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Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

November/December 2019

TIME TO SHINE How lighting has restored New Zealand’s earthquakedamaged ‘Timeball’ Station PRISON SELL LED is providing solutions to the challenging environment of prison lighting CHRISTMAS POUNDS Ensuring lighting columns are safe to carry the load of festive lighting

The publication for all lighting professionals


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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal





Prisons can be challenging environments from a lighting perspective. With our prison estate expanding, it is perhaps unsurprising that LED solutions are becoming increasingly attractive, argues Steve Tilling


The key to mitigating obtrusive light is understanding its causes, understanding the legislation around it and being up to speed on ILP guidance, write Allan Howard and Peter Harrison



Public festive lighting displays are becoming ever-more popular and sophisticated, meaning safety and competency of design and installation are paramount, cautions Martin Avill




With many columns these days reduced to the minimum possible design strength, it is vital local authorities ensure they are safe to carry the extra load that comes with festive lighting displays, argues David Lodge




The CIE held its 29th quadrennial meeting in Washington DC in June. Nigel Parry reports back


A new EU regulation is requiring lighting manufacturers to publish data around luminaire ‘utilance factors’. But is this extra level of bureaucracy really necessary, asks Tony Cook


The new M42 ‘smart’ motorway in the West Midlands has given manufacturer CU Phosco the opportunity to showcase how motorway LED lighting can increase visibility and improve safety




Damaged in the 2011 earthquake, the ‘Timeball’ Station in Lyttelton, New Zealand, has been restored and relit – which posed challenges, as Kevin Cawley explains


In the second of his series, Chris Baddiley outlines how light pollution in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty has changed as streetlights have been converted to blue-rich LEDs


With the countdown to next year’s ILPsupported Light School well underway, Nic Paton looks back at Paul Kerrigan’s ‘Light Talks’ presentation on the creative solutions used to light the new £16bn Elizabeth Line



In the second of our series on electric vehicle charging, we review Josey Wardle’s presentation from June’s Professional Lighting Summit, which looked at some of the funding streams and opportunities available


You have just days left to register for this month’s LuxLive at London’s ExCeL centre, from 13-14 November, where the ILP – and the expertise of ILP members – will have a high profile

BEST 48 CHAMPIONING PRACTICE In our final update on Vice President activity, Nic Paton spoke to VPs Graham Festenstein and Haydn Yeo


Is lighting and lighting design still very much a man’s world? And what can be done to improve the representation and visibility of women, especially at more senior levels? Nic Paton listened in to a panel discussion at the London Design Fair


The newly relit upper landing of HMP Berwyn in Wrexham. A lighting scheme by Designplan has made it what is believed to be the UK’s first 100% LED prison, with more than 6,000 luminaires being supplied to all areas of the facility


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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Editor’s letter

Volume 84 No 10 November/December 2019 President Anthony Smith IEng FILP Chief Executive Tracey White Editor Nic Paton BA (Hons) MA Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Kevin Dugdale BA (Hons) IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL Nathan French Jess Gallacher (ILP engagement and communications manager) John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng FILP Lora Kaleva MSc Assoc IALD Nigel Parry IEng FILP Georgia Thomas (YLP rep) BA (Hons) Paul Traynor Richard Webster Graphic Design Tolu Akinyemi B.Tech MSc Email: Alex Morris BA (Hons) Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website:

Produced by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C,Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website:


