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Volume 8.  Issue  1.  Jan/Feb  2015

The Year of Light: the SLL’s role



to the gallery – the new LG8



Secretary Brendan  Keely  MSLL SLL  Coordinator Juliet  Rennie Tel:  020  8675  5211 Editor Jill  Entwistle Communications  committee: Iain  Carlile  (chairman)  MSLL Rob  Anderson Jill  Entwistle Chris  Fordham  MSLL Wiebke  Friedewald Mark  Ingram  MSLL Stewart  Langdown  MSLL Leeman  Robinson All  contributions  are  the  responsibility   of  the  author,  and  do  not  necessarily   UHÀHFWWKHYLHZVRIWKHVRFLHW\$OO contributions  are  personal,  except   where  attributed  to  an  organisation   represented  by  the  author. Copy  date  for  NL2  2015     is  26  January Published  by The  Society  of  Light     and  Lighting 222  Balham  High  Road London  SW12  9BS ISSN  1461-­524X ©  2015  The  Society  of  Light   and  Lighting The  Society  of  Light  and  Lighting  is  part   of  the  Chartered  Institution  of  Building   6HUYLFHV(QJLQHHUV%DOKDP+LJK Road,  London  SW12  9BS.  Charity   registration  no  278104

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6TXHH]LQJHYHU\WKLQJLQWRDSDJH Newsletter  can  be  something  of  a  quart-­ into-­a-­pint-­pot  exercise  sometimes,  so   JLYHQWKDWZHKDYHQRZHQWHUHGWKH International  Year  of  Light,  and  can   reasonably  anticipate  a  greater  degree   RIOLJKWLQJDFWLYLW\WKDQXVXDOLWPDGH sense  to  increase  the  size  to  16  pages. A  key  theme  in  the  newly  expanded   issue,  appropriately  enough,  is  the  IYL.   The  concept  would  be  unthinkable,  says   SLL  president  John  Aston,  without  the   LQYROYHPHQWRIWKHVRFLHW\ S ,WLVDOVR essential  that  the  lighting  community  as   a  whole  puts  its  weight  behind  wringing   the  full  potential  out  of  it.  ‘The  IYL  is   an  opportunity,’  he  says,  ‘but  only  if  we   JUDVSLWHIIHFWLYHO\DQGPDNHVXUHWKDW ZHDUHLQYROYHGDWHYHU\WXUQ¶ Echoing  his  presidential  address,   Aston  also  makes  the  point  that  this   LVWKHLGHDOSODWIRUPIRUHYDQJHOLVP an  opportunity  to  raise  awareness   about  lighting  among  fellow  design   professionals  and  the  public  rather    than   SUHDFKLQJWRWKHFRQYHUWHG The  fact  that  this  year’s  AGM  will   be  held  at  RIBA  (see  the  insert  in  this   issue),  and  that  incoming  president  Liz   Peck  plans  for  the  SLL  to  engage  more   closely  with  the  architectural  body,  is  an   excellent  demonstration  of  this.  While  a   PXFKFORVHUUHODWLRQVKLSKDVGHYHORSHG between  lighting  designers  and     DUFKLWHFWVRYHUWKHSDVWWZRRUWKUHH decades  as  awareness  of  the  lighting   profession  has  grown,  it  is  a  crucial  


FROODERUDWLRQRQDQXPEHURIOHYHOV±IRU energy  use,  for  the  greater  integration  of   lighting  systems  and,  of  course,  for  the   promotion  of  daylighting. The  year  will  probably  comprise   HYHQWVDFWLYLWLHVDQGLQLWLDWLYHVRIDOO VFDOHVDQGOHYHOVRIDPELWLRQEXWDQ exercise  such  as  the  IYL  needs  its   ‘grand  projet’  and  the  SLL’s  plans  for  the   Unesco  World  Heritage  Sites  certainly   fall  into  that  category  (p7). What  they  should  also  do  is  engage  a   YHU\ZLGHDXGLHQFHEH\RQGWKHOLJKWLQJ community,  which  is  exactly  what  Aston   is  talking  about. Jill  Entwistle

LETTERS...LETTERS...LETTERS..LETTERS...LETTERS...LETTERS...LETTERS I  was  delighted  to  see  the  news  (NL   1RY'HF WKDWD-HDQ+HDS%XUVDU\   has  been  set  up  by  the  SLL.  I  had   actually  considered  suggesting  the     idea  but  was  concerned  about  the     ORQJWHUP¿QDQFLDOFRPPLWPHQWLW   ZRXOGLQYROYHIRUWKHVRFLHW\ Jean  put  an  enormous  amount  into   the  society.  When  we  were  setting  it  up   in  the  late  1990s  she  worked  tirelessly   to  ensure  that  its  membership  criteria   ZHUHZHOOGH¿QHGDQGPHWWKHQHHGVRI the  profession.   As  committee  chairman  she  was   ¿UPWKDWRXUVWDQGDUGVRIPHPEHUVKLS were  sacrosanct  but  always  looked  at   DSSOLFDWLRQVLQDFRQVWUXFWLYHPDQQHU There  were,  after  all,  many  applications   WKDWGLGQRW¿WWKHµUXOHV¶VLPSO\EHFDXVH

RIWKHYDULHGEDFNJURXQGVRIPHPEHUV of  the  lighting  profession. She  was  an  enormous  help  to  me   throughout  my  time  as  secretary  of   the  society,  not  just  on  education  and   membership  but  in  so  many  aspects     RILWVDFWLYLWLHV On  a  personal  note,  when  we   decided  on  the  criteria  for  honorary   fellowship  it  was  agreed  that  it  was  to   recognise  major  contributions  to  lighting   by  non-­members.  Imagine  my  surprise   ZKHQ,ZDVJLYHQKRQRUDU\IHOORZVKLS   on  my  retirement  as  secretary.  Jean     had  persuaded  the  education  committee   to  change  the  rules  as  soon  as  I  was  out   of  the  door. Jonathan  David  HonFSLL

A  Happy  New  Year  to  you  all  and   welcome  to  the  International  Year  of   Light  2015.  The  year  ahead  offers  a   great  opportunity  for  the  society  to  further   promote  learning  and  knowledge  transfer   WKURXJKHYHQWVLQDOOWKHUHJLRQV We  had  a  great  time  on  the  stand   DW/X[/LYHDQGWKDQNDOOPHPEHUV WKDWFDPHDORQJWRVD\KHOORDQGJLYH us  their  feedback.  A  highlight  was  the   <RXQJ/LJKWHURIWKH<HDU¿QDOZLWKVRPH YHU\KLJKFDOLEUHSUHVHQWDWLRQV:H congratulate  Janna  Aronson  on  taking   the  2014  title  (see  p11  for  Jannaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  feature   which  summarises  her  paper). The  Jean  Heap  Bursary  was  also   ODXQFKHGDW/X[/LYHDQGZHLQYLWHDOOWR apply  for  the  funding.  The  £2000  bursary   ZLOOHQDEOHDQLQGLYLGXDOWRXQGHUWDNH UHVHDUFKLQDSDUWLFXODU¿HOGRIOLJKWLQJ DQGWRWKHQGHOLYHUWKHLUUHVXOWVWRWKH society  and  the  lighting  community  at   large.  Applications  can  be  downloaded   IURPWKH6//ZHEVLWHDQGKDYHWREH returned  to  us  by  31  March  2015. The  CIBSE  Research  Fund  granted   last  year  to  the  society  has  been   UHFHLYHGSRVLWLYHO\E\WKHLQGXVWU\7KLV is  to  enable  research  into  the  impact   of  LED  lamps  on  health  and  wellbeing,   as  well  as  explore  issues  such  as   measurement  of  colour,  assessment   RIWKHUROHRIGHULYHGFRORXUPHWULFV PHDVXUHPHQWRIÃ&#x20AC;LFNHUDQGDVVHVVPHQW RIWKHLPSDFWRIÃ&#x20AC;LFNHURQXVHUVDQG DOVRWRVXUYH\H[LVWLQJUHVHDUFKLQWR WKHHIIHFWVRIORZ/('OLJKWOHYHOVRQ circadian  rhythms.  The  ITT  documents   should  be  returned  by  5  January. The  new  LG10:  Daylighting  guide     IRUGHVLJQHUVLVQRZDYDLODEOHWR download  from  the  CIBSE  Knowledge   Portal.  The  publication  has  been  updated   to  address  the  modern  techniques  in   PDQDJLQJGD\OLJKWDQGYLVXDOLVDWLRQ   as  well  as  the  use  of  climate-­based   daylight  modelling  (CBDM).   We  are  also  looking  forward  to  the   SXEOLFDWLRQRIWKHUHYLVHG/*/LJKWLQJ for  Museums  and  Art  Galleries  at  the   beginning  of  this  year  (see  p8).  Last   updated  in  1994,  this  area  of  lighting   has  been  subject  to  tremendous  change   in  both  technology  and  thinking  on   FRQVHUYDWLRQLVVXHV We  welcome  LED  Linear  to  our  group   of  Sustaining  Members.  Their  support,   and  the  backing  of  all  our  Sustaining   Members,  will  enable  us  to  retain  and   GHYHORSHYHQWVGLUHFWHGDWSHRSOHLQWKHLU early  lighting  career.  That  includes  Ready   Steady  Light,  of  course,  which  takes   place  on  24  March  2015.  We  encourage   HYHU\RQHWRDSSO\HDUO\DVWKLVHYHQW quickly  gets  booked  up.





