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JOURNAL The publication for all lighting professionals

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT What ‘intelligent’ mobility could mean for highways, street and urban lighting

FLIGHT PATH Why drones in lighting are struggling to take off

SOCIAL SCIENCE The role of lighting in creating, and breaking down, social barriers

February 2017

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Be in no doubt, driverless, autonomous vehicles are coming – and one day may be commonplace. So, what might this mean for urban lighting? Allan Howard gets out his crystal ball


Tech and car giants are ploughing serious money into autonomous vehicles. Nic Paton looks at the progress being made, and asks how close we are – or might be – from driverless roads


Unmanned aircraft, or drones, could potentially be used by lighting professionals in a multitude of ways. But this will only happen if the regulations governing their use are made less onerous, argues Jody Easkiovitch


It sounds completely fantastical, but an insurance company is working to develop personal drones that you call up via an app on your phone to hover above your head and light your journey home. Lighting Journal took a look


Could an automated underground network of tubes carrying cars be a way to overcome congestion and pollution, and reclaim our cities for pedestrians? And if so, how might they be lit? Lighting Journal dug down to find out


A heavyweight panel of ILP members took to the stage at LuxLive in November to discuss ‘managed’ or smart motorways. Nic Paton listened in


However physically short a tunnel may be, if its exit is not fully visible from the approach road’s stopping distance, it can be visually ‘long’, and a challenge to illuminate. John Rands outlines how the German concept of a ‘light pool’ has overcome this problem in a development in Coventry


How lighting affects the way we perceive, use and live in our communities is at the heart of the Configuring Light research programme. Dr Don Slater explains what has been learned so far


Semi-cylindrical illuminance has been promoted as a better measure for lighting design than vertical illuminance. Professor Steve Fotios is unconvinced



No retailer would accept having a mirror in its changing room or on its make-up counter that made a customer look or feel ugly or unwell. But that’s precisely what can happen with the wrong lighting. Anna Sandgren and Claire Hamill reflect on an innovative research project looking to solve this problem


Using light, specifically LED, as a remote sensor to automatically adjust the colour spectrum could be a way in the future to illuminate spaces more effectively and efficiently, and could be applied for street lighting, argues Professor Wout van Bommel


Teacher-turning-lighting designer Stephen Thompson was captivated by optician Ian Jordan’s ILP lecture in the autumn. It made him realise how much more closely the lighting profession could be working with schools to help future generations







JOURNAL The publication for all lighting professionals

February 2017

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT What ‘intelligent’ mobility could mean for highways, street and urban lighting

FLIGHT PATH Why drones in lighting are struggling to take off

SOCIAL SCIENCE The role of lighting in creating, and breaking down, social barriers

Cover: A bird’s eye view of an urban intersection from a drone, one possible ‘smart mobility’ solution for lighting professionals in the future

Lighting Journal February 2017

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Editorial Volume 82 No 2 February 2017 President Kevin Grigg, Eng Tech, AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA(Cantab) DPA HonFIAM Editor Nic Paton Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng MILP Gill Packham BA (Hons) Nigel Parry IEng FILP Richard Webster Art Director Adriano Cattini Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website:

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quite like the idea of autonomous vehicles (AVs). I do drive, but it’s not something I hugely enjoy; I wouldn’t go out at a weekend and drive for pleasure, for example. If I need to travel for work, I tend to take the train when I can, as then it’s not ‘dead’ time; I can get some work done, sort out planning or paperwork or just carve out some reflection and thinking time. For me, an autonomous car, where you can get on with ‘stuff’ while it does the driving bit, holds much the same attraction. But I appreciate I’m probably in something of a minority here. Most of us are very much wedded to our cars and the independence, convenience and flexibility they offer in terms of getting from A to B. The idea of giving over control of our motoring to a load of computers and sensors, even if statistically it is, more often than not, human error that causes accidents, is something many people feel distinctly uncomfortable about. To that end, I’m not holding my breath about AVs becoming the norm, the predominant form of transport, on our roads anytime soon. It’s going to be many years, decades probably, before this transition comes about. However, I do also suspect it is a transition that will happen eventually (or some variant of it), not least because of the level of investment, R&D and commitment being put into AVs. I suspect it’ll be a gradual evolution. It’ll probably be a case of more and more elements of the conventional road-handling experience being ‘driven’ by the computer (already, of course, things like self-parking and autonomous cruise control are increasingly common) until, almost without noticing, we’re effectively behind the wheel of an AV. This is why, as we’ve done in this edition, it is important for lighting professionals to be thinking about how this evolution – this transition to increasingly ‘smart’ forms of mobility – may in time change highway, street and urban lighting. Horace Rackham, one of the original shareholders in the Ford Motor Company, famously ignored the advice of the president of the Michigan Savings Bank not to put his money into the firm because, ‘the horse is here to stay, but the automobile is only a novelty – a fad.’ Street, highway and urban lighting are not going to change overnight because of AVs. But it is clear AVs, much like the smart city, very much have the potential to change lighting profoundly. And lighting professionals, much like Horace Rackham, will need to be ready to respond to and embrace this opportunity when it comes around. Nic Paton Editor

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website: © ILP 2017 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.




Local authorities will make or break the roll-out of ‘smart’ cities. But do they understand it, or even know what they want?

How lighting design is embracing virtual reality and gaming technologies

Understanding the ‘circular economy’, and why it’s going to become increasingly important

Lighting Journal February 2017

The ILP 2016 Lecture 6 Intelligent mobility: lighting in the age of the autonomous vehicle

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Be in no doubt, driverless, autonomous vehicles are coming – and one day may be commonplace on our roads. So, what might this mean for highways and urban lighting? Allan Howard gets out his crystal ball


e are at an important crossroads when it comes to developments in the application of street and public-realm lighting. In the past, we have looked to such installations to provide suitable levels of lighting to reduce road traffic accidents and/or create a safe environment for pedestrians. More recently we have seen a move to managing the energy and carbon

Lighting Journal February January 2017 2017

p A visualisation of a possible future urban centre,

where ‘road’ space could be much more shared between autonomous vehicles and citizens

consumption of these installations as well as a need to meet reduced revenue budgets and energy reduction targets. This has led to the wholesale move to LED lighting solutions, as well as consideration for adaptive lighting installations where the light levels are adjusted to suit the task being undertaken at a particular time. Technology moves on, and we are now witnessing the early stages of a review of future lighting applications. This will not be lighting-led, but rather achieved holistically through the overall consideration of smart city applications and transportation systems. The term ‘smart’ cities is, of course, increasingly being used, and means many things to different people. It can range from monitoring the services offered by the local authority, such as gully cleaning, parking availability and air quality measurement, through to monitoring the flow of vehicles and pedestrians and providing them with the information they need, whether this may

Intelligent mobility: lighting in the age of the autonomous vehicle 7 be retail-, safety- or travel-related. The deployment of such systems is likely to be centred upon the public lighting infrastructure, which will form the deployment backbone, providing a means of support, power and communication between sensors, monitors and the users’ interface of choice, primarily smartphones and a central communications hub. The future requirement to provide these three essentials for smart technologies will drive the upgrading and development of the lighting asset with its current core function (illumination) being a secondary, albeit still important, service. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Following close behind the development of smart cities is the rise of the autonomous vehicle (AV). In only a few years, AVs have evolved from being the stuff of science fiction to concept and, now, to the reality on highway trials and even, as Nic Paton outlines on page ten of this edition, city-based pilots. Although AV technology is still at a relatively early stage, it is nevertheless advancing rapidly. It is therefore something lighting professionals need to be thinking about, as was witnessed last year at the ILP’s Professional Lighting Summit roundtable debate, where AVs were one of the key topics for discussion. Currently, the expectation is that the integral technologies inherent within AVs will, in time, permit them to navigate all types of roads, taking due account

of other AVs as well as cyclists and pedestrians. While the exact shape of this evolution is not yet clear, what this means is that we may in time see a transformation in how our roads, pavements and public areas are used and, in turn, need to be lit. Don’t get me wrong, the rise of AVs cars will be a gradual process, as conventional driver-based cars will remain an important (and probably dominant) part of the traffic mix for many years to come. To that extent, the fundamentals of highway design and lighting will need to remain unchanged. But, as a profession, we do need to be thinking about and anticipating what this technological transformation – where the occupants of cars will no longer need physically to see roads to navigate along them and therefore roads may not need to be lit, or lit in the same way – may eventually mean for highways and urban lighting. So, what kind of changes might we see? First, as more AVs enter circulation, the predictions are that the total number of vehicles on the road will decrease, given that AVs will be essentially a shared resource rather than individually owned. This will result in the freeing of road space, therefore allowing authorities to designate areas as ‘driverless/AV zones’. This, in turn, will allow for the de-cluttering of roads by removing much defunct street furniture, such as directional signage and traffic signals,

and the creation of more shared spaces. Urban developments may also be built specifically with AVs in mind. Because the full road layout is ‘comprehended’ by the vehicle without the need for any external inputs, how it is designed can be rethought. In the shorter term, when AVs are sharing urban spaces with conventional vehicles, we are likely to see the development of mixed operations on shared road space, perhaps with fixed, designated lanes separating the two modes of transport. It is predicted another use of AVs will be to offer a door-to-door ‘first- or last-few miles’ travel option between mass transit interchanges or hubs. In other words, as a passenger, you’ll come to your destination on an AV system (bus, rail or tram maybe) and then transfer to a car AV for the final leg of your journey. Again, this might lead to significant changes in terms of how we think about, design and illuminate our public spaces. Up to now, a lot of the discussion around AVs has been focused on how they may lead to safer modes of travel, given that it is estimated some 90% of car accidents are caused by driver error. The cleaner environment benefits of electrically-powered AVs have been another important discussion point. However, when it comes to lighting and infrastructure, much of the debate has focused around daytime use and, as already highlighted, how AVs could lead to the urban environment being

As a profession, we do need to be thinking about and anticipating what this technological transformation – where the occupants of cars will no longer need physically to see roads to navigate along them and therefore roads may not need to be lit, or lit in the same way – may eventually mean for highways and urban lighting p Autonomous vehicles may lead to a rethinking of how city and urban spaces are illuminated

Lighting Journal February 2017

8 Intelligent mobility: lighting in the age of the autonomous vehicle de-cluttered and even some public lighting to be removed. Less discussed has been where this will leave the night-time city environment. What will it mean for users such as cyclists and pedestrians at night if roads and urban areas are less lit, or just lit differently? Given that (one assumes) pedestrians will still want to walk pavements and cross roads at night, how will the external environment continue to need to be illuminated? How will AVs, in turn, need to be illuminated so as to be visible to cyclists and pedestrians? Indeed, what sort of lighting will the users of AVs also require during the hours of darkness, assuming they will still wish to be able to see where they are, even if their vehicle can ‘see’ by itself. Such requirements cannot be ignored. AVs, it is clear, will have to have their own external lighting so that other users and pedestrians can be aware of their presence. This will also be important to ensure users remain aware of what is happening around them, such as the proximity of other AVs. The fact that AVs are likely to be electrically powered, and therefore comparatively silent in use, is another important factor in this discussion. What this all means is the need for appropriate task and security lighting for cyclists and pedestrians will remain and, where they interact with AVs, will require careful consideration. LIGHTING STANDARDS As we’ve already seen, the rise and use of AVs will probably only be a gradual evolution. To that end, it is not a case that lighting design standards will need to change significantly – tasks will essentially be the same – but more the application of lighting that will need to change. LEDs provide an instantaneous light source, and control systems exist to facilitate a fully adaptive installation. As AVs become more commonplace, we will see this taken to its full limit. Where required, a low level of lighting will be provided, simply to create an environment that people are willing to enter. Once within it, levels can then be increased to provide an ‘envelope’ of lighting that will extend to a considered distance before and after individuals, so as to provide the right level of task lighting. This may extend to the AV, so that, when there are no pedestrians or cyclists in the immediate vicinity, the low level of lighting remains. But when the AV detects a pedestrian or cyclist or that someone is waiting for it, the envelope of lighting is created around the AV to enhance the user’s, the pedestrian’s or the cyclist’s awareness of it approaching. For much of the time in urban areas these envelopes