s a non-lighting professional, I probably shouldn’t be too embarrassed to admit that, sometimes, some of our more technical articles in Lighting Journal go a bit over my head. That’s why at this month’s LuxLive (from Wednesday 13 to Thursday 14 November) you probably won’t find me at the ILP’s ‘making asset management less stressful’ mini conference (from 10am-12.30pm on the second day in case you’re wondering). The session will be very much a nuts and bolts, practical and technical, walk-through of the ILP’s new GN22 Asset Management Toolkit: Minor Structures (ATOMS). So, vastly valuable for absolutely anyone responsible for lighting columns, lamp-posts, traffic posts, traffic signal poles, signs, CCTV, Wi Fi, IoT equipment, and floral decorations. Perhaps less so for generalist ‘those with an interest’ observers of the industry, like me. Where you may be more likely to find me is within LuxLive’s ‘the illuminated city’ zone, as the power and potential of lighting to shape and colour the urban fabric around us – how we live within, engage with and even perceive our surroundings – is something I find fascinating. I am particularly interested to hear LSE professor Don Slater’s second-day presentation on ‘social lighting’, or how social research is helping designers to better understand the complex social spaces they light. I am also hoping he’ll provide an update on the Configuring Light research project ( he and others are leading. Similarly, the talk by Dark Source’s Kerem Asfuroglu (also on the Thursday) on what role lighting will play for the future city and its inhabitants sounds intriguing, as does that by UCL’s Dr Navaz Davoudian on the effect of urban lighting on behaviour, environmental psychology and social interaction. So I will have more than enough to keep me busy! And, for me, that’s the whole point, really. LuxLive this year is encompassing smart spaces and smarter lighting, the illuminated city, emergency lighting, lighting for workplace and wellbeing, the LIA’s lighting academy, and the ILP’s ATOMS assessment management morning. So there will be more than enough ‘streams’ to provide insight and novelty for even the most experienced lighting professional. And that’s of course before we even get to the value of networking with peers and exhibitors. So please do take the time to check out our final preview in this edition on page 46, or go online to – and hopefully I’ll see you there.

Nic Paton Editor

Corrections and Clarifications ILP education committee member Andy Sanders was given an incorrect job title in the last edition of Lighting Journal. We are happy to clarify that his role is in fact lighting manager at Mott MacDonald.

© ILP 2019

The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.


ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP online, through Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting for prisons


PRISON SELL Prisons can be challenging environments from a lighting perspective, as luminaires need to be robust, reliable, impact-, tamper- and attack-resistant, prevent inmates from self-harming and be easy to maintain. With our prison estate expanding, it is perhaps unsurprising that LED solutions are becoming increasingly attractive By Steve Tilling


hether you’re lighting a 19th century building or a new ‘super prison’, safety is the key consideration when it comes to custodial luminaires and lighting schemes. Ensuring the wellbeing of prisoners and operational personnel is also of the utmost importance. A custodial luminaire must pass stringent Ministry of Justice (MoJ) standards. This includes real-world destruction tests that use implements that could be available to a prisoner, such as chair legs and pool cues.

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Impact resistance is governed by the European Standard EN 60068-2-75, which tests the joules of energy a luminaire can resist. A compliant luminaire is given an IK rating. The highest IK rating, IK10, is equal to an impact of 20 joules of energy. However, in custodial environments this level of impact resistance is simply not adequate. At Designplan, for example, we have built a drop-test rig that can create impacts up to 250 joules of energy, or 12.5 times more than an IK10 rated fitting, to ensure our luminaires are fit for purpose. Preventing self-harming is another key safety concern in custodial applications. MoJ standards state that in ‘safer cell’ applications, ‘the luminaires must be designed so as to reduce the potential for a prisoner to attach a ligature in order to attempt suicide’. This is achieved by minimising the aperture between the luminaire’s diffuser and body, incorporating anti-pick mastic around the base plate of the fitting and utilising tamper-proof screws. To resist extended periods of naked flame attack, specially designed diffusers are incorporated into custodial light fittings to stop holes being created that could be used to attach ligatures or store contraband. In addition, a wire mesh can be incorporated into a luminaire as another way to help prevent a fitting from being breached.


Emergency lighting is very important in the context of custodial lighting. Many general custodial areas can be lit to BS5266-1:2016. However, the MoJ has a very stringent set of specific emergency lighting standards. These require enhanced lighting levels, which go over and above normal emergency lighting levels, for high risk areas, secured doors or gatelines and defined escape routes.

