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Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

July/August 2019

DARKNESS, MY OLD FRIEND Measuring the impact of LED on light pollution and the night sky GLOBAL CELEBRATION Around the world with this year’s Lighting Design Awards STAGE RIGHT The ups and downs of life on the road as a lighting designer


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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal


The arrival of LED has brought with it great advances in how we illuminate our roads, towns and cities. What is less clear is the impact this is having on light pollution and our ability to study the night sky, as Chris Baddiley outlines in the first of a two-part series




This year’s 43rd Lighting Design Awards celebrated stunning projects and innovative individuals from around the world, including a Presbyterian church in Ealing in London


The government has this year toughened up the WEEE recycling regulations. Nigel Harvey outlines this makes it even more important lighting professionals stay on top of how to dispose of and recycle lighting products


Solar power is increasingly able to provide a low-maintenance alternative energy supply for street lighting. But, as Chris Angell argues, to be viable in low sunshine regions like the UK it is imperative it is well designed




A solar powered ground lighting system designed by the Lakeside Group is helping to protect a rare colony of bats in the cathedral city of Worcester


Upgrading an internal space to LED can bring impressive results, as a hotel project in Cologne has shown. But it is also beholden on a lighting designer fully to explain the technical challenges that may come with the project



Finding an appropriate retrofit LED street lighting solution that offers the right colour temperature can be a challenge in any heritage environment. When it came to Bath’s historic Sydney Buildings area, it was a case of try, try and try again



A new LED lighting scheme has transformed Nottingham’s iconic Council House





Lighting huge stage shows for the likes of Gary Numan, Jessie J and Jacob Collier can be exhilarating. But, as Luke Edwards explains, it is also a world of intense pressure

More of us are turning to the convenience of storing data in the Cloud. But it is important to understand the risks, outline Howard Crossman and George Elliman, especially who ‘owns’ what when a business goes bust

The latest IET Wiring Regulations came out in January and it is important for lighting professionals, and contractors, to be fully up to speed


The Louvre, Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates, with a light scheme by BuroHappold Engineering, winner of the Daylight Project of the Year in this year’s Lighting Design Awards. For the full list of winners, turn to page 16

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Editor’s letter

Volume 84 No 7 July/August 2019 President Anthony Smith IEng FILP Chief Executive Tracey White Editor Nic Paton BA (Hons) MA Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Kevin Dugdale BA (Hons) IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD Nathan French Jess Gallacher (ILP engagement and communications manager) John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng FILP Lora Kaleva MSc Assoc IALD Nigel Parry IEng FILP Georgia Thomas (YLP rep) BA (Hons) Paul Traynor Richard Webster Graphic Designer Sacha Robinson-Forster BA (Hons) Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website: Produced by

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website: © ILP 2019 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.


he ILP needs to get bolder and braver in how it communicates and collaborates; in how it promotes itself externally as an advocate and standards’ ‘gatekeeper’ for the industry. That, for me at least, was the central message I took away from incoming President Anthony Smith’s maiden speech at last month’s Professional Lighting Summit in Newcastle upon Tyne. Anthony’s presentation highlighted the changing highway lighting landscape, particularly within local authorities – as we showed in our reporting of the ILP/Carbon Reduction Technology National Lighting Survey in the June edition. While he emphasised that the ‘broad church’ approach of the ILP over the past decade or so has undoubtedly been a success, and necessary, in terms of expanding the reach and profile of the Institution and its membership, it was also important to celebrate and communicate core strengths. As Anthony put it: ‘I think we need to stop being afraid to say that we are also very good at highway lighting. We’re still one of the best Institutions in the world for highway lighting with our excellent technical documentation, which is referenced all over the world. With the Exterior Lighting Diploma, we’ve had students from Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Africa, Holland and Bahrain.’ As this edition of Lighting Journal was due to go to press immediately following the Summit, this is only the briefest of snapshots of Anthony’s presentation. We’ll bring you a fuller version of both his speech and that of (now) Immediate Past President Colin Fish, as well as much else from this year’s Summit, in the September edition. So do keep an eye out for that. For me, however, what Anthony said was important because it highlighted the job he evidently still feels need to be done in terms of bringing the ILP – its authority, value and excellence – to wider audiences, both lighting and non-lighting. This, of course, isn’t a new presidential message, and Anthony emphasised he wanted to build on the positive work done in this area by Colin and presidents before him. But it is nevertheless an important one to reiterate. Hopefully, the new Lighting Delivery Centre national structure and National CPD Curriculum, both also formally launched in Newcastle, can be a springboard to accelerating and progressing this evolution. And Lighting Journal will continue to do its best to play its part; to spread the word about excellence in lighting – highway, public realm, architectural and lighting design – and giving you, ILP members, the voice and profile you deserve.

Nic Paton Editor


ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP online, through Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

DARKNESS, MY OLD FRIEND LED has brought great advances in how we illuminate our roads, towns and cities. What is less clear is the impact this is having on light pollution and our ability to see, and study, the night sky. In the first of a two-part series, Chris Baddiley outlines the findings of a project modelling how LED is affecting the night-time environment in the Malvern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty


By Chris Baddiley


his is the first of two articles looking at the impact on astronomy in the rural UK of light pollution from artificial lighting, and in particular the conversion of road lighting to blue rich LEDs. The sky’s brightness in dark areas is not limited by control zones, as it is affected by towns and cities way beyond the horizon. Highways England has a policy for lighting specification on motorways. This is a categorised environmental impact point system of ‘summed brightness’ as a function of angle from vertically down to the cut-off angle [1]. When introduced, this policy had no Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) limitation. However, the introduction of blue rich colour CCT of 4000K to 6000K road lighting could increase skyglow significantly compared with CCT 3000K or lesser types, if the blue content reaches the sky. To that

end, the International Dark Sky Association issued public warnings after an extensive expert study in 2012, advising reduction of CCT to below 3000K [2]. The British Astronomical Association’s (BAA) Commission for Dark Skies has for many years advocated ‘star quality’ well-directed lighting, where and when needed. We work in educating the public, influencing government departments, lighting designers, the lighting industry, while myself contributing to international conferences on artificial light pollution measurement and limitation [3]. The aim of this is to allow the public, especially the younger generation, to be inspired by seeing the Milky Way and starry skies. The stars of the heavens above are all our heritage; the night sky is the ultimate Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and Site of Special Scientific Interest, yet it has no protection in law.


The background night-sky brightness in the absence of any artificial lighting is from airglow. It is principally caused by recombination of atoms in the Earth’s upper atmosphere at night, previously photo-ionised by daytime sunlight [4]. At all times there is luminescence by cosmic rays striking the upper atmosphere and also chemical luminescence, mostly by oxygen and nitrogen reacting with hydroxyl ions at hundreds of kilometres altitude (green). This peaks at 20 degrees above the horizon where there is maximum molecular dominated clear atmospheric depth; it is rarely seen in the UK because of artificial lighting.


There are two principal types of atmospheric scattering. The clear daylight sky

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

overhead is blue from scattering by air molecules, because of the electrostatic dipole nature of air molecules resulting in a resonance with electromagnetic radiation at increasingly high optical and ultraviolet frequencies. This process is called ‘Rayleigh scattering’ and is very colour dependent, varying with light wavelength as the reciprocal to the fourth power [5]. So, blue light at half the wavelength of red light has 16 times more molecular scattering. It is equally forwards and backwards and somewhat less sideways with respect to the source, and reduces with altitude because of the reduction in atmospheric pressure. Essentially, it is why the daytime overhead sky is blue, and the same applies at night from artificial sources. The other types of scattering are from aerosols, water droplets and dust in the atmosphere, which are very much larger than air molecules. This is what is called ‘Mie scattering’ and is not colour dependent. It is dominant in the lower atmosphere because of the concentration of aerosols in the lower layers. This is the reason that, towards the horizon, the day sky is always whiter than above. Mie scattering is predominantly forwards and a little backwards with very little sideways for single scattering, but is very dependent on the size of the aerosols [6]. This is also why light pollution is always greater towards the horizon in the direction of the light sources and is the principal component for scattering seen as light domes over towns.

7 p Figure 1. Gamma angle photometry polar diagram at C angles 0, optimum, and 90o, for AMPERA LED luminaire


The angular distribution of the light from external luminaires is critical in what reaches the sky. Older types of lights, particularly the orange low pressure sodium (LPS) designs, were not well controlled, with a significant fraction directly reaching the sky. Over the previous decade, high pressure sodium (HPS) with its pinkish colour was widely introduced, though it is of course now being phased out. Shallow glass or polycarbonate bowls were often used to contain these lights, themselves causing significant upward light. Only flat glass, mounted horizontally, had zero upward light ratio (ULR). Flat glass types sometimes resulted in patchy illumination, but this could be avoided by using higher columns. It was a study of this that caused the author to write a source luminaire-dependent sky luminance computer modelling program around 2007 [7].

p Figure 2. C angle photometry polar diagram at stepped gamma angles, for AMPERA LED luminaire

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

Most LED designs are just downward pointing, so any light that reaches the sky from them is reflected off the ground. An asphalt road, for example, may have a normal incidence reflectivity of less than 8%, while green vegetation such as grass verges can be higher, but that depends on the source spectrum (and see later for more on this). A significant fraction of road lighting goes on to areas that are not the road.



Astronomically, with the introduction of HPS, narrow-band spectrum filtering out of sodium became no longer effective. Partial HPS blocking filters helped reduce the visual background slightly for viewing and for astronomical imaging. In recent years, many road and amenity luminaires have of course been replaced with LED lighting. As the LEDs are mounted in groups, with each being small sources with built-in optical lenses, they are potentially well directed. They are far more efficient in luminance than the older types of luminaire and so save energy and running costs for the same brightness. But they also often run at higher brightness levels than previous designs. The most commonly installed CCT (>5000K) LED lighting has the highest efficacy, with the blue-type phosphors in the LEDs closely matching the peak darkadapted human eye response, and even closer to the circadian rhythm response receptors; this is at low light levels where colour vision is only just partial. At full daylight levels, the human eye has little sensitivity in the blue; at low light levels towards monochrome vision the opposite is true. If any blue light gets to the sky, then the scattering is much greater than that from LPS and HPS sources. With good directional control, there is no need for light to get directly to sky. The upward component off the ground from roads and verges in rural areas will be small, as blue light is not reflected well by vegetation, where the maximum reflectivity is in the green-yellow spectral region and not blue or red. The latter is where photosynthesis operates, so all vegetation is very dark in red light, while bright in the near infrared where sunlight heating is rejected. It is reflected from concrete surfaces in towns and so on.


