Innes, Malcolm Innes Design/ Edinburgh Napier University Fountains Abbey Adam Glatherine, G3 Lighting Design, and David Battersby, Apollo Lighting Liverpool Maritime Andrew Bissell, Mercantile City Cundall Light4 Ironbridge Gorge Simeon Kay, Designphase, and Tim Pink, L.I.T.E. Blenheim Palace Michael Curry, DPA Lighting Blaenavon industrial site Ben Porter, Hoare Lea Durdle Door, Jurassic Coast Michael Grubb Studio Tower of London Iain Ruxton, Speirs and Major, and Colin Ball, BDP Lighting Giant’s Causeway Jim Patton, Light and Design
LIGHTING PRACTICE PARTNERS: Apollo Lighting Arup BDP Lighting Cundall Light4 Designphase DPA Lighting G3 Lighting Design Hoare Lea Lighting
Light and Design L.I.T.E. Michael Grubb Studio Edinburgh Napier University Ramboll Speirs and Major Troup Bywaters and Anders Blaenavon industrial site, near Pontypool (Hoare Lea Lighting)
Photography: Kenton, Simons Story Photography
Photography: Ian Robinson
Edinburgh (Malcolm Innes)
Liverpool Maritime (Cundall Light4)
Photography: Robert Galloway
NoHL Team Giant’s Causeway (Light and Design)
INFRASTUCTURE AND EQUIPMENT PARTNERS: Dan Lister Arup
Rhiannon West BDP Lighting
Simon Fisher F Mark
Liz Peck LPA LIghting
Brendan Keely SLL
Juliet Rennie SLL
Amerlux Black Light Blue Parrot Chroma Lighting Core Lighting Cree Double Take Projections DW Windsor Erco Fagerhult GE HSS Hire iGuzzini Kemps
LED Linear Light Projects Lumenpulse Martin Professional Meyer Osram Performance In Lighting Philips Reggiani Rosco Rose Bruford Soraaa Thorn Zumtobel
Transport of delight Next year the SLL is launching a new lighting guide which for the first time focuses on transportation buildings. Keith Miller, MSLL, outlines the scope of the guide and examines the issues it will address From the 19th century onwards, advances in engineering technology have allowed people to travel and explore further than ever before. Global interconnections promote international trade and provide greater access to goods and services for everyone. The world is a much smaller place as a result. Transportation buildings exist as a means for passengers to negotiate their way between different modes of transport, whether planes, trains, boats or buses. The construction or redevelopment of such transport centres, especially where an interchange with other forms of transport is entailed, therefore involve a high degree of heavy engineering and building services, not least of which is lighting. As David Burton observed in a recent article, ‘Lighting is a key element not purely for the functional aspects of the space but for a whole range of environmental, aesthetic and promotional reasons too.’ Key factors to be considered by the lighting designer include passenger safety and security, spatial legibility, the promotion of intuitive wayfinding, and access and maintenance. The robustness of the lighting equipment specified, client and stakeholder requirements, architectural integration and daylighting design are all factors to be considered from the outset of each project. The new lighting guide on transportation buildings is being produced to help designers working with transport environments to create effective lighting schemes that are also energy efficient and enhance the passenger experience. It is primarily aimed at those who have some experience of lighting design, but who need a deeper understanding of the specific requirements of transport lighting applications. It will also be useful for clients commissioning designers as the guide sets out key design considerations that could form part of a working brief. The scope of the guide includes all public areas of transport buildings and their related access environments, such as airport terminals, forecourts and railway station platforms. It
will also identify requirements that differ from the more general recommendations in the SLL Code for Lighting – for instance, staff areas that are used for operational purposes where specific tasks will require a particular lighting treatment. The design of lighting for the interfaces between back-of-house and public areas will also be addressed. The modes of transport that the guide will encompass include the following: • Rail (conventional surface, underground and light rail, including street running tramways) • Road (bus and coach stations, coach stands at service areas and roadside stops) • Air (arrival and departure buildings and forecourts, terminal check-in and security areas, customs and baggage reclaim zones, lounges, movement routes and gate areas, including automated ‘people mover’ transit systems) • Water (ferry and cruise terminals and associated quayside areas, river and lakeside leisure craft landing stages and piers) • Multi-modal facilities such as transport hubs and interchanges are also included Guidance is also given in respect of the interface between road and rail vehicle lighting and the transport installations they serve. Where appropriate, the guide refers to BS5489 Code of Practice for the Design of Road Lighting and emergency lighting design as defined within BS5266. The first part of the publication includes general design considerations such as: n Identification of tasks All transportation buildings require the safe movement of people whether as pedestrians or as passengers within vehicles. When considering how a space should be lit, it is important to first define the visual tasks that are required in each space and how the lighting should address them. Lighting should be layered and task-specific rather than generic and undifferentiated. n Orientation and safe movement All transportation buildings should facilitate the safe passage of large numbers of people. Good lighting design can reinforce the architectural design of the space and enable passengers to proceed to their destination safely and efficiently. n Hazard identification Obvious hazards are changes in level, junctions, platform edges and areas where there are moving vehicles or equipment. Local accent lighting can assist passengers in identifying a particular hazard.