Lighting Journal February 2017

p Kruunuvuori Bridge in Finland: a lighting scheme is being developed around ‘envelopes’ of light

of light will merge and be maintained because of the active use of the streets. Smart city technologies may also play a part in the application of AVs, particularly in cities that become socalled ‘GPS canyons’. This is where, because of the tall heights of buildings, GPS signals are poor and can therefore affect an AV’s ability to safely position itself. Here, smart city technologies can be used to provide additional locational data to resolve such navigational difficulties. A good example of how this nascent technology is already being applied can be seen on the Kruunuvuori Bridge in Helsinki, Finland. The bridge will carry trams, cyclists and pedestrians, and our WSP Finland Lighting Design Studio is designing the lighting along the lines just explained. The lighting has been carefully designed and is limited to the areas that require to be lit. When not required, the lighting is dimmed to 10% of its operational level. The principle is that the light follows the user. Sensors incorporated into the structure and columns identify the direction and speed of movement of different users, and automatically increase the lighting around the user to

recommended operational levels, in this case ME3 for tramways and S2 for cycle/ walkways, with facial recognition defined by semi-cylindrical illuminance. This ‘envelope’ of lighting exists 100m in front of and behind the user, the distance in this case being a factor of the tram stopping distance and traffic safety considerations. Ultimately, the challenge for lighting professionals from AVs is to ensure we fully understand and embrace these new technologies; that we understand both the opportunities and the challenges AVs can bring. These changes are coming, whether we like it or not, and have the potential to transform our urban spaces. AV and smart city technology offers the opportunity to improve the service delivered by the authorities and municipalities to serve the public. Equally importantly, through the use and rental of column space, this technology also has the potential to become an important income generator. We must ensure lighting systems are designed to facilitate these fascinating, emerging AV and smart city technologies. Allan Howard is technical director, lighting and energy solutions at WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff


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10 Intelligent mobility: autonomous vehicles


Tech and car giants are ploughing serious money into autonomous vehicles. Even the government has said it will be investing cash. Nic Paton looks at some of the innovations and progress being made, and asks how close we are – or might be – from driverless roads

as it human error, the possibility that, as some reports suggested, Joshua Brown was both speeding and watching a Harry Potter movie on a screen rather than keeping his eyes on the road? Or was his fatal crash in a Tesla self-driving car in the US last year because, as other reports had it, the car’s sensor system had been unable to differentiate between a bright spring sky and the large white 18-wheel truck crossing the highway in front of him? The crash was the first known fatal accident involving an autonomous vehicle (AV), and was at the time seen as potentially a significant set-back for the development of driverless cars. It is unlikely to stop the march of progress, however, not least because in January, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s report into the accident placed the responsibility for it primarily on the driver rather than the technology. In the UK, too, last November, chancellor Philip Hammond in his Autumn Statement announced £390 million would be invested in low emission vehicles ‘and the

p A Google self-driving car: trials have covered two million miles in the US

development of connected autonomous vehicles’. Just last month, as well, the government responded to a public consultation carried out last summer on proposed changes to the Highway Code and to car insurance regulations to pave the way for autonomous vehicles to be used on UK roads.Its conclusion was that it, essentially, (and pardon the pun) had a green light to carry forward its proposed rolling programme of reforms, including amending highway regulations so that autonomous ‘advanced driver assistance systems’ will be allowed to change lanes on motorways and park cars by remote control.


Lighting Journal February 2017

Intelligent mobility: autonomous vehicles 11 MILTON KEYNES PILOT It also means pilot schemes such as that being pioneered in Milton Keynes, where a two-seater ‘LUTZ Pathfinder’ has travelled through pedestrianised areas, are likely to become more commonplace. Tech giants such as Google and Uber, which have seriously deep R&D pockets, are pioneering the development of AVs and, therefore, we shouldn’t expect the idea and concept to disappear anytime soon. Indeed, Google has been putting its considerable weight behind AVs since 2009 and, as of last year, estimated it had self-driven AVs in the US over more than two million miles. It has been testing on streets in four city locations, as well carrying out one billion simulation miles last year alone. The big car firms are, unsurprisingly, also racing to keep up, with Ford, among others, predicting it will be offering fully autonomous cars, without steering wheels or brake pedals, by 2021. Of course, let’s not get ahead of ourselves. Although the trials in the US are more substantial, the Milton Keynes trial can hardly be classed as ‘normal’ driving – a closely monitored 15mph over one-and-a-half miles. Electric cars, let alone AVs, are still in a minority on our roads, even though their numbers are increasing sharply. We’re still a long way off AVs becoming a mainstream transport option. Nevertheless, when they do come,

p The ‘LUTZ Pathfinder’ AV has been tested in pedestrianised areas of Milton Keynes

technology will undoubtedly change alongside them. For example, research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Swiss Institute of Technology and the Italian National Research Council has predicted that, once AVs become the predominant form of transport, it might be better to have a ‘slot’ system, a bit like an air traffic control system, for cars rather than traffic lights. When AVs approach an intersection, a digital system would anticipate when each would reach the crossing and manage their route accordingly, with each entering the intersection at an assigned time so as to avoid a collision.

EASING CONGESTION One of the beauties of this idea is that, assuming the sensors remain reliable, vehicles would be able to be kept a safe distance from one another simply by slowing down rather than having to come to a complete halt at lights and then starting off again, something that would certainly help to ease congestion. Text messages, illuminated road surfaces and electronic signage could all be used to communicate with road users and pedestrians. Google has received a US patent for a concept that could include electronic signage on the exterior of an AV so as to allow it to communicate with pedestrians and cyclists. Nissan has been testing a concept

car that uses lights to indicate its intentions to pedestrians, including textbased messages. And Mitsubishi is developing technology that lights up road surfaces at night to illuminate a vehicle’s intended path, or to highlight that a door has opened. As Allan Howard has highlighted in the previous article, it is therefore only right that lighting professionals are sitting down now to consider the potential ramifications of what a gradual societal transition to AVs could mean for highways, street and urban lighting. After all, just because something isn’t going to happen imminently does not mean it isn’t going to happen.

Lighting Journal February 2017

12 Smart mobility: drones

FLIGHT PATH Unmanned aircraft, or drones, could potentially be used by lighting professionals in a multitude of ways. But this will only happen if the rules and regulations governing their use are made less onerous, argues Jody Easkiovitch


n recent years, we’ve seen an explosion of interest in drones on the consumer market. A flying device that’s easy to pilot and control and which has a camera attached – it’s hardly surprising there are lots of people keen to learn to fly drones, as well as use them to take photos and videos of some stunning subjects. You only have to look on social media or wildlife documentaries to see examples of what drones nowadays are capable of. But, what about for commercial and industrial applications, especially applications for and within the lighting industry? How can drones be used in this context, and is this actually happening? When we use the word ‘drone’, it’s important, first, to remember we are not simply referring to a multi-rotor aircraft that can hover and take off vertically. The term drone encompasses a variety of different aircraft. In a technological context, what we mean when we say drone is simply ‘an unmanned aircraft’ or ‘small unmanned aircraft’ (SUA). Some industries, such as the construction and gas and oil, have begun to recognise the potential of drones for carrying out tasks such as inspections

Lighting Journal February 2017

Smart mobility: drones 13

and surveys. By using a drone, these tasks can be undertaken without increasing the risks to staff or operatives who would otherwise have to get out (or up) there in person. Within lighting, however, while innovation within our industry has been moving at a rapid pace in recent years when it comes to LED solutions and technology generally, the utilisation of drones – the application of drones to lighting challenges – is an opportunity that has yet to be fully recognised. Why might this be? One practical reason is the complex laws in place around flying drones commercially (and see the panel explaining this at the end of this article) which potentially act as a deterrent to their use. APPROXIMATION OF LIGHT LEVELS Another barrier to take-up is the common misperception that a drone is just a device for capturing images when, in fact, drones have the potential to be used in many other, more sophisticated ways. To put it simplistically, yes, a drone can of course be used for capturing images – and drones now do that very well. But a camera is nothing more than a sensor that can be easily swapped out for something else. If we were to fit a different type of sensor to a drone, what sort of real-world applications might suddenly come into play? For example, I’ve recently stumbled upon an intriguing innovation from within the astronomy community. Here, there is various work going on to study how to manipulate the light meters within DSLR cameras commonly carried by drones so as to get an approximation of the light level. This is particularly important for astronomer when looking at the effect of sky glow in terms of wiping out their field of view for star-gazing but, clearly, could also be valuable for lighting engineers and designers. There are asset management tools such as LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) that are already in use on drones and can be useful for mapping; they are able to map and identify assets

Lighting Journal February 2017

14 Smart mobility: drones THE LAW AND DRONES

and be used in systems such as Yotta’s Horizons. 3D mapping is another technology that is fast-moving within the drone industry, and which offers potential opportunities to lighting professionals. Programs are already available that can automate the flight and camera of the drone to take sufficient photos with meta data; these can then be used to form a 3D map. Such 3D maps are often used in the construction industry but can have other applications. For example, conservation projects can use this technology to create an accurate 3D model, from which they record the condition of the object, structure or site in question. They can then use this data to provide a valuable comparison of any deterioration when they revisit the site at a later date. Could this, perhaps, be something of use to the lighting industry? If we have a real-world 3D map of an area and are able to plot lighting units within it and have sufficient data for the luminaire, it is very possible we could get an accurate look at how the lighting design would turn out. This could include examining shadows from structures, trees or obstacles, all of which could help to further improve the lighting design process. SCOUTING COLUMNS Another subject that has been discussed in the context of drones and automated flight is whether we could use drones, following an automated flight path, to scout for lighting columns that have failed and are out of light? Automated flight is a feature now readily offered by the big drone manufacturers, through the use of way-points for a flight path. Certainly, the drone would need to

Lighting Journal February 2017

incorporate new software to allow it to detect outages, but it is something well worth considering. Automated flight potentially offers another opportunity, too. By preprograming a matrix of way-points, a drone could carry a light meter and record light readings at each point of the matrix, thus ensuring a lighting scheme is fulfilling the levels required and designed to. What else could drones do for, or offer to, the lighting industry? How about high mast inspections, or visual inspections, with the drone completing and recording evidence by way of photographing the offending asset? Or, how about using drones to provide a visual comparison of a scheme from above? You could highlight the benefit and improved lighting of, say, a road by taking before and after shots. While, of course, this would not be specific on providing light levels, it would provide a visual comparison for local authority leaders, which they could then use as a tool to demonstrate the improvements they are achieving. Ultimately, lighting as an industry needs to recognise the potential of drones, to work to utilise this emerging technology. I’m confident, as time goes by, that manufacturers and authorities will see some innovative ideas coming to fruition. Yet, for me, the biggest barrier remains the regulatory landscape. While it is technologically possible to program a drone to fly a route and inspect lights for scouting purposes, it is likely a commercial operator would not be able to do so within the constraints of the current rules. Having said that, this is an emerging and fast-growing area. In time, as the limitations and opportunities of drones

One of the factors limiting the use and take-up of drones is the law around the use of such unmanned flying vehicles. Even though the stringency of regulation and bureaucracy is understandable, make no mistake, this is a huge obstacle at the current time. In order to use a drone commercially, an operator must hold a valid ‘Permissions for Commercial Operations’ (PfCO). Up until August last year this was known as a ‘Permissions for Aerial Work’, and so you may also hear this term being used. A PfCO, in short, demonstrates that the operator has met the minimum requirements for both flying ability and understanding of the laws and associated hazards of the airways. But a PfCO is not the end of the paperwork. Alongside this, the operator must hold valid public liability insurance specific to flying a drone. The operator should be able to direct anyone who asks to the Civil Aviation Authority’s (CAA) approved SUA

(small unmanned aircraft) list, so their credentials can be verified. So, once all’s that in place you’re good to go and can fly anywhere as a commercial operator, right? Wrong! A commercial operator must still stay 50m from any person, vehicle, vessel or structure that’s not under their control. You must not fly within 50m of a built-up area (also referred to by the CAA as ‘a congested area’). There are ways round this, for example if you bring a sufficient area of the built-up area under your control so that it is safe to fly. But there will still be an upper limit of 121m (400ft) and a lateral distance of 500m set as part of the permissions. For more information on the rules and restrictions you must meet when it comes to flying drones, visit the CAA (https://www. and click on the tab ‘drones’. If you’re flying drones more for fun, Dronesafe www.dronesafe. uk is another useful website.

become clearer, and as the industry and rules evolve, it is possible this situation will change. Hopefully one day we might even see drones stopping being thought of as ‘a future technology’ and, rather, see them as something incorporated into our everyday working as lighting professionals. Jody Easkiovitch is street lighting inspector (street lighting), Highway Operations, Transport, at Brighton & Hove City Council

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16 Intelligent mobility: future concept

HOVER CRAFT It sounds completely fantastical, but an insurance company is working to develop personal drones that you call up via an app on your phone to hover above your head and light your journey home. Lighting Journal took a look


t sounds like something out of a science fiction movie. You’re walking along a dark country lane at night. You’re a bit unsure where you’re going or your surroundings and so you whip out your mobile phone. The screen has its own comforting glow, but you’re going to use it for much more than that. A few moments later a drone equipped with high-powered onboard lights appears above your head, hovering and circling. It ‘walks’ with you, lighting your route, until you reach your destination. All sounds a bit fantastical? This is, in fact, a prototype service called Fleetlights currently being tested by insurance firm Direct Line. As yet, the idea is still what is described as a ‘beta service’, in other words something in development and not available for general use. But as a concept it is certainly intriguing. Direct Line describes Fleetlights as a service ‘made up of a swarm of interconnected UAVs (drones) equipped with high-powered on-board lights that can be summoned on demand from your smartphone to provide bright illumination wherever you’re heading, or whatever you’re doing.’ Some of the technical specifications are outlined opposite but, in essence, the idea is to offer Direct Line customers a way to illuminate their journey wherever street lights don’t exist, whether that’s walking home