/LJKW\HDU·VDKHDG  2015 is the International Year of Light. John Aston looks at why lighting bodies must get behind the initiative 0DNLQJKLVWRU\FRPHDOLJKW  Liz Peck explains how the SLL will mark the IYL in a unique and memorable way :HDUHSOHDVHGWRFRQ¿UPWKDWWKH society  will  partner  VIA-­Verlag  for  the   PLDC  student  speaker  competition,   The  Challenge.  The  society  is  the   Knowledge  Partner  of  the  competition   which  culminates  at  the  PLDC  in  Rome   this  October.  The  next  round  of  The   &KDOOHQJHLVDW1DSLHU8QLYHUVLW\RQ )HEUXDU\ UHJLVWHUDWZZZHYHQWVYLD YHUODJFRP :HHQFRXUDJHDVPDQ\RI \RXDVSRVVLEOHWRDWWHQGWKLVHYHQW /DVWPRQWK3DXO5XIÃ&#x20AC;HVVWHSSHG down  as  chair  of  the  technical  and   publications  committee.  Paul  joined  the   FRPPLWWHHLQDQGWRRNRYHUWKH chair  from  1990-­94.  He  then  took  on  the   role  again  from  2011  to  December  2014.   Many  of  us  in  the  society  thank  Paul  for   KLVLQYROYHPHQWDQGGLUHFWLRQLQVRPDQ\ of  the  Lighting  Guides,  Fact  Files,  Codes   DQG+DQGERRNRYHUWKH\HDUV7KHJRRG news  is  that  Paul  will  remain  on  the   committee  with  Simon  Robinson  (WSP)   taking  on  the  role  of  chair. :HDUHORRNLQJIRUYROXQWHHUVWRMRLQ the  technical  and  publications  committee   whose  current  remit  includes  the  rewrite   of  the  Code  for  Lighting  and  Handbook.   Please  contact  me  by  the  end  of  January   for  more  details. )LQDOO\ZHSD\WULEXWHWR'DYLG/RH who  has  stepped  down  from  the  Lighting   Research  and  Technology  editorial  board   /5 7 'DYLGKDVEHHQDPHPEHURI the  LR&T  board  for  14  years,  chair  for   ¿YH\HDUVDQGLQVWUXPHQWDOLQSURGXFLQJ WKH/5 7&':HWKDQN'DYLGIRUDOO his  work  on  behalf  of  the  society,  the   members  and  the  world  of  lighting   research  and  education.   The  LR&T  journals  will  increase  from   six  to  eight  editions  in  2015  and  are,  of   course,  free  to  download  to  all  members.     Brendan  Keely,  MSLL

3OD\LQJWRWKHJDOOHU\  7H\S9\MÃ&#x2026;LZHUK2L]HU:OH^ outline the new LG8 on museum and gallery lighting

6HWWLQJWKHVFHQH   YLOTY Janna Aronson looks at how natural light can be translated from visual art 0HDVXUHIRUPHDVXUH Lighting metrics is a key topic in the latest LR&T, discovers Iain Carlile

&RYHUSURMHFW   The Lux Award-winning Reid Building at the GSA (Arup)


16 3



Artful paper wins Young Lighter of the Year award

1HZOLJKWLQJ FDWHJRU\IRU &,%6(DZDUGV )RUWKH¿UVWWLPH&,%6(¶V%XLOGLQJ Performance  Awards  will  include  a   lighting  category.  The  following  projects   KDYHEHHQVKRUWOLVWHG   â&#x20AC;¢   â&#x20AC;¢   â&#x20AC;¢  

-DQQD$URQVRQRI7HO$YLYEDVHG57/' Lighting  Design  won  the  Young  Lighter   of  the  Year  title  following  a  close  contest   EHWZHHQWKHIRXU¿QDOLVWV$URQVRQ whose  paper  was  entitled  Daylight-­Art-­ Atmosphere  (see  p11  for  her  summary),   was  presented  with  her  trophy  at  the  Lux   $ZDUGVDW/RQGRQ¶V7UR[\RQWKHHYHQLQJ RIWKH¿QDOLQ1RYHPEHU DERYH  9HURQLND/DEDQFRYDRI,VRPHWUL[ZRQ WKH%HVW:ULWWHQ3DSHU$ZDUGJLYHQE\ the  ILP,  for  Possible  Impact  of  Ageing   ,QÃ&#x20AC;XHQFHRQ/LJKW4XDOLW\3HUFHSWLRQE\ Human  Beings.   James  Duff  of  Arup  was  awarded  Best   Presentation  Award  for  his  paper,  Any   2EMHFWLYH0HWULFWR'HWHUPLQH6XEMHFWLYH

/LJKW$GHTXDF\"7KHIRXUWK¿QDOLVWZDV Katerina  Konsta  of  Atkins  Global  who   looked  at  daylighting  in  schools. 7KH¿QDOVZHUHKHOGDW/X[/LYHDW Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  ExCel. This  was  the  20th  year  of  the   competition,  open  to  anyone  under  30   years  of  age  working  in  light,  design,   architecture,  manufacturing,  research  or   healthcare,  or  studying  a  lighting-­related   HGXFDWLRQDOFRXUVH$OOWKH¿QDOLVWV UHFHLYHDFDVKSUL]HDORQJZLWKD\HDU¶V free  membership  of  the  SLL.         )RUPRUHGHWDLOVDQGWRUHJLVWHUDQ LQWHUHVWIRUWKHFRPSHWLWLRQHPDLO VOO#FLEVHRUJ

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Belfast  City  Hall  facade  lighting,   Belfast  (Arup)   &XQGDOORI¿FHV%LUPLQJKDP (Cundall  Light4  ) +RDUH/HD¶VKHDGRI¿FH:HVWHUQ Transit  Shed,  Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  Cross,  London   (Hoare  Lea  Lighting)  Tate  Britain  Millbank  Project,   London  (Max  Fordham)  London  School  of  Economics  (Mott   MacDonald)  Sainsburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  Project  Graphite  LED   lighting  programme     (Sainsburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  Supermarkets)  Wm  Morrissons,  Thornbury,   Bradford  (Thorn  Lighting,  Zumtobel   Group)

The  winners,  and  recipient  of  the  Carbon   Champion  of  the  Year  Award  2015,  will  be   announced  at  the  Building  Performance   $ZDUGVHYHQWRQ)HEUXDU\

Ogus only ninth lighter to get CIBSE Gold Medal Hugh  Ogus  has   been  awarded   a  rare  CIBSE   Gold  Medal,  the   institutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  highest   honour.  It  is  only  the   30th  Gold  Medal   WREHJLYHQVLQFH 1912,  and  only  the   ninth  to  be  awarded   to  a  lighter.  

Made  an  MBE  in  2012,  last  year  he   was  also  made  an  Honorary  Fellow  of  the   6//DQGJLYHQDQ+RQRUDU\)HOORZVKLSRI the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute. $IRUPHU&,%6(YLFHSUHVLGHQWDQG /LJKWLQJ'LYLVLRQ QRZ6// FKDLUPDQ DPRQJQXPHURXVDFWLYLWLHV2JXVKDV become  best  known  in  recent  years  for   his  work  with  the  Lighting  Education  Trust   (LET),  latterly  with  attempts  to  establish   a  graduate  degree  in  lighting  design,  now  


WHFKQRORJ\UHVSRQGVWRDQREVHUYHU·V gaze by activating tiny motors to move parts of the dresses. One dress is covered in strands of photoluminescent thread, while the other has a base layer of glow-in-the-dark threads with fabric ribbons bunched over the top. :KDWQRRQHKDVH[SODLQHGLVZK\­ nowhere-­two-­gaze-­activated-­glow-­in-­ the-­dark-­dresses-­eye-­tracking-­ying-­gao/