Westfriedhof subway station in Munich with lighting concept, 11 4m-diameter dome luminaires, by Ingo Maurer
n Wayfinding In addition to ensuring that signs, directory panels and maps
are adequately illuminated the lighting designer can aid intuitive wayfinding by highlighting decision-making areas and destination points. n Safety and security Appropriate illuminance levels, with good levels of lighting uniformity, should be provided both internally and externally. It is important that good facial recognition is achieved, particularly in the external environment, since passengers will only feel comfortable with others approaching them after they have been recognised. n Visual adaptation There are many fast-moving transition spaces for both passengers and vehicles in transportation buildings where visual acuity and hazard recognition are important. The guide includes advice on specific lighting design strategies, with precedent project examples that illustrate examples of good lighting practice. Topics such as daylighting design, architectural integration and emergency lighting requirements are covered in detail. Daylighting and passive solar design are key considerations in sustainable architecture. Transportation buildings should be designed to maximise the benefits of natural light using controlled daylight, controlled sunlight and natural ventilation to create a comfortable internal environment as well as minimise energy use. The second part of the guide considers the lighting design for typical building areas that are likely to be encountered in most transportation buildings, such as check-ins, counters, information desks, escalators and moving walkways, concourses, platforms and quaysides, boarding and alighting points, maps, information boards, ticket machines and control rooms. Specific user group requirements – including those for visually impaired and mobility impaired passengers – are also considered, as are detailed requirements for specific transport modes, including airports, seaports, railways, bus and coach stations, street running light rail systems, multi-modal interchanges and cycle ‘super hubs’. The third part of the guide looks at the specification of equipment, together with the installation and maintenance of lighting systems. Whatever the project, a lighting designer should strive to rationalise the number of different luminaire types and light sources used in order to make the installation straightforward and subsequently economic to maintain. Where transport installations are concerned, this aspect is even more important because of the extended hours of operation and therefore the high cost of access for routine work out of hours. Reliability, particularly where safety systems are concerned, is of the utmost importance. There is detailed guidance on the specification of LED light sources, including considerations of lumen maintenance, colour rendering and colour consistency over the life of an installation. Maintenance factor calculations are also presented in a clear and understandable way. The guide discusses ways in which whole-life costs and embodied energy can be evaluated on projects, and examines current EU Green and Sustainable Public Procurement policies in the context of transportation environments. Additionally, the use of intelligent lighting control systems is discussed in detail, as well as opportunities for using daylightlinking to improve energy efficiency by minimising lighting, heating and cooling loads.