As part of my work with BAA, I modelled atmospheric scattering skyglow from

u Figure 3. Upward reflection AMPERA LED luminaire used in Herfordshire relighting. Orange across road, green at maxium throw C angle, for both Lambertian simple scattering and specular fractioned components

p Figure 4. Human eye-relative spectral response at photopic through mesopic to scotopic light levels. Key: Photopic = green, Mesopic (0.25 on scale Photopic 1, Scotopic 0) = green-grey, Scotopic = grey

t Figure 5. Sourcerelative power spectra for LPS, HPS, and 6000K CCT LED. Key: LPS = orange, HPS = light-orange, LED CCT 6000K = blue

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

p Figure 6. Eye photopic-relative spectral response derived from the power spectra of LPS, HPS, and 6000K CCT LED

p Figure 7. Eye mesopic-relative spectral response derived from the power spectra of LPS, HPS, and 6000K CCT LED

p Figure 8. Model comparison sky spectral mesopic eye response at 5nm spectral resolution, for Zenith angles 90o (= solid lines) and -45o (= dashed lines). Key colours as before. The luminaires have the same photopic integrated illuminance on the ground. LPS (SOX), HPS (SON) polycarbonate bowl, and AMPERA LED at CCT 6000K. This model is for an asphalt road with grass verges, 16km meteorological visibility, single scattering

different road lighting designs, using manufacturer luminaire photometry file data. This was for a rural or semi-rural location where light is reflected off roads with vegetation borders and includes any direct components. The original modelling was for comparison of shallow bowl, HPS with flat glass. The computer program was extended to compare selectable optical configurations and selectable integrated luminaire spectral content perceived by the human eye at different light levels. This included LEDs over a range of CCTs [8]. In more detail, the program takes manufacturers’ photometry files for types of luminaires and ray traces principal rays to the ground according to spectral reflectivity, and with scatter reflection back to the sky. This includes any luminaire direct upward components for each principal relevant upward direction. This is done for the illumination of the atmosphere at intervals along selected atmospheric view paths for a distant viewer at a range of view elevations, or from a stepped set of view distances with the same slant view path. Each sample section sets the angle of illumination from the source. The Rayleigh molecular scattering phase function and also Mie aerosol particle scattering phase functions for each section are applied to get the component into the view direction, dependent on the altitude-dependent atmospheric molecular and aerosol density. This is then integrated along the viewing path for scattering in and out with density, aerosol density and particle size specified. Single scattering for good clear nights is assumed. Most atmospheric light pollution algorithms are based on the pioneering work of Garstang in the 1970s [9]. The program is, of course, a gross simplification of the complexity of the three-dimensional multiple scattering case, which is impractical without parallel processing supercomputers. Even so, relative comparisons of optical and spectral design can be made. Figures 1 and 2 show gamma and C angle light distribution for the luminaires used in the Herefordshire relighting scheme. Figure 3 shows the scattering to the sky for a road and verge in a rural or semi-rural environment, through modelling the effective bidirectional reflectance distribution function. Orange is across road, green at maximum throw C angle, for both Lambertian simple scattering and specular fractioned components. The colour effect tracing scattering program integrates through discrete spectral intervals, following the spectral power density distribution and low light level eye


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

spectral response, spectral ground reflection and atmospheric scattering to obtain relative integrated values. Example plots for spectral source and eye response at daylight and low light levels are shown in figures 4 to 7.


p Figure 9. Model comparison sky luminance for -45o zenith angle as a function of viewing distance. The luminaires here have the same integrated illuminance on the ground. This model is for an asphalt road with grass verges. Key: LPS SOX = orange, HPS (SON, class G4), polycarbonate bowl = light-orange, AMPERA LED type 05 = grey, and type 08 = blue, used in the Herefordshire relighting scheme. (All in absence of any other contribution)


p Figure 10. Model comparison sky luminance versus viewing zenith angle; -90o is toward the luminaire, 0o is zenith, and 90o is horizon viewing in the opposite horizon. The luminaires here have the same integrated illuminance on the ground. The model is for an asphalt road with grass verges. Key: nominal flat spectrum in SOX type enclosure = grey, LPS (SOX) = orange, HPS (SON) polycarbonate bowl = light-orange. The rest are the AMPERA LED designs used in the Herefordshire relighting scheme = green-grey and light-blue. Reference distance 10km. (All in absence of any other contribution)


The Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) in April called for ‘action’ to tackle light pollution and enable more people to enjoy the beauty of the night sky following the publication of its 2019 Star Count survey, writes Nic Paton. A record 2,300 people took part in the count, which ran for the first three weeks of February. The survey revealed that just 2% of participants were able to experience the wonder of a truly dark sky full of stars because of the impact of light pollution caused by street lighting and other artificial lights, even in the countryside. More than half (57%) failed to see more than ten stars. In contrast, only 9% experienced ‘dark skies’, counting between 21 and 30 stars, and just 2% experienced ‘truly dark

skies’ and were able to count more than 30 stars – half the proportion able to do so during the previous Star Count in 2014. Emma Marrington, CPRE dark skies campaigner, said: ‘Light doesn’t respect boundaries, and careless use can see it spread for miles from towns, cities, businesses and motorways, resulting in the loss of one of the countryside’s most magical sights – a dark, starry night sky. ‘By using well-designed lighting only when and where it is needed, investing in street light dimming schemes and considering part-night lighting – which should of course be done in consultation with the local community and police – councils have a fantastic opportunity to limit the damage caused by light pollution, reduce carbon emissions and save money.’

In 2015, with the introduction of LED re-lighting throughout Herefordshire, Malvern Hills Conservators (Worcestershire County Council), commissioned me to do modelling of the expected night-time environmental impact on Malvern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (MHAONB). That was done using manufacturer’s photometry information for the luminaires comparing with standard HPS. The spectral ground and atmospheric scattering overall effect was along a range of zenith angle viewpaths at 10km from a single source; it is shown in figure 8. The effect at 45 degrees viewpath with distance is shown in figure 9. Finally, at 10km again a relative comparison is shown for LPS SOX, HPS, and LEDs used in Herefordshire relighting, for the same ground illuminance below the luminaires. See figure 10 for this. Independently, the model was extended to compare HPS shallow polycarbonate bowl types, with LEDs of CCT 3000K, 4500K and 6000K with the same sharp full cut-off optical design used in the Herefordshire relighting, to look at the integrated spectral effect. The spectral power density was integrated to the same source ground-eye photopic illuminance level but using the eye mesopic response after scattering in the sky. The relative spectral power density skyglow was calculated as a function of viewing zenith angle, showing the effect of the blue enhancement. The steps and results are shown in figures 11 to 14, in the arrangement of those shown previously.


The backscatter from LPS SOX or HPS shallow bowls is not present for HPS flat glass luminaires or for the LEDs. HPS were found to be significantly light polluting just from their optimum output peaks in the mesopic spectrum region; also from the emissions of polycarbonate bowls with their upward light ratio (ULR) of about 0.47%. The LPS SOX modelled at ULR 7.9%, which have very poor optical control. The Herefordshire scheme design had ULR 0.1% when horizontally mounted, that is when not tilted 5 degrees to 10 degrees on retrofit poles. The effect of tilt has been modelled and is significant. For rural and semi-urban

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

p Figure 11. Comparison sources spectral power distribution at 5nm spectral resolution. Key: HPS = light-orange, and the rest are LEDs at CCT 3000K = green-grey, 4500K = light-green and 6000K = light-blue. Here set the same at 580nm for reference with LPS


t Figure 12. Model

comparison sources times eye response; mesopic spectral illuminance (set as 0.25 between scotopic 0, and photopic 1), at 5nm resolution. For HPS, LEDs at CCTs 3000K, 4500K and 6000K. Colour coding as previous

areas, the LEDs only produce scatter reflection off the dark asphalt roads and bordering green vegetation, filtering out the blue content from reaching the sky, so the effects from rural road illumination overall, are small. The effect of LED colour temperature is in line with International Dark Sky Association concerns of enhanced light pollution from high CCT, compared with 3000K.

In the case of the Herefordshire luminaires, a possible reduction in skyglow over the MHAONB from the new installation light pollution contribution was predicted, because of the exceptionally well directed beams of the LEDs. On the very darkest of nights, at zenith only, that was the case. But this is only a small fraction of the skyglow compared with that from distant towns and cities,

including beyond the horizon, which is greatly increasing, as I will show in the second article in this series. The worst is poorly directed LED lighting from tilted luminaires, such as in carparks or privately installed security lighting. Any blue light to the sky produces a lot of scattering. All this is very dependent on weather conditions, especially distant cloud level, will again be seen in the next article.

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

t Figure 13. Model comparison sky spectral eye response at 5nm spectral resolution, for Zenith angles 90o and -45o. The luminaires have the same photopic integrated illuminance on the ground. LPS (SOX), HPS (SON) polycarbonate bowl, and LEDs at CCTs 3000K, 4500K and 6000K. Colour coding as previous. Zenith angle 0 o = solid, -45o = dotted. The model is for an asphalt road with grass verges, 16km meteorological visibility, single scattering


Finally, it is worth ILP members being aware that in 2020 a new light pollution control law takes effect in France which will be very rigorous concerning light levels, glare, upward light ratios, and dimming requirements in early hours [10]. The excess scattering resulting from poor cut-off angle and blue rich LED lighting on night-time sky brightness has recently been recognised by the European lighting industry (2019). This includes strict cut-off control, and the postulated introduction of a luminaire- and sensor-integrated colour classification system based on human eye response related astronomical visual perception logarithmic magnitude scale, with restrictions in mind [11]. Ultimately, it is clear that we have the technology to restore rural starry skies, but will it happen? Chris Baddiley is science advisor to the BAA Commission for Dark Skies

p Figure 14. Model comparison sky luminance versus viewing zenith angle; -90o is toward the luminaire, 0o is zenith, and 90o is horizon viewing in the opposite horizon. The luminaires here have the same integrated illuminance on the ground. The model is for an asphalt road with grass verges. Key: nominal flat spectrum in SOX type enclosure = grey, LPS (SOX) = orange, HPS (SON) = light-orange. The rest are LEDs at CCT 3000K = light brown, 4500K = green-grey, 6000K = light-blue. Reference distance 10km. (All in absence of any other contribution)

REFERENCES [1] British standards on road lighting BS5489 and EN 13201 [2] ‘Visibility, environmental, and astronomical issues associated with blue-rich white outdoor lighting’. International Dark Sky Association. IDA. 2010. ida-issues-new-standards-on-blue-light at-night/ [3] The British Astronomical Association Commission for Dark skies. www.britastro. org/dark-skies/ [4] ‘Airglow’, [5] ‘Rayleigh scattering’

wiki/Rayleigh_scattering [6] ‘Mie scattering’ Mie_scattering [7] Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Light Pollution, (revised 1994). Institution of Lighting Professionals. free-resources/ilp-guidance-notes/ [8] Baddiley, C, Light pollution modelling, and measurements at Malvern Hills AONB, of county conversion to blue rich LEDs, 2018-11-02 JQSRT [9] Garstang R H, Model for Artificial Night-Sky Illumination, Pub. Astron. Soc.

Pacific 98, 364 (1986). article/10.1086/131768 [10] texte [11] Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Road Lighting and Traffic Signals, JRC Science for Policy Report, European Commission, 2019. susproc.jrc. signs/docs/JRC115406_eugpp_road_lighting_technical_report.pdf

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

The 2019 Lighting Design Awards



From Melbourne to Prague, China to Japan and beyond, this year’s 43rd Lighting Design Awards celebrated stunning projects and innovative individuals from around the world, not to mention a Presbyterian church in Ealing By Nic Paton


n iconic Melbourne landmark, a church in London’s Ealing, an up-and-coming Californian practice, and the veteran Czech lighting designer behind the National Gallery in Prague and the Tiffany Gallery in New York were all winners at this year’s Lighting Design Awards in May. The 2019 awards – the 43rd – had a truly global feel, with projects from China, Australia, the UK, Japan and Taiwan all being celebrated. In all, awards were made in 18 categories, some of them new for this year – and the full list of winners is published over these four pages – while once again ‘40under40’ designers to watch gained recognition. The Publishers’ Lifetime Achievement

Award went to Eva Jiřičná who, the ‘selectors’ said, was a ‘truly outstanding architect who puts light at the heart of all her work’. Her canon of project credits includes pioneering interiors for Lloyd’s of London with Richard Rogers, era-defining store designs for Joseph, ‘stunning creations of light and glass’ in her native Czech Republic, including the National Gallery in Prague, and, more recently, the triumph of the Tiffany Gallery in New York. As the selectors concluded, her projects ‘innovate with light and materials in extraordinary ways’.