2015 has been declared as the International Year of Light by the UN. SLL president John Aston looks at why lighting bodies must get behind the initiative We  all  take  light  far   too  much  for  granted.   The  sun  rises  in  the   morning  and  sets  in  the   HYHQLQJRQDFRPSOHWHO\ predictable  and  reliable   basis.  When  there  is   QRGD\OLJKWZHÃ&#x20AC;LFND VZLWFKDQG±YRLOD±ZH JHWDUWL¿FLDOOLJKW6RZH QHYHUWKLQNDERXWKRZ we  get  it,  what  it  does   for  us  and  how  life  could   not  exist  without  it.   4XLWHZK\ZHKDYH QHYHUKDGDµ<HDURI Lightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;  before  escapes   me  but  it  can  only  be   EHQH¿FLDOLQUDLVLQJDZDUHQHVVRIDOOWKHDVSHFWVRIOLJKW± IURPQDWXUHWKURXJKWRLWVPDQ\GLYHUVHXVHVZKHQJHQHUDWHG DUWL¿FLDOO\,I,</FDQPDNHSHRSOHWKLQNPRUHDERXWOLJKWLWV EHQH¿WVDQGDOOLWVPDQ\IRUPVWKHQLWZLOODFFRPSOLVKPXFK But  it  can  only  accomplish  anything  if  it  is  successfully   promoted  and  supported;;  all  lighting  bodies  need  to  be  behind  it   ZKDWHYHUWKHLULQWHUHVW7KDQNJRRGQHVVWKHULVNRISRZHUFXWV in  the  winter  is  being  addressed  in  terms  of  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;can  we  keep  the   lights  on?â&#x20AC;&#x2122;  or  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;expect  the  lights  to  be  dimmed  this  winterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.   The  more  we  all  know  about  light  the  more  wisely  it  will   EHXVHG,EHOLHYHWKDWZHKDYHIRUJRWWHQWKDWOLJKWDQGIUHVK air  used  to  be  an  essential  part  of  sanatorium  design;;  the  old   Department  of  Health  guides  for  hospital  designs  used  to  insist   RQPLQLPXPGD\OLJKWIDFWRUVLQFOLQLFDOZDUGV±GRWKH\VWLOO" 0DQ\KHDOWKLQVWLWXWLRQVKDGKXJHFRQVHUYDWRULHVRUYHUDQGDKV where  patients  were  put  to  get  better  quicker.   7KLVZDVSDUWLFXODUO\HYLGHQWZKHQ\RXORRNDWROGSKRWRV taken  between  the  two  world  wars.  Yet  today  we  are  looking  at   YLWDPLQ'GH¿FLHQF\DQGRWKHUKHDOWKLVVXHVEHFDXVHFKLOGUHQ no  longer  play  outside...

IYL:  the  background The  Unesco  International  Year  of  Light  and  Technology,     WRJLYHLWLWVIXOOWLWOHLVWKHLQLWLDWLYHRIDFRQVRUWLXPRI VFLHQWL¿FERGLHV,WVURRWVWKHUHIRUHOLHYHU\PXFKLQ technology  and  academia  with  an  initial  bias  towards  more   UDUH¿HGWHFKQRORJLFDOGHYHORSPHQWVVXFKDVQDQRSKRWRQLFV and  quantum  optics,  and  applications  of  light  in  spheres   such  as  medicine  and  communications.   +RZHYHUOREE\LQJIURPERGLHVVXFKDVWKH6//ZKLFK has  subsequently  become  a  Gold  Associate  sponsor,  has   SXWWKHOLJKWLQJRIWKHEXLOWHQYLURQPHQWRQWKHDJHQGD7KH ball  is  now  in  the  court  of  the  lighting  community  to  create   HYHQWVDQGDFWLYLWLHVWKDWZLOOSURPRWHOLJKWLQJDQGUHODWHG issues  under  the  IYL  banner. According  to  the  prospectus,  IYL  will  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;promote  the  central  

role  of  light  in  science  and  culture,  the  importance  of  light-­ EDVHGWHFKQRORJLHVIRUWKHHTXLWDEOHGHYHORSPHQWRIJOREDO VRFLHW\¶7KHDLPLWVD\VLVWREULQJWRJHWKHUDYDULHW\ RIVWDNHKROGHUVLQFOXGLQJVFLHQWL¿FVRFLHWLHVDQGXQLRQV HGXFDWLRQDOLQVWLWXWLRQVWHFKQRORJ\SODWIRUPVQRQSUR¿W RUJDQLVDWLRQVDQGSULYDWHVHFWRUSDUWQHUV  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;An  International  Year  of  Light  is  a  tremendous   opportunity  to  ensure  that  international  policymakers  and   VWDNHKROGHUVDUHPDGHDZDUHRIWKHSUREOHPVROYLQJ SRWHQWLDORIOLJKWWHFKQRORJ\¶VD\V-RKQ'XGOH\YLFH president  of  the  European  Physical  Society  and  chairman   RIWKH,</VWHHULQJFRPPLWWHHµ:HQRZKDYHDXQLTXH opportunity  to  raise  global  awareness  of  this.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; For  full  details  go  to: V

Clothes with LEDs that light up is so 2010, but dresses that writhe around and light up simply because you stare at them is something else. Fashion designer Ying Gao has made a pair of GUHVVHVWKDWGRH[DFWO\WKDW¶:HXVH an eye-tracking system so the dresses PRYHZKHQDVSHFWDWRULVVWDULQJ·<LQJ *DRWROGGHVLJQZHEVLWH'H]HHQ¶>7KH system] can also turn off the lights, then WKHGUHVVHVLOOXPLQDWH· 7KHHPEHGGHGH\HWUDFNLQJ

SDUWLDOO\DFKLHYHGDW%UXQHO8QLYHUVLW\ µ,I,JHWLQYROYHGZLWKVRPHWKLQJ,JLYH it  my  attention  or  thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  no  point  in  being   there,â&#x20AC;&#x2122;  commented  Ogus,  who  said  he   ZDVYHU\SURXGWRUHFHLYHWKHKRQRXU â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;If  thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  a  job  to  be  done  Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m   SUREDEO\WKHRQHWKDWZLOOYROXQWHHUWR do  it.  I  think  itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  something  in  the  blood.   Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re  here  in  this  world  and  you  may  not   change  it  but  you  can  help  make  it  better   for  other  people.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;  

Light yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ahead






2015  will  we  know  whether  the  balance  was  suitably  addressed.     :HDOUHDG\KDYHSODQV WKURXJK/L]3HFN WRHQJDJHPRUH closely  with  RIBA  and  if  we  can  make  some  progress  with  them   FRQFHUQLQJWKHXVHRIOLJKW±QDWXUDODQGDUWL¿FLDO±LQIXWXUH buildings  and  the  IYL  can  help,  so  much  the  better.  But  we  need   WRHQJDJHZLWKDZLGHUDXGLHQFHVRWKDWHYHU\RQHVHHVOLJKWDV being  important  in  all  its  guises.   Where  our  role  as  a  sponsor  is  concerned,  for  an   International  Year  of  Light  to  be  promoted  without  the   LQYROYHPHQWRIWKHVRFLHW\ZRXOGEHXQWKLQNDEOH,KRSHLWZLOO IRFXVXVRQRXUFRQWLQXLQJREMHFWLYHWRSURPRWHJRRGOLJKWDQG OLJKWLQJHGXFDWHDQ\RQHZKRZLOOOLVWHQDQG±E\UDLVLQJ   LQWHUHVWLQWKHVXEMHFWRIOLJKW±SRVVLEO\KHOSXVDWWUDFWOLNH minded  people  to  our  membership. 7KH,</LVDQRSSRUWXQLW\±EXWRQO\LIZHJUDVSLWHIIHFWLYHO\   DQGPDNHVXUHWKDWZHDUHLQYROYHGDWHYHU\WXUQ

Brendan  Keely,  SLL  secretary,  outlines  some  of  the   societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  plans  for  IYL  2015

What is Light? Light plays a vital role in our daily lives and has become an important tool in meeting the needs of our 21st century world. Light-based technologies protect health and safety, provide sustainable energy, enable space explorations, advance lighting options in rural areas, enable communication via the Internet, and hold the promise of limitless possibilities to improve the human condition and protect the earth.

This still image was taken from a new NASA movie of the sun based on data from NASAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, showing the wide range of wavelengths â&#x20AC;&#x201C; invisible to the naked eye â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that the telescope can view. By examining pictures of the sun in a variety of wavelengths, scientists can track how particles and heat move through the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atmosphere. In this image, the various invisible wavelengths are each colorized differently to show the range of components on the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, helping scientists to paint a complete picture of our star.

Light is part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum and is a form of energy. Light is usually considered to be the visible part of the spectrum. However, in physics, light can be defined as all portions of the electromagnetic scale, including invisible forms such as infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays, radio waves, and more. Electromagnetic waves can be described by their wavelengths, energy, and frequency.

Wavelength ()-Light waves are vibrations in the electromagnetic field. The wavelength of a light

wave is measured as the distance between two wave crests. Light wavelengths can vary greatly; for example, radio waves can be about the size of small buildings, while gamma rays are subatomic size.

Frequency ()-The number of wave crests passing by a fixed point in a given time periodâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;usually

one secondâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;is called frequency. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz). Higher-frequency waves have shorter wavelengths.

Energy ()-The greater the energy, the higher the frequency and the shorter (smaller) the wavelength. Given

the relationship between wavelength and frequencyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelengthâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;it follows that short wavelengths are more energetic than long wavelengths.