Cost of ownership and ease of maintenance have become increasingly important in custodial applications. To that end, LED light engines have been the most significant product innovation in the lighting industry in the past 20 years. LED ensures a higher level of illumination, longer running times and significantly reduced energy use. For example, when compared to traditional fluorescent luminaires, LED light fittings can use up to 65% less energy. The MoJ is the second largest government department in terms of size and estate running costs. This equated to more than £500m in 2017/18 [1]. Therefore, the opportunity of utilising LED technology when upgrading or replacing existing antiquated lighting in the MoJ estate is significant. This energy reduction also counts towards the overall zero carbon target the government has committed to by 2050. The cost of replacing old fluorescent lighting with LED can be significant, however. Luminaires with removable gear trays enable custodial facilities to easily adopt the latest technology upgrades quickly and cost effectively.


However, retrofitting into an existing fluorescent fitting constitutes a fundamental alteration to the product. There are ongoing arguments within the industry over CE marking and retrofitting, as highlighted at the start of the year in Lighting Journal (‘Retrofit conundrum’, January 2019, vol 84, no 1). These notwithstanding, when retrofitting, operators of custodial applications must be aware of the golden rule: CE + CE doesn’t equal CE. Recertification, testing and re-CE marking as a new product is mandatory. Providing energy savings in custodial applications is obvious. However, this should only be introduced in accordance with the compliance laid out by the MoJ

– and without ignoring basic safety measures in this specialised sector. The logistics of moving prisoners from block to block to carry out maintenance is a major consideration in custodial applications, especially in large prisons. In this context, luminaires that incorporate removeable gear trays not only save energy but ensure quick and easy upgrades, resulting in less disruption to prisoners and staff. The Prison Estates Transformation Programme (PETP) has committed to providing an additional 10,000 new prison places by 2020 [2]. Whilst this will be a challenge to deliver, there is an opportunity within this to incorporate innovation in lighting with the construction of new-build prisons. Simple lighting controls, daylight saving and using lighting systems to incorporate other services will all ensure PETP is delivered in the most energy efficient way, with the lighting element fit for purpose both now and in the future.


To summarise, when specifying light fittings for custodial environments the safety of prisoners and staff is paramount. The construction of the product is very important, as is compliance to various standards. Easy maintenance and reduced energy consumption are also key drivers as custodial applications look to retrofit existing luminaires to LED or build new facilities which maximise the use of the latest lighting technology.

Steve Tilling is national sales manager for the custodial sector at Designplan Lighting •

Turn over to read how LED has transformed the lighting at HMP Berwyn in Wrexham


[1] ‘State of the Estate in 2017-2018’, Cabinet Office, June 2019, state-of-the-estate-in-2017-2018 [2] ‘PM to create 10,000 new prison places and extend stop-and-search’, BBC, August 2019,


November/December October 2019 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting for prisons


HMP Berwyn in Wrexham was opened in 2017 and is a 21st century rehabilitative establishment accommodating 2,106 ‘category C’ men, writes Steve Tilling. For those unfamiliar with prison categories, category C is inmates who are deemed not to be trusted in an open prison but who have been recognised as being unlikely to make any attempt at escape It is also the UK’s first 100% LED prison. We at Designplan supplied more than 6,000 luminaires to all areas of the facility, working from the initial design phase through to commissioning and ongoing facilities management maintenance. With HMP Berwyn, the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) has adopted a progressive approach. However, it is still a prison where the men are locked in their rooms for up to 12 hours a day. Therefore, a

robust approach to lighting is essential. Our ‘Abrams AL’ luminaire is installed in all 1,350 rooms and en suites. The anti-ligature design is ‘safer cell’-approved, to prevent self-harming, and the IK16 rating ensures the fitting can withstand a force of 150 joules. This is 7.5 times more than the standard 20 joules. Each room has its own control panel that allows light levels to be adjusted to low, medium, high and night-light. The Abrams AL’s patented flame and puncture-resistant diffuser, secured with tamper-proof screws, prevents the luminaire from being breached and used as a weapon. On the association and landing areas, our robust IK16-rated ‘Tuscan’ luminaire can resist extreme attack. The gradient top design also prevents the fitting from being used as a place to conceal restricted items. Every prisoner works or is involved in voca-