Another big winner on the night was Australian design studio Electrolight, which

was named Lighting Design Practice of the Year. The studio, founded in Melbourne in 2004, has grown to include studios in Sydney, San Francisco and its sister studio in London (and ILP member), 18 Degrees. The practice’s objective is ‘to help create meaningful places and spaces which foster individuality, build a sense of community and enhance both the built and natural environment’, said the judges. Electrolight and its subsidiaries also won in three other categories. Its CityLink Sound Tube in Melbourne was winner of the night’s Public Realm and Landscape category award. Designed more than 20 years ago, the CityLink Sound Tube on the city’s busy CityLink-Tullamarine corridor is recog-

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

t Far left: The Louvre, Abu Dhabi, by BuroHappold Engineering, winner of Daylight Project of the Year. Photo by Thomas Drouault t Left: The New Shanghai Theatre, Shanghai, China, by Unolai Lighting Design + Associates, winner of Leisure Project of the Year. Photo by Pedro Pegenaute

p Above: A project supplied by Mike Stoane Lighting, winner of Supplier of the Year

t Left: The International Presbyterian Church in Ealing, west London, by 18 Degrees, winner of Heritage Project of the Year. Photo by Tom Lee

nised as an iconic Melbourne landmark. The selectors praised Electrolight’s vision for the scheme, which has transformed the Sound Tube at night by highlighting its architectural features through the use of concealed light fittings that enhance the repetitive structural language of the architecture, washing light up the vertical face of the girder beams from both sides. As they concluded: ‘The subtle and seamlessly integrated lighting design achieved the aspirations of both client and lighting designer and breathes new life into an ageing structure. Close collaboration with the electrical contractor and luminaire supplier was important as much thought was given to maintenance and control. LED strips were cut to lengths that correspond to road lane widths, so minimal disruptions would be caused if replacements were required.’ Electrolight also won the Retail Project of the Year, for its T2 Luxury Mall at Melbourne Airport, while Electrolight’s UK arm, 18 Degrees, was winner of the Heritage Project of the Year with a project a bit closer to home, the International Presbyterian Church in Ealing, west London. In the case of this project, when the church outgrew its existing premises, the site was extended and this new building wraps around the existing Grade-II

17 u Right: The Muh Shoou Xix Hotel, Hangzhou, China, by Brandston Partnership, winner of Hotel Project of the Year. Photo: Mr Li Zhou, Alila Wuzhen, Zhejiang

q Below: A project by Oculus Light Studio, winner of the Emerging Practice category

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

The 2019 Lighting Design Awards

t Left: CityLink Sound Tube, Melbourne, Australia, by Electrolight, winner of the Public Realm and Landscape category

u Right: The T2 Luxury Mall, Melbourne Airport, also by Electrolight, and winner of Retail Project of the Year. Photo by Shannon McGrath t Left: Halo, London, by Kimchi and Chips, winner of Light Art Project of the Year. Photo by Peter Macdiarmid (c) London News Pictures

listed structure, expanding the available space while retaining the link to the original chapel. Within the building, the lighting is delicately integrated into the architectural fabric, featuring only where required so the light fulfils both form and function, according to the selectors. ‘Daylight is abundant in the space through a number of window apertures, so the artificial lighting system augments this daylight in the drab days of winter and into the evening. Soft uplights around the perimeter of the space accentuate the triangulated geometry of the ceiling and bounces soft, diffused lighting back into the space,’ they highlighted.








Eva Jiřičná



CityLink Sound Tube, Melbourne, Australia – Electrolight


T2 Luxury Mall, Melbourne Airport, Australia – Electrolight


International Presbyterian Church, Ealing, UK – 18 Degrees

Muh Shoou Xix Hotel, Hangzhou, China – Prolighting Four Seasons Restaurant, New York, USA – Tillotson Design Associates


Louvre, Abu Dhabi, UAE – BuroHappold Engineering

Shanghai Sunac Sales Center, Shanghai, China – Brandston Partnership




Flindt Wall – Louis Poulsen

New Shanghai Theatre, Shanghai, China – Unolai Lighting Design + Associates


Halo, London, UK – Kimchi and Chips





Nousaku office and factor, Toyama, Japan – Sirius Lighting Office

Bamboo Pavilion, Taichung World Flora Exposition, Taiwan – OuDelight

David Morgan

Mike Stoane Lighting

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

u Right: Shanghai Sunac Sales Center, Shanghai, China, by Brandston Partnership, winner of Integration Project of the Year. Photo by Mr Li Zhou

‘This is supplemented by downlighting integrated into the ceiling structure. This can be set to just illuminate the leader of worship or musicians, or the levels can be increased to light the space when it is used for activities such as crafts or community events. ‘For those sessions aimed at older people who may require a higher level of light, this adjustment to the lighting levels makes a significant difference. ‘All of the lighting is controlled via small zones, so that the building users can create a range of lighting emotions through the use of subtle and soft light. The controls are operated from a wall panel at the back of the space so it is easily accessed and engaged with by the users of the church,’ the selectors concluded.


The Emerging Practice award went to Los Angeles studio Oculus Light Studio which has grown from just two founding partners in 2012 to a studio of 11 people and approximately 150 ongoing projects with around 100 new ones added each year. As the selectors put it: ‘The practice’s work is characterised by the design of thoughtfully modified custom luminaires, careful budget analysis and detailed site coordination, all in full collaboration with the design team.’ Finally, among the product categories XAL won the Architectural Luminaire Interior for its Unico product, which the judges described as a ‘whole new paradigm’ in luminaires. ILP member Louis Poulsen won in the Architectural Luminaire Exterior category for its wall-mounted Flindt Wall, which joins its Flindt Bollard ‘to bring expressive illumination and thoughtful design to indoor and outdoor spaces’, according to the selectors. And Midlothian’s Mike Stoane Lighting was named Supplier of the Year for its ‘unstinting support’ of the lighting design community over many decades. Full details on all the winning projects and categories can be found at https:// /#architectural

40UNDER40 2019 ‘40under40’ is designed to identify and celebrate the most talented and promising individuals working in lighting design. The 2019 list included nine men and 31 women from 14 different countries, including Turkey, India, China, Brazil, the US, Germany, UK, Singapore and Sweden. The 2019 selectors were Glenn Shrum of Parsons School of Design; assistant professor Dr. Karolina Zielinska-Dabkowska, of Designs4People and GUT LightLab; Professor Peter Raynham of University College London; and Jill Entwistle, editor of Lighting magazine.

THE 40UNDER40 2019 WERE:

• Diana Joels, concepDUAL, Rio de Janeiro • Chenlu Zhang, Gradient Lighting Design, Shanghai • Sarah Fredelund, Studio David Thulstrup, Copenhagen • Imke Wies Van Mil, Henning Larsen, Copenhagen • Maryam Aghajani, jack be nimble, Berlin • Isabel Sternkopf, Licht Kunst Licht, Bonn • Mieke Van Der Velden, Beersnielsen lighting designers, Rotterdam • Mari Gaasemyr Høvik, ECT, Oslo • Natalie Redford, KSLD I EFLA Lighting Design, Edinburgh (ILP member) • Yah Li Toh, Light Collab, Singapore • Julia Hartmann, Lightsphere, Zürich • Sebnem Gemalmaz, Arup, Istanbul • Carolina Florian Valbuena, BuroHappold Engineering, London • Inessa Demidova, Arup, London • Juliet Rennie, Society of Light and Lighting, London • Katia Kolovea, Urban Electric London, London • Robyn Goldstein, Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design, Boston

• Becky Yam, Sean O’Connor Lighting, Los Angeles • Gabriela Grullon, Tillotson Design Associates, New York • Wendy Jiang, Office for Visual Interaction, New York • Katherine Lindsay, Tillotson Design Associates, New York • Amber Moriarty, Kugler Ning Lighting, New York • Natalia Lesniak, Lumen Architecture, New York • Alexandra Pappas-Kalber, Sighte Studio, New York • Vasudha Rathi, Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design, San Francisco • Paula Martinez-Nobles, Fisher Marantz Stone, New York • Christine Hope, Focus Lighting, New York • Noele DeLeon, WeWork, New York • Maggie Spiegel, Essential Light Design Studio, New York • Rebecca Mintz, Lightcraft, New York • Megan Trimarchi, Tillotson Design Associates, New York • Frederik Waneck Borello, ÅF Lighting, Copenhagen • Manav Bhargava, Mandala, New Delhi • Yusuke Hattori, Lighting Planners Associates, Singapore • Mustafa Akkaya, ZKLD Lighting Design, Istanbul • Matt Waugh, Michael Grubb Studio, Bournemouth (ILP member) • Richard Caple, Thorlux, Worcestershire • Thomas Casey Bergeron, Tillotson Design Associates, New York • Michael Lombardi, Sean O’Connor Lighting, Los Angeles • Michael Hemmenway, Fisher Marantz Stone, New York


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

WEEE compliance


WANT NOT, WASTE NOT The government has this year toughened up the WEEE regulations for the recycling of waste lighting equipment. This makes it even more important that lighting professionals know, and stay on top of, how lighting products are being disposed of or recycled By Nigel Harvey


ost lighting professionals will undoubtedly be well aware that the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) regulations have been in force since 2007. But this year, the government department responsible for the regulations, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), has significantly increased the collection targets that producers and their schemes must meet. That is putting pressure on all in the supply chain to do more to increase the recycling of waste lighting equipment.


The WEEE regulations cover all fluorescent lamps and LED lamps, luminaires and virtually all other finished electrical and electrical products, whether for professional or consumer use.

They need to be properly recycled because they include hazardous chemicals and important raw materials such as copper and aluminium, none of which should be landfilled or lost.


Every year, the government sets national targets for the collection and recycling of WEEE. In 2019, it has set an overall collection/recycling target of 65% of the average of the last three years’ sale of new electricals. This amounts to a whopping 550,000 tonnes of WEEE, and is a full 12% higher than the tonnage collected in 2018.


WEEE is ‘producer responsibility’ legislation. This means that producers of new equipment must finance the recycling of

the old equipment. They do this by joining a ‘producer compliance scheme’, or PCS, such as that run by Recolight. Each PCS is given a share of the national target. If it does not hit the target, it must pay a compliance fee. This must be set at a level that encourages collection – and so is more expensive than the average cost of collection and recycling. If a PCS misses its target, that may well result in additional costs. Therefore, there is a strong financial incentive to improve collection and recycling rates.