Lighting Journal February 2017

from the station after a late shift or navigating the last few miles of a nighttime drive, or our example above. The service will work through an Android app on your phone. Once requested, a notification is sent to the local fleet control station, who then assigns a drone to your GPS location using data from your smartphone. The app will give you updates on when the drone is due to arrive. Once you no longer need it, you can simply ‘dismiss’ the drone with a tap of your app, at which point it is recalled back to base for charging. ‘ROVER’ TECHNOLOGY The programme includes a number of drone technology innovations, Direct Line has said. These include special ‘rover’ technology that allows swarms of drones to be responsive to a subject on the ground, rather than to a single ‘master’ drone in the air, while remaining in formation. Another innovation is what is called ‘responsive way-pointing’. This where, rather than drones simply following a series of automated waypoints on a route, they can be pushed or pulled about a way-pointed path based on a user’s movements on the ground. The drones also incorporate militarylevel GPS units and so-called ‘mesh networking’. This is communications technology that allows drone units to respond to each other instantly while in the air. There are still a number of hurdles to be overcome before this service can be offered to the general public, Direct Line has conceded. First, the company has said it is working to include advanced collision detection technology that would enable the drones to become more aware of their surroundings, and even do away with the need for waypointing technology. It is also looking at using ‘Blue cell’ hydrogen power units rather than lithium batteries to increase their flight times. Finally, although the use of drones is an increasing area of focus for both MPs and the Civil Aviation Authority, there will need to be in place concrete guidelines as to their use as a commercial service, Direct Line has emphasised.

Intelligent mobility: future concept 17 THE DRONES The Direct Line Fleetlights fleet currently comprises 20 drone ‘platforms’, 15 of which are ‘standard’ and five ‘advanced’. The standard drones are designed for personal use and equipped with a single, highefficiency lighting unit (of which more below). Their specification are as follows:

THE ADVANCED DRONES Six-engine ‘hexacopters’ – can travel at up to 60mph and carry three lighting units. Their specification are as follows: THE STANDARD DRONES Wheel base: 650mm Engines: four Material: carbonfibre airframe with stainless steel and titanium fixings Flight controller: dual IMU with redundant compass and GPS units Power supply: 2x lithium polymer batteries for redundancy Recovery system: Autonomous

Weight: 2kg or less

Engines: six

Ground control: 2.4Mhz RC with telemetry and mapping via a 433 or 895Mhz radio System Sensor: ultrasonic and flow control

Material: carbonfibre airframe with stainless steel and titanium fixings

Power supply: 2x lithium polymer batteries for redundancy Recovery system: autonomous Weight: 7kg or less Ground control: 2.4Mhz RC with telemetry and mapping via a 433 or 895Mhz radio System Sensor: ultrasonic and flow control

THE FIILEX AL250 LIGHTING UNIT The drones are equipped with at least one Fiilex AL250 lighting unit. These can be operational from any height, and have a minimum beam focus of seven metres from the ground, Direct Line has said.

Maximum speed: 15metres per second

The unit has a 200W tungsten beam, while drawing 30W of power. Its ‘Dense Matrix’ technology focuses a flickerfree beam to more than double central luminance, it added.

Range: 1.5 miles

Its specifications are:

Ceiling: 400 feet

Size: 3.7” x 3” x 2” (L x W x H)

Landing gear: retractable

Flight time: 20-30 minutes in hover

Flight controller: dual IMU with redundant compass and GPS units

Landing gear: retractable

aluminium heat sink LED: DiCon Dense Matrix LED Thermal design: fanless cooling system Beam angle: 38 degrees CCT: 5,600K CRI: 93 Power consumption: 30W Input voltage: 5V DC, 2A Charger: 100-240V AC, 50-60Hz (In) 5V DC, 2A (Out) Battery: Li-ion rechargeable battery – 7.2V 2600mAh Charging time: 25 minutes

Weight: 0.6lbs/250 g

Run time: 25mins (at max power)

Material: PC & ABS housing with

Temperature range: 32-100F/0-40C

Lighting Journal February 2017

18 Intelligent mobility: future concept

TUBE JOURNEYS Could an automated underground network of tubes carrying cars be a way to overcome congestion and pollution, and reclaim our cities for pedestrians? And if so, how might they be lit? Lighting Journal dug down to find out


etween the Tube; sewers, waterways and roads; famous defence constructions such as the Cabinet War Rooms; and now Crossrail, it’s fair to say that London below ground nowadays resembles a veritable Emmental cheese. In fact, the plethora of tunnels and underground networks criss-crossing the capital – not to mention the increasingly popular trend towards luxury basements – can often be a subsidence worry for London residents. And in the future there may be yet another tunnel network for London – the CarTube ( The

Lighting Journal February 2017

idea certainly appears outlandish, an automated underground network of tracks for cars designed to allow the streets above ground to be reclaimed for pedestrians. But, in way, as an idea it is arguably no more left-field than Elon Musk’s futuristic ‘Hyperloop’ concept, where pod-like vehicles are propelled through nearvacuum tubes at more than airline speed. So, what is CarTube and how might it work? ‘VIRTUAL TRAINS’ The idea is the brainchild of Lars Hesselgren, director of research at

architecture practice practice PLP and it was publicly unveiled at a ‘Future of Urban Mass Transportation’ conference held in London in December. As a solution to city congestion and pollution it is certainly novel. It would mean a city’s cars are taken off the roads and instead travel along a network of constantly moving tracks in small-bore tunnels. Vehicles would be digitally locked into ‘virtual trains’ with minimal separation of 2m gaps. You wouldn’t, however, simply be able to turn up in your old banger, drive down a ramp and join the network. The system would be entirely automated, meaning it would only work via electric, internet-enabled vehicles. As Lars Hesselgren puts it himself: ‘CarTube is a direct response to mass transit and traffic congestion in the world’s largest cities. Moving high-speed car traffic below ground will revolutionise our concept of the city, allowing our urban spaces to be designed not for cars, but for people. CarTube has the potential to be the next best thing to teleportation and will revolutionise exiting cities and allow for unprecedented urban forms.’ Of course, a major challenge to this would be infrastructure – namely how to create and construct a tunnel network of the complexity required to make such a system a viable alternative to conventional

Intelligent mobility: future concept 19

overground roads, and at what cost. The tunnels, admittedly, would not need to be on the scale of the London Underground or Crossrail, given that they would not need ventilation (because there would be no car emissions) or stations. Nevertheless, it would clearly be a huge undertaking, not least because of, as already highlighted, the tunnel congestion that already exists in a city such as London. ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE Then there would be the issue of how it would connect with a) the existing road infrastructure in the city and b) the road infrastructure elsewhere. The CarTube model has proposed its grid of subterranean tunnels would link to existing roads via entrances feeding in from periphery motorways as well as via simple ramps throughout the city leading down to the network. The tracks in the tunnels would move at a continuous rate, in effect like massive conveyor belts. A user would decide where they want to start and end their journey, putting in SatNav co-ordinates. They would then book a time slot, and get on the network, as long as their car was enabled to do so. When it comes to linking with a conventional car, you would be able to take a pedestrian lift to the surface and pick up

Moving high-speed car traffic below ground will revolutionise our concept of the city, allowing our urban spaces to be designed not for cars, but for people

your conventional car from where you’ve parked it in a ‘car stack’, much like an underground car park with an automated valet service. You could also arrange for your car to be returned to you later if you’ve ended up somewhere else, CarTube has argued. Of course, were this concept ever to become a reality, there would be lots of issues for lighting professionals. How would the tunnels and surrounding infrastructure be lit, for one? What about safety or emergency lighting? And what, in turn, might a network like this mean for suddenly car-less streets and urban and public areas? Thoughts on a pneumatic tube, perhaps?

Lighting Journal February 2017

20 Intelligent mobility: ‘managed’ motorways

Lighting Journal February 2017

Intelligent mobility: ‘managed’ motorways 21

HIGHWAY CODES? A heavyweight panel of ILP members took to the stage at LuxLive in November to discuss the pros and cons of ‘managed’ or smart motorways. Nic Paton listened in.


It’s possibly not too much of an exaggeration to say the ILP dominated proceedings at November’s LuxLive, with some 35 ILP members making presentations across the two days. The range of topics being highlighted by members was varied and disparate, everything from office, airport and rail lighting through to ‘human-centric’ lighting design, smart cities and an array of best practice project case studies, among many others. But with Lighting Journal in this edition focusing on ‘smart’ mobility, a panel debate on the growing trend towards ‘managed’ or smart motorways that also happened to feature four ILP members was always going to catch the eye. The debate, ‘Managed Motorways: time to turn the lights on?’, was opened by Mark Cooper of consultancy Smart City Advice, after which there was a panel discussion chaired by Lux publisher Ray Molony and featuring Mark, Nick Smith of Nick Smith Associates, Simon Bushell of SSE Enterprise Contracting, and Peter Harrison, ILP technical services manager. Mark first of all outlined what managed motorways are. ‘Managed motorways are a way for the Highways Agency to improve congestion on our network without actually building new lanes, new roads or new parts of the network. They make use of the existing land that it has; and often temporarily converts the hard shoulder into a running lane. Or permanently converts the hard shoulder into a running lane,’ he explained. ‘There are two types of managed motorway currently in operation on the network. One is what they call “dynamic hard shoulder running”. And you would see this on the M42 around Birmingham. The hard shoulder predominantly is what it is; it’s a hard shoulder. However, at times of congestion, when there’s lots of traffic

on the network, they’ll open the hard shoulder. This is done through the regional control centre; the network operators in there looking at CCTV cameras, making sure that the hard shoulder is safe to open and there are no obstructions on it; and then setting the matrix signs appropriately and setting the speed limits. You’ll notice that on all managed motorways we have variable speed limits. The first introduction of this was on the M25, and then they rolled it our further across the network. ‘The other version is what Highways England calls “all-lane running”. There are some distinct differences between this and dynamic hard shoulder running. One is that the hard shoulder doesn’t exist; they’ve converted the hard shoulder into a running lane. It is always there; there is no hard shoulder at all. That means for the operators they don’t have to go through a process of checking cameras and signals and everything like that in order to open up the hard shoulder; it’s permanently there. ‘The reason this was introduced is because we need to avoid congestion on the motorway network, and rather than the very expensive process of buying more land, creating another lane and widening bridges, what we’re able to do is convert the hard shoulder itself. They’re cheaper to install and maintain; they have a lot of regulations. The one that is specific to all-lane running is an interim advice note, IAN 161/15, that was updated in 2016 and replaces the one created in 2013,’ Mark added. CONCERNS RAISED While it is pretty easy to understand the rationale behind this move, the concept of managed motorways remains contentious. The Transport Select Committee launched a review into all-lane running at the end of 2015, which raised concerns about the risks associated with this form of motorway

Lighting Journal February 2017

22 Intelligent mobility: ‘managed’ motorways and called for ‘an immediate halt to the roll-out of all-lane running’, a call the government rejected. As Mark highlighted, one of the key concerns with managed motorways is the fact that, as well as no hard shoulder, IAN 161/15 allows for various roadside fixed signage and lighting to be removed. ‘We now have a motorway running at 70mph, all lanes, no hard shoulder, nowhere to go. There are emergency refuges, but they are spaced every two-and-half kilometres along the motorway. And in between, there is nowhere to go if there is an incident, a vehicle breaks down or something like that.’