Top left HMP Berwyn’s association and landing areas are illuminated by Designplan’s IK 16-rated Tuscan luminaire Top right Curve VR provides a safe yet non-institutional feel to the library and development areas Bottom left A typical HMP Berwyn house block Bottom right Abrams AL, a MoJ safer cells-compliant luminaire, is installed in all 1,350 rooms and en suites

tional training, except those who are retired. To that end, our ‘Curve VR’ luminaire is installed in all 34 classrooms and the library. These have reinforced ceiling mounted fittings, which provide a safe yet non-institutional feel to the development areas. With a limited amount of time spent outside, natural light inside helps to support human health and aids mental and visual stimulation. The education block is naturally bright, with daylight sensors used to control the level of artificial light. The luminaires remain unlit when natural light levels are adequate, also helping to reduce energy and running costs. To conclude, Designplan delivered a lighting solution to illuminate all aspects of HMP Berwyn, creating an environment which upholds the progressive values of this pioneering prison.

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Mitigating obtrusive light and skyglow

GLOW IN THE DARK Obtrusive lighting can adversely affect humans, flora and fauna and create irritating skyglow. The key to mitigating obtrusive light is understanding its causes, the legislation around it, and being up to speed on the ILP’s guidance in this area By Allan Howard and Peter Harrison



rtificial light can be a source of discomfort or disability glare, obtrusive light and loss of darkness, and can also affect fauna and flora. This intrusion of light represents ‘obtrusive light’ and all these effects represent economic losses that have negative monetary and environmental effects. Skyglow is the general diffuse sheen that is visible in the direction of large cities, airports, and industrial complexes. It occurs from both natural and artificial light sources and does not depend exclusively on the lighting design. It also depends on the atmospheric conditions (humidity, aerosols, clouds,

p Figure 1. The effect on the ability to view the night sky at various angles. Different light sources produce differing amounts of visual skyglow

haze, atmospheric pollution and so on). Light propagating into the atmosphere, either directly from upward directed or incompletely shielded sources or after reflection from the ground or other surfaces, is partially scattered back towards observers on the ground. The impact of this can be seen in figure 1 below.


When observing the night sky, the eye becomes nearly or completely darkadapted or scotopic. The scotopic eye is much more sensitive to blue and green light and much less sensitive to yellow and red light than the daytime-adapted or photopic eye. Because of this reduction in sensitivity, it is recommended that, to protect their night vision adaption, astronomers view their star-charts and information using a red lightsource. Their vision can further be protected if the information being referenced is printed in white text on black paper, as the reflected light back to their eye is considerably reduced further. Lamp



compared to HPS

Low pressure sodium


Warm white LED


Cool white LED


p Figure 2. Apparent brightness of light sources compared to high pressure sodium (golden light source)

Predominantly because of this effect, white light sources such as metal halide, fluorescent, or white LED visually produce as much as three times the visual skyglow brightness of the high-pressure sodium lamp. Because of this effect, different light sources have a different level of apparent brightness to the dark-adapted eye, as indicated in figure 2 below.


The Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act (CNEA) 2005 gives local authorities and the Environment Agency additional powers to deal with a wide range of issues by classifying artificial light emitted from premises; affecting someone else’s enjoyment of their own premise so as to be prejudicial to health or statutory nuisance. This essentially has two components: light spill on to windows and source intensity (or the uncomfortable brightness of the light source against the background to which it is viewed). The legislation does not deal with skyglow or other environmental effects, and these should be manged through good design practice and planning based upon the Institution of Lighting Professionals guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light document (and see details at the end of this article).