All of us involved in the specification, production, sale, distribution, installation and purchase of lighting equipment can play a part in maximising the UK’s WEEE recycling rates. We can all make a

Lighter lower safeR Lighter

Lightweight design due to patented V-Max modular chevron concept (V4: 11kg & V8: 17kg)


Low profile design achieves exceptionally low windage. V-Max chevron concept permits free movement of air reducing mechanical stress on fixing points (V4: 0.043m2 & V8: 0.051m2)


Safety assured. V-Max has successfully passed independent vibration testing to the 4.20 Rough Service Luminaires section of the UNE-EN 60598-1:2009 standard and section 5. Luminaire Vibration Test of the ANSI C136.31-2010 standard. Additionally, V-Max has successfully passed independent environmental salt spray testing to BS EN ISO 9227 NSS standard.


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

WEEE compliance


difference. Let’s look at how. • Purchasers. Purchasers of new equipment should insist that the supplier of new equipment provides a take-back service for the old equipment that is being replaced. This is particularly important where large scale roll-outs of LED luminaires are replacing traditional lamps and luminaires. Insisting that the supplier of the new equipment collects and recycles the old equipment removes the hassle of dealing with waste on a busy site. In many cases that collection and recycling service will be free of charge to the purchaser of new equipment because the producer can be ‘obligated’ to provide the service under the WEEE regulations. In addition, purchasers should always demand the WEEE registration number from any supplier. This is a simple way to check that they are buying product from a compliant company. • Electrical wholesalers. Like purchasers, electrical wholesalers can offer a drop-off service for WEEE waste. This is good for business because it encourages customers to return to the branch. And, subject to collecting minimum quantities of waste lamps, the service is available free of charge to wholesalers. At Recolight, for example, we encourage wholesalers to allow anyone to return waste lamps to the site – not just customers. This provides a valuable service for local consumers and businesses and is a

visible way in which the branch can be visibly seen to be ‘doing the right thing’. • Electrical contractors. Electrical contractors can also add value for their customers by offering to take-back scheme, and arranging recycling, of any WEEE waste that arises as a result of their work. • Producers. Finally, producers of new equipment should check that they do actually comply with the WEEE regulations. This means being in possession of a valid WEEE registration number and, for all but the smallest of producers, being a member of a reputable WEEE PCS.


It is important to remember that any business that transports and/or stores WEEE must register with one of the four UK environment agencies. Indeed, the business from which they collect or receive waste also has a duty of care to check they are handing over their waste to a suitably qualified organisation.


All waste fluorescent tubes and other gas discharge lamps are classified as hazardous waste. This means it is an offence for a business to dispose of them inappropriately, and for good reason, as they are fragile, easily broken, and contain mercury. Placing such products in the bottom of a skip in the hope they will cease to be a problem should never be considered. Not only is there a risk of prosecution by the enforcement agencies but, if detected, the skip collector would then have to regard the entire skip load as hazardous waste – making it a very expensive uplift.


Recolight has uncovered a high level of non-compliant product being sold through online marketplaces. In a recent survey we showed that 76% of LED lamps available for sale on one marketplace were supplied by companies that were not WEEE-compliant. Although most of the companies were based in China, most of their products were available for next-day delivery in the UK. In many cases, these same products were the subject of large numbers of English language reviews, and available in multi-packs. In other words, the scale of non-compliance through such routes appears exceptionally high. Fortunately, the Environment Agency publishes a list of all companies that are WEEE-compliant online, so it takes only a moment to check the listing. Simply Google ‘Environment Agency WEEE register’ and then download the ‘EEE producer public register’. Finally, if you uncover any non-compliant companies, you can report them to the environment agency via the Crimestoppers.


The WEEE collection targets are increasing. All in the supply chain have a part to play, whether this be through increasing collection rates, in preventing inappropriate disposal or by avoiding purchasing non-compliant product. Nigel Harvey is chief executive of Recolight The WEEE regulations can be viewed online at regulations-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Solar-powered lighting


FROM SUNLIGHT TO STREETLIGHT It is increasingly recognised that solar power can provide a low maintenance, autonomous energy supply for street lighting and other functions. But to be viable in low sunshine regions (like the UK) it is imperative such lighting is well designed, well installed and meets agreed standards By Chris Angell


olar-derived electricity is providing a valuable and ecologically sound addition to power grids across the planet and its availability for powering (relatively) small devices offgrid is well proven. However, not all parts of the planet are blessed with the same levels of insolation, and not all electrical apparatus requires the same quantity or security of supply [1]. This article intends to look at how solar power is used to generate electricity, how it is utilised, and methods of storing energy for times when solar energy is not available, particularly for off-grid uses and with an emphasis on solar powered street lighting. There is no question that, after a solar panel or array has been manufactured, the subsequent generation of electricity is ‘carbon free’ (as well as ‘free’ in terms of cost). This is in contrast to fuel-burning power stations which, after manufacture, continue to release carbon while generating electricity (and at a cost). The difference is that a fuel burning power station, wherever it is located, can generate 24-hours-a-day in all weathers, and to some degree can be controlled to meet demand. The same cannot be said of solar.

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

A few things need to be understood about solar power generation in order to benefit from ‘zero cost’ electricity and ‘carbon free’. • The best commercially available solar panels are roughly 15% to 18% efficient – that is, 15% of the available energy from the sun, falling on to the panel, is converted to usable electricity – and this efficiency falls as the temperature of the panel rises (0.5% per °C – panel output is usually quoted at 25°C, panel temperatures can reach 65°C or more) [2]. This low efficiency (in comparison, say, with coal-fired power stations – up to 40%) means that solar farms need a lot of solar panels, the manufacture of which will generate carbon [3]. • The amount of insolation available to the panels varies with latitude. Away from the equator, light from the sun strikes the panel at an ever-increasing angle, requiring the panel to be tilted towards the sun and ideally tracked to compensate for the seasons. The energy from the sun has to pass through a greater thickness of atmosphere as the latitude increases, decreasing the amount of energy presented to the panel. • The same shortcomings occur every day at any latitude as the sun ‘moves’ across the sky from dawn to noon to dusk, again ideally tracking to compensate and, again, there are changing atmospheric losses. • Due to the pesky problem of no sunlight at night (and at other times such as bad weather), energy from solar generation must often be stored for later use. The storage mechanisms inevitably have their own carbon footprint and will have at least an initial capital cost. In many cases the storage medium (batteries for example) has a limited life and will need to be replaced, probably long before the solar panel needs to be replaced – another ongoing cost of ‘free’ solar. • To maximise the performance of solar cells, panels and arrays, sophisticated electronics is required to manage the load presented to the source and to manage the storage of the energy. Again, there is a cost associated with this, but it should be offset by the increased efficiency affected by its use. As this article is intended to explore the use of solar power for ‘off grid’ devices, specifically streetlights, some of the points made above will need to be re-considered. With distributed solar power generation of this type it is not generally practical

p A solar power and wind farm. Environmental concerns are changing how we think about and use alternative energy

25 to track the sun, but good solar management is still needed and the temperature coefficient of solar panels is still an important consideration. Storage of captured energy is of paramount importance as this is a closed system with no backup from a grid or other sources. That is not to say in practice there couldn’t be multiple energy sources working together, but for this discussion it will be assumed that the solar-powered system is completely autonomous.


Solar panels are usually specified by their output power. This is the power that the panel can generate at 1,000W (that is 1,000W of light energy)/sqm at 25°C) [4]. This is equivalent to the sun at noon at the equator with some atmospheric losses included. This allows for comparison from one panel to another but does not necessarily give a usable value for actual energy collection in a real application. Extensive experimentation is usually required to make sure that a chosen solar panel is capable of outputting the energy required, but how do we know how much energy is required? Starting at the load, the end point of the energy chain, it is easy to determine how much energy is required here. However, there is a disconnect between the energy

capture (the solar panel) and the load because the panel can only output energy when sufficient sunlight is available. The load, on the other hand has its own timetable of power consumption. To fill this gap an energy storage system is required.


Energy is often, though not exclusively, stored in batteries. These are convenient because when they are being discharged, they produce electricity directly, which in the case of streetlights is exactly what we want. Other storage systems may require another stage to generate electricity (compressed air for example needs a pump to compress the air in the first place, powered by the solar panel, and then a turbine and generator to convert the stored energy to electricity) introducing more steps for inefficiency and more items to fail over time. Re-chargeable batteries are not 100% efficient. Different battery chemistries have different efficiencies and the charge and discharge cycle both introduce losses. Figures quoted for overall efficiency of Lead Acid batteries are around 85% and for Lithium-based batteries 95%+ [5]. These figures do not take into account the age of the battery or the temperature when the system is being charged/discharged. It also does not account for the

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Solar-powered lighting

q Left and below. Examples of how solar panels can work within the urban infrastructure

need to ‘tail-off’ the charge as batteries reach maximum capacity which effectively means discarding energy from the source to slow the charging process down. Discharging any battery completely will damage it, but the capacity quoted is often theoretical and assumes all the energy can be released from the battery. Batteries age over time, so it is important to factor in a reduction in capacity over the expected lifetime, so that at end of life the load is still supported 100% by the solar/battery energy system.


The reason for placing a storage device between the solar generator and the load is to allow the load to draw power whether the sun is shining or not. In the case of streetlights this is of paramount importance because a streetlight is not required to operate when the sun is shining but is required to operate when there is no sun. An average ‘night’ anywhere across the planet, averaged over a year, is 12 hours. Dawn and dusk are defined differently by different interested parties. Astronomers for example consider dusk much later than vehicle drivers. Astronomers want very dark skies, drivers want streetlights to come on early to avoid twilight. This variation of the start and finish of night-time changes the average night length in reality, but it is a good figure upon which autonomy can be calculated. Autonomy, in this instance, is the length of time a load can draw power from the energy storage system without more


energy being provided from an external source. In a solar-powered system this means how long must the battery last without sunlight? This question needs a little more expansion because in winter, on a bad weather day, there will be little or no energy capture even though it may be bright enough to turn the streetlights off. The question therefore becomes: ‘how many nights must the streetlight illuminate without significant sunlight during the day?’. The answer to this question varies depending upon the location of the streetlight. In the UK, at 52° north, winter can be a dark time with many (>30) consecutive days without significant sunlight. At Pudsey Diamond Engineering, for example, our solar-powered bollards have been designed to operate in excess of 100 days without charging. But this is partly because solar panel size has been constrained, meaning charging is slow at the best of times and good charging requires good weather and several hours of good sunshine per day. For streetlights, 100+ days of autonomy would require excessive battery storage at great cost. By comparison, in equatorial countries sunlight is more reliable and consistent all year round. These two latitudes would require significantly different autonomy. It is the autonomy of the system which therefore defines its performance, and it is the required autonomy which defines battery size and ultimately solar panel output (and hence size). The requirements of a solar-powered system should therefore define the following parameters: • The system load. In the case of streetlights this would be the electrical load (in watts) required to meet the illuminance parameters of the street. If an intermittent load is used (through the use of a sensor to switch the load on when movement is detected for example) then the duty cycle of the load switching must be defined and declared in the product details. • The system autonomy. This must be decided based on the system location. Most importantly this must be clearly specified in the product details. • The battery capacity. The battery capacity can be calculated from the previous two parameters. This must include a provision for the ageing of the battery (it is assumed here that the temperature of the battery system is within normal limits as defined by the manufacturer – operating outside these will require a further level of management).