Mark also highlighted the tragic case of Laura Cooper, who died last year after the car she was travelling in came to a halt on an unlit, all-lane running section of the M25 and was struck by an HGV. ‘One of the reasons for the Transport Select Committee’s concerns is that emergency services and the roads associations have expressed safety concerns regarding smart motorways, and in particular this incident. For us, there is an area of concern here that this was an unlit section of motorway,’ said Mark. ‘Yes, there may have been a contributory factor with the HGV driver possibly under

Motorways are lit because there is a lot of volume of traffic, and with big volume there is a likelihood cars are going to break down. So, if we’re having to open up another lane, there is even more likelihood cars are going to break down. Where does that car go, because there is no space for it to get to? And then for the approaching vehicle, how can he see that vehicle that’s pulled into the side?

the influence of drugs or alcohol, although that’s not been confirmed yet. But, certainly, there may be an issue with alllane running in the areas. ‘The reason for this panel discussion is we’re going to try and have some debates about what can be done and maybe what the future is for smart motorways. There is a definite need to do it. The actual premise behind them is a good idea – reduce congestion, reduce carbon, don’t take any more land, reduce the maintenance, reduce the costs involved in these “congestion busting” ideas. But is this the right way to go about it?’ said Mark. Ray opened the debate by turning first to Simon Bushell. ‘Would you say that lighting is the solution to this? If we’re going to use the hard shoulder and make the roads more dangerous, well then let people see what they’re doing?’ he queried. ‘Motorways are lit because there is a lot of volume of traffic, and with big volume there is a likelihood cars are going to break down. So, if we’re having to open up another lane on a motorway, there is even more likelihood that cars are going to break down. Where does that car go, because there is no space for it to get to? And then for the approaching vehicle, how can he see that vehicle that’s pulled into the side?’ agreed Simon. ‘When you think of a vehicle travelling at 70mph, it needs 90-odd metres to stop in the daytime. At night-time that’s extrapolated two or three times. So, what chance does a driver have coming along a motorway, when he’s looking at all the brake lights ahead of him and other lights, of seeing a stationary vehicle on the hard shoulder, which he is driving in at 70mph? I don’t think there would be much chance of that,’ he added. ‘Is lighting the solution for this? If you’re going to open that hard shoulder, at least give it some lighting?’ questioned Ray, this time to Nick Smith. ‘I’ve been fairly outspoken about switching lighting off over the years; I have a certain amount of sympathy about people who don’t have the money to maintain the lighting, and therefore switching it off is one way,’ argued Nick. MORE IMAGINATIVE SOLUTIONS? But Nick questioned the wisdom of taking away the lighting altogether; there could be other more imaginative solutions. ‘Many motorways are lit with 400W and 600W SON. So can we retrofit LEDs or a lower watt light, or even look at a lower lighting class, which is one of the ways Highways England has gone? ‘Instead of lighting to M1, which is two candelas, looking at M3, which is one candela. So you’re effectively halving the amount of light that you’re actually need on the road surface, so there’s an energy saving that’s possible there to make it more affordable. That’s one way.

Lighting Journal February 2017

Intelligent mobility: ‘managed’ motorways 23

p A motorway at night: the panel discussed the feasibility of having specific road lighting that can be

turned on in the event of a breakdown

‘If we are going to go into a situation with no emergency lane, could we have specific lighting that can be turned on in the event of a breakdown? Whether that’s in the safety fence or low level lighting that lights lane one, that may be a way of doing it. I don’t believe the solution of just not lighting an area; it’s going to end in more and more of these types of problems,’ Nick said. What was the ILP’s position on this? Was there a consensus from members as to the best way forward, Ray asked Peter Harrison, adding that Highways England had been invited to take part in the discussion, but had declined. ‘In defence of Highways England, most of the motorway network is not lit. However, there have been a significant number of incidents with vehicles being hit on the hard shoulder when broken down during the hours of darkness. There is an issue around driver education, understanding what it means when the red lights flash on the gantries. But I also accept 100% that lighting would significantly help that situation,’ said Peter.

‘Put lighting in, or put some action in, that is going to signify to somebody that someone has stopped there, like Nick says,’ agreed Simon. ‘Something in the crash barrier that flashes, something in the road that flashes. Anything to highlight that a vehicle has become stationary. With technology going on, we could pick up that a vehicle has become stationary, and the motorway could change its markings to get people out of that lane.’ ‘Maybe looking forward, with all this technology here today, why can’t we have intelligent road studs which flash red when the lane is closed?’ queried Peter. Mark Cooper also raised the point that the danger with unlit motorways is not solely reduced visibility. ‘If you’re driving at night, it’s generally late at night. One of the biggest problems is that you, physically, will be tired, and driving on an unlit road means you have to concentrate more. If you’re concentrating more, you actually get tired quicker. ‘So, if you lit the road you’d be able to see further; you wouldn’t be quite so tired and there wouldn’t be so much stress on your eyes. Maybe intelligent road studs, maybe an illuminated line, that sort of thing, would help in that instance. Because again it is giving you something to follow, something to concentrate on, rather than just the 60 feet you can see ahead underneath your headlamps. So there is technology that can be employed. ‘Certainly, moving forward, when you have more and more intelligent cars

on the road, and you have car-to-car communication, so that if one breaks down, it communicates that to everything coming down the road behind it, and tells them to move away. Maybe that will cut down on incidents in the future. That’s a good 20odd years’ away yet,’ he argued. MONEY PRESSURES Ultimately, wasn’t the issue here simply money and, more specifically, penny pinching, suggested Ray Molony. ‘Let’s face it, a managed motorway is basically a posh word for using the hard shoulder. It’s poverty being dressed up for other reasons really?’ ‘I think there is definitely an element of money saving,’ agreed Mark Cooper. ‘Maybe reinvesting that money saved into other areas would be a good thing. In terms of intelligence going forward, and intelligent vehicles, there is no doubt that will come along. The potential for mobility as a service and intelligent vehicles means that, actually, we could potentially cut down on congestion anyway and so have fewer vehicles on the road anyway. And intelligent vehicles, because they communicate to each other and along the roadsides, will be able to drive in a smaller area, which means we cut congestion again.’ ‘Lighting costs money, and it’s all a balance against the cost of the accidents,’ argued Simon Bushell. ‘If you look at the reports on dimming and switching your lights out they’ll say, yes, dim or switch your

Lighting Journal February 2017

24 Intelligent mobility: ‘managed’ motorways lights out, but keep an eye on the accidents on that road. But it is a bit unfortunate for the poor people who’ve had the accidents in the meantime before the authority gets to turn the lights back up again. It is an established fact that lighting reduces accidents and lighting reduces the severity of an accident; the better the lighting, the better the effect.’ ‘We base the choice of the lighting level that we choose for the road on the usage. So surely as the usage goes down into the evening, there’s a justification there to reduce the lighting levels? And that could be done either automatically through a ballast or a CMS system or it could potentially be built into traffic monitoring,’ said Nick Smith. ‘Motorways are, without a doubt, the best monitored in terms of traffic flows, so the two systems could be integrated in theory. There’s obviously teething problems with getting systems to talk to each other but, certainly, experiences I’ve had with variable lighting, you can actually be stood there having a conversation and turn round and say “when’s the lighting going to be changed?” and they’ll say “well, actually, we dropped it half the level five minutes ago”, and unless you stand there with a light meter you genuinely cannot see any difference, providing all the lighting

If we are going to go into a situation with no emergency lane, could we have specific lighting that can be turned on in the event of a breakdown? Whether that’s in the safety fence or low level lighting that lights lane one, that may be a way of doing it. I don’t believe the solution of just not lighting an area; it’s going to end in more and more of these types of problems

is dimmed at the same time, because the uniformity remains the same. So, there is a methodology you can follow to vary your lighting; it’s just a question of whether people are prepared to do that, or whether Highways England is prepared to do it?’ ‘I think it’s about the engineers being brave enough to do it. Highways England has started implementing an automatic dynamic lighting system,’ said Mark. ‘It links its traffic counters with its CMS system. But it feels quite hit and miss. I think it’s being done as a trial, though I may be wrong there. It’s definitely the way forward; I will encourage them to keep doing it. Technology is a way we can save money without going the whole hog and taking lighting out.’ ‘I think there’s a fundamental issue here, in so much as, if you’re building a new road or a new motorway, or if you’re doing major maintenance on an existing road, then the cost of installation is significantly less than if you were to go in once it’s built,’ said Peter Harrison. ‘So, if the justification isn’t there at that point, it’s very difficult to get it retrofitted, and I think that’s the big problem. Decisions are being made now with major maintenance to say “well, actually the cost benefit says we don’t need lighting”. If that proves to be wrong, then there probably will never be justification to put lighting in afterwards.’

INTELLIGENT VEHICLES What, then, about the future, asked Ray Molony as the discussion drew to a conclusion. ‘We’ve been talking a lot about sensors in street lights, cool technology, cars talking to the street lights, sensors telling the cars there’s been an accident. Is that going to happen, is it a long way off?’ ‘It is going to happen. There are a couple of systems out there at the moment that are able to do this,’ said Mark. ‘There are new cars being launched every year with new technology in and, certainly, the motor manufacturers are looking at more and more safety systems. There is no doubt that, as that technology improves we might not need street lighting, not just on motorways but in residential roads. If the vehicle is intelligent enough to guide itself around the road, it can certainly see obstructions and problems.’ ‘What about pedestrians?’ asked Nick. ‘I’m saying we might not need street lighting. Lighting for pedestrians and cyclists and everything will, I think, be a different matter, and I think you’ll see it in a different form,’ forecast Mark. ‘But I don’t think you’ll see street lighting as it is now. But I think we’re still a good 15-20 years away from that, certainly before we have the majority of vehicles on the road that have that technology. But in terms of street lighting, there are systems out there at the moment where you can take that technology, plug in a sensor and it will communicate with that. It is actually simple and easy to do.’


Simon Bushell, lighting design manager, SSE Enterprise Contracting

Nick Smith, managing director, Nick Smith Associates

Ray Molony, editor, Lux (chair)

Peter Harrison, technical services manager, ILP

Lighting Journal February 2017

Mark Cooper, director, Smart City Advice

26 Lighting short road tunnels

POOLING RESOURCES However physically short a tunnel may be, if its exit is not fully visible from the approach road’s stopping distance, it can be visually ‘long’, and a challenge to illuminate. John Rands outlines how the German concept of a ‘light pool’ has overcome this problem in a development in Coventry


ith the recent publication of BS 5489-2:2016 (the successor and revision of 2003 issue), guidance for the lighting of short road tunnels is now better addressed in both assessment procedure and potential solutions. Of the several stated proposed examples for the lighting of short tunnels in the revised standard, this article

looks at one in particular, the ‘light pool’ concept and the application on the first installed scheme in the UK using this methodology. Before we can consider the specific challenges of lighting a ‘short’ road tunnel, we should briefly look at the general requirements for a ‘long’ tunnel. These are in essence more straightforward and predictable than

p Figure 1. Long tunnel lighting zones

Lighting Journal February 2017

shorter structures, which can cause design issues because of the multitude of geometries, as no two structures are ever the same in build and use. Firstly, a long tunnel is considered as a covered section of road more than 200m in length, with a lighting scheme consisting of several zones, as depicted in Figure 1 below.

Lighting short road tunnels 27 The initial and critical zone for any tunnel, long or short, is the access zone where the luminance in the drivers’ field of view on approaching the structure must be ascertained. This is known as the L20, which is the luminance within a 20-degree cone evaluated from the stopping distance before the tunnel portal (Figure 2). For a long tunnel, the subsequent threshold zone luminance is derived from the L20 x k where k is taken from the standard for the tunnel class and approach road characteristics with the subsequent length of the threshold zone being equal to the stopping distance.

p Figure 3. CIE entrance reduction curve


KEY 1. 0.5 of threshold zone length 2. Threshold zone (equals stopping distance) 3. Transition zone (length is speed/time dependant)

p Figure 2. L20 view from stopping distance (SD)

For a long tunnel, the lighting is maintained at 100% for the first half of the threshold zone, reducing to 40% by the end and the start of the transition zone, where the lighting is gradually reduced further, following the CIE entrance reduction curve (Figure 3), until the required interior zone level is reached. When required, exit lighting follows the interior zone at the exit portal. When considering that the threshold zone length is equal to the stopping distance, at motorway speeds this would be >200m, even at 50mph the stopping distance would be ~100m. Therefore, it is evident that most ‘short’ tunnels would fall in to the requirements of the threshold zone alone, basically running out of tunnel before the transition and further zones could be applied. To look at it another way, drivers have passed through the tunnel before any significant adaptation for the eye’s photopic state can occur. Prior to the revised BS being published, many short structures were lit solely with this philosophy applied, in other words the total length lit to threshold zone values, which resulted in many cases of significant over-lighting. With the approach for short tunnels now being focused on risk and specific visual task assessments for a particular structure,

over-lighting should not now be an issue whilst maintaining visual performance. When assessing the lighting requirements for a short tunnel, the following statement is perhaps the most important realisation to be understood and accepted by all parties involved and to ensure that as far as the lighting is concerned, the physical length of the structure should not on its own, be a governing factor. ‘Short tunnels can be “physically” short but more importantly for the driver’s visual task is that a physically short tunnel can in fact be a “visually” long tunnel’.

p Figure 4. Even if the tunnel is physically short,

if the exit is not fully visible from the approach road’s stopping distance, the subsequent tunnel is considered visually long

In essence, as shown left in Figure 4, if the exit of the structure is not fully visible from the approach road’s stopping distance, the subsequent tunnel is ‘visually’ long and appropriate lighting measures need to be taken to mitigate this situation. The LTP (Look Through Percentage) routine mentioned in the standard can be used to ascertain the extent of visibility of objects within a tunnel. The result gives direction on whether to light or not but lacks guidance on the subsequent level of lighting required. THE ‘LIGHT POOL’ SOLUTION One lighting method suggested as a potential solution within the revised BS is ‘light pool’ or ‘Lichtschleusen’ taken from the German standard DIN 67524-1:200802. Beleuchtung von Straßentunneln und Unterführungen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Gütemerkmale und Richtwerte, ‘Lighting of street tunnels and underpasses - Part 1: General quality characteristics and guide values’. It is an existing and proven European solution developed and installed in Germany and forms part of that country’s own tunnel lighting standard for short tunnels. In essence, this light pool generates a high level of luminance for several metres along the structure for the full width and is positioned centrally with the structure effectively dividing the total structure in to two shorter ones thereby reducing the amount of lighting required.