Well-designed, installed and maintained security lights bring comfort and wellbeing to our lives, providing us with a sense of security in our homes. However, much security lighting is installed without due consideration of its suitability for the task and its effect on neighbours and the environment. Domestic security lights should provide the minimum level of illumination necessary to light a property and not half of the street and neighbouring properties. Because of price and ease of installation, many people install tungsten halogen floodlights. These units can provide satisfactory security lighting if correctly installed and aimed, however, it is rarely necessary to use a lamp of greater than 2,000 lumens (150W) in such fittings. The use of a higher power only causes more

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Mitigating obtrusive light and skyglow glare and darker shadows. Many of these floodlights are fitted with detectors to sense the movement of intruders. These can be useful if they are correctly installed and aimed, as shown in figure 3. Unfortunately, many systems do not allow the detector to be separately aimed from the floodlight. Floodlights and detectors should be aimed to only detect and light people on your property and this is best undertaken at dusk when the area being lit can be assessed.


For many properties, a better solution for security lighting is to use a bulkhead or porch lights fitted with a low power 600-900 lumens (9/11w) compact fluorescent lamp. These units can be left lit all night, providing all-night security for only a few pounds of electricity per year. Besides being cheap to run, this type of light is kinder to the environment, as it provides a gentle wash of light with reduced glare, as shown in figure 4.

Bulkhead and porch lights cast fewer shadows reducing the hiding places for criminals. These units can be fitted with a movement detector if required. These units are generally mounted lower and are therefore less susceptible to nuisance switching and complaints from neighbours. However, a recent move towards ‘up and down’ projector porch lights, such as those shown within this article, do not really light the task and also produce a considerable amount of un-controlled upward light.


p Figure 4. An example of well-fitted bulkhead or porch lighting


When considering lighting an area, the same principles apply to those discussed for domestic security lighting. It is a matter of considering the mounting height that the lighting will be located and the spacing between luminaires. For such areas using readily available domestic lighting equipment, a spacing of luminaires of around 2.5 times the mounting height should provide the right lighting performance.


The use of low-level bollard lighting can be useful when looking to light a garden or footway. When considering such features, it is important to consider the light distribution from them and ensure that the light is directed downwards. This will ensure a level of light on the pathway/feature and avoid any glare towards the user/observer. Because of the short height and local distribution of the light, these may be required at a fairly close spacing.

p Figure 3. This shows examples of poor (top) and good practice in the aiming of domestic security lighting

p An image showing poor porch lighting using an up and down projector

Allan Howard is technical director (lighting) at WSP and Peter Harrison is the ILP’s technical director Turn to page 32 for more on this topic, as Chris Baddiley shows how converting to LED has changed skyglow and light pollution within an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty


p (left) A floodlight plus PIR. Much security lighting is installed without due consideration of its suitability for the task and its effect on neighbours and the environment (right) A typical porch light, up and down projector

The ILP’s guidance note Guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light can be downladed from the ILP’s website at p Typical low-level bollard lighting

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Festive lighting

CHRISTMAS PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE We’ve come a long way from the first electrically-lit Christmas tree in 1882. But with public festive lighting displays becoming ever-more popular and sophisticated, it is vital that safety and competency of design and installation remain paramount


By Martin Avill


he custom of lights being used for decoration in the celebration of Christmas, Advent and into a new year goes back to when Christmas trees were originally decorated with candles in wealthy households in 18th century Germany. Candles for the tree were glued with melted wax to each branch or attached by pins. In around 1890 candleholders were first used for Christmas candles. Between 1902 and 1914 small lanterns and glass balls began to be used to house the candles as a safer alternative. As far back as 1882, the first Christmas tree was lit by the use of electricity. Edward Johnson lit a Christmas tree in New York City with 80 small electric lights. He also created the first string of electric Christmas lights, which were then massproduced in around 1890. By 1900, department stores started using the new Christmas lights for their Christmas displays. Christmas trees displayed publicly and illuminated with electric lights

Christmas and festive displays, with lights supplied by LITE. This page Wythenshawe and, overleaf, a ‘Shooting star’ in Wakefield and a display in Stockton

became popular in the early 20th century. By the mid-20th century, it had become customary to display strings of electric lights along streets and on buildings. It then became popular to outline private homes with such lights, beginning in the 1960s.