The  society  is  supporting  the  Unesco  International   Year  of  Light  2015  in  recognition  of  the  role  light  plays   in  society,  to  promote  awareness  of  lighting  in  the   EXLOWHQYLURQPHQWDQGWRSURPRWHWKHOLJKWLQJGHVLJQ profession  and  industry  as  a  whole,  as  well  as  the   members  of  the  society. 9DULRXVHYHQWVZLOOWDNHSODFHWKURXJKRXWWKH\HDU in  liaison  with  the  Institute  of  Physics  (IoP),  the  UK   Steering  Committee  and  the  European  Physical  Society   (36 7KHVRFLHW\¶VSUR¿OHDQGHYHQWVZLOOEHLQFOXGHG on  the  website  of  the  IYL  2015  along  with  educational   PDWHULDOLQFOXGLQJIUHHIDFW¿OHVIRUSXEOLFGRZQORDG This  will  enable  the  society  to  reach  further  than  its   PHPEHUVKLSEDVHWRRWKHUVRIIHULQJDGYLFHDQGVXSSRUW 7KHVRFLHW\ZLOODVVLVWLQHYHQWVDUUDQJHGWKURXJK /LJKWLQJ5HODWHG2UJDQLVDWLRQV /52 ±DJURXS organised  by  Italian  lighting  designer  Chiara  Carucci   ZKRLVFRRUGLQDWLQJZLWKDOOSURIHVVLRQDOERGLHV±DV ZHOODVGHOLYHULQJHYHQWVXQGHUWKH,</EDQQHU (YHQWVSODQQHGIRULQFOXGHWKH<HDUVRI Fresnel  lecture  at  the  Royal  Institution  in  March,  and  an   LQLWLDWLYHWROLJKW8QHVFR:RUOG+HULWDJH6LWHVLQWKH8. DQG,UHODQG VHHRSSRVLWHSDJH ,WLVKRSHGWKDWHYHQWV will  be  jointly  hosted  by  the  professional  lighting  bodies   operating  in  the  UK. One  of  the  IYL  2015  themes  is  the  Empowerment   RI:RPHQ&RLQFLGHQWO\WKHVRFLHW\ZLOOKDYHDIHPDOH president  half  way  through  the  year,  Liz  Peck,  as  will   the  ILP,  IALD  and  RIBA.  This  will  help  reinforce  the  role   of  women  in  lighting.  The  society  will  also  continue  to   strengthen  links  with  RIBA  and  encourage  collaboration   between  the  lighting  and  architectural  professions. All  professional  bodies  will  promote  light  and   lighting  applications  to  schools  through  Stem  (science,   technology,  engineering  and  maths)  and  other   LQLWLDWLYHV,Q0D\DWWKH$*0WKH6//ZLOOFRQ¿UP the  winner  of  the  Jean  Heap  Bursary,  which  will  enable   DQLQGLYLGXDOWRIXUWKHUWKHLUUHVHDUFKIRUWKHEHQH¿WRI the  industry  and  the  societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  members.

Making history come alight The SLL will mark the IYL in a unique and memorable way. Liz Peck explains the plan to light UK Unesco sites One  of  the  things  I  enjoy  most  about  being  part  of  the  SLL  is   WKDWLWEULQJVWRJHWKHUSHRSOHLQYROYHGLQZLGHO\GLIIHULQJDUHDV RIOLJKWLQJEXWZLWKDVKDUHGORYHRIWKHVXEMHFWPDWWHU At  SLL  council,  we  also  formally  bring  together   UHSUHVHQWDWLYHVIURPDOOURXQGWKH8.DQG,UHODQGZLWKPLQXWHV RIWKHPHHWLQJJHWWLQJGLVWULEXWHGWR6//UHSUHVHQWDWLYHVLQ Hong  Kong,  Australia  and  the  Middle  East.  Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  an  opportunity   for  sharing  ideas  and  for  our  members  to  feed  into  the   H[HFXWLYHERDUGZKDWWKH\¶UHH[SHULHQFLQJLQWKHLUUHJLRQVVR WKDWZHFDQGRWKHEHVWZHFDQIRUDOORXUPHPEHUVZKHUHYHU they  are  based.  Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  fair  to  say  council  is  an  eclectic  mix  of   different  skills  and  experience. :LWKPHPEHUVWUDYHOOLQJIURPDOOSDUWVRIWKHFRXQWU\DQG trains  pre-­booked,  it  usually  means  thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  time  for  a  drink   DIWHUZDUGVZKHUHWKHFRQYHUVDWLRQFRQWLQXHVWRÃ&#x20AC;RZ1RZZKHQ \RXOHWWKUHHSDVVLRQDWHOLJKWLQJGHVLJQHUVJHWWRJHWKHURYHUD beer,  crazy  ideas  are  sure  to  arise  and  so  it  was  last  autumn   when  Dan  Lister,  Rhiannon  West  and  I  started  discussing   the  possibility  of  doing  something  amazing  for  the  Unesco   ,QWHUQDWLRQDO<HDURI/LJKW±VRPHWKLQJWREULQJSXEOLFDWWHQWLRQ to  how  light  transforms  and  can  breathe  life  into  our  history.   Perhaps  we  could  illuminate  historic  sites  across  the  whole   of  the  UK  and  Ireland,  for  one  night  only?  After  all,  the  SLL  has   DELWRIKLVWRU\ZLWKHYHQWVVXFKDV5HDG\6WHDG\/LJKWKHOSLQJ young  people  to  understand  lighting  equipment  and  lighting   HIIHFWVLQYDULRXVHQYLURQPHQWVVRGRLQJLWRQPXOWLSOHVLWHV shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t  be  too  hard,  should  it?   After  some  research  on  sites  which  are  less  well-­known,   WKHSURYHUELDOOLJKWEXOEPRPHQWDUULYHGZKHQFRQWHPSODWLQJD suitable  site  in  Northern  Ireland.  We  were  thinking  how  cool  it   would  be  to  light  up  Giantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  Causeway  and  then  remembered   WKDWLW¶VD8QHVFR:RUOG+HULWDJH6LWH$TXLFNVHDUFKUHYHDOHG far  more  WHSs  in  the  UK  and  Ireland  than  we  had  realised.   While  they  may  differ  in  architecture  and  location,  the  common   theme  of  being  Unesco-­protected  should  inspire  plenty  of   interest  and  enthusiasm. 1RZREYLRXVO\ZHZDQWWRWDNHWKLVFKDOOHQJHRQLQD SURIHVVLRQDOZD\ZHDUHORRNLQJIRUGHVLJQHUVWRRYHUVHHHDFK site,  suppliers  to  help  out  with  equipment  and,  in  some  cases,   weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re  going  to  need  some  power  as  well  as  distribution.  Most   important,  though,  we  want  the  industry  to  engage  with  the   project,  be  a  part  of  it,  help  us  to  create  something  truly  special   to  capture  the  publicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  imagination  and  attention. So,  the  plan  is  to  illuminate  10  sites  next  autumn.  These  will   QHHGVRPHUHVHDUFKDQG¿QDOLVLQJDVZHDSSUHFLDWHWKDWWKHUH may  be  some  reticence  from  certain  parties  about  allowing   SHRSOHWRFODPEHURYHUWKHLUSUHFLRXVVLWHVZLWKDORWRIOLJKWLQJ equipment  and  electricity.  Personally,  I  canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t  wait  to  read  the   health  and  safety  statement  for  Giantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  Causeway. 6SHDNLQJWRSHRSOHDW/X[/LYHODVW1RYHPEHUKDVDOUHDG\ brought  pledges  of  support  from  a  number  of  designers  and   PDQXIDFWXUHUV$IHZSHRSOHKDYHDOVRPHQWLRQHGSRVVLEOH FRQWDFWVDWYDULRXVVLWHV:HZLOOQHHGWRPD[LPLVHRXU FROOHFWLYHDELOLWLHVQRWMXVWRXUFRUHVNLOOVH[SHULHQFHDQGORYH

List  and  locations  of  potential  sites

RIOLJKWEXWDOOWKHFRQWDFWVZHKDYHEHWZHHQXVZKRZLOOKHOS IDFLOLWDWHWKLVEULOOLDQWHYHQW Being  the  SLL,  we  also  want  this  to  be  an  experience  and   RSSRUWXQLW\IRUOHDUQLQJVRZH¶OOEHORRNLQJWRKDYH\RXQJ SHRSOHLQYROYHGLQWKHSODQQLQJDQGH[HFXWLRQRIHDFKVLWH   DQGSRVVLEO\DOVRVRPHOD\SHRSOHZKRKDYHQRH[SHULHQFH   LQOLJKWLQJZKDWVRHYHU Each  site  will  present  different  issues  and  some  will  be     more  challenging  than  others,  but  there  was  a  method  in     RXUPDGQHVV±ZHNQRZZHKDYHOLJKWLQJGHVLJQHUVDQG H[SHUWLVHFORVHWRPRVWLIQRWDOOWKHVLWHVZH¶YHLGHQWL¿HG   for  possible  inclusion  (currently  18).  We  know  that  some  will   restrict  access,  and  weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll  only  include  one  of  the  four  sites  in   /RQGRQVRXWKHDVW:H¶YHDOVRHOLPLQDWHGVLWHVZHNQRZWR be  already  lit,  such  as  Durham  Cathedral,  along  with  the  more   extreme  sites  on  the  coasts  of  Scotland,  Ireland  and  south-­   west  England.  The  sites  are  all  eminently  do-­able;;  we  just     need  some  people  and  some  kit  and  someone  to  be  willing     to  project-­manage  each  site.   6RKRZFDQ\RXJHWLQYROYHG"2XU¿UVWMRELVWRJHWVRPHRQH WRYLVLWHDFKVLWHDQGHVWDEOLVKLIWKHUHLVOLJKWLQJDOUHDG\LQ place  (or,  in  the  case  of  the  cities,  identify  some  buildings  not   FXUUHQWO\OLW ,I\RXKDYHDFRQWDFWDWDQ\RIWKHVLWHVOLVWHG please  let  us  know  as  we  want  the  process  to  be  as  smooth   DVSRVVLEOH,I\RXZDQWWREHLQYROYHGLQDQ\ZD\DWDQ\RIWKH sites,  just  let  Brendan  know  (   Now  weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re  into  2015,  weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re  looking  to  get  things  rolling  as   weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll  need  to  identify  the  kit  weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d  like  for  each  site  and  then  chat   up  some  manufacturers  to  help  us  out.  Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  all  exterior  lighting   but  if  you  work  for  an  interior  product  manufacturer,  you  can   VWLOOEHLQYROYHG±PD\EH\RXKDYHVRPHFRQWDFWVRUFDQKHOS with  designing  one  of  the  sites.  Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  lots  to  be  done  but  by   uniting  the  industry,  we  know  we  can  create  something  that  truly   symbolises  how  we  can  use  the  IYL  to  draw  public  attention  to   the  brilliant  medium  of  light. I  canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t  wait.  Whoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  joining  us?