Lighting Journal February 2017

28 Lighting short road tunnels Approaching drivers will see vehicles ahead in contrast to the road surface before the transverse light pool, just as they also do after passing through the light pool and approaching the exit portal. It must be noted here that the light pool method is not the panacea for all short tunnels. But it is another option the designer can consider in their risk and visual task assessments and have available in their designer’s tool-box. CASE STUDY – APPLYING THE ‘LIGHT POOL’ The ‘Friargate’ commercial development

scheme in Coventry is located on approximately 37 acres of land around Coventry Railway Station, as shown below in Figure 5. On completion, the scheme will provide a new commercial quarter for the city, with up to 300,000m2 of new development, of which more than 185,000m2 will comprise high-quality office accommodation, with the potential to create up to 13,400 permanent jobs. The development is a fundamental part of the future economic growth, job creation and physical regeneration of

Coventry and the region over the next ten to 15 years. It is regarded as an essential element of the local authority’s plans to regenerate the city centre and complements the ‘City Centre South’ retail development proposals. The redevelopment of the land and buildings adjacent to Coventry’s West Coast Mainline Railway Station to provide a new commercial quarter for the city, together with improved connectivity between station and city centre, has been a long-term aspiration of the council.

p Figure 5. The extent of

the Friargate development

pF igure 6. The development has included a new bridge deck, a 100m Friargate tunnel

Lighting Journal February 2017

The development has included a new bridge deck, effectively forming Friargate tunnel at just over 100m in length. This evolved by the formation of bridge deck sections covering the existing cutting section of roadway on the A4053 Coventry ring road as part of the overall area development. The new road tunnel formed is a square section structure covering in one span all four running traffic lanes and catering for traffic on two running lanes in each direction in a mainly east-west curving route, with a central barrier separating each carriageway. The traffic design speed was 40mph.

Lighting short road tunnels 29 The newly formed ‘tunnel’ was required to be lit to cater for users transiting by both day and night in comfort and safety – and this was the principal reason for the requirement of a tunnel lighting installation. An initial design (Figures 7 and 8) was conducted by a potential supplier of equipment following the guidelines of the then current tunnel lighting standard

what, if any, alternatives to the initial proposed scheme could be available. To this end, I was commissioned to undertake a review of the structure’s lighting requirements and advise on any potential alternative practical lighting solutions. Friargate tunnel had that contradiction highlighted earlier of being physically short while visually ‘long’. It was only 100m, but

The light pool involves the formation of a bright transverse strip of light within the core region of a short tunnel illuminating both the road surface and sidewalls. This method results in a visual impression corresponding to the lighting conditions of two short successive underpasses, in effect introducing a section of the tunnel as if there were natural light entering from above, in other words a skylight within the roof structure, as shown in Figure 10 below.

p Figure 10. Lighting layout for the light pool and

basic day/night units. Calculation of scheme to BS 5489-2:2016

p Figure7. Plan of initial scheme proposed to BS 5489-2:2003

p Figure 8. Calculation of initial scheme proposed to BS 5489-2:2003

using latest LED technology. However, as stated earlier, such ‘short’ tunnels were not dealt with very well within this standard. As such the direct logical interpretation made for this particular structure was that a full tunnel lighting scheme would be required. This resulted in some 112 luminaires being required with a substantial associated support structure from the new decking beams. Securing such a support structure to the new deck beams was also quite limiting, with luminaires being positioned within the beam spacing voids to maintain traffic envelope clearance, whilst no drilling of the beams was permitted. These restrictions led to a significant bracing arrangement (Figure 9) for the support structure being required to install any lighting scheme. Because of client doubts that the most effective scheme had been proposed, independent expert advice was sought to evaluate the newly formed tunnel and proposed lighting scheme tabled and

p Figure 9. The luminaire support bracing

had a critical feature in that drivers could not see the full extent of exit portal from the stopping distance (SD) on approaching the entrance portal because of the horizontal curvature of the roadway. This, again, was the principal issue that led the initial proposed design towards a full ‘long tunnel’ lighting solution. Following evaluation of the structure and what potential alternative options were available, I considered using the light pool approach.

The light pool method is used for contrast enhancement by illumination to the rear of potential obstacles within the tunnel. The target lighting values of the light pool are in accordance with the requirements for the entrance of a long tunnel using the same portal luminance values and factors. The level of the light pool strip would continually adapt to the changing external daylight conditions at the entrance portals. Supplementary lighting was installed in addition to the light pool to provide for the night and basic daytime lighting throughout the structure. Uniformity of this supplementary lighting complied with the requirements for long tunnels. It was considered the specific geometry of the Friargate tunnel lent itself well to the application of the light pool methodology, which led to the number of required luminaires being halved together with a significant reduction of support steelwork and of course ongoing reduced energy costs and reduced CO2 emissions. Friargate was the first structure in the UK to utilise this specific methodology of lighting for a short tunnel structure, with the noteworthy credibility that this method has been adopted by the German DIN standards authority. The now-issued revised UK BS standard for the lighting of road tunnels and underpasses incorporates this methodology and an option for consideration.

p Figure 11. Resultant installation image

taken during commissioning

John Rands is project manager at Designs for Lighting

Lighting Journal February 2017

30 Lighting and social inequalities

SOCIAL SCIENCE How lighting affects the way we perceive, use and live in our communities is at the heart of the Configuring Light research programme. Dr Don Slater explains what has been learned so far

Lighting Journal February 2017

Lighting and social inequalities 31


ight is becoming a headline social and political topic in much public debate and discussion, especially at a time of accelerating technological developments. Fuelled by continuous innovation and new technologies, light is now taking centre stage in a wide range of discussions around economic and environmental costs in the context of climate change and sustainable urban development, as well as new questions about urban aesthetics, city branding and the quality of life in cities. Light is also the focus of debates on health and wellbeing, crime and security. These big questions are important but, beyond the headlines, there are many smaller, but no less significant social issues about how light– as a significant fabric in our nocturnal experience of the city – shapes the ways people use and experience the city. Indeed, despite the increased awareness of light in the public realm, we have relatively little knowledge of the social aspects of light. This is something that our research group, Configuring Light/Staging the Social, is setting out to address. Configuring Light is a research programme housed between London School of Economics and King’s College, London (KCL). The lead researchers, myself and KCL’s Dr Joanne Entwistle, are sociologists committed to developing a broad-based social knowledge of the role that light can play in shaping our experience of urban life after dark. We argue that the impact of light on social life is still little understood, and it tends to be viewed through just a view of the headline issues mentioned above – mainly crime and safety, and cost – resulting in a rather limited social and political context for design work. PUBLIC REALM LIGHTING DESIGN Our aim is to broaden the conversation about light to include social research by working with designers, planners, city councils and other stakeholders to help professionals better understand the social lives and spaces in which they intervene, to develop richer social knowledge base for public realm lighting design. The premise at Configuring Light is simple: light is a powerful social material. It is fundamental to our lives and it can help create new and interesting spaces in many different ways. Light is an enabler of nocturnal social life. It shapes how areas are perceived and experienced, rendering them, potentially, as either attractive, safe and convivial spaces, or possibly unsafe, ‘dangerous’ or simply unappealing. Lighting, we also argue, plays a

powerful role in shaping how different groups of people use social spaces, whether or not they choose to visit or socialise in particular places. For certain groups – women, older people and the visually-impaired, how well lit a space is may determine whether they go there at all. Moreover, light can be crucial to shaping how very different types of people in diverse cities share the same spaces: how, for example, the same streets can serve the needs of young and old, women and men, different classes and ethnicities going about their very different businesses.

We hope that, through our research, training, consultancy and public engagements we can ensure greater awareness of light and lighting in terms of such issues of social inequality and hope that in the future, when commissioning lighting masterplans, or planning the development of new lighting schemes, planners and urban designers need to question how light can benefit all users of the city equally. How might we explore these connections between light and this urban social diversity? In recent Configuring Light projects – with, for example, Derby City Council, Peabody social housing, Lendlease and Arup, and a recent series of policy roundtable discussions involving lighting policy makers – our research has shown consistently that lighting in different kinds of urban spaces can actually tell us quite a bit about social inequalities. For example, social housing estates tend to be brightly and harshly illuminated to allow for better CCTV surveillance, which is assumed to prevent anti-social behaviour, or simply reacts to public

understandings of the relationship between light and safety. This kind of lighting addresses a range of issues, but also ‘marks’ these space as ‘dangerous’ or ‘problematic’, regardless of whether this is actually the case or not. ‘LUXURIOUS’ DARKNESS In fact, darkness has become a kind of ‘luxurious’ good in London: neighbourhoods that are well-off are usually not only darker and more atmospheric, free from these crude lighting interventions, but also have much softer nightscapes which feel calm and safe and are aesthetically pleasing. As the final report for our series of policy roundtables, Tackling Social Inequalities in Public Lighting, concluded: ‘Tackling social inequalities in public lighting means placing equal value, within planning, design and maintenance, on the needs of all stakeholders in order to create public spaces that are socially meaningful, practically enabling, aesthetically engaging and openly accessible.’ To achieve these goals, lighting design and planning really does need a more detailed and engaged social understanding of the diversity of lives being lived out in these spaces. This goes beyond consultations in which a very few stakeholders turn up to comment on designs, or spatial analyses of maps and plans that don’t involve talking to people. Social research in lighting design involves actively seeking out and engaging with stakeholders so that designers and planners can feel confident that their designs and strategies engage the needs and values of those who will, or could, use their space. For example, between 2014-2016 we worked with Peabody social housing on their Whitecross estate with a design workshop and consultancy to address this very issue. The estate has varying levels of light, with the 1960s buildings lit to very high levels with ‘functional’ lighting that is both unattractive and actually disruptive to local residents. Working with lighting designers for a workshop on the estate in 2014, we tasked them to conduct social research and find out what life was like for residents. They interviewed residents in a brightly lit block on the estate who have to permanently tape black bin liners to their windows to shut out the light from the estate that glares into their bedroom. Clearly, this bright, functional lighting was not working for them. In addition, adjacent corners felt unsafe because, by contrast, they are cast into darkness by the estate lights. This situation also raised issues about standards:

Lighting Journal February 2017

32 Lighting and social inequalities mirrored in different types of social housing lighting. The reflections of Mark Major (principal at Speirs + Major) on the project can be read at http://www. under ‘Blog’.

were Peabody and professional staff defining these spaces appropriately, and therefore recommending lux levels that actually fitted the way they were used by residents? Interviews with residents, and observation of their night-time activities, required designers to go beyond the usual conversation (‘we want more light so we can feel more safe’) in order to understand where safety concerns fit into residents’ wider life on the estate, and how lighting design might respond in more creative and complex ways. This small bit of social research had a big impact: by throwing up social issues for residents that might not otherwise have come to light, it changed how Peabody thought about subsequent lighting on and around the buildings. This information might not have emerged from a public design consultation, since such engagements tend to encourage responses to set questions or designs or only elicit a few voices. What social research offers over consultation is the chance to explore the way people live in a place that might enable a better-informed design, sensitive to users’ ways of living, to emerge. LIGHT, CRIME AND SECURITY From our perspective, what this example also demonstrates is that we need to move the conversation beyond the simple − a long-established connection between light and crime which many (though not all) planners and city councils address through the application of brighter, security lights. As most lighting designers are acutely aware, simply increasing the light levels does little to create safe spaces but instead generates sharp contrasts that make relatively well-lit adjacent streets feel scarily dark. This was clearly evident in our research with Derby City Council where we discovered through interviews and observations that older women were

Lighting Journal February 2017

Darkness has become a kind of ‘luxurious’ good in London: neighbourhoods that are well-off are usually not only darker and more atmospheric, free from these crude lighting interventions, but also have much softer nightscapes which feel calm and safe and are aesthetically pleasing. not coming into the city since the new bus gyratory moved to a darker area of the city centre. Again, a small piece of social research uncovered a user group whose movements into and out of the city had not been visible to the designers and council up to that point in the design masterplan. As part of our aim to raise awareness of these social issues and press for a broader social research agenda in lighting design, we recently established a policy roundtable with an expert working group to discuss and tackle social inequalities in public lighting. Consisting of high-profile experts and stakeholders in the fields of design, planning and policy making, this working group met on three occasions in 2016 in order to develop a cross-disciplinary and actionable agenda to facilitate a more careful consideration of lighting in social housing planning and development. Each meeting saw some of the working group members act as speakers and focus on a London-based case study – the Whitecross Estate, the Thamesmead Estate, the St John’s Way development – to evaluate how social inequalities are