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

u A graphic showing the variation of angle of the sun’s rays, depending on where you on the planet. Sunlight strikes most directly at the equator and more obliquely at northern and southern latitudes, therefore affecting the efficiency of collection

• The solar panel size. The solar panel size (output capability) can be calculated based on the above requirements, the location, the annual insolation values for that location and taking into account that the solar panel is almost never perpendicular to the sun’s rays striking it (maybe for an hour, once a year!).

not because they are not well designed. They may work well close to the equator but it is precisely because a system that is designed to work in one area may not work in another, and the quoted autonomy (to take just one example) my not apply here in the UK. Parameters that might form the basis of a standard should, as a minimum, include:

-- Watts -- At what illumination power input -- A measure of how this varies with latitude • All of the acceptable operating temperatures of each of the elements so that the stated parameters can be met


• System load in watts • The duty cycle of the load that is either included in the system load or is applied to it • The autonomy of the system, based on: -- The designed average night length -- The ‘worst case’ night length (especially important as the latitude reaches the polar circles) -- Battery capacity -- Battery capacity at end of life -- The solar panel output, based on:

Solar power can provide a low maintenance, autonomous energy supply for street lighting and other functions, but it is not a given that it will work wherever the sun shines. To work properly it has to be well designed, well installed and to compete fairly it must meet agreed standards.

Once everything discussed above has been taken into account, a reliable solar-powered system can be designed and constructed. Equally importantly, the precise specification of the system can be declared and it will be possible for the end customer to determine if this product is suitable. It is often the case that some of the above parameters are declared by a manufacturer but not necessarily in standardised terms. The omission of some details and the variation in terminology results in poorly defined products being specified in the market as well as an uphill struggle for the customer to compare products. There is therefore a need for standards in solar-powered systems (and therefore in solar-powered streetlights) to be introduced. The standards should guide manufacturers to declare a minimum set of parameters which are measured against standard guidelines and which provide the end customer with enough information to make an informed choice when buying a solar-powered system. Many solar-powered systems entering the UK market are not fit for purpose. This is


Chris Angell is chief electronics engineer at Pudsey Diamond Engineering

REFERENCES [1] Solar irradiance (SI) is the power per unit area (watts per sq m, W/m2), received from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation as reported in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. Solar irradiance is often integrated over a given time period in order to report the radiant energy emitted into the surrounding environment (joules per sq m, J/

m2), during that time period. This is called solar irradiation, solar exposure, solar insolation, or insolation (source: Wikipedia) [2] Information provided by Tindo Solar [3] Information provided by the World Coal Association [4] Information provided by AltE Store [5] Info provided by PowerTech Systems


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Solar-powered lighting


A solar powered ground lighting system designed by the Lakeside Group is helping to protect a rare colony of bats in the cathedral city of Worcester


By Scott Horne and John Horne


he lesser horseshoe bat has a population of around 15,000 in the UK and, as a result, is an endangered species. The grey-brown furry creatures are one of the smallest British mammal species, about the size of a plum with their wings folded. Unusually, horseshoe bats are able to wiggle their ears – unlike other bat species – and locate the precise position of their prey. But they hunt close to the ground, rarely more than 5m high, and often snatch their prey off stones and branches. Like many species of bat, nearby lighting can have an adverse impact on this sensitive species as they are intolerant to brightness, including light spill from artificial sources. The bats have also been affected by a variety of other issues, such as increased urbanisation, agricultural intensification and the loss of roost sites. Horseshoe bats, which have been regularly monitored since 1999, are currently limited to Wales, Western England and Western Ireland. This makes their population in Worcestershire, which is towards the northern edge of their range, more susceptible to change.


As Cody Levine, ecology team leader at Worcestershire County Council, emphasises: ‘Bats may not get the credit they deserve but they are an important group globally – keeping food cheap and chemical-free for us. ‘They pollinate crops and manage pest control naturally by eating insects, potentially making significant savings for the economy each year.’ Bats are important pollinators for more than 500 plants worldwide, including more than 300 food crops such as cacao and agave, which are used to make chocolate and tequila respectively. They are able to carry a large amount of pollen on their face and fur as they fly through the night. But pollinating is only part of their job. One bat can eat more than 600 mosquitoes in a single hour – around 3,000 a night. They also eat harmful beetles and other crop-decimating pests. A study in the United States, for example, has estimated that bats as a whole contribute around $20bn to its economy each year through pollination and pest control. As Cody says: ‘Without bats, we could

lose out on things like chocolate, cashew nuts and tequila – at least at the relatively affordable prices we are used to. As well as being pretty amazing animals in their own right, they make a massive contribution to our economy and ecology. ‘If their numbers diminish, then I think part of our environment also diminishes. It’s vital we provide practical solutions for their conservation.’


What this all has to do with Worcester, Lakeside Group and lighting is that a £1.8m pedestrian and cycle bridge over the River Severn in Worcester was officially opened in 2010. The Diglis Bridge is part of the charity Sustrans Connect2 project, which was awarded lottery cash to improve transport in 2007. Around the time the feasibility work for this project was taking place recordings of the very characteristic echolocation of the horseshoe bats were captured. Volunteers from the Worcestershire Bat Group, a group of experienced ecological surveyors and wildlife enthusiasts, were surprised to discover horseshoe bats had

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Solar-powered lighting


made a home near Worcester Cathedral alongside the River Severn. Further monitoring found the lighting there posed a barrier to the bats leaving their roost to access the rivers embankments. As Cody explains: ‘The previous lighting consisted of bollards which were thigh high and provided a strong upward illumination. It was not working for the nocturnal animals and drew some negative feedback from members of the public too.’ The Worcestershire Bat Group therefore contacted the county council to find alternative lighting to help the horseshoe bats, as well as benefiting other animals in the designated Local Wildlife Site (LWS). The council had to balance its legal and moral obligation to protect the bats, while maintaining a safe and attractive public environment. It initially took the decision to switch off the lighting bollards outside the roost during dusk and dawn to avoid disturbing the rare mammals. However, this in turn created an unacceptable hazard to highway users and was not a long-term solution. As Cody says: ‘While nocturnal creatures prefer darker environments, a lack of lighting can leave an area prone to vandalism and people are less likely to visit at night.’ Cody then met the team at the Lakeside Group at a recent lighting symposium organised by the Bat Conservation Trust – and it was from this meeting that the solution to this challenge arose. The event was an opportunity for bat enthusiasts and bat workers to get together and share best practice, update their knowledge and develop their skills. Upon discussing the project and the challenges it was posing around the bat population, he recognised the potential of using our solareye®80 solar-powered LED delineator product. This product, launched in 2014, is designed to be light-weight for use on cycle-ways and pathways. As well as being ‘bat friendly’ it offered the council the attraction of being easy to install, cost-effective, maintenance free, waterproof, vandal-proof and impact resistant. On top of this, we have a specially adapted product – the ‘Bat Hat’ – specifically for conservation-sensitive areas. Also launched in 2014, the Bat Hat is a solar ground light that reduces upward light spillage by more than 95%. Crucially, it maintains the same profile and night-time visibility for cyclists and pedestrians as the original solareye®80. The Lakeside team therefore fitted each solar stud with a Bat Hat, so reducing the upward light spillage.

p Roosting lesser horseshoe bats. Image courtesy of Francis Flanagan

In November 2016, Cody and his team decided to trial the Bat Hats, with approximately 40 of the solar light studs being installed along a 60m river stretch. So, what has been the result of all this?


A citizen science project organised by Worcestershire County Council and Worcestershire Bat Group has monitored the colony since 2010 and, while recognising this sort of data is not always clear-cut, there has been an upward trend in bat numbers. As Cody explains: ‘Professional ecologists and volunteer surveyors have counted the bats as they emerge from their roost and forage alongside Worcester City’s beautiful riverside meadows. ‘Since we’ve modified the lighting scheme, we’ve seen a generally positive

trend for lesser horseshoe bats, alongside a wealth of other bat species. ‘The lighting we have in place now is definitely a more suitable product – so much so that we have installed it a little further downstream again. Early results indicate the bats are now regularly using their “dark corridor” to access the roost site, river embankment and riverside meadows beyond,’ he adds. But Cody emphasises there is still work to be done: ‘Our wildlife is reliant on good urban planning and, fortunately, conservation is gaining ground across the UK’s planning system.’ Scott Horne is managing director and John Horne is product development manager at Lakeside Group

REFERENCES AND RESOURCES Worcestershire Bat Group: The Bat Conservation Trust has advice on bats and lighting: threats-to-bats/lighting; The ILP’s GN08 Bats and Artificial Lighting guidance, produced with the Bat Conservation Trust, can be found here guidance-note-8-bats-and-artificial-lighting/ The NERC Act, a statutory Biodiversity Duty placed on all public bodies: guidance/biodiversity-duty-public-authority-duty-to-have-regard-to-conserving-biodiversity Worcestershire County Council Ecology Services, homepage/142/ecology_services

The Lesser Horseshoe Bat, Green Blue Urban, ‘Sustainable case studies’ diglis-basin/ ‘Bat friendly tequila’, bat-friendly-tequila/ Bats and the economy www.biologicaldiversity. org/campaigns/bat_crisis_white-nose_syndrome /pdfs/Boyles2011EconomicsofBats.pdf Bats as pollinators www.gardeningknowhow. com/garden-how-to/beneficial/bats-as-pollinators.htm Bat factsheet: what-are-bats/uk-bats Lakeside Group:

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Hotel and hospitality lighting


t is well-recognised that the transition to LED has brought immeasurable benefits, and opportunities, for lighting as an industry, and lighting professionals as individuals. But it is also fair to say that managing the practicalities of this transition, especially the complexities of upgrading an internal space from halogen or fluorescent to LED can sometimes require a careful client education and management process to explain the benefits – but also the challenges – of making the switch to LED. This is something Kevan Shaw, design director at KSLD|EFLA Lighting Design, has come across particularly when working within the hotel and hospitality arena, where clients, quite naturally, want to keep budgets, disruption and the time that areas are closed off to the public for refurbishment to a minimum.



ROOM SERVICE Upgrading an internal space to LED is, these days, likely to be a no-brainer for most clients and, as a hotel project in Cologne has shown, the results can be impressive. But it is also imperative for a lighting designer fully to explain early on in the process the technical challenges around switching to LED, including the need to invest in lighting control By Nic Paton

‘Projects where you’re switching a space over to LED can often be a steep learning curve for the client,’ Kevan tells Lighting Journal. ‘The way hotels work, for example, can be challenging because you find there are different pots of money for different things. For example, lighting controls are considered as building infrastructure, which is to do with the building owner, whereas fit-outs are more to do with the operator. ‘There may not also be the realisation that they are going to have to set aside some money to pay into lighting controls. Often it is a case of us as lighting designers managing and guiding them,’ he adds. KSLD|EFLA has recently been involved in the redesign and lighting technology upgrade of the reception, restaurant and event spaces at Radisson’s Blu hotel in Cologne, Germany. ‘It presented some interesting issues,’ explains Kevan. ‘The building is not that old, about 15-16 years old. But if we think back to what we were doing lighting-wise then, everything was low voltage tungsten halogen, compact fluorescent and bits and pieces of incandescent; that was the way we went. ‘Now we couldn’t even dream of approaching a project that way. So we were looking at doing an LED-based scheme but using LEDs in a way that tungsten halogen can’t really do. We have linear elements and can use groups of small lights rather than a smaller number of big ones.’ Working with interior design company Illiard, Radisson’s lighting supplier

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

u A selection of images of the new Radisson Blu Cologne lighting scheme by KSLD|EFLA Lighting Design

LEDS-C4, and project management firm Chandler KBS, KSLD|EFLA introduced integrated LED linear lighting into new timberwork to create a ‘glowing’ timber wall around each end of the bars and behind the reception desks. A catenary mesh was fixed to the existing bar structure to create a ‘field’ of small LED pendants to hang over the bar, so improving the intimacy of the space. Crisp custom-made pendants now incorporate the emergency lighting, which covers the majority of the atrium floor. In the restaurant, existing downlights were again updated to LED and new pendants were introduced over tables. New LED linear lighting was introduced to the banquet seating, providing wall washing to highlight the boundaries of the room. ‘We weren’t in a position massively to change the architecture as such; it was interventions and additions of walls and furniture and changes to lighting, which in the context become quite an important thing to do,’ explains Kevan. ‘If you do it well, you can make quite a lot radical visual change simply by changing how the lighting works. ‘What we wanted was to create something that brought the height down a bit, because it was a double-height structure in a multiple-height space, which is not really that conducive to intimacy. With the catenary, the idea was to create by “field” by using pendants at different heights, with each pendant suspended off the catenary. ‘We also reduced the scale of the major pendants in the space. We maintained

their positions but rescaled them. We then rebuilt the back bar so it effectively became a lit wall. It looks really interesting when you see it,’ he adds.