Foster and Partners’ Queen Alia International Airport in Amman, Jordan, with lighting by World of Lights
As mentioned above, the design of emergency lighting installations is covered. The possibilities for embedding conditional programming in the design, to guide passenger movements during an evacuation, are also discussed. A methodology for preparing illuminance calculations during the design stages of the project is also covered, alongside recommendations for ways in which the design should be verified at completion. The guide also includes a commentary on the consideration of calculation and measurement uncertainties, and suggests that these should be taken into account when determining design parameters at the outset of each project. (It should be noted that even calibrated illuminance meters have a number of potential sources for error, which may result in a variation of +/- 7.5 per cent when measuring the completed lighting installation.) Additionally, there is a chapter on recommendations for commissioning final setting-up. At the commissioning stage of the project the lighting designer should verify that all luminaires have been installed in accordance with the original design intent. Adjustable luminaires should be aimed and focused to achieve the optimum lit effect, control systems programmed and the installation handed over to the client. Finally, the appendices have detailed information about where to go for further advice, an index of relevant legislation and a detailed bibliography for further reading on the topic. The SLL task group believes that the guide to the lighting of transportation buildings will be a useful addition to existing guidance, and a valuable resource for lighting designers and other transportation project stakeholders in future. The new lighting guide on transportation buildings is scheduled for publication in 2016
SLL task group: Keith Miller (Chair) David Burton Norman Emery Carolina Florian Shae Gilbert Allan Howard David Mooney Derek Tyner Kevin Zhang
Open and shut case Arfon Davies, MSLL, looks at a unique approach to daylight control for a landmark building, based on a traditional Arabic shading device
The glass has a clear appearance, enhancing the daylighting and the view, while the external shading panels reduce solar radiation
Located in the financial centre of Abu Dhabi, Al Bahr is the HQ of the Abu Dhabi Investment Council (ADIC) and a landmark project. It comprises two near-identical, 26-storey, 145m-tall towers, whose architecture incorporates Islamic geometric patterning. Sharing a two-level basement, both towers are primarily for office use but also contain ancillary space that includes catering, plantrooms, auditoria, prayer rooms and a gymnasium. A 100m-wide curved roof forms a shallow dome over the entrance podium between the towers, its front partially glazed and forming a dramatic entrance to the buildings. Each tower also has a dedicated VIP entrance accessed at mezzanine level from the far side of the podium. Both towers feature three or four-storey skygardens over part of their perimeters, while the crown, a vaulted observation level, tops each tower and offers spectacular views of the surroundings. Arup was involved right from the competition stage through to completion, providing the full range of multi-disciplinary design services and specialist advice, including lighting and daylight design. The project is a strong example of how integrating the different disciplines â€“ in particular daylight design â€“ from the outset of projects, can create innovative design and architecture. The daylight design vision From the outset the team acknowledged that two elements would be key to creating an innovative and sustainable building: heat and light. By carefully balancing these, significant
The devices clad the east, south and west facades
Climate and heritage influence: the mashrabiya All building design should begin with a complete understanding of the context. This can be all-encompassing: from local culture and heritage, the site location and surrounding urban realm, religion, the client brief and aspirations, and the local climate. The design solutions for the project were driven by two of these: climate and the traditional architectural heritage of Abu Dhabi. Heritage Extensive research was carried out at the beginning of the project to understand the architectural heritage of Abu Dhabi. The traditional vernacular style of architecture in the UAE capital is the result of a mixture of three dominant factors: the climate (hot and humid), the religion and customs of its people, and the locally available building materials. A typical element that consistently appeared in the research of daylight and architectural history of the region was the mashrabiya. Used extensively throughout the region, it is an element of traditional Arabic architecture that provides shade and visual comfort for building occupants. It features intricate lattice work typically made of either wood or stone, creating what was referred to as ‘controlled transparency’ – providing a view out and connection to the outside for building occupants while protecting them from excessive heat gain and glare. It was an element of vernacular Islamic architecture that the design team felt must be included within the design of the facade and daylight systems for the project. Climate All daylight design should begin with a complete understanding of the daylight source at the project location, its variability and characteristics. The climate in Abu Dhabi is classified as subtropical desert, with very high sunlight availability all yearround. It was therefore clear that design solutions should be optimised for sunlight, both in terms of reducing solar gain and maximising interior daylight illuminance.