SOCIAL LIGHTING WORKSHOPS A further important activity of the Configuring Light programme, in addition to research and consultancy, as above, is a series of ‘Social Lightscapes’ workshops, supported by iGuzzini and our iGuzzini visiting research fellow at LSE, Elettra Bordonaro. These intensive three-five day workshops bring small groups of lighting designers, architects and other professionals together to work on a real public realm site: they explore social research in light design by developing and carrying out a social research strategy for the site, responding to what they are learning with design concepts, mocking up their ideas on site with a good range of lights, and then at the end presenting their lighting strategies to a gathering of stakeholders. The aim is clearly not to turn designers into sociologists, but rather to explore what role social research and social understandings can play in doing better design work, to explore different ways to knowledgeably engage with the social spaces they are lighting. We have so far held workshops in London, Oman, Romania and Australia, with additional workshops soon in France and Colombia. Finally, our Configuring Light programme is committed to engaging the lighting design community, urban planners, stakeholders and users of public in acknowledging the powerful social importance of light and seeks to continually develop social research methods within the design and implementation of public realm lighting. The impact of our projects has been evidenced in changes in professional practice by designers, changes in housing planning and design policy, as well as in actual design of public realm spaces, and wider public awareness and interest in light. We hope that, through our research, training, consultancy and public engagements we can ensure greater awareness of light and lighting in terms of such issues of social inequality and hope that in the future, when commissioning lighting masterplans, or planning the development of new lighting schemes, planners and urban designers need to question how light can benefit all users of the city equally. Dr Don Slater is a reader at London School of Economics

34 Semi-cylindrical illuminance: a semi-conceived measure?

MEASURE FOR MEASURE Semi-cylindrical illuminance has been promoted as a better measure for lighting design than vertical illuminance. Professor Steve Fotios is unconvinced


Illuminance is a measure of the amount of light reaching a surface, more precisely defined as the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. Road lighting standards for subsidiary roads tend to focus on horizontal surface illuminance, light incident upon the road surface. It may also be desirable to light vertical surfaces, such as faces and building facades, in which case there may be a need to specify also vertical surfaces target illuminances. Some texts suggest that semi-cylindrical illuminance is a better

Lighting Journal February 2017

measure than vertical illuminance, arguing this is because the face is not flat and light on sides of the face also contribute to its visibility. Semi-cylindrical illuminance is the averaged illuminance on the curved surface of an upright semi-cylinder. It has been promoted as a better measure than vertical illuminance for characterising the ability to evaluate faces apparently because it sounds like that should be the case, and so is assumed to be despite the lack of factual evidence. For example, one source states that: ‘semi cylindrical illuminance has

a significant “side lighting” effect which the vertical illuminance has none. Semi cylindrical illuminance brings out the roundness, the three dimensionality of the human form’ [1]. See also guidance from IESNA [2], which states: ‘For a number of reasons pure vertical illuminance from whatever direction is not the optimum parameter. The comparatively recent introduction of the concept of semi-cylindrical illuminance has therefore been included in this guide’ but without revealing what those reasons were nor how they are overcome by using semi-cylindrical illuminance. Selecting the lighting class for a subsidiary road (BS 5489-1:2013, Tables A.5 and A.6) leads to a specific P-class, the conditions for which are given in Table 3 of EN 13201-2:2015, shown here as Table 1. This specifies a minimum semicylindrical illuminance in each class as an ‘additional requirement if facial recognition is necessary’. In areas where there are particular concerns about crime, a need for facial recognition, or where CCTV is present, BS5489-1:2013 directly recommends using semi-cylindrical illuminance, referring to the ES-series of lighting classes (Table 5 in BS EN 132012:2003). These were later replaced by the SC lighting classes EN 13201-2:2015 but are otherwise identical, a series of nine classes of semi-cylindrical illuminance ranging from 0.5 to 10 lux.

Semi-cylindrical illuminance: a semi-conceived measure? 35

Lighting Class

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6

Average horizontal illuminance (lux)

Minimum horizontal illuminance (lux)

Additional requirement if facial recognition is necessary. Minimum maintained vertical illuminance (lux)

Minimum semicylindrical illuminance (lux)

15 10 7.5 5.0 3.0 2.0

3.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.6 0.4

5.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.6

5.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.6 0.2

p Table 1. P lighting classes for pedestrains and pedal cyclists [EN 13201-2:2015].

ORIGIN WITHIN ROAD LIGHTING The concept of semi-cylindrical illuminance within road lighting design appears to have originated in articles by Caminada and van Bommel [3] and Rombauts et al [4]. Subsequent works perpetuating semi-cylindrical illuminance tend to refer to these two studies without questioning the basis of their proposals. Rombauts et al investigated facial recognition and alleged a ‘very good correlation between the facial recognition distance and the value of ESC.’ However, they did not consider any other metrics of illuminance (horizontal, vertical, etc) and so are not able to state whether semicylindrical illuminance was better or worse than these. That is not sufficient reason to favour semi-cylindrical illuminance ahead of any other measure: they would very likely have found equally good correlation if using vertical illuminance but did not raise that question. The investigation by Caminada and van Bommel did investigate different metrics but their analysis of the test results was not sufficiently robust to support the concluded preference for semi-cylindrical illuminance. Three types of illuminance were measured during their facial recognition test: data were presented, however, for only two of these, vertical and semi-cylindrical illuminances, but not the third, hemispherical illuminance. They claimed that there was ‘no reliable correlation’ between face recognition distance and vertical illuminance, but ‘good correlation’ between semi-cylindrical illuminance and face recognition distance. This conclusion is not convincing because the degree to which correlation exists should be determined by statistical analysis and that was not reported in this work. There is, however, evidence which rejects semi-cylindrical illuminance. Boyce et al [5] found a high degree of

correlation between the cylindrical and horizontal illuminances derived from cubic illuminances measured at 25 outdoor locations, concluding that either ‘could be equally well related to subjects’ opinions’ and chose therefore to use horizontal illuminance. Alferdinck et al [6] concluded following a face recognition experiment that semicylindrical illuminance did not give a better prediction of the results than vertical illuminance, but this report did not present a statistical analysis to support that conclusion. Simons et al [7] analysed the ‘overall impression’ of road lighting in 12 locations and commented that: ‘The results taken in total indicate that hemispherical and semicylindrical illuminance give slightly worse correlation with the appraisals than does horizontal illuminance. On the basis of the appraisals, therefore, there appears to be no advantage in adopting hemispherical or semi-cylindrical in preference to horizontal illuminance.’ Again, however, there are reported results to validate the claim. SUMMARY While road lighting standards tend to focus on horizontal surface illuminance, it may also be desirable to see vertical surfaces such as faces and building facades. These are likely to be illuminated anyway by road lighting, either by direct illumination from lamps or indirect illumination from reflection from other surfaces. It was assumed in BS5489-1:2003 that ‘The provision of lighting designed to meet the requirements of the appropriate horizontal illuminance class normally provides adequate vertical illuminance at the height of the human face, ensuring a high possibility of recognition’. The move toward lanterns of greater cut-off and more-precise optics may have led to a need now to specify target illuminances for vertical surfaces rather

than simply assuming this is the case. Some design guides recommend values of semi-cylindrical illuminance. There is no credible evidence (yet found) showing an advantage to using semi-cylindrical rather than vertical illuminance. Semi-cylindrical illuminance is a widelyrepeated possibility that has yet to be substantiated. Because semi-cylindrical illuminance is still a single number quantifying a magnitude of light, this alone does not provide more information about the distribution of light in a space than does vertical illuminance, such as light reaching the sides of a face. Promoting semi-cylindrical illuminance would require designers and installers to invest in new meters for which there would be reluctance unless a clear advantage can be shown. The conclusion therefore is that designers should consider vertical illuminance but not semi-cylindrical illuminance. This does not mean that semi-cylindrical illuminance is an irrelevant metric, but rather that there does not yet appear to be any clear and robust evidence for its need, nor for the values that should be targeted. REFERENCES 1/ Report on energy saving opportunities in streetlighting. June 1999. Opportunities%20in%20Streetlighting%20-%20Rep8.pdf 2/ Recommended Lighting for Walkways and Class 1 Bikeways. DG5:1994. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. 3/ Caminada JF, van Bommel WJM. New lighting criteria for residential areas. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 1984; 13(4); 350-358. 4/ Rombauts, P., Vandewyngaerde, H. & Maggetto, G. Minimum semicylindrical illuminance and modelling in residential area lighting. Lighting Research and Technology, 1989; 21; 49-55. 5/ Boyce PR, Eklund NH, Hamilton BJ, Bruno LD. Perceptions of safety at night in different lighting conditions. Lighting Research & Technology, 2000; 32(2); 79-91 6/ Alferdinck JWAM, Hogervorst MA, Van Eijk AMJ, Kusmierczyk JT. Mesopic vision and public lighting – A literature review and a face recognition experiment. TNO-DV C435: 2010. The Netherlands. 7/ Simons RH, Hargroves RA, Pollard NE, Simpson MD. Lighting criteria for residential roads and areas. CIE, Venice, 1987; 274-277.

Steve Fotios is Professor of Lighting and Visual Perception within Sheffield University School of Architecture

36 Retail lighting But, even more importantly, it should make people look and feel good. If the lighting is unflattering a customer is more likely to leave with a negative experience of the brand and the store. To that end, the fundamental relationship between light, space and brand experience within retail environments is ever-more evident.

SKIN DEEP No retailer would accept having a mirror in its changing room or on its make-up counter that made a customer look or feel ugly or unwell. But that’s precisely what can happen with the wrong lighting. Anna Sandgren and Claire Hamill from Nulty reflect on an innovative research project looking to solve this problem


hen a brand presents itself in a visual environment it needs not only to be recognisable to customers but also to create positive connections and emotional triggers that encourage people to visit in the first place. The ‘story’ and brand journey for each and every customer starts at first glimpse, therefore the brand must be presented in its best light. This is where brand’s products come face-to facewith customers and is the front-line for a retailer to promote brand experience and engage in sales. Every lighting designer’s tool-kit comes will various aids that help us sculpt and experiment with the retail environments. Like an artist, light is used as a medium to create colour, texture and tones, adding depth with unseen dimensions to the scene or space; this can enhance the drama in what we see or alternatively give a feeling of peace and silence when required. Light is key tool used to enhance the setting and environment where a designer can begin to tell the story of the space. This is where the emotion of a space plays a fundamental part in evoking the connection between the viewer or user

Lighting Journal February 2017

in how they experience what they are seeing. Having such an influential design tool is ultimately essential to creating emotional responses to an experience, helping the visual story to play its part in narrating how humans interact with and experience space. Lighting plays an important role in how people experience and interact within an environment. However, one very important element, which is often overlooked, is how do the users look and feel within the space? How does the lighting installation respond to the vast variety of skin tones and global cultural diversity of colour? LIGHTING AND SKIN PALLOR We know lighting should flatter how we see others and ourselves in a space. But often lighting has the reverse effect – making people’s skin palette seem unhealthy or even ill. This experience can leave people with a negative memory or connection to a place or situation. It is estimated that up to 60% of retail sales decisions are made in the changing room – and we also know that most cubicles are lit by artificial light. Retail lighting, and changing room lighting especially, therefore needs to be honest.