Playing to the gallery 7H\S9\MĂ&#x2026;LZV\[SPULZ[OLJVU[LU[ZVM[OLUL^3.VUT\ZL\THUKNHSSLY` SPNO[PUN^OPSL2L]HU:OH^SVVRZH[OV^[OLSH[LZ[[LJOUVSVN`HUKUL^ thinking have radically reshaped guidance in this sphere 3DXO5XIĂ HV7KHREMHFWRIWKHH[HUFLVH :KHQYLVLWLQJDQDUWJDOOHU\RUPXVHXPQRRQHOLNHVWRJRLQWR a gloomy space, no one likes not being able to read information labels and, we hope, no one wants objects so brightly lit that they fade away before the next generation has a chance to see and appreciate them. 6RWKHĂ&#x20AC;UVWFKDSWHURQOLJKWLQJSULQFLSOHVEHJLQVE\ORRNLQJ at why it is important to consider the objects, the display space and the operation of the building when creating a successful lighting strategy. 7KHQH[WFKDSWHUFRQFHQWUDWHVRQGHVFULELQJWKHZD\WROLJKW the interior of the room or display space where the exhibits are to be viewed. Some spaces are plain and simple white boxes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a more recent trend, with their own lighting problems â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but many are architecturally interesting spaces or historic rooms that deserve to be well lit in their own right. 7KHKHDUWRIWKHJXLGHRIFRXUVHLVWKHFKDSWHURQOLJKWLQJ the exhibits. Here the guide examines ways to select and SRVLWLRQWUDFNVĂ&#x20AC;[LQJVDQGOLJKWVWREULQJRXWWKHEHVWLQ GLIIHUHQWW\SHVRIREMHFW7KLVFRYHUVQRWRQO\PRGHOOLQJ contrast with background and lighting levels, but also glare and practical issues such as access for maintenance. 7KHLVVXHRIOLJKWLQJOHYHOVLVFRYHUHGLQPRUHGHWDLOLQWKH material degradation chapter where we go through how light and heat can fade and physically degrade material types within REMHFWVRQGLVSOD\:HH[SODLQZK\IRULQVWDQFHLWLVQRORQJHU UHFRPPHQGHGWKDWĂ&#x20AC;QHVLONVDQGVLPLODUIXJLWLYHPDWHULDOVFDQ be on permanent display, even at the minimum lighting level for good perception of detail and colour: 50 lux. Daylight and electric lighting are the subject of the next two chapters, both as individual light sources and when combined. 7KHGD\OLJKWVHFWLRQORRNVDWELJFRPSOH[URRĂ LJKWV\VWHPV and at the control of daylight through typical side windows in KLVWRULFURRPV7KHHOHFWULFOLJKWLQJFKDSWHUFRYHUVDOOW\SHVDQG varieties of lighting equipment and lamp types in common and sometimes not so common use.

Water  Hall,  Birmingham  Museum  and  Art  Gallery:  a  purpose-­designed  lighting  structure  is  suspended  below  the  historic  ceiling  (Arup)

Wallace  Collection:  the  chandelier  is  the  visible  source  of   ambient  lighting,  while  illumination  to  the  wall  and  objects  is   hidden  in  the  ceiling  detailing  (KSLD)

.HYDQ6KDZ.HHSLQJDEUHDVWRIFKDQJH 8SGDWLQJ/*KDVWDNHQDORQJWLPH7KHSDVWĂ&#x20AC;YH\HDUV have seen so many changes in museum lighting that it has EHHQYHU\GLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOWWRNHHSXSDVGUDIWDIWHUGUDIWKDVEHFRPH overtaken by various transitions and transformations before it has made it through the editorial and approvals process. 7KHODVWHGLWLRQRI/*ZDVSXEOLVKHGLQDQGZRUN KDVEHHQJRLQJRQWRUHYLVHLWVLQFH7KHĂ&#x20AC;UVWFKDOOHQJH ZDVWRĂ&#x20AC;JXUHRXWKRZWRLQFRUSRUDWHWKHUHYLVHGJXLGDQFHRQ lighting in the conservation environment published by the CIE ²&,(&RQWURORI'DPDJHWR0XVHXP2EMHFWVE\ 2SWLFDO5DGLDWLRQ7KLVGRFXPHQWUHIRFXVHGDWWHQWLRQRQWKH IDFWWKDWLWLVH[SRVXUHRYHUWLPHDQGQRWWKHVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FOLJKWOHYHO that causes damage. It also introduced a new category of objects to allow for those that are so sensitive that even at the low lighting levels used for very vulnerable exhibits they cannot be left on permanent display without suffering unacceptable levels of damage. 7KURXJKRXWWKHSHULRGRIZULWLQJWKLVHGLWLRQRIWKHJXLGH we have seen the extraordinary development of LED lighting technology. Back in 2005, LEDs were an interesting gadget that had very limited application in museums with the exception RIVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FFRORXUHGOLJKWLQJDQGG\QDPLFGLVSOD\V(DFKRI the subsequent drafts has entailed a total rewrite for the

/('VHFWLRQXQWLOWKHĂ&#x20AC;QDOGUDIWZKHUHWKH\DUHULJKWO\GHDOWZLWK as the principle light source that is now likely to be considered for museum lighting. Conversely, we have seen a succession of European EcoDesign legislation that has changed the landscape of the ODPSVDQGOLJKWVRXUFHVWKDWDUHDYDLODEOH,QWKHURDGPDS for withdrawal of conventional incandescent lamps was set. 7KLVSDUWLFXODUO\DIIHFWVEXLOGLQJVZLWKKLVWRULFOLJKWLQJVXFKDV historic houses, which are also covered in LG8. In 2013 the amusingly named DIM2 regulations started to deprive us of the low voltage tungsten halogen lamps that have been our weapon of choice for museum lighting over the past 30 years. 7KHUHVXOWLVWKHLQIRUPDWLRQLQWKHJXLGHRQWKHVHODPSVLV now more of a historical note than the detailed and currently XVHIXOJXLGDQFHLWZDVLQWKHHDUO\GUDIWV7KLQJVZLOOFRQWLQXH to change and this edition of LG8 is very likely to have a considerably shorter life than its long-lived forebear. LG8 has to serve a broad audience. Although widely considered to be the prime source of information for professional lighting designers it also has to provide approachable and useful information for a broader audience. It is also a primary resource for people in many professions spanning the museum world who are looking for a sound basis on which to develop lighting strategies and briefs for



7KHUHLVDYHU\XVHIXOFKDSWHURQZD\VWROLJKWVKRZFDVHV either from outside the case or from within. Often the standard lighting solutions offered by some case manufacturers leaves a lot to be desired and we hope this chapter will encourage all involved in showcase lighting to improve the situation. 7KHJXLGHFRQFOXGHVZLWKNH\FKDSWHUVRQOLJKWLQJFRQWURO DQGWKHLVVXHVDURXQGPDLQWHQDQFHHQHUJ\HIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQF\DQG running costs. Easy control leads to better use of the lighting, as well as happier clients and room attendants. It also leads to good energy and running cost savings with unnecessary lighting avoided when the public are not using the space. Access for maintenance is particularly important in museums and galleries as not only do you have the normal safety issues with working at height but you also have to consider possible danger to the exhibits themselves.