The mock-up mashrabiya transitioning from open to closed
• Connect to local culture and heritage • Employ climate-responsive design • Embrace a holistic design approach, by working closely with and influencing facade and building physics teams to create an integrated design solution (for light and heat in particular) • Provide access to sunlight, contrast, and visual interest for occupants • Provide a glare-free working environment • Maximise useful daylight
Mashrabiya elements operate using sun-tracking software
Integrated daylight design The belief at Arup is that unique and innovative design can be achieved when design disciplines engage and collaborate at the very beginning of projects. This particularly applied in this case, where a team including daylight designers, facade engineers, mechanical engineers and the architect assembled to explore what could be possible. The beginning of this process was to examine approaches to facade design, and how daylight and heat can be controlled within high-rise buildings in the Middle East. It was found that most recent high-rise buildings in the region used highly glazed facades with dark, reflective, or body-tinted glass. This curtain-walling type of solution limits solar gain, but significantly
reductions in energy consumption due to cooling and electric lighting could be achieved. The overarching design aspiration for the project, which all disciplines aimed to embrace, was to create a landmark design that was informed by three principles: Islamic architecture, biomimetic extrapolation and sustainable technology. The daylight design approach therefore also adopted these criteria. Many shading systems, both natural and within Islamic architecture, have developed over time to protect against glare and to provide visual comfort, therefore responding to two of the three principles. The daylight design vision for the project therefore had the following objectives:
Visualisation of shading device element
reduces daylight and general internal comfort. Frequent use of internal blinds is normally needed to control glare and this inevitably increases the lighting energy consumption, defeating the purpose of a glazed building. Glazing with fixed shading elements was considered, and while these provided improved daylight availability and glare control, it was felt that they did not achieve the client brief of producing something iconic and innovative. Dynamic systems that can respond to daylight availability and sun position were favoured by all members of the design team. They offered an opportunity to maximise transparency while providing visual comfort and glare protection for building occupants. The dynamic system, and the geometry of the associated shading system, was also a perfect way to embrace the mashrabiya within the project. The dynamic daylight system The daylight system developed for the project consists of three elements: • The exterior dynamic shading layer (the mashrabyia). Its function is to provide glare control from the sun, reduce solar gains and reduce interior shade use • High-performance facade glazing. The function of this element was to control solar gains and to maximise light transmission • Motorised interior blinds for personal comfort. This element provides glare control from the bright sky, and primarily provides a method for occupants to control their daylight environment The mashrabiya is an innovative and sustainable feature. Made from woven PTFE fabric, its shape is derived directly from historical references to the original Islamic shading device, as well as from the detailed studies carried out to assess all possible sun positions at the site location. The mashrabiya devices clad the two towers on their east, south and west facades, significantly reducing solar gain, maximising daylight availability, and permitting the use of floorto-ceiling clear glazing. In total each tower has 1049 shading devices, each weighing around 1.5 tonnes. Each device was conceived as a unitised system cantilevering 2.8m from the primary structure. The supporting arms allow connection from the ends of six adjoining mashrabiya, and each device has releases at each of three supporting nodes. The motor at the centre moves outwards to retract or open the shading device, and inwards to deploy or close it.
A technical challenge, however, was to develop a unique and unconventional movable shading device that not only protected the buildings from the solar radiation and provided optimum daylight conditions, but could also operate reliably in an aggressive environment. A series of prototype tests on a fully functional 1-to-1 scale shading panel were carried out. More than 30,000 opening-closing cycles were simulated at different temperature conditions, applying sand and salt water on all the critical joints. This step was essential to prove the required durability life of actuators, bearings and mechanisms. A full-scale mock up was subsequently erected on one of the towers, while the curtain wall was being installed, to allow the mechanism to be tested in situ. Following a detailed assessment of the combined shading and glass performances, the team achieved a correct balance between solar control and light penetration. The type of glass selected has a clear appearance with high visible light transmittance, enhancing the daylighting and the view through, while the external shading panels help reduce the solar radiation significantly — and only where and when needed. Climate-based daylight analysis was used extensively throughout the process to allow the daylight system performance to be assessed. Useful daylight index analysis (UDI) was also used to inform design decisions, for example to optimise light transmission of glazing systems and the light transmission of the fabric used for the mashrabiya.
The project is a strong example of how integrating the disciplines – in particular daylight design – from the outset of projects, can create innovative design and architecture Control The mashrabiya elements are grouped in sectors and operate using sun-tracking software that controls the opening and closing sequence according to the sun’s position. The system can be overridden to control individual panels, however, from a desk in the BMS control room. The control system is linked to an anemometer at the top of the building which will automatically prevent operation of the shading, and will retract the units if the wind speed exceeds the peak operating threshold. A similar approach, using solar radiation sensors, is used to trigger the opening of the mashrabiya panels in prolonged overcast conditions. Conclusion The Al Bahr towers have won a Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat’s (CTBUH) Innovation Award, and were listed in its ‘Innovative 20’ tall buildings that ‘challenge the typology of tall buildings in the 21st century’. It also featured in the November 2012 Time as one of the 25 best inventions of the year, alongside Nasa’s Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover. This article is based on a presentation given by Arfon Davies, associate director at Arup, as part of last year’s Masterclass series.