‘The primary challenge you often have with projects like these is looking at what happens to the control system,’ highlights Kevan. ‘What was a state-of-the-art control system 10, 15 years ago or more, is no use for LEDs. So it tends often to be a case of trying to figure out how, in an economical way, to piggyback what is essentially a whole new lighting system within the control system already there.’ And this is where careful (and sometimes diplomatic) communication and education can come into play. But get it right and it is happy days, as Kevan emphasises in the case of the Cologne Radisson Blu. ‘In terms of how the place looks and feels, the client really loves it. It has achieved what they needed to do to refresh the space and make it exciting again,’ he says. ‘For me, the big learning point to pass is always to make sure you know what you’re heading into early enough in the project. Lighting professionals on the whole will normally be OK with this. ‘But clients also need to understand that it is not lighting designers “going off on one”; there may often be some significant technical interventions needed to be made to make this technological transition to LED. There needs to be a recognition that there is a capital investment that has to be made in technology change,’ Kevan adds.

Client: Radisson Hotel Group Interior design: Iliard/Architecture & Project Management Project management: Chandler KBS Lighting designers: Kevan Shaw, Caroline Mowat and Claire Tomara at KSLD Photography: Radisson Hotel Group

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Heritage lighting



TIME Finding an appropriate retrofit LED street lighting solution that offers the right colour temperature can be a challenge in any heritage environment. When it came to Bath’s historic Sydney Buildings area, it was a case of try, try and try again By Nic Paton


he city of Bath, quite rightly, is a UNESCO World Heritage site, famed around the world – and with Jane Austen fans – for its stunning Georgian façades and architecture and, of course, its Roman baths. This, naturally, means any upgrading or modernising of its urban infrastructure has to be carried out with extreme care and sensitivity. To that end, it was hardly surprising that, when Bath and North East Somerset Council decided it was time to retrofit the city’s heritage street lighting to LED, it wasn’t a process that happened overnight. Over a six-year period, the council has gradually been modernising the majority (around 15,000) of the city’s sodium residential and highway street lighting network to LED. But the city centre area, including the city’s Sydney Buildings area, remained a challenge in terms of finding a correct colour temperature for the lanterns sited there. As well as the heritage element, the fact the lighting columns along Sydney Buildings are unequally spaced, with the road having both narrow and wide sections a mix of houses (some directly on the pavement and others set back from the road) created a further challenge. The Sydney Buildings Householders’ Association applied for funding from the World Heritage Site Enhancement Fund which, combined with a contribution from the residents of Sydney Buildings, would cover the one-off cost of reproducing pattern casting moulds for the area’s circa-1910 Bath Cast Crown Electric Street Lantern.


With this funding in place, the association, in partnership with the council’s street lighting team, conducted a number of trials using LED lighting modules in the street.

However, each was deemed unacceptable because of issues around light output, directional capability and reflective light glare. Over a three-and-a-half-year period, multiple combinations of heritage lanterns (ten in total) using a wide range of LED modules were tested in Sydney Buildings, but not one LED module met all of the desired features for this heritage environment. Manchester-based heritage lighting manufacturer Metcraft Lighting then recommended a fresh pilot scheme using its replica Bath Cast Crown Lantern, equipped with lighting company Zeta’s ‘SmartScape Heritage’ single point LED light source. Two lanterns were fitted, featuring a warm white, 2700K colour temperature and waterproof IP67 rating. For the purposes of the trial, one lantern was left unglazed while the other included conventional polycarbonate glazing. The non-glazed option was eventually chosen as the preferred solution over the standard glazed enclosure, as it was deemed to be delivering an optimum, even illumination with none of the glare from the reflective surfaces covering the lantern. The result was, finally, a solution that could be retrofitted into the Bath Cast Crown Lanterns and duly installed on the cast-iron lighting columns in Sydney Buildings. Stephen Burrell, principal engineer street lighting – highways at Bath and North East Somerset Council, said of the scheme: ‘BANES [Bath and North East Somerset Council] is now looking to adopt this solution at 2700K for its heritage lighting across the city.’

u Some of the new LED heritage lanterns in situ along Sydney Buildings in Bath

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

LED refurbishment


NOTTINGHAM PROMISE A new LED lighting scheme has transformed Nottingham’s iconic Council House By James Reece


ith its Portland stone neo-Baroque pillared façade and Christopher Wren-inspired 200ft dome dominating the main square, Nottingham Council House is an iconic landmark right in the heart of the city. The Thomas Cecil Howitt-designed building uses stone sourced from the same quarry as St Paul’s in London and a central arch salvaged from a church destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, and which lay unused for centuries on a Dorset beach. While inspired by 17th century architecture, it is in fact a 20th century building and, when completed in 1927, the lighting was cutting-edge for its day. The building’s interior, with its Italian marble floors, pillars and walls, was illuminated by lightbox luminaires, with ceiling features uplit by concealed incandescent lamps. But, of course, times change. Indeed, for many years employees and users of the

building often remarked on the low light levels within the building. The architectural design also made little allowance for practical access to blown bulbs and strip-lamps. In some cases, access to replace lighting required ‘steeplejack’ levels of agility to achieve, with the maintenance team even commissioned its own specialist scaffolding that curved around overhangs and ledges.


To that end, Nottingham City Council recently gave the go-ahead to a total overhaul and refurbishment of the building’s lighting, including (naturally) switching to LED. The scheme has been funded through a Salix interest-free scheme, with the lighting supplied by us at Integral LED. We also carried out software simulation work through the RELUX program as well as lighting consultancy work for the project. In all, some 650 fittings were switched

to LED, with a selection of candles, globes, floodlights and battens being used to relamp the entire building from the reception area to the lights illuminating the clock faces of the dome. By switching to LED, the annual consumption of 114,000 kWh has been cut to 53,000 kWh in a stroke with a payback target of four years. In addition, there are expected to be significant savings accrued from lower lamp replacement and maintenance overheads. Nottingham City Council head of energy services Wayne Bexton has said of the scheme: ‘This overhaul of lighting at the Council House Hall is part of a larger plan to cut emissions from council buildings and to reduce our operating costs. Money saved will be ploughed back into our frontline services. The Council House is a much loved and used building and it’s right that we preserve our history and invest in this income-generating building.’ Nottingham City Council M&E technical services manager Ian Whittaker added: ‘Quite simply, apart from the savings, the grandeur of the building has been reclaimed. In every way the interior is brighter due to stepping up the illumination of the many period luminaires to 4000K. A “wow” factor for all that use the building is clear. It is just possible we are seeing this wonderful building how it was originally envisaged – for the first time.’ James Reece is key account manager at Integral LED

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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant’ lectures

q Gary Numan’s ‘Savage’ North America tour, as lit by Luke Edwards. Picture by Sarah Rushton-Read,



Lighting huge stage shows for the likes of Gary Numan, Jessie J and Jacob Collier can be enormously exciting, exhilarating and rewarding. But, as Luke Edwards explained at a recent ILP ‘How to be brilliant’ lecture, it is also a world of intense pressure, deadlines and demands By Nic Paton


rofessional footballer, prime minister, vet, pop star? How many of us as children dreamt of achieving the heady heights of these careers? Lighting professionals, of course, are privileged to straddle the divide between engineer, artist and scientist – and ‘making’ light is a pretty compelling profession in anyone’s book. Nevertheless, the idea of ‘making it’ as a pop or rock star still retains a certain glamour: a life on the road, jetting around the world from stadium to stadium, performing in front of adoring crowds.

And, as Luke Edwards, creative director and owner of specialist events and entertainment lighting company Cue Design, revealed in March, it is possible to experience this life as a lighting designer. Luke counts Gary Numan, Jessie J, Lulu, Jacob Collier among his clients, to name but a few, and gave the ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant’ lecture in March. But, as he also explained, while specialising in this area can appear glamorous from the outside, it can also be a highly pressured, exhausting and often intense lifestyle.

‘I feel like a kid in a playground sometimes. Just being able to create something completely different while travelling around the world and hanging out with rock and pop stars. But it does come with a lot of pressure,’ he said. ‘Artists have to perform every night, but so do we. And that pressure for us has come more and more since video cameras on phones. Previously, if I messed up there might be 3,000-4,000 people at the show. But a video can get tens of millions of views. All of a sudden everything I do gets scrutinised.

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

EVERY ARTIST I WORK WITH WANTS THEIR SHOW TO LOOK INCREDIBLE, BUT IT VARIES FROM ARTIST TO ARTIST AS TO HOW MUCH INPUT THEY HAVE IN THE SHOW ‘This also creates an interesting question of who do you light for? Do you light for the people who are there and have paid to be there? Or do you light for the people who have got their phones out? Another problem is that nowadays an artist will go on Instagram right after the shows and will look at the footage. So the pressure is definitely becoming more and more for us,’ he told his audience. It is a lifestyle that can become something of a ‘bubble’ existence if you’re not careful. ‘Touring is an emotional rollercoaster. It is not a normal lifestyle. You go from doing these massive shows, and then you come home and all of sudden you have been touring around the world with 20 people who have sometimes become close friends and they are all of a sudden not there anymore,’ explained Luke. ‘And then you go “oh I’m hungry, I’ll go to catering” and then remember that “oh no, I’m at home, there is no catering, I’ve got to cook for myself again now!”. It is massive highs and massive lows, and there is not really any in-between. The relationships you build on tour are also incredibly important.’