DEPARTMENT STORE PILOTS More than two years ago, we were asked to work with a leading cosmetics brand on its concession in the Selfridges department store in London, including carrying out a review of the existing lighting. The brand had reported a series of repeat problems about the concession’s lighting. The artificial light was not performing, merchandise not standing out and skin tones appeared unhealthy, turning customers off. In-store beauty consultants were also having problems correctly colour-matching foundations on customers. The colour rendering and appearance of skin tones was inconsistent and often varied from the other concessions in the department store. In fact, the existing lighting made some skin tone colours appear a pale blue or green, which is often associated with illness, while others reported a yellow or extremely red tone. These illuminated conditions were, clearly, not ideal for colour testing foundations or make-up and with these multiple issues it was evident the lighting had to be addressed immediately. In essence, the brand signage lighting was conflicting against the primary function of a sale needing to take place. Intriguingly, we were also told that the biggest customer complaint, above all others, was people being dissatisfied with their purchase and arguing this was because they had been sold the wrong colour foundation. Could this, too, have been because of the lighting? What we found, as we shall show, is that, yes, the lighting was an important factor here and,

Retail lighting 37

p Cosmetics à la Carte: Nulty has been working with the London-based make-up and skincare brand to install its new Beauty Series LED light module

it transpired, in fact not just a single brand issue, but a global industry problem! One of our first actions was to approach leading manufacturer Xicato. It has developed a number of LED light sources and carried out numerous research collaborations, from developing light sources for gallery applications that bring out the true colour in paintings, to retail, where the light sources were developed to bring out the true colours of merchandise. We also undertook extensive research into what light source and light application can enhance and improve the experience of skin tone in the cosmetic retail environment. Our approach was to look at skin tone science from the perspective of lighting technology and design. As we all know, lighting has gone through a revolution in the past ten years that mirrors that of gas to electric lighting. The development of LED over lamp technology has brought huge energy, economic and maintenance solutions. But, in the retail setting at least, it has given little in the improvement of light quality. This is evident in many retail stores and concessions today. You have numerous LED and halogen light sources fighting against each other, creating undesired and conflicting effects.  Yet a positive impression, both physically and emotionally, in the cosmetic retail environment is not only a key requirement for brand concessions within a department store, but also for the store owners themselves. What’s more, the beauty department is a key revenue stream. Have you ever wondered why nearly all department stores have the cosmetics area located at the ground floor entrance? It is because beauty

concessions often take in more revenue than all other departments combined. With Roger Sexton at Xicato and Peter Raynham and Navez Davoodian from University College London (UCL), we undertook to help to design and undertake a scientific analysis of lighting in this key retail area, broken down into different stages. We started with field research in five of the largest flagship department stores in London. We did this by method of visual analysis and semi-structured interviews with customers and in-store beauty

consultants. For retailers, how the consumer interacts and connects with the brand during their time spent at cosmetic counter/concession is one of the most interesting ways of achieving brand feedback.  The goal was to identify what the key issues were in relation to three lighting considerations. We concluded these were: 1. Colour matching of foundation 2. Proper illumination of merchandise 3. Emotional connection between customers within the space to encourage dwell time.

We were also told that the biggest customer complaint, above all others, was people being dissatisfied with their purchase and arguing this was because they had been sold the wrong colour foundation. Could this, too, have been because of the lighting? Lighting Journal February 2017

38 Retail lighting SHOPPERS SENT OUTSIDE All the beauty consultants we questioned in each department store reported various difficulties with colour matching foundation and choosing colours because of the overhead lighting. They said it has always been common practice to send customers outside to review colour matching, as it is felt that daylight gives the best results. This is automatically problematic because in some department stores the exit is quite a distance, which can result in a lost sale for the retailer and, on top of this, there is potential embarrassment for the customer because they are having to check their make-up on a busy street. The outside weather is also a variable factor because of the limited number of daylight hours during winter months. Others had had to take radical measures. For example, London department store Liberty had gone as far as to mount mirrors next to the windows in order to utilise daylight when checking colours of make-up and colour matching. It became clear that, through research and a scientifically-proven method of lighting skin tones accompanied with good lighting design practices, we could greatly improve the experience for both the customer and retailer. From the results collated during the field research and focus group, we organised a three-step pilot day at the global beauty brand’s London headquarters. A total of 52 female volunteers aged between 18 and 54 participated in the study. The objective was to determine which of the light sources chosen was best suited to meet the needs of reducing foundation mismatches and provide the necessary satisfaction within the lit environment. Independent volunteers compared the match of various foundation shades as well as how they felt about the different colours within each lit environment, particularly point of sales merchandise. After months of development, with constant dialogue and testing between

Lighting Journal February 2017

the team, a set of LED modules was created that allowed for final testing with the same three-step criteria as the pilot day. Again, these were tested for colour matching, merchandise display and emotional connection. The results were analysed by UCL and the final module collectively chosen by the collaborating team, resulting in Xicato’s ‘Beauty Module’. Our initial intention was to define the existing problems and try to find a solution that would better improve the current lighting situation in department store beauty concessions. However, the results far exceeded our expectations, which was the introduction and development of a new LED module. We have developed a light source that evokes an emotional connection within the space, stimulates a feeling of health and wellbeing, encourages dwell time and creates a flawless brand experience. Not long after we developed this exciting new LED light module, we had the opportunity to apply it to a real-life installation, a unique London-based make-up and skincare brand, Cosmetics à la Carte. The brand’s simple ethos for making customers look and feel good was the perfect project for this new light source. It was one of the first boutiques where we’ve installed the Beauty Series LED module, and the end result enabled us to achieve a space that was welcoming and engaging to customers, and a scheme that beautifully complements the interior, giving clients a flawless face and brand experience. As Lynne Sanders, founder of Cosmetics à la Carte told us: ‘The Beauty Series module enables our signature couture make-up matching service to be provided accurately and easily both day and night at our flagship Sloane Square boutique.’

SUMMARY By collaborating with the correct experts, we have created an optimum light source with key qualities that, when applied correctly, will give retailers the essential tool to creating a positive and memorable customer experience. In any environments where you look in the mirror and reflect upon yourself (changing rooms, restaurants, cosmetic counters and so on), you immediately become more emotionally connected to that space and self-aware And the key way to create and facilitate this emotional connection (or, conversely, break it) is through lighting. Lighting as a response tool is the key to building connections between users and their surroundings. Lighting the human elements within a retail setting – skin tones, faces, bodies – is as equally important as lighting the space and its objects. After all, it is the people using these spaces who make the purchase and who want to look and feel good! Seeing ourselves and others in the best light will create positive emotional responses and memories, connecting ourselves to the brand and brand space, to the experience of shopping there. Ultimately, we have learnt a key element to the success of any interior story is always to include the emotion, focusing on the human element – and light and lighting has a key role to play in this.

As the nights draw in... Take control, making the streets safer and more responsive By combining energy efficient LED street lighting with cellular communications and cloud based lighting management, we can create connected networks that transform the way street lights are monitored, managed, and maintained. Philips connected lighting systems: making street lighting more responsive and efficient at the same time.

That’s how Philips Lighting is taking Light Beyond Illumination

40 Street lighting innovation

SENSOR SENSIBILITY Using light, specifically LED, as a remote sensor to automatically adjust the colour spectrum could be a way in the future to illuminate spaces more effectively and efficiently, and could be applied for street lighting, argues Professor Wout van Bommel


ack in 2015, Wendy Davis, a researcher from Australia, presented at an international lighting conference in Kolkata, India, a surprisingly interesting study that she and a colleague, Alp Durmus from the University of Sydney, had conducted looking at energy savings in indoor and outdoor lighting. Their starting point was the theoretical possibility automatically to adjust the spectrum of LED light in different directions to the colours of a space and the colour of the objects within it. They showed, with the aid of some complicated calculations, that substantial energy savings are possible, while the appearance of the space with its object is not affected. For each different coloured object, at each different location in the space, the spectrum of each LED has to be adjusted in the relevant direction. Take, for example, a red and green bench at two different places in a room to be illuminated, as shown in Figure 1. With white light (indicated as ‘rgb’ at the top of Figure 1), the red bench reflects only the red component in that white light. The other parts of that white light are absorbed by the bench, and thus represent ‘lost’ energy. The same applies to the non-green portion of the white light directed at the green bench. It is much more efficient to radiate only red light towards the red bench and green light to the green bench (Figure 1 bottom). In practice, it is more complicated because there are so many tints of red and green. The adjustment of the LED spectrum should therefore be based on the wavelengths that are reflected by the different objects, in other words on the reflection spectrum of the different objects. On the basis of a set of different reflection spectra of objects, Davis and Durmus showed that this futuristic way of lighting a space can result in energy savings of as much as 48% to 62% compared to using white light only. The adjusted LED spectra are calculated so as to result in a same appearance of the objects as under white light. Davis herself saw her proposal essentially as a theoretical exercise. However, colour adjustment of LED is easily possible. Automatic colour adjustment of a single LED light source in many, accurately defined directions is difficult. Should this turn out to be possible, there still remains to solve one problem. The colour, or better the reflection spectrum, of all objects in a space has to be determined very quickly and automatically. I, for one, believe that ‘light as a remote sensor’ may provide the solution. LED LIGHT AS A REMOTE SENSOR Use is made of the fact that when light is for a very short moment switched off, the eye does not notice this and just experiences constant light. With fast, so at a very high frequency, switching off

Lighting Journal February 2017

Figure 1. The principle of adjustment of the spectrum of LED lights in different directions to the colour of objects in space without changing the appearance of the objects

and switching on the light, a pattern of series of ‘off’ and ‘on’, can be radiated as a code with the light into the lit space. All possible data, from text to audio to video, can be encoded into patterns of ‘on’ and ‘off’ (1 and 0), as shown in Figure 2. The encoding in this way is called modulating the intensity of light. It is already used in Li-Fi, the light alternative for Wi-Fi. The encoded LED light is reflected at all surfaces and objects in the space. The portion that is reflected towards the eyes of persons in the space makes the space and objects visible. A small portion of light is reflected in the direction from which it originally came: back to the LED light source. When a light detector and decoder is added to that light source, as shown in Figure 2, a processor can, thanks to the code, determine from which light source the reflected light originally came and how the spectrum has been changed by the reflection of the object. The processor can then calculate, according to the Davis-Durmus method, how the spectrum of the different LED lights has to be adjusted in the various directions. The principle of measuring reflected, coded light is already

Street lighting innovation 41

used for a longer time in a completely different application. In the building industry, for example, distances between walls are often measured with a laser distance meter, which is again based on the above principle.

In a first phase of such a pilot, the test could be done without adjusting the spectrum fully automatically. The reflection spectra and precise locations of the different coloured surfaces could be measured in advance with conventional means.

CHALLENGE FOR AN INNOVATIVE STREET LIGHTING PILOT Davis used interior spaces for her theoretical exercise. This is probably the most difficult application because of the many different colours of objects in such a space. Moreover, the objects can be moved around in the space. Use in outdoor lighting seems much simpler. In different parts of the world we see more and more use of coloured surfaces in the road environments, often with the purpose to guide the different categories of road users, as shown in Figure 3. A practical test with streetlights, where each luminaire emits different colours to different coloured street areas, could yield interesting results on the practical feasibility and possible energy savings of taking the Davis approach. As an example, white light could be radiated towards the dark grey asphalt road, red light towards the red asphalt bicycle paths next to the road, and yellowish light towards the brown asphalt of a roundabout in the road segment.

Professor Wout van Bommel is a lighting consultant in Nuenen, The Netherlands, and professor at Fundan University, Shanghai. He is also a past president of CIE (2003-2007)

Figure 2. The principle of LED light serving as means of lighting and at the same time as a sensor

REFERENCES W Davis, D Durmus, ‘Customization of Spectral Power Distribution to Minimize Energy Loss from Absorption’, Lux Pacifica, Kolkata, 2015 D Durmus, W Davis, ‘Opimising Light Source Spectrum for Object Reflectance’, Opt. Express, vol 23 (11): A456-464, 2015

Figure 3. Different coloured road segments. Photographs: Piet Zijlstra

Lighting Journal February 2017

42 Light and behaviour

TAUGHT BEHAVIOUR Teacher-turning-lighting designer Stephen Thompson was captivated by optician Ian Jordan’s ILP lecture in the autumn. It also made him realise how much more closely the lighting profession could be working with schools and teachers to help future generations

Lighting Journal February 2017


s someone who is currently in the process of switching from being a teacher to becoming a lighting designer, I found Ian Jordan’s ILP lecture ‘Pain, Dizziness and Confusion?!’ in October both an unexpectedly challenging and thoughtprovoking experience (Lighting Journal, January 2017). Ian did not just tell us about the extraordinary effects lighting can have on a range of medical and psychological conditions, he showed us in no uncertain terms how such conditions can make the lives of many people extremely hard – and yet how lighting may, and often can, help. Watching the results of his work was an emotional experience for me in particular because of the years I have spent working with children, both in and out of the classroom. Therefore, while I would be the first to concede I am only taking my first steps into lighting, I thought it would be

Light and behaviour 43 valuable to outline a few thoughts in the wake of Ian’s presentation about my own experiences of light and lighting in schools. To me, Ian’s work seems to me to be a compelling springboard that lighting professionals can and should be using to really improve – transform, even – both the wellbeing and learning of children in our schools. One of the most important mistakes you can make as a teacher is to underestimate children’s thinking, perceptions and understanding of the world around them; especially in the youngest. Once children can start talking about what they see, they will surprise and challenge you with their observations. I specialise in teaching the ‘Early Years’ year group (three- to five-yearolds) because this is the only part of education now where teachers have real freedom in the various governmentcreated school curriculums.