Naturally, the types of lamps used in Christmas lighting have changed considerably in recent years, reflecting the diversity of modern lighting technology in general. Common lamp types were incandescent

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Festive lighting


lamps but now LEDs are being used almost without exception commercially, being of course more energy efficient and increasingly more cost-effective to purchase. In the early days, these public installations were erected with little thought to health and safety and were often carried out by inexperienced tradesmen or community volunteers. Sometimes the local fire service’s labour force was recruited. All of this electrical work would take place without checks or approved procedures. This inevitably led to numerous serious accidents and even fatalities. These days, displays of Christmas lights in public venues and on public buildings are a popular part of the annual celebration of Christmas and are often set up by businesses, business improvement districts (BIDs) or by local authorities. The displays use Christmas lights in many ways, including dressing giant Christmas trees in public squares, street trees and park trees, adorning lighting columns and hanging cross-street features between buildings, and even lighting up popular tourist attractions. Three-dimensional giant structures providing ‘selfie’ photo opportunities seem to be hugely popular at present, providing valuable marketing opportunities for local town or shopping centres by way of social media. Around 2003 the first County Surveyors’ Society (CSS) Code of Practice was published, providing advice and guidance for the safe installation, operation and removal of seasonal decorations. This wasn’t intended to implement legislation on the subject but instead to assist individuals and companies carry out this work in a safer, more structured manner than had previously been adopted.

Several updates have subsequently been published, the most recent of which being in 2014 by the ILP – PLG 06 G u i d a n c e o n I n st a l l a t i o n a n d Maintenance of Seasonal Decorations and Lighting Column Attachments. Licensing procedures have been put in place by most local authorities and councils around the UK and these generally stipulate a requirement for all bodies carrying out these works to be HERS-registered (Highways Electrical Registration Scheme) and NICEICcertificated (National Inspection Council for Electrical Installation Contractors).


Alongside company accreditations, individual personnel working on highway electrical infrastructure are required to be experienced, competent and qualified, for instance with the IPAF licence for the safe use and operation of mobile-elevated working platforms and ER G39 accreditation for the safe insertion and removal of the DNO fuse carrier. Anchor bolt testing is an annual

requirement for any fixings supporting displays over carriageways, and these need to be carried out by trained individuals, with certificates issued to the licensing authority. The same applies to lighting columns, which need to be structurally tested to prove they are of a sound and stable condition – and David Lodge goes into this in more detail in the following article. Plans are required to be submitted showing the precise locations of each display, with weights, wattages and windages highlighted, to ensure the individual supplies and infrastructure can cope with the proposed installation and to also ensure the cost of the energy consumed is met by the end client. All of the above has transformed the safety of the installation work carried out and provides much more safety for individuals working on our increasingly busy carriageways. Accidents can still happen however, although thankfully these are much less frequent than before these procedures were implemented. Any incidents are investigated thoroughly by the Health and Safety Executive. As a company, at LITE, we feel privileged to regularly have the opportunity not just to design a scheme of lights and decorations for our own home or living room, but to present such schemes to clients who are illuminating villages, towns or even whole cities. Once approved, the pride of seeing our vision implemented – and the client’s reaction at the ‘switch on’ event – is something really special and one that few ever have the honour to experience.

Martin Avill is sales and marketing director at LITE

















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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Festive lighting


L 18

ighting columns are of course ubiquitous in the urban and sub-urban landscape, providing residents, pedestrians and road-users with light to increase security, road safety and reducing both crime and the fear of crime. But they can also provide communities with information, beautification and enjoyment too. Given their number and convenient placement, it is not surprising that lighting columns are used to mount other equipment such as Christmas decorations. And, while they brighten up our streets with festive cheer, there is a serious side to such attachments that needs to be considered: lighting columns are structures designed using a process set out in the British and European Standards, BS EN 40, and have a specific and limited structural capacity. With the increasing financial pressures on local authorities, the cost and therefore design strength of the lighting columns procured has been reduced down to the minimum possible to enable a column to just pass the design checks. As such, there is no guarantee that a lighting column will have sufficient capacity to safely accept new attachments that increase the structural loads. Where new attachments are proposed to be added to existing lighting columns, evidence must be provided to show that the loads on the column, including those from the attachment, do not exceed its structural capacity, allowing for appropriate safety factors. In preparing this evidence a suitable visual inspection and non-destructive test of the lighting column are required to determine the original structural capacity and to make an assessment of any reduction in strength because of corrosion, vandalism, impact damage or any other deterioration.