Could TM-30 finally replace CRI as a colour rendition metric? The inadequacies of the Colour Rendering Index (CRI) as an accurate and meaningful measure have long been acknowledged, especially as a metric for LEDs. In fact the CIE positively recommends that it is not used with white light LEDs. ‘The CIE CRI is generally not applicable to predict the colour rendering rank order of a set of light sources when white LED light sources are involved in this set,’ said a 2007 CIE technical report, Colour Rendering of White LED Light Sources. But what to replace it with? Colour Quality Scale (CQS) devised by researchers Wendy Davis and Yoshi Ohno at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the US, was one mooted alternative, but this was ultimately rejected by the CIE. There is now another option. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) in the US has published a new Technical Memorandum, TM-30 Method for Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition, positing a new metric. Though it has yet to win CIE approval, it has already gained the backing of the US government. According to the IES, the TM-30 method relies on separate fidelity (Rf) and gamut (Rg) metrics, as well as a set of colour samples that is more representative of real-world objects rather than the pastel samples used for the baseline CRI metric, or Ra. The new metric is designed to accurately characterise both LED and traditional sources. The Rf metric is similar to CRI although based on the new colour samples. The Rg metric has evolved from the Gamut Area Index (GAI) work carried out by the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. ‘TM-30 is a dual metric system,’ explains Jason Livingston, vice-chair of the IES Color Committee. ‘It provides us with a measurement of fidelity, although using a completely different method than CRI. It also provides us with a measurement of gamut. In this case, gamut means that it gives us a number that tells us if a light source that scores lower than 100 on the fidelity metric (and is therefore not a match to the reference light source) increases saturation of colours making them more vibrant, or desaturates colours making them grey or dull. ‘This gives us a much better understanding of the colour rendering performance of the light source in question. These two numbers are supplemented with a variety of graphics,’ continues Livingston. ‘These include a graphic showing the colour distortion produced by the lamp, a graphic showing the change in gamut, and a graph of the Rf and Rg indexes. ‘It’s the colour samples and calculation procedure, however, that drive this new method.’
Photography: Swiss Energy Solution
Colour: a measured response Traditional CRI comparison showing CRI 70 (left) and CRI 93
Improvements, according to Livingston, include the use of 99 colour samples drawn from real world objects; colour samples that are evenly distributed throughout the most accurate colour space and throughout the wavelengths of visible light; that the metric draws from a wide range of colour perception research, and that it is based on an objective and mathematical approach. The IES committee behind TM-30 was led by Michael Royer of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) SSL organisation, which has proposed the metric to the CIE. However, the IES acknowledges that the answer may not lie with a single replacement metric for CRI. ‘There is no one metric or measure that can accurately quantify all aspects of colour rendition and/or identify the most desirable light source for every application,’ it says. Peter Raynham will analyse the TM-30 colour rendering method in the next issue of the Newsletter (Jan/Feb). The proposed metric will also be explored in a special presentation at the LuxLive 2015 event in London in November (www.luxlive.co.uk).
What CRI conveys: • • • • •
Average colour fidelity/colour shift (but with limitations) Outdated colour science Few samples Only pastel Munsell samples Can be selectively optimised
What CRI doesn’t convey: • • • • • • •
Direction/type of colour shifts Increases or decreases in chroma Information about specific hue regions Human preference Colour discrimination potential Difference in colour for any specific object How one source will make things look compared to another
Source: US Department of Energy
On the bright side From guiding daylight to assessing glare, Iain Carlile distills the latest Lighting Research and Technology