DGPLQLVWUDWRUV:HH[SHFWWKDWWKHJXLGDQFHZLWKLQZLOOKHOS prevent any really poor decision-making that would result in bad lighting or, even worse, potentially increasing damage to objects by inappropriate lighting


John Fitzpatrick (technical secretary) 3DXO5XIĂ HV Ă&#x20AC;QDOXSGDWHV

History  Gallery,  Birmingham  Museum  and  Gallery:  LED  lighting   within  cases,  structures  and  at  high  level  provides  low-­energy,   low-­maintenance  lighting  throughout  (LD&T)

PXVHXPVJDOOHULHVDQGSULYDWHFROOHFWLRQV7RDFKLHYHWKLVWKH guide covers all the aspects of lighting in museums with due reference to other Lighting Guides where appropriate. Museums have not escaped the challenges of the current HFRQRPLFVLWXDWLRQ$OODUHQHHGLQJWRĂ&#x20AC;QGLQFUHDVHGVRXUFHV of revenue. As budgets and grants are put under pressure, operating costs are under increasing scrutiny. Lighting is, of course, a major energy user in most museums so again we anticipate LG8 will be referred to by facility managers and

7DVNJURXSDQGFRQWULEXWRUV Linda Bullock (Linda Bullock Conservation) $QG\&DOYHU 6W$OEDQ¡V0XVHXP

Stephen Cannon-Brookes (CB Lighting) Christopher Cuttle (consultant) Arfon Davies (Arup Lighting) David Loe (consultant) Boris Pretzel (Victoria and Albert Museum) Devki Raj-Guru (LittleFish Lighting, USA) John Roles (Leeds Museums) 3DXO5XIĂ HV /LJKWLQJ'HVLJQDQG7HFKQRORJ\

David Saunders (British Museum) Mike Simpson (Philips Lighting)

Manchester  Art  Gallery:  mixed  media  are  lit  at  appropriate  lighting  levels  between  50  and  150  lux  (LD&T)

Based on her winning paper, Daylight-Art-Atmosphere, Young Lighter of the Year Janna Aronson looks at how natural light can be translated from visual HY[[VJYLH[LHUHY[PĂ&#x201E;JPHSHUKKH`SPNO[PUNKLZPNUJVUJLW[MVYHT\ZL\TMV`LY Imagine entering a museum in Berlin, Germany, displaying an art exhibition from another part of the world, and giving visitors DQLOOXVLYHIHHOLQJRIGD\OLJKWDWPRVSKHUHLQWKHPXVHXP¡VIR\HU 7KLVVSDFHDOD\HUEHWZHHQÂśUHDOLW\DQGUHODWLYLW\¡1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a physical and spiritual transition zone â&#x20AC;&#x201C; could act both as an introduction and homage to the art exhibition itself. Unique architectural lighting design for museum buildings is of great importance for any art collection. Of course the art exhibition space is the main focus of attention. But to create an outstanding experience, the transition zone between outside and inside can be used as an important mediator. Daylight-art-atmosphere â&#x20AC;&#x201C; these three important terms combined as one expression developed into the following research question: is it possible to interpret daylight atmospheres, captured in visual art, as a lighting design concept for a museum foyer? Daylight has a strong impact on human beings because it is essential for life and living. Our traditions, habits and cultures are strongly connected to natural light and this LQĂ XHQFHVWKHZRUOGZHOLYHLQDQGHYHU\LQGLYLGXDOSHUVRQDOO\ Since the beginning of humanity we have strived to capture DVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FGD\OLJKWDWPRVSKHUHLQYLVXDODUWVH[SUHVVLQJLW by sketches, paintings, sculptures and the more modern photographic medium. 'D\OLJKWSHUFHSWLRQDQGDWPRVSKHUH +XPDQSHUFHSWLRQRIDUW As stated by Dr Margaret Livingstone, a professor of QHXURELRORJ\DW+DUYDUG8QLYHUVLW\Âś7KHDSSHDUDQFHRIEOXH and red can change so dramatically that you might wonder ZKLFKYHUVLRQLVFRUUHFW7KHUHLVQRDEVROXWHFRUUHFWEXWLI you want to see what an artist saw while painting a picture, you should view the painting under the same level of light he ZRUNHGLQ¡27KLVPHDQVWKDWWKHJHRJUDSKLFDOORFDWLRQZKHUH the artist worked is worth considering due to the different appearances of natural light. 7KHWZRFRPSRQHQWVFRORXUDQGOXPLQDQFHFDQEHGLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOW to separate because even if the brightness is the same in terms of contrast, our visual system perceives colours differently when it comes to brightness. One example is given in the painting Impression, Soleil Levant (Impression, Sunrise) by Claude Monet (Fig 1). Our attention is driven to the perceived brighter spots in a scene, in this case the sun. Looking at the same painting in grey scale (Fig 2), it is surprising that the actual level of brightness of the grey-blue sky and the orange sun is exactly the same. Âś,W WKHVXQ DSSHDUVVREULOOLDQWWKDWLWVHHPVWRSXOVDWH¡3 7KHODFNRIOXPLQDQFHFRQWUDVWPDNHVWKHVXQGLVDSSHDUIRU that part of our visual system that processes information about movement and position. Monet was aware of this process in visual perception, which made him use the exact same amount of pigments for the different colours in his painting to create the effect of a vibrating sun â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the impression he experienced.

Fig  1:  Claude  Monet,  Impression,  Sunrise,  1872,  original Fig  2:  Painting  in  grey  scale  (Livingstone,  M.  Vision  and  art,  the   biology  of  seeing.  Abrams,  New  York,  2002)

/LJKWDQGLWVTXDOLW\5LFKDUG.HOO\¡VOLJKWLQJSULQFLSOHV 5LFKDUG.HOO\  LVEHOLHYHGWREHWKHIDWKHURI PRGHUQTXDOLWDWLYHDUFKLWHFWXUDOOLJKWLQJGHVLJQZKRGHĂ&#x20AC;QHG three basic lighting principles â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ambient luminescence, focal glow and play of brilliants â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that are still in use nowadays. Kelly describes the three principles by a mixture of observations from nature during the day and applications of DUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOOLJKWDWQLJKW57KHSULQFLSOHVFDQWKHUHIRUHEHDSSOLHG WROLJKWLQJGHVLJQZLWKQDWXUDORUDUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOOLJKWRUDFRPELQDWLRQ RIERWK7KH\FDQDOOEHGHĂ&#x20AC;QHGLQRQHDQGWKHVDPHOLJKWLQJ situation but also separately. 7KHVHSULQFLSOHVDOWKRXJKFRPLQJIURPQDWXUHDQG constantly changing through the day, were translated by Kelly into static qualities. But today, due to technological GHYHORSPHQWLQDUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOOLJKWLQJDQGOLJKWLQJFRQWUROV,ZRXOG probably consider a fourth lighting principle which could be called dynamic light. 1RZDGD\VLQWKHĂ&#x20AC;HOGRIHOHFWULFOLJKWLQJOLJKWFRQWURODQG dynamic scene setting is part of the design job. Dynamic light is always present in natural light, which is never static; changes of intensity and colour temperature DUHFRQVWDQWÂś0RVWSHRSOHGRQRWFRQVFLRXVO\UHJLVWHUWKLV change because daylight is so all-pervasive there is little GLIIHUHQWLDOUHIHUHQFH¡6


Setting the scene








6 9


7KHVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWKHWZRGLPHQVLRQDO visual art and the three-dimensional space is that the foyer gives more than just one impression. It is also necessary to FRQVLGHUDQRWKHUIDFWRUWLPHVHTXHQFH:LWKG\QDPLFOLJKWLQJ design, shifting colours and increasing brightness, the painting can become alive and the visitor is able to experience the art in a new dimension. 1LFN%UDQGW²FRQWHPSRUDU\SKRWRJUDSKHU For the exhibition of Nick Brandt, the lighting design for the foyer picks up on the visual language Brandt uses in his photographs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; layers of light, shadow and texture. 7KHVHOD\HUVRIOLJKWDQGVKDGRZFDSWXUHGLQ%UDQGW¡VDUWZRUN are interpreted by a combination of light and contrasting DUFKLWHFWXUDOHOHPHQWV'HSHQGLQJRQWKHYLVLWRU¡VSRVLWLRQ in the room, layers of bright and dark surfaces interact in different ways with each other. 0\DQDO\VLVLVEDVHGRQFRPSDULQJWKHOLJKWLQ%UDQGW¡V photographs to seven lighting techniques derived from nature DQGDSSOLHGLQDUFKLWHFWXUDOOLJKWLQJGHVLJQGHĂ&#x20AC;QHGE\'U Karolina M Zielinska-Dabkowska (Fig 8). Backlighting in the photographs is interpreted in the

Ambient Luminescence

Fig  7:  Claude  Monet,  Impression,  Sunrise,  1872,  analysed  with   Richard  Kellyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  lighting  principles