Luke’s presentation was a very free-flowing affair, more really an informal question-and-answer session than a ‘talk’, but it was all the more compelling for it. For example, Luke had recently done a show for Gary Numan at London’s Royal Albert Hall, which he fully conceded was something of a ‘moment’ for him. ‘If you ask any live music designer, they’ll have a list of venues that they want to tick off, and a list of venues that they definitely want to

u Gary Numan on stage. Luke in his talk explained how the close relationship he develops with artists, in the case of Gary even with his family, makes a real difference to his success in this field


do in their lives. The Royal Albert Hall for me was absolutely one of them. ‘It is so iconic as a building; but as a music venue it is incredible. Sydney Opera House, for me, is another one, which I am hoping to be able to get to tick off in September. But it is just really rewarding to think back that four years ago I was starting off to where I am now, ticking off all those incredible places. It is just amazing.’ How much of the ‘vision’ for the lighting for this type of show would generally come from him as the lighting designer and how much directly from the artist, he was asked. ‘Every artist I work with wants their show to look incredible, but it varies from artist to artist as to how much input they have in the show,’ he said. How much, too, was his job about

educating the artist, probably of course very creative themselves, about light and lighting? ‘Not everybody understands the laws of physics! I once had someone ask for “a black beam of light”. Another one once asked for “bending light”. A lot of the artists they care what the overall look of the show is; they don’t necessarily worry too much about the detail,’ Luke said. ‘They trust that you will be doing your thing. It’s like if you’re a CEO and hire someone you’re not going to sit there and micro-manage them, or if you do then you shouldn’t have hired them. It is the same thing with this. I work with clients who trust me to do what I do because therefore they don’t need to get involved. I always try and have a conversation with the artist after a show and go through anything; but in another sense they kind

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant’ lectures

of don’t know or need to know what is going on,’ he added.

u Artists on Luke’s lighting ‘roster’, Lulu (right) and (opposite) Jessie J



What sort of personality did you need to cope with, and thrive within, this sort of environment, he was asked. How, too, do you sustain this sort of lifestyle? ‘For me, I feel quite sad that the way I cope is by making everything just feel “normal”. But that is my way of dealing with that, by making everything – even though it is incredible – feel normal. You are just doing something that you are used to doing, and doing it on a daily basis,’ Luke explained. ‘You are dealing with some of the biggest popstars on the planet and you can’t be afraid of them. You can’t walk into the dressing room and not be confident in your ability. It can’t be intimidating. If you’re walking into a dressing and your artist is sitting on Instagram and it doesn’t look right, because it’s been taken on a phone camera, and you are absolutely 100% confident that it looked right in real life, you can’t be intimidated. ‘You have to stand there and go “no, it looked great; I’m trying to light it for the people who paid £85-£150 a ticket or whatever”. So you have to stand your ground and you can’t be intimidated.’ It is also all about the relationships, with the client (of course), but also with your suppliers and manufacturers who, in such

a high-pressure environment, you will often be working very closely with and relying on as much as the artist relies on you, the lighting designer. ‘A lot of my job isn’t necessarily lighting design. A lot of my job is making sure an artist feels comfortable, and that includes my interaction with them. In many respects that is more important – to them, not necessarily to me. But for them, they want to know that person standing 50m away front of house has got their best interests at heart, no matter what’s going on,’ Luke said. ‘When I started off my focus was completely “lighting design, lighting design” but I now think the key of this is making relationships, and that includes suppliers, manufacturers, freelancers but also the artist. Gary, for example, loves having me around and I get on really well with his wife and children too. Considering they tour with us, for Gary I think this is as important as the way the shows look. You also definitely needed to be calm under pressure, he emphasised. ‘There have been times when, because of flight delays and things like that, we’ve only got q Luke Edwards highlighted how lighting, video and animation are becoming increasingly important elements, alongside the music, within stadium shows

to the festival an hour before our set time, which means you only get 35-40 minutes on the console. There is almost steam coming out of my hands at that point! You’re trying to get every single position in. All the general stuff is relatively easy to do. But if you’ve got cues in your cue list that you are highlighting specific people or points, that has to be right,’ he said.


What therefore had been his worst, his most excruciating, moment? ‘It was last summer. There is a festival called Rock in Rio, and it is one of the biggest festivals on the planet,’ said Luke. ‘There is one in Brazil and one in Portugal. We were in Portugal and Jessie J was supporting Katy Perry. One of the biggest design houses on the planet was looking after the festival, a company called Woodroffe Bassett Design who do the Rolling Stones, Adele, Elton John; so people I really look up to. ‘There were 80,000 people standing

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

watching the stage – it was the biggest show of my life at that point. And I’m the one who is about to press “go” to the whole thing. The consoles were in a network with what was happening on stage. During the day everything was fine, but someone must have added something to the network because when I pressed “go” and pushed the fader up on the first song, nothing happened. ‘I could have buried my head in the sand. As it was, I froze for a second. Luckily Woodroffe Bassett’s senior designer Terry Cook was there and he took control over some of the lights and then did things under my direction while we tried to fix the network. It took us three songs to get the network up and running again. It doesn’t sound like a lot but it was about 15 minutes when nothing was happening, and that feels like a lifetime. ‘There was of course a bit of a debrief afterwards. But, to be fair, after the third song we smashed it. And now Jess is headlining Rock in Rio in Brazil, the big one. But for me it was horrendous because I am a perfectionist and I do want to get it right. And there was nothing I could do about it. But one of the great things about our industry is that, even if we’re competitors, if it all goes wrong, we do all band together.’


Finally, what was next? What was coming down the line or changing in his lighting world, he was asked. ‘I am incredibly worried about virtual reality concerts, where people sit in their living room and view a concert where you go into a VR lighting environment. There are people developing technology where all the lighting elements become VR as


well. At which point I might as well pack up and go home,’ Luke said. ‘Eminen at Coachella recently used augmented reality where, if you pointed your phone towards the stage you could see something happening in the sky. For me that is detracting from the performance because now everyone is looking up there while the artist is down there performing.’ More generally, video and animation are creating an increasingly immersive concert or live show experience, he argued, and in the process potentially changing the very role of the show lighting designer. ‘The video element is interesting because it is all coming; lighting and video is becoming more and more one thing. Often the lights are driven by the video, so the lights are now no longer being sepa-

rate,’ Luke said. ‘There are only so many times you can use a light in a different way. The pressure for us is to make shows look different every single time, especially if they’re going to be on Facebook and Instagram and everything. The pressure to use the technology is there, which is great because it means we can use creativity to do that, but it also means there is a bunch of pressure. ‘You are seeing a lot more now that designers are actually crossing over multiple fields because it is becoming so similar. I honestly believe the term “lighting designer” is going to disappear. As is the term “video designer”. It will just become a combined “multimedia designer” or “integrated designer” or something along those lines,’ he added.

the Truman Brewery in Spitalfields and will be part of London Design Week. Then, on 23 October, Neil Knowles, director and founder of Elektra Lighting Design will be talking about ‘How to be brilliant… at circadian lighting’, back at the usual London venue of Body & Soul in Rosebery Avenue. Wrapping up the 2019 programme will be BDP’s Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva who

between them will be providing a fascinating insight into ‘How to be brilliant… with the colour blue’, again at Rosebery Avenue. The 2019 programme has been kindly sponsored by Zumtobel. To find out more about the ‘How to be brilliant’ programme and for updates as new events get agreed, especially in Scotland, go online to:

MAKE YOUR AUTUMN BRILLIANT Watch out for a run of ILP ‘How to be brilliant’ events taking place during the autumn, both in London and Scotland. Kicking things off in London on 19 September will be Arfon Davies and Nicola Rigoni of Arup, who will be speaking about ‘How to be brilliant… at daylight, experience and wellbeing’. Their lecture will be held at Darc Room at


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Legal issues


LIGHT THROUGH THE CLOUD More and more of us these days are turning to the convenience of storing data in the Cloud. But it is important to understand the risks this can pose, especially who ‘owns’ the data when a business goes into administration or liquidation By Howard Crossman and George Elliman


he data landscape moves forward at an often jarring pace – how individuals and companies in the lighting industry choose to process and store their data has changed radically, even in the past five years. Traditionally, most data was processed and stored on physical servers owned by the individual or company, often on-site. In many cases this has remained the status quo but the increase in popularity of Cloud solutions is impossible to ignore in 2019. The term ‘Cloud’ makes it easy to think of it as a single, intangible ‘thing’. In reality, however, the Cloud it is best described as a group of physical servers, owned and

managed by Cloud service providers (CSPs) that sell space on their servers alongside platforms and applications that link to those servers. Many of these CSPs are household names – think Google, Amazon, IBM and Microsoft. The frees businesses from having to maintain their own servers and cyber security.


The benefits of being in the Cloud come with sacrifices in terms of control of data, however. Lighting businesses should be aware of a range of risk factors, including:

• The connection between the data owner and the CSP is over public internet • The data owner’s data will be hosted alongside the data of other ‘tenants’ • The data owner will often be unaware of the physical location of their data – the largest CSPs’ data rooms can be anywhere globally • The largest CSPs manage a huge number of tenants but still have to manage a finite amount of space within their servers. This can in turn mean that: -- The contractual terms offered by many, in particular, large providers, are most often rigid with little option for customisation to meet the needs

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

part of the assets of the company. The contract wording is again key here. Make sure that your contract has clear ‘end of contract’ terms that can come into play either by business choice or by an act of insolvency. Also, consider whether the contract be assigned if elements of the business are sold off. Insolvency practitioners in 2019 should be well-aware that data will often he held off site by a CSP and may need to be retrieved. The key consideration for lighting businesses before that stage is ensuring their contract is fit for purpose. As good practice, and for the benefit of insolvency practitioners, it is also prudent to keep comprehensive records of what data is Cloud stored.


of their clients; and, -- accordingly, those contractual terms can be imbalanced in favour of the provider.


The combination of these factors means that lighting companies that adopt Cloud solutions have, in general, less control over the way data is processed, stored and used. Under the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regime, these concerns are more important than ever. For more on GDPR, see our article from 2018 ‘Big Data’ (Lighting Journal, January 2018 vol 83, no 1, pp34-36). This is because there is a key question for lighting companies that embrace this Cloud-based technology, namely: ‘How can we balance our GDPR obligations to keep customer data protected, while also outsourcing that data so that it is further outside our control?’. Whether that is something your business feels comfortable doing depends very much on the attitude to risk in the business. When it comes to ownership of data stored on a Cloud server, the wording of the service contract is absolutely key. This contract will set out the terms by which the data is stored and, if at all, used. If you are a lighting business that uses Cloud services or proposes to, therefore consider

reviewing your contract/proposed contract to ensure that: • It explicitly states that you own the data and retain all rights, titles and interests in the data (except individual personal data which, while under your businesses control, remains the ownership of that individual under GDPR) • It gives full control over you accessing and, if needed, deleting data (the latter being important from a GDPR-compliance point of view) • That the contract is generally compatible with your GDPR obligations • It clearly defines what the provider can and cannot do with your data – this should be limited to simply storing and enabling access • It sets out the position as to third parties


With this in mind, what therefore happens to data stored in the Cloud when the worst happens, and the business enters administration or liquidation? Insolvency practitioners appointed to manage either an administration or liquidation of a company will become ‘the data controller’ under GDPR for all of the personal data held by the insolvent company, including that stored in the Cloud. On top of this, all other, non-personal data forms

In summary, all lighting businesses adopting Cloud-based solutions into their infrastructure should take an holistic approach that is both mindful of the risks and focused on minimising these. First, satisfy yourself that the CSP is using high levels of security and encryption to keep your employees’ and your clients’ personal data secure. Second, keep a record of all data that is stored in the Cloud with a CSP, and continue to back-up particularly highly important or confidential documents locally. Include within that all personal data under GDPR to ensure this is not outsourced entirely to the Cloud and out of your full control. Finally, under all circumstances, read and understand the contract you have with your CSP and satisfy yourself that the conditions listed above are met. In short – are you in control? In an ‘end of contract’ situation, such as insolvency, does the contract allow for all of your company’s data to be retrieved simply and totally? If in any doubt about this, seek professional legal advice.