Daylighting and discomfort glare are two themes of the latest issue, which also looks at human factors, road lighting, retail lighting, energy performance and optic design. In his editorial, Boyce identifies two items to consider when assessing research: ‘Is it done well and should it have been done at all?’ He argues that, being technical, the first question is easy to answer. However, the second question is harder to answer as it is a matter of judgement. He therefore argues that the starting point for all good research is a good question, giving as much consideration to why a piece of research should be done as to how it should be done. Żagan’s opinion piece considers obtrusive light from the floodlighting of buildings. He argues that specific minimum utilisation factors or minimum energy efficiency of the installation may be a better way to control obtrusive light than imposing limits on upward flux. Mayhoub notes that daylight guidance systems are good at getting daylight into remote parts of buildings but lack market integration, primarily due to difficulties with the installation process. He suggests integrating daylight guidance systems with heating, ventilation and air-conditioning ducts. Comparing the two systems, he evaluates the potential of a dual ducting approach, showing that it would have the potential to reduce costs and simplify installation of daylight guidance systems. Also on the topic of daylight, Ho et al’s paper presents a simple method to predict the Hong Kong Representative Sky (HKRS) by hourly irradiance data from the Typical Meteorological Year data, providing better results than the Perez all-weather sky model. On discomfort glare, Kent et al found that time of day had an effect on glare sensation. Subjects were exposed to artificial Roof-mounted light collector (eg heliostat) Roof-mounted light collector (eg Sunpipe dome) Air duct from the external HVAC unit to the ducts network
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Roof-mounted daylight collector Facade-mounted daylight collector HVAC system outdoor unit Horizontal dual duct, vertical dual duct Air outlet Light outlet Air stopper Light-only duct connecting duct network with daylight collector
Proposed dual ducting system diagram HVAC (Mayhoub)
light sources, with progressively increasing luminance values, at different times of day. The results revealed that tolerance to artificial lighting luminance increases as the day progresses. Also considering discomfort glare, Sawicki and Wolska looked at different methods of determining unified glare rating (UGR). They compared DIALux software and the LMK measuring system against the results of a subjective glare assessment and found the LMK measurement more accurate. Of interest to practitioners working in the retail field will be Schielke and Leudesdorff’s paper investigating the impact lighting design has on a fashion shop’s brand classification and personality. Different interiors and lighting types were investigated. The results showed that lighting affected brand classification in terms of social status, value and personality. Examining how people visually appraise others under road lighting conditions, Dong et al conducted two facial recognition experiments to investigate task difficulty, considering observation duration and target luminance. They found a relationship between the task difficulty (luminance and duration) and recognition probability, allowing luminance to be determined for a given probability. Zhang et al present a method of lens optical design to take the approximately lambertian light distribution emitted by an LED to provide a uniform illumination across a rectangular area. Turkey has a new energy calculation method, Building Energy Performance-Turkey (BEP-TR), which has been developed based on the country’s particular conditions. Yilmaz and Yener demonstrate the use of the BEP-TR in the prediction of energy requirements for a prototype school, conducting an analysis on the methodology against developed daylighting and electric lighting design alternatives. They demonstrate that the BEP-TR methodology is a more appropriate solution for Turkey but recommend further validation and refinement to improve the accuracy and sensitivity. Iain Carlile, MSLL, is an associate of DPA Lighting Lighting Research and Technology Vol 47, No 6, October 2015 Editorial: Asking the right question Peter Boyce Opinion: Obtrusive light and floodlighting Wojciech Żagan Discomfort glare and time of day MG Kent, S Altomonte, PR Tregenza and R Wilson Discomfort glare prediction by different methods D Sawicki and A Wolska Impact of lighting design on brand image for fashion retail stores T Schielke and M Leudesdorff The influence of luminance, observation duration and procedure on the recognition of pedestrians’ faces M Dong, S Fotios, Y Lin Freeform surface lens design for uniform illumination of a rectangular area K Zhang, CY Su, ZY Feng, WJ Wang, CH Zhang Dual ducting: An innovation to increase the use of daylight in buildings MS Mayhoub Predicting the hourly Hong Kong representative sky from Typical Meteorological Year data for dynamic daylighting simulation JCK Ho, E Ng and PW Chan Lighting energy performance determination for Turkey FS Yılmaz and AK Yener Correspondence: Glare in pedestrian-friendly outdoor lighting Naomi J Miller and Terry K McGowan Book review: Lighting Design: A Perception–Based Approach, Christopher Cuttle (2015) Kevin Mansfield Reply to Davoodian and Raynham S Fotios, B Yang and J Uttley
YLOTY: where are they now?