Fig  12:  Diagram  indicating  layers  of  interpretation  of  daylight  atmospheres  in  the  museum  by  artist,  lighting  designer  and  visitor

foyer as a backlit wall with diffused light. People passing by in front of the wall are reduced to silhouettes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the same effect %UDQGWKLJKOLJKWVLQKLVDUWZRUN7KHVWDJH%UDQGWFUHDWHVIRU the animals and landscapes is abstractly transformed into the movement of visitors in the gallery space but also the factor of time is considered: the picture of the stage depends on the visitors acting in the foyer space. From different positions in the foyer the visitor will experience GLIIHUHQWGLUHFWLRQVRIOLJKW7KHEDFNOLJKWLQJVKLIWVWRVLGH OLJKWLQJZLWKWKHQHZYLHZSRLQW )LJ  7RH[SHULHQFHVXQOLJKWLQ(DVW$IULFDIURPDYHU\KLJK angle creates a completely different impression of natural light compared to Berlin, where the sun is at a lower angle. 7RFKDQJHWKHOHQJWKDQGGLUHFWLRQRIWKHERG\¡VRZQVKDGRZ when entering the foyer from the external environment, a strong direct light from the ceiling can create the effect of top lighting/ downlighting (Fig 10). ,QWKHSKRWRJUDSKÂś(OHSKDQWZLWKH[SORGLQJGXVW¡WKHDLU particles are captured. A similar sense of light bouncing behind translucent surfaces in the air can also be created by smoke LQVLGHWKHIR\HU )LJ 5LFKDUG.HOO\EHOLHYHGWKDWÂś6SDFHLV nothing until interrupted. Light is invisible until interrupted by a VXUIDFHOLQHRUSRLQWWKXVPDGHYLVLEOH¡7 &RQFOXVLRQV 7KURXJKP\UHVHDUFKZRUNDQGSKRWRJUDSKLFUHVXOWVP\ conclusion is that such translations from the visual arts into a OLJKWLQJGHVLJQFRQFHSWDUHGHĂ&#x20AC;QLWHO\SRVVLEOHFUHDWLQJYDULRXV OD\HUVRILQWHUSUHWDWLRQ7KH\FRXOGVHUYHDOLJKWLQJGHVLJQHUDV well as an exhibition visitor (Fig 12). I believe that the creation of daylight atmospheres in a PXVHXP¡VIR\HUFDQOHDGWRDGHHSHUXQGHUVWDQGLQJDQG emotional connection between visitor and art.

Play  of  Brilliants

DEVWUDFWZD\7KHOLJKWLQWHQVLW\DQGWKHLQWHQVLW\RIFRORXULV dynamically decreasing and then increasing, so the effect of the pulsating sun is created by means of the architectural OLJKWLQJGHVLJQ )LJ :LWKWKHULVLQJVXQWKHEULJKWQHVVRI OLJKWZLOOLQFUHDVHLQ0RQHW¡VVFHQH7KHFRORXUWHPSHUDWXUH of natural light changes from a cold, bluish sky light and a warm orange sunlight to a more neutral white light towards the break of day.



Fig  3-­6:  Foyer  scheme  showing  dynamic  lighting  â&#x20AC;&#x201C;  pulsating  sun

3URMHFWOLJKWLQJFRQFHSWIRUIR\HURI%HUOLQDUWPXVHXP From an architectural point of view, a foyer in a museum can be seen as the link connecting outside and inside as well as a geographical location and the exhibition. 7KHOLJKWLQJGHVLJQFRQFHSWIRUWKHPXVHXP¡VIR\HUZDV developed for two different exhibitions, featuring two very different artists: Claude Monet, the impressionist painter, DQG1LFN%UDQGWDFRQWHPSRUDU\SKRWRJUDSKHU7KHIROORZLQJ lighting design concepts are based on two-dimensional SDLQWLQJSKRWRJUDSK\7KH\LQWURGXFHP\SHUVRQDOLQWHUSUHWDWLRQ of daylight atmospheres into the three-dimensional space RIWKHPXVHXP¡VIR\HU


Fig  8:  Four  of  seven  lighting  techniques  (Zielinska,  KM.  Techniques   for  enhancement  and  visual  change,  understanding  the  experience   and  effects  of  lighting  design.  PLD  Magazine,  Jan/Feb  2006)



)ULHEH,œ7KHUHODWLYLW\RIWKHVRFDOOHGUHDOLW\¡3/' magazine, Jul/Aug 2006, No 50, p57. 2. Livingstone, M. Vision and art: the biology of seeing. $EUDPV1HZ<RUNS 3. ,ELGS  Ibid. 5. 1HXPDQQQ'7KHVWUXFWXUHRIOLJKW5LFKDUG.HOO\DQG the illumination of modern architecture. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2010, p31. 6. .HOO\5œ/LJKWLQJDVDQ,QWHJUDO3DUWRI$UFKLWHFWXUH¡ &ROOHJH$UW-RXUQDO9RO1RS 7. Kelly R. Statement to Mrs Edward Emerson, editor of the Bulletin, after a talk at the Garden Club of America )RUXPLQ1HZ<RUN&LW\1RY

<RXQJ/LJKWHURIWKH<HDU -DQQD$URQVRQ57/' Daylight-Art-Atmosphere %HVWZULWWHQSDSHU VSRQVRUHGE\WKH,/3  Veronika Labancova, Isometrix ,PSDFWRIWKHDJHLQJLQĂ XHQFHRQOLJKWTXDOLW\ perception by human beings %HVWSUHVHQWDWLRQ James Duff, Arup An objective metric to determine subjective lighting adequacy? 7KH<RXQJ/LJKWHURIWKH<HDUĂ&#x20AC;QDOZDVKHOGDW LuxLive, ExCel on 20 November




Measure for measure

Artful illumination The Lux Award-winning Reid Building at the GSA is a study in lighting technique

3PNO[PUNTL[YPJZPZHRL`[VWPJĂ&#x201E;UKZ0HPU Carlile, along with circadian rhythms, road lighting and daylight Light distribution is an important element in creating interest, HQKDQFLQJVDIHW\DQGLQĂ XHQFLQJEHKDYLRXU\HWLWLVDOLWWOH researched variable. In his editorial, Boyce calls for more research to be undertaken into this area, suggesting possible funding by large-scale end users. Discussions on daylighting standards are currently concerned with replacing daylight factors with climate-based GD\OLJKWPRGHOOLQJ &%'0 QRWHV7UHJHQ]DLQKLVRSLQLRQ Instead of concentrating on numerical methods, daylight simulation should be investigating new, non-numerical measures, he argues, providing the power to look at varying luminance patterns, extreme values and complex control systems behaviour, providing a creative tool for daylight design. )ROORZLQJRQIURPODVW\HDU¡V/5 76\PSRVLXP%R\FHDQG Smet look at the desirable attributes of a metric, summarise proposed new lighting metrics, and consider whether they may lead to better lighting if adopted. Barroso et al propose a set of metrics for characterising lighting conditions from a circadian perspective, with a direct application in clinical studies investigating light and health. In the same area, Bellia et al evaluate the circadian impact of DOLJKWVRXUFHE\SUHGLFWLQJFLUFDGLDQVWLPXOXV &6 7KH\IRXQG that above 600 lux the CS increase is small, while between 50OX[DQLQFUHDVHRIOX[FDXVHVDVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWULVH6RXUFHV EHWZHHQ.DQG.KDGVLPLODUHIIHFWV :DQJHWDOORRNDWWKHHIIHFWRIG\QDPLFFRORXUHGOLJKWRQD SHUVRQ¡VSHUFHSWLRQRIDWPRVSKHUH'LIIHUHQWYDULDEOHVFUHDWHG different perceived atmospheres, they discovered, and they also found marked gender differences for some of the scales used. 7RDSSO\WKH&,(V\VWHPIRUPHVRSLFSKRWRPHWU\IRUURDGV \RXQHHGWRGHĂ&#x20AC;QHWKHUHOHYDQWYLVXDOĂ&#x20AC;HOGDQGDGDSWDWLRQ luminance in night-time driving conditions. Investigating the visual DGDSWDWLRQĂ&#x20AC;HOGRIWKUHHSDUWLFLSDQWVLQOLWDQGXQOLWVHFWLRQVRI URDG&HQJL]HWDOIRXQGDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHYLVXDOĂ&#x20AC;HOGUHVXOWHG in a decrease in the variation in the mean luminance. Also on road lighting, Davoudian et al studied the effects of disability glare from veiling luminance. Using a target detection WDVNWKHOXPLQDQFHFRQWUDVWWKUHVKROGRIVXEMHFWVZDV PHDVXUHG'HVSLWHDVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWHIIHFWRQSHUIRUPDQFHWKHHIIHFW of veiling luminance was lower than expected from contrast loss. 7KHUHFDQEHODUJHGLIIHUHQFHVLQGD\WLPHKRUL]RQWDO illuminance levels between external and internal spaces. For people with special lighting requirements, such as the elderly, WKLVGLVSDULW\FDQEHDÂśYLVLRQEDUULHU¡/DVDJQRHWDOIRXQGWKDW ROGHUSHRSOH¡VYLVXDODGDSWDWLRQZDVVORZHUZKLFKPD\PDNH WKHPPRUHSURQHWRWULSSLQJRYHUREVWDFOHV7KHLUĂ&#x20AC;QGLQJV suggest the design of transitional spaces needs to consider removing visual barriers, taking into account factors such as the XVHUV¡DJHFOLPDWHEXLOGLQJRULHQWDWLRQDQGVSDWLDOFRPSOH[LW\ Becker and Becker propose a sky vault, intended for use LQGD\OLJKWDYDLODELOLW\DQGHQHUJ\EXGJHWHVWLPDWLRQV7KHLU sky vault model has 20,000 cells making it suitable for use in massive computational assessments. Nehdi et al investigate the dimming of an HPS lamp through