Children and adults alike learn when they are enjoying what they are doing, when they are using their imagination, and when they can make links in their thought processes. For example, in a standard topic such as ‘Light and Dark’, you easily cover the relevant areas of the Early Years curriculum by basing it around a story, making a cave with torches in it in the corner of the classroom, light and dark colour-mixing with paints, making shadow puppets, making bubbles and rainbows, and making light and dark boxes, and so on. And one thing you learn as a teacher very early on is that children are absolutely fascinated by light and darkness. It is a big part of their (limited) experience of the world, and when they have control of it – and children, remember, are able to control very little in their lives – it opens windows in their minds.

LIGHT AND SHADOW For example, I once took a nursery class of mostly four-year-olds on a ‘light walk’ in and around the school. Some of them worked out that, even though the sun was behind the clouds, it was still making the world light. At the end, one girl gave me her drawings of what she had seen on the walk and I was puzzled that none of it seemed to fit. When I asked her to tell me about what she had drawn, she explained: ‘This is when I go shopping with mum, this is when I go swimming, this is at home…’. I realised she had drawn from memory different light fittings that she saw in her daily life. I showed her mother the paper and she verified that indeed that’s exactly what her daughter’s drawings were. Astonishing for a four-year-old! So never underestimate children. I also co-organised a ‘Light and Dark Art Week’ throughout the whole school. I took a staff meeting to show

Lighting Journal February 2017

44 Light and behaviour examples to the teachers of painters, photographers and film-makers whose work clearly demonstrated light and shadow. Each teacher then chose one artist for their class in order to create projects that were copied or inspired by that person. The final gallery in the school hall showed the children’s responses to Vermeer, Bridget Riley, Cezanne, Rothko, among others, as well as the older children’s own photographic work. One teacher, basing her ideas on Cezanne, placed a torch shining on to an apple for the children to draw using chalk. One five-year-old, to my surprise, visualised the torch beams hitting the nearside of the apple. Light is so exciting as a teaching tool because it crosses so many subject boundaries. All of which brings me back to Ian’s presentation. Listening to Ian talk, the word that really jolted me was ‘autism’. I have worked with enough autistic children to know that autism is a blanket description. LIGHT AND AUTISM When people talk about the autistic spectrum, it is not often clarified just how wide-ranging are the needs of people with autism. Yes, many are highly functioning, but at the other end of the spectrum there are children who cannot speak or feed themselves and often have other diagnoses too, like learning delay in the brain. Autism may reveal itself as speech and language difficulties, physical impairments, mental health issues and learning and communication difficulties. The three most well know ‘symptoms’ of autism are an inability to understand other people’s emotions, facial expressions and tones of voice, a need for routine and repetitive behaviour, and having intense, highly focused interests. Perhaps less well known is that many people with autism are highly sensitive to light, sound, touch, taste, smells and other sensory experiences, and can be completely overwhelmed in certain situations. What I learnt from Ian is that around 90% of children with autism have difficulty recognising faces; they see individual features, almost like a collage, rather than the features making up the whole of the face. Ian even showed a girl who only sees heads detached from bodies, and other people who perceive animal heads on the human body. This is terrible for a young child, who could be scared of the sight of their own parents’ faces and then has to come to school where they are suddenly surrounded by hundreds of new faces. It must be nothing short of a waking nightmare. Ian showed how coloured lenses

Lighting Journal February 2017

(in effect changing the colour of light) helped to improve facial recognition, special awareness and transformed the reactions of his patients from fear to joy. What, then, does my experience straddling both day-to-day teaching in schools and lighting design tell me about lighting design in the primary school classroom setting? THE SCHOOL ‘LIGHTING’ EXPERIENCE Well, the first thing you generally notice when you go into a primary school classroom is that the blinds are pulled down over the windows. This is because school teaching relies on the interactive whiteboard (or ‘television’ as the little children call it) which is a projector on a white screen.

The first thing you generally notice when you go into a primary school classroom is that the blinds are pulled down over the windows. This is because school teaching relies on the interactive whiteboard. Daylight washes out the image and so down come the blinds, which then stay down as no one can be bothered to keep pulling them up and down. Daylight washes out the image and so down come the blinds, which then stay down as no one can be bothered to keep pulling them up and down… and on and off go the lights, which is much easier. Many schools are Victorian buildings with tall windows built to let as much light into the classroom as possible. And now technology battles against that. I think it is so important to have daylight in the room, not just because of its quality, but because windows open the room out on to the world. Some children might stare out and daydream, but equally many may stare out and let their creative thoughts form. Keeping the blinds down makes the room feel claustrophobic, but practically it is a real pain to keep working the blinds, which often break anyway.

Personally, I try and keep the lights off as much as possible and alter the height of the blinds accordingly. I always ask the children if they feel all right with how I have the light levels, and they do say if they do not like it. Light designers – listen to your client! As for lighting around the school, this is generally strip-lighting along the middle of the ceiling. This is a shame because the corridors have the children’s learning and work displays, and these could easily be highlighted with light whilst still keeping an acceptable lighting level. Obviously, the safety of the children is primary and I am not suggesting mood lighting. But some small creative touches in the use of light could make a real difference to how children perceive their environment. There has been work done in newbuild schools on changing the quality of the light as the day progresses to complement circadian rhythms (very much of course a lighting world buzzword at the moment). But the majority of schools in this country are in Victorian buildings, and there is certainly no budget of radical overhauls of their lighting. Lighting designers need to come up with simple and cost-effective solutions to improve lighting in our schools, so that everyone who is in them – teachers, children and those with extra needs – can have equal access to the basic requirements of an environment that stimulates teaching and learning. School budgets are tight but local authorities have had huge cuts in their budgets for working with children with special needs. Passionate experts such as Ian have begun to show the way, and now lighting designers (many of whom will of course have children in school) have the opportunity to really make valuable changes to young lives. So, as both a teacher and a new lighting professional, my message to my new colleagues is go into schools, offer your services, train as a STEM ambassador, whatever you can give. This generation will include the future of lighting design, and we need to be inspiring and exciting young people to come into the profession. But, more widely, as Ian showed, lighting and lighting professionals have the power in their hands to ensure that lighting is used to the best effect to give our young people the best start in life. Let’s not let them down. Stephen Thompson is a team member of the creative lighting design consultancy Light Follows Behaviour. He also teaches part-time in a London Primary School.


Book your place at Thursday 4 May 2017 | London Hilton Park Lane

46 Letter to the editor

UL AND THE US MARKET Sir, I am writing to clarify some incorrect statements made in the November/ December issue of Lighting Journal in the article entitled The Second Revolution? (pages 4-5). The article called out UL as a possible barrier to market entry in the US. On the contrary, testing and certification with UL provides manufacturers, procurement professionals and end-users with the certainty and peace of mind that a product meets all the applicable safety and performance standards. This protects the end-user as well as the professional reputation of the manufacturer. We also support the industry via a science-based claim verification program (http://verify., which substantiates marketing performance claims and helps enhance marketplace differentiation. Additionally, the article made reference to a ‘UL room’ inside the Lighting Industry Association’s (LIA) laboratory. There is no ‘UL room’ at the LIA; however UL does support the UK lighting industry with experts and facilities across the EU, based on the services required. UL brings more than 120 years of science-based experience to bear in support of our customers, with services ranging from safety education, research and standards development (via our UL Inc entity), to testing, certification, verification and advisory services. We believe the UK lighting industry has great potential for future growth and

Street Lighting Design Manager We are looking to recruit a Street Lighting Design Manager. The role can be based out of any of our contracted areas; Bedford, Buckinghamshire, Cheshire, Essex or London. The purpose of the role is to ensure delivery and quality is met for all design schemes. You will work with Street Lighting Operation Managers and design team leaders to deliver design requirements, be responsible for the design team by providing line management duties, ensuring we deliver to the latest standards and Health and Safety risks are compliant with CDM. Other duties are to work along with the Operations Team ensuring effective handover, working with Finance Team regarding budgets, reporting, building and maintaining relationships internally and externally. For more information regarding the role and to apply please go to the Ringway Jacobs website:

success, and we are here to support it. UL appreciates the opportunity to share information with the UK lighting industry about how our testing and certification programmes can enable market access around the world for lighting products. For more detail about how UL can help lighting manufacturers access global markets, please visit www., services/ or contact me directly at Yours sincerely, Roberto Inclinati, senior business development manager and global commercial leader, lighting industry, UL LLC

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email andy@ for more details

Lighting Consultants

This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Steven Biggs

Colin Fish

Alistair Scott

Skanska Infrastructure Services

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Designs for Lighting Ltd


Peterborough PE1 5XG


Hertford SG13 7NN

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Winchester SO23 7TA

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E:

T: 07825 843524 E:

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E:

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Providing design and technical services for all applications of exterior and interior lighting from architectural to sports, rail, area, highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations on wildlife and the community.

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Stephen Halliday

Anthony Smith

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd

Simon Bushell MBA DMS IEng MILP

SSE Enterprise Lighting

Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: Professional consultancy from the largest external lighting contractor maintaining 1.5m lights in the UK and Ireland. Exterior lighting/electrical design for Motorways, Highways, Architectural, Car Parks, Public Spaces and Sports lighting. From advice on carbon reduction strategies to delivering the whole installation package.

Lorraine Calcott IEng MILP IALD MSLL

it does lighting ltd

Milton Keynes, MK14 6GD


Manchester M50 3SP


Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 0161 886 2532 E:

T: 01642 565533 E:

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Philip Hawtrey

Nick Smith


Nick Smith Associates Limited


Sutton Coldfield B72 1PH


Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01908 698869 E:

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T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E:

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.

Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses

Euan Clayton

Allan Howard

Alan Tulla

Clayton Fourie Consultancy Ltd

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Alan Tulla Lighting


Edinburgh, EH15 3RT

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07722 111424 E:

T: 07827 306483 E:

Internationally experienced multi-disciplinary consultants. We provide design and technical advice on all aspects of exterior lighting, hazardous area lighting, traffic signals and other highway electrical works.We also provide Planning Advice, Road Safety Audits and Expert Witness Services

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.


Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.

Mark Chandler

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd


WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff



Reading RG10 9QN

Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: 0118 3215636 E:

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E:

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest

Tony Price

4way Consulting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP Stockport, SK4 1AS

T: 0161 480 9847 M: 07526 419248 E:

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690 Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.


Ferrybridge, WF11 8NA, UK T: 0197 7632 502


Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Go to: for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.

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Nick Smith Associates Ltd t: 01246 229 444 Nick Smith Associates Ltd • Light Pollution Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Venues by arrangement • Foxbrook Lighting Design Techniques 36Chesterfield, Foxbrook Drive, f: 01246 270 Drive, 465 36 Drive, 36 Foxbrook • Tailored Courses please ring Chesterfield, e : Chesterfield, Chesterfield, S40 3JR Contact NickPollution Smith • Light • Lighting Reality S40 3JR 229S40 w: S40 3JR 3JR t: 01246 444 Nick Smith Associates Ltd t:by 01246 229 444 t:•01246 229 444Venues t: 01246 229 444 arrangement Tailored Courses please ring f: 01246 270 465 36 Foxbrook Drive, f: e01246 270 465 f: 01246 270 465 f: 01246 270 465 • AutoluxLighting Standards : Chesterfield, HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC : e : Contacte w: Nick Smithe : S40 3JR w: Venues by arrangement w: w: t: 01246 229 444 • Lighting Design Techniques INSTRUMENTS LTD Nick Smith Associates Ltd f: 01246 270 465 36 Foxbrook Drive, eContact : Nick Smith • Light Pollution Suppliers of a wide range of quality Chesterfield, w: Nick measuring Smith Associates Ltd light S40 3JRand photometric • Tailored Courses please ring equipment. 36 Foxbrook Drive,229 444 t: 01246

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HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD e : S40 PO Box3JR 210, Havant, PO9 9BT w: Tel: 07900 571022 t: 01246 229 444

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36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION t: 01246 229 444 Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative f: 01246 270 465 custom-built distribution panels, lighting. We also provide interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. e : 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD w: Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555


From one of our three regional offices offices in the Scotland, Manchester and Sussex Power 1 can provide a full turnkey service for: Large scale LED retrofit schemes Maintenance DNO/ICP connections Design verification surveys Asset record construction Fault finding Testing and inspection Smart City integration

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This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

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Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

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50 Diary

09 March

Joint Midlands and Western Region Technical Meeting Venue: Gala Club, Gloucester

16 March

North East Region Technical Meeting Venue: Thorn, Spennymoor

23 March

Irish Regional Technical Spring Seminar Venue: Howth Yacht Club, Dublin

27 March

15 May

27 April

25 May

Exterior Lighting Diploma – Module Two (Spring 2017) Venue: The Draycote Hotel, Thurlaston, Warwickshire

How to be brilliant Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

Exterior Lighting Diploma - Module Three (Spring 2017) Venue: The Draycote Hotel, Thurlaston, Warwickshire

How to be brilliant Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

10 May

Fundamental Lighting Course Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby

For full listings of all regional and national ILP events go to:

Lighting Journal February 2017

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