The road from Wembley
As part of an occasional series on past winners and finalists, Lorraine Calcott, MSLL, recalls her Young Lighter of the Year final in 1997
It was around 18 years ago that I was instructed by my then boss at Thorn, Clive Roach, that entering the YLOTY awards was not an option but something I simply must do to raise my profile in the lighting industry. At the time the thought of public speaking in front of around 100 people was enough to make me quake in my heels but he insisted and so the process began. I filled out the forms, put together the information and submitted my application, and was accepted. I was thrilled to be told I was a finalist and had to present my paper at the awards. In those days we didn’t have PowerPoint so I needed to prepare a slideshow presentation, which I felt needed pepping up a bit. Instead of following the golden rule of keeping it simple, I went for cross-fading the slides. This entailed two projectors and an able helper in the shape of my then Thorn colleague Selwyn Radford, who volunteered to do the trickery while I presented my work. My presentation was on Wembley Arena, which was one of the first high-profile projects that I designed while at Thorn Lighting. Working on it had really enabled me to hone my floodlighting skills for building exteriors and provided valuable hands-on experience. The day of the presentation came and I was extremely nervous, but I had practised and practised and I was as ready as I was ever going to be. Due to my overeagerness to do well, the inevitable happened and the slides got out of sync and the whole thing had to be stopped mid-way, sorted out and then restarted. You can imagine my horror, especially at having to ‘fill in’ while it was all sorted out. But I ploughed on, presented it from the beginning again and at the end the paper was well received. I was up against some stiff competition
that year and I particularly remember Mark Cooper’s presentation on atria lighting, which in the end pipped me to the post for the winner’s spot. The experience was nerve-wracking, character building and exhilarating all at once. I really feel it launched my career and gave me a much-needed platform to start to build my reputation and skills in what I feel is the best industry in the world. I have since gone on to receive Lighting Design Awards and other accolades in my profession, but I have a certain fondness for my first one as a YLOTY finalist. Having worked for some of the great lighting companies over the years who taught me my trade well, I decided to put it all into practice and set up my own lighting design consultancy in 2004. The company is called It Does Lighting and is based in Milton Keynes. I have very much enjoyed developing the business and, in recent years, developing a team of my own. It is so good to be able to give something back and we are always on the hunt for new talent to expand even further. Competing in the YLOTY competition would be something I would certainly recommend for any budding young designers who want to increase their presence in the lighting community – it certainly helped launch my career. It’s an award worth having, and as an employer myself now I would see it as a positive attribute for any CV that passes my desk.
Google offices, Central St Giles, London, by Penson Architects (lighting scheme by It Does Lighting)
2015 3-4 November Building Performance Conference and Exhibition (Launch of BRE research on daylight metrics and Public Health England research on the health impacts of LEDs) Venue: QEII Centre, Westminster www.cibse.org/cibse-conference-2015 4 November Fundamental Lighting Course (Organised by the ILP) Venue: Regent House, Rugby firstname.lastname@example.org 18-19 November LuxLive 2015 Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.luxlive.co.uk 18 November Mini-Masterclasses, LuxLive Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.sll.org.uk 19 November Young Lighter of the Year, LuxLive Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.sll.org.uk 19 November Lux Awards 2015 Venue: Troxy, Commercial Road London E1 www.luxawards.co.uk 24 November The White Heat of Revolution: History and Houselights (Joint industry event for IYL) Speaker: Dorian Kelly, Illuminati Venue: The Savoy Theatre London WC2 Time: 12-3.30pm www.sll.org.uk 24 November How to be Brilliant with: Tim Downey (Organised by the ILP) Venue: ACDC Studio, London N1 email@example.com
18-19 November: LuxLive, featuring the Young Lighter of the Year final, London ExCel
2016 14-17 January Lumiere London light festival www.vistlondon.com/lumiere
Lighting Masterclasses: Masterclasses are kindly sponsored by Philips, Thorn, Trilux and Xicato. For venues and booking details : www.sll.cibse.org
21 January SLL Masterclass Inside Out: Lighting and Architecture Location: Manchester www.sll.org.uk 9-11 February Light School at the Surface Design Show (Supported by the ILP and organised by Light Collective) Venue: Business Design Centre, London N1 www.surfacedesignshow.com/ light-school 18 February SLL Masterclass Inside Out: Lighting and Architecture Location: York www.sll.org.uk
26 November SLL Masterclass Inside Out: Lighting and Architecture Location: Leicester www.sll.org.uk
31 March SLL Masterclass Inside Out: Lighting and Architecture Location: Belfast www.sll.org.uk
5-8 December Fête des Lumières (Lyons Festival of Lights) Location: Lyons, France www.fetedeslumieres.lyon.fr/en
13 April SLL Masterclass Inside Out: Lighting and Architecture Location: Edinburgh www.sll.org.uk
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LET Diploma: advanced qualification by distance learning. Details from www.lightingeducationtrust.org or email LET@cibse.org Mid Career College: the college runs various courses across the whole spectrum of lighting and at sites across the UK. Full details at www.cibsetraining.co.uk/mcc LIA courses: details from Sarah Lavell, 01952 290905, or email firstname.lastname@example.org