WKHXVHRIDYDULDEOHIUHTXHQF\EDOODVW7KHLUH[SHULPHQWV showed a 50 per cent dimming level could be achieved with stable operation and no observed acoustic resonance. 0HDQZKLOH1VLELHWDOLQYHVWLJDWHGWKHEHKDYLRXURID: HPS lamp with a pulsed power supply in order to improve the ODPSOLJKWTXDOLW\7KHLUVWXG\VKRZHGWKHHPLWWHGVSHFWUXPRI the lamp could be widened, offering an improvement to the CRI. Cai et al demonstrate a novel LED bicycle headlamp with DVSHFLDOO\GHVLJQHGUHĂ HFWRUWRSURYLGHDSSURSULDWHWDUJHW illuminance, meeting the K-mark regulation, while also providing additional ground illuminance . ,DLQ&DUOLOH06//LVDQDVVRFLDWHRI'3$/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ Lighting Research and Technology Vol 46, No 5, Oct 2014 Contents Editorial: Light distribution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a missing variable Peter Boyce Opinion: Climate-based daylight modelling or daylight factor? Peter Tregenza /5 76\PSRVLXPÂś%HWWHUPHWULFVIRUEHWWHUOLJKWLQJ¡²D summary PR Boyce and KAG Smet Metrics of circadian lighting for clinical investigations A Barroso, K Simons and P de Jager ,QGRRUDUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOOLJKWLQJ3UHGLFWLRQRIWKHFLUFDGLDQHIIHFWV of different spectral power distributions L Bellia, A Pedace and G Barbato A study of atmosphere perception of dynamic coloured light HH Wang, M Ronnier Luo, P Liu, Y Yang, Z Zheng and X Liu Combined eye-tracking and luminance measurements while driving on a rural road: towards determining mesopic adaptation luminance C Cengiz, H Kotkanen, M Puolakka, O Lappi, E Lehtonen, L Halonen and H Summala Disability glare: a study in simulated road lighting conditions N Davoudian, P Raynham and E Barrett 7UDQVLWLRQDOVSDFHVIURPH[WHULRUWRLQWHULRUDVIXQFWLRQDO vision barriers in ageing CM Lasagno, LA Issolio, AE Pattini and EM Colombo Sky vault partition for computing daylight availability and shortwave energy budget on an urban scale B Beckers and P Beckers Dimming control by variation of the switching frequency for high-intensity discharge lamps MN Nehdi, H Elloumi, W Nsibi, A Chammam, A Sellami and G Zissis Behaviour of a high-pressure sodium lamp fed by a pulsed power supply W Nsibi, MN Nehdi, A Chammam, H Elloumi, A Sellami and G Zissis 'HVLJQRIDKLJKO\HIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQW/('EDVHGELF\FOHKHDGODPS with additional ground illumination J-Y Cai, Y-C Lo, S-T Feng and C-C Sun

A new addition to the Glasgow School of Art, the Reid Building, opposite the renowned Mackintosh building, has two basement VWRUH\VDQGĂ&#x20AC;YHVXSHUVWUXFWXUHOHYHOVDQGLQFOXGHVDVHULHV of double-height studios, lecture theatres and workshops. An extensive use of natural light and a daylight-linked control system have contributed to the building gaining a BREEAM Excellent rating. $UXSZDVUHVSRQVLEOHIRUERWKWKHDUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOOLJKWLQJVFKHPH and daylighting advice, providing technical support for the daylighting design, which was a crucial consideration in the studio and workshop spaces. *ODUHDQGUHĂ HFWLRQVWXGLHVZHUHDOVRFDUULHGRXW$UXS assessed the environmental impact and the effect of the new JODVVIDFDGHRQQHLJKERXULQJEXLOGLQJVSDUWLFXODUO\WKHĂ&#x20AC;QHDUW studios in the Mackintosh building. 7KHIRUPRIWKHEXLOGLQJPDGHWKHDUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOOLJKWLQJVFKHPH FKDOOHQJLQJ7KHIDFWWKDWFHLOLQJVDUHKLJKDQGDOVRDQJOHG PDGHLWGLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOWWRDFKLHYHDQHYHQOLJKWGLVWULEXWLRQDVURRP KHLJKWVYDU\IURPRQHVLGHWRWKHRWKHU7KHVROXWLRQZDV DVHULHVRIEHVSRNHĂ&#x20AC;WWLQJVZKLFKQRWRQO\DFKLHYHGWKH appropriate light distribution and output â&#x20AC;&#x201C; while keeping energy usage down â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but also met the minimal aesthetic brief. 7KHH[WHUQDOOLJKWLQJLVODUJHO\GHSHQGHQWRQWKHODQWHUQ HIIHFWH[SORLWLQJWKHYDULRXVWUDQVSDUHQFLHVRIWKHEXLOGLQJ¡V cladding system. After dark, the ambient light allows the activity inside to be visible and for the movement of the occupants to animate the facade.


3URMHFW Reid Building, Glasgow School of Art /LJKWLQJGHVLJQArup $UFKLWHFWSteven Holl Architects $ZDUGEducation and Healthcare Lighting Project of the Year


2015 27  January 2EWUXVLYHOLJKW   QDYLJDWLQJWKHFRPSOLDQFHPLQH¿HOG (ILP  training  course) Venue:  BRE,  Watford ZZZEUHFRXNHYHQWGHWDLOVMVS"LG  29  January SLL  Masterclass:  Light  for  Life Location:  St  Jamesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  Park,   Newcastle  upon  Tyne 10  February CIBSE  Building  Performance  Awards   2015  (including  new  lighting  category) 9HQXH*URVYHQRU+RXVH Park  Lane,  London  W1 ZZZFLEVHRUJESD 10-­12  February Light  School  at  the  Surface  Design  Show 2UJDQLVHGE\/LJKW&ROOHFWLYHDQG supported  by  the  ILP) Venue:  Business  Design  Centre     Islington,  London  N1 ZZZVXUIDFHGHVLJQVKRZFRPOLJKWVFKRRO 24  February How  to  be  Brilliant  with: Florence  Lam,  global  lighting  leader,  Arup   ,/3HYHQW

Venue:  ACDC  Lighting  Studio,  London  N1 Time:  6.30pm

19  March Lighting  Design  Awards Venue:  London  Hilton,  Park  Lane KWWSDZDUGVOLJKWLQJFRXN

14  May SLL  Masterclass:  Light  for  Life Location:  Royal  Society  of  Arts,  London

23  March How  to  be  Brilliant  with: Michael  Grubb,  Michael  Grubb  Studio ,/3HYHQW

Venue:  ACDC  Lighting  Studio,  London  N1 Time:  6.30pm

21  May SLL  AGM  and  Awards Venue:  RIBA,  66  Portalnd  Place,     London  W1

24  March Ready  Steady  Light Location:  Rose  Bruford  College   Sidcup,  Kent 26  March SLL  Masterclass:  Light  for  Life Location:  Edinburgh  Castle,  Edinburgh

29-­31  May UG,QWHUQDWLRQDO&RQIHUHQFHRI$UWL¿FLDO Light  at  Night  (ALAN  2015) Location:  Sherbrooke,  Quebec,  Canada ZZZDUWL¿FLDOOLJKWDWQLJKWRUJ Lighting  Masterclasses:   Masterclasses  are  kindly   VSRQVRUHGE\+HOYDU3KLOLSV   Thorn  and  Trilux   )RUYHQXHVDQGERRNLQJGHWDLOV  

30  April SLL  Masterclass:  Light  for  Life Location:  Watershed,  Bristol

26  February SLL  Masterclass:  Light  for  Life Location:  Leeds  City  Museum,  Leeds Until  1  March 24:00:00 Foyer  exhibition  curated  and  hosted  by   Arup  on  light  and  light  technology     in  the  modern  world Venue:  Arup,  Fitzroy  St,  London  W1

LET  Diploma  (in  association  with  London   6RXWK%DQN8QLYHUVLW\ DGYDQFHG TXDOL¿FDWLRQE\GLVWDQFHOHDUQLQJ'HWDLOV from  or   email

10  March <HDUVRI)UHVQHOZK\HYHU\WKLQJ   we  light  and  look  at  today  depends     on  what  he  said 6//HYHQW

Venue:  Royal  Institution,  London  W1 11  March Fundamental  Lighting  Course (Organised  by  the  ILP) Venue:  Regent  House,  Rugby

Mid  Career  College:  the  college     UXQVYDULRXVFRXUVHVDFURVVWKH   whole  spectrum  of  lighting  and  at     sites  across  the  UK.  Full  details  at   10  March:  200  Years  of  Fresnel  (SLL  event),   Royal  Institution,  London  W1

LIF  courses:  details  from  John Hugill,  0208  529  6909,  or  email

SLL Jan/Feb 2015