Howard Crossman ( is head of construction and George Elliman is a trainee at Greenwoods GRM. With offices in London, Cambridge and Peterborough, Greenwoods GRM is a UK commercial law firm providing legal advice and pragmatic solutions to local, national and international clients.


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

The IET wiring regulations


MAKING THE RIGHT CONNECTIONS The 18th edition of the IET’s Wiring Regulations came out in January and it is important for lighting professionals, and their contractors, to be fully up to speed on its updates and revisions By Nic Paton


LP members are being reminded of the importance of ensuring both they and any electrical contractors they are using are fully on top of changes to the wiring regulations that came into force at the beginning of this year. The reminder follows concerns that there is still a widespread lack of knowledge about the new 18th edition of the IET’s Wiring Regulations [1]. The 18th edition, BS7671:2018 Requirements for Electrical Installations was released on 01 July 2018 and became effective from 01 January this year. The latest edition includes a range of new and revised regulations, as well as some new chapters and restructured sections, and it makes sense for lighting

professionals to be ensuring that they, or any contractors or sub-contractors, are fully aware of what these changes are. To give just a flavour of some of the changes, a section on arc fault detection devices (AFDDs) has been included within chapter 42. AFDDs provide additional protection against fires that are caused by arc faults in AC final circuits. The regulations emphasise that, when being used, AFDDS should be installed at the origin of each final circuit being protected.


Another area covered within the new regulations is the protection of cabling, with the current edition clarifying the requirements in this area. Amendment 3 of the



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July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

The IET wiring regulations


17th edition introduced a requirement whereby cables ‘in escape routes’ are supported against premature collapse in the event of a fire. This was so that collapsed cables would not impede people trying to escape from a fire or firefighters entering a building that was alight. However during the latest review process the terminology ‘escape route’ was felt to be potentially confusing. So, in the latest edition this has been clarified further. It is now a requirement that all wiring systems are supported to ensure they will not be liable to premature collapse in the event of a fire. This could be through suitably spaced steel or copper clips, saddles or ties.


Another important area of focus within the new regulations has been surge protection. Within the 17th edition, the requirements of surge protection were determined through risk assessment methods. The 18th edition introduces the need for surge protection to be installed in a very broad spectrum – from public, commercial or industrial activities through to, even, consumer unit applications, depending on the circumstances. For example, in section 443 on protection against transient overvoltages of atmospheric origin or because of switching, it states that protection against transient overvoltages shall be provided where the consequences caused: • Result in serious injury to, or loss of, human life, or • Result in interruption of public services and/or damage to cultural heritage or, • Result in interruption of commercial or

industrial activity, or • Affect a large number of co-located individuals. For all other cases, a risk assessment (according to regulation 443.5) shall be performed in order to determine if protection against transient overvoltages is required. If the risk assessment is not performed, the electrical installation shall be provided with protection against transient overvoltages. The exception to this is single dwelling units, where the total value of the installation and equipment does not justify such protection. Protection against switching overvoltages shall also be considered in case of equipment likely to produce switching overvoltages or disturbances exceeding the values according to the overvoltage category of the installation. This, for example, could be where an LV generator supplies the installation or where inductive or capacitive loads (for example motors, transformers and capacitor banks), storage units or high-current loads are installed. Importantly, where overvoltage protection is not required, the regulations emphasise that a risk assessment should be carried out. If a risk assessment is not carried out, overvoltage protection must therefore be provided.


Energy efficiency is also covered within the latest edition, with a new appendix that makes recommendations for optimising efficiencies in the use of electricity in the design, construction and assembly of an installation.


The 18th edition is available to purchase from the IET through its online shop, books/bs-7671/bs-7671-2018.cfm The latest wiring regulations are commonly covered within the ILP’s ‘Fundamental Lighting’ course, which runs regularly throughout the year at Regent House. The next course is due to be running on 06 November, but keep an eye on the Diary page within Lighting Journal or online at for updates.

REFERENCES ‘A good start, but still much to do to embed 18th Edition changes, according to Hager survey’, Electrical Times, 29 March 2019, good-start-still-much-embed-18th-editionchanges-according-hager-survey/


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Steven Biggs

Allan Howard

Alan Tulla

Skanska Infrastructure Services


Alan Tulla Lighting


Peterborough PE1 5XG

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E:

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07827 306483 E:


Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E:

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.

Simon Bushell

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

SSE Enterprise Lighting


McCann Ltd


Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: Professional consultancy from the UK’s and Irelands largest external lighting contractor. From highways and tunnels, to architectural and public spaces our electrical and lighting designers also provide impact assessments, lighting and carbon reduction strategies along with whole installation packages.


Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E:

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning. Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.


Nottingham NG9 6DQ M: 07939 896887 E: Design for all types of exterior lighting including street lighting, car parks, floodlighting, decorative lighting, and private lighting. Independent advice regarding light trespass, carbon reduction and invest to save strategies. Asset management, data capture, inspection and testing services available.

Lorraine Calcott

Tony Price

Peter Williams

it does Lighting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

Williams Lighting Consultants Ltd.


T: 01908 560110 E:

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690

Bedford, MK41 6AG T: 01234 630039 E:

Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.

Specialists in the preparation of quality and effective street lighting design solutions for Section 38, Section 278 and other highway projects. We also prepare lighting designs for other exterior applications. Our focus is on delivering solutions that provide best value.

Mark Chandler

Alistair Scott

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Designs for Lighting Ltd


Reading RG10 9QN

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MHEA Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 0118 3215636 E:

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E:

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest


4way Consulting Ltd Stockport, SK4 1AS

T: 0161 480 9847 E:

Anthony Smith IEng FILP

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 01642 565533 E:

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Stephen Halliday

Nick Smith


Nick Smith Associates Limited


Manchester M50 3SP


Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 0161 886 2532 E:

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E:

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses


This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

Go to: for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.



CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • Lighting Standards

• Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please contact

Venues by arrangement Contact Nick Smith

Nick Smith Associates Ltd

t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 588 604 e: w:

36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR M 07795 903858 T 01202 530166 E

We offer straightforward, no-nonsense, professional advice and solutions to all those involved in street lighting and the highway assets maintenance: to implement integrated asset management programmes in a cost effective, sustainable manner.

Your contact is Martin Wyeth


Multi-Award Winning Structural Testing Business


BSI Cert No. FS607666 I BSI Cert No. OHS 660317 I HERS Reg No. SSR539

Delivering Decorative Lighting Festoons for over 25 years

ILLUMINATING THE WAY Survey, design, energy management & distribution of road, commercial, industrial & architectural lighting solutions.

To illuminate your next project, contact our lighting team on 01236 458000 or 0191 217 0119.

European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

We create bespoke low energy, durable festoon lighting for architects, designers, retail chains, sign makers, ship builders, and more. Contact us to discuss your lighting project. 01245 329 999

Patented Raised Lamppost Banner System that significantly reduces loading on columns and prevents banners twisting and tearing. Column testing and guarantee service available. The most approved system by Highways Engineers

Cumbernauld Newcastle Aberdeen Dingwall Great Yarmouth Light & Energy Distribution, formerly known as MacLean Electrical Lighting Division. Part of the MacLean Electrical Group.

0208 343 2525

July/August 2019 Lighting Journal

Meter Administrator Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email:

Power Data Associates Ltd are Power Associates the leadingData meter administrator in Great Britain. We Ltd are the achieve leading accurate energy calculations meter assuring youadministrator of a cost effective quality in service. Great Offering Britain. We independent consultancy advice achieve to ensure correct accurate inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and energy calculations impact of market developments.

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

assuring you of

01525 601201 a cost effective Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market development

Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director

If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!


01525 601201 Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 5HR

Leading the Way in the Next Generation of: -- High Visibility Belisha Beacons - Solar Belisha Beacons - Solar Refuge Beacons -

Introducing the revolutionary patented TS2300 High Visibility Beacon:

4 Ambient light sensor control to reduce glare. 4 Auto-synchronisation of flash between beacons. 4 Smart City - IoT ready. 4 Power consumption of 6.5 watts. 4 Competitively priced.


Call: 01283 200765

Proudly introducing our new brand identity, our expanding team and our next generation design software.

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Visit us at Lightscene this October Find us on Stand 10

claim your spot for the year in the lighting directory

Contact Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

13/06/2019 15:22


July/August 2019 Lighting Journal


THE DIARY 17 October

Lightscene exhibition and CPD seminars Venue: Uttoxeter Racecourse, Wood Lane, Uttoxeter, Staffordshire

23 October

How to be brilliant… at circadian lighting (London), with Neil Knowles, director and founder of Elektra Lighting Design Venue: Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R

06 November


Fundamental lighting course Venue: The ILP, Regent House, Rugby

20 November p

The Think Tank planetarium and museum in Birmingham, venue for an LDC technical discussion and tour on 31 July

31 July

Think Tank – Planetarium: LDC Birmingham technical discussion Venue: Think Tank, Millennium Point, Curzon Street, Birmingham

19 September

How to be brilliant… at daylight, experience and wellbeing (London), with Arfon Davies and Nicola Rigoni of Arup Venue: Darc Room, London Design Week

How to be brilliant… with ‘the colour blue’ (London), with Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva, senior lighting designers at BDP Venue: Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R For full details of all ILP events, go to:

IN THE SEPTEMBER ISSUE NEWCASTLE HALE Taking the temperature of the industry at this year’s Professional Lighting Summit

LIGHTING AN IDEA How to maintain the narrative of your lighting idea, from concept to completion

DIGITAL SHOPPER Why digital lighting, media and the Internet of Things are transforming the retail experience



P873 Post Top LED Luminaire, has been designed for amenity lighting, pedestrian crossings, splitter islands at roundabouts and smaller car parks. The P873 combines the latest LED light source with state-of-the-art design, achieving longevity for both LEDs and drivers. With contractor friendly simple and fast installation.

- Elegant and state-of-the-art-design - Superior luminaire efficacy up to 127 lm/W - Wide range of lumen packages - Advanced thermal management - Maximised savings on energy - Minimal total cost of ownership - Up to G4 glare rating. - Dark sky friendly and no upward light - Flexible and intelligent lighting control options - Low windage and lightweight - IP66 ingress protection - 100% recyclable

The New CitiSun Luminaires looks as good on the street as it does on a seafront or park. Using the same top quality components as the successful Ignis 1, the 36 LED array delivers a wide range of lumen output with our “Lumen Boost” technology to meet the requirements of BS5489,


The cast LM6 aluminium body is based on a timeless classic design and can be adorned with a translucent skirt for all locations.

Visit our website for full product details.


Find our more at

Lumen output range

1683–9608 lumens

RA/CRI index



3000k, 4000k, 5000k

LX value

L90>100,000 hours

Lumens per watt

Upto 140 lm/w

Experts in exterior LED lighting

Tool Free Access

SmartCity Ready

CLO Available


Preset Dimming

Lumen Boost Tune lumen output

Lightweight LM6 aluminium

Surge Protection – 10kV 5kA MLV (clamping voltage) 1.2kV

w: e: t: 01283 716690

Up to IK8

Profile for Matrix Print Consultants Ltd

Lighting Journal July/August 2019  

Lighting Journal July/August 2019