At this time of year our high streets and urban centres get bedecked with festive lighting, much of it mounted on lighting columns. But with many columns these days reduced to the minimum possible design strength, it is vital local authorities ensure they are safe to carry this extra load By David Lodge

Whoever instigates the erection of festive decorations, hanging baskets, or other attachments – be it the council, traders’ association, business improvement district company, estate, chamber of commerce or other – assumes the main responsibility for health and safety. They must ensure that the correct application process is followed and that all attachments are correctly supported. They must also ensure that, where applicable, they are electrically safe and as such do not present a potential hazard to the public. Works in the public domain must be compliant with construction, design and management (CDM) regulations. These regulations place the responsibility and a legal duty on the person organising or project-managing these works for ensuring the right people are engaged on the various aspects of the work. They must take reasonable steps to ensure that the organisation or individual they propose to appoint (in other words, the contractor) with regard to the design, installation, maintenance and operation of any festive lighting is competent. This applies to any party involved within the design, specification and construction process of temporary or permanent works. The competency of staff carrying out site surveys requiring access to the lighting column base compartment and of installation contractors should be taken as belonging to a suitable professional organisation s u c h a s t h e H i g hway E l e c t r i c a l Registration Scheme (HERS)/National Highway Sector Scheme NHSS 8.


Column attachments such as seasonal decorations, signs, hanging baskets, banners, radio equipment, CCTV and public transport information are invariably installed at places with maximum exposure to users – and lighting columns are the most common form of support chosen to display these. Older lighting columns that may be in less than prime condition can suffer sudden and catastrophic failures, sometimes with tragic results. The risk of personal injury following failure of a lighting column is intrinsically linked to numbers of people using the space. Any additional load imposed on a lighting column increases the risk of failure and so of injury.

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

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Fiona Gallagher E: T: +353 97 81209

Westire Technology Ltd, Ind. Estate, Belmullet, Co. Mayo, Ireland. E: T: +353 97 81200 F: +353 97 81400

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Festive lighting


D u t y- h o l d e r s m u st t h e r e f o r e demonstrate that any attachments made to a lighting column will not compromise its structural integrity. The specification for new lighting columns is not required to include for any attachment, and so many columns do not have any additional structural capacity to take new attachments. Where the specification and design does accommodate an attachment, these are usually traffic signs with a surface area of 0.3m2, so even new lighting columns should not be expected to carry more than this. Older lighting columns are less likely to be able to accommodate attachments because internal corrosion is likely to have reduced the strength of the column. The individual circumstances of each installation must be considered properly. Columns need structural testing to confirm their ability to accept additional loading from the attachment. This involves a process of calculating the wind loads on the column, lantern and any attachments in accordance with British Standard BS EN 40-3-1. The column strength is calculated using BS EN 40-3-3, and this requires the dimensions of the column. These dimensions can be collected during a visual and condition survey of the column. In addition, techniques are available to assess the corrosion loss of the column

p It is not just festive lighting displays that can add undue weight to a lighting column. Additions such as hanging baskets, banners, decorations, radio equipment, CCTV and public transport information are becoming commonplace too

OLDER LIGHTING COLUMNS ARE LESS LIKELY TO BE ABLE TO ACCOMMODATE ATTACHMENTS BECAUSE INTERNAL CORROSION IS LIKELY TO HAVE REDUCED THE STRENGTH OF THE COLUMN structure and these can be used to calculate the reduction in overall strength of the lighting column with corrosion. The loads on the column and the strength of the column are balanced and where the strength is greater, the attachment may be added to the column. To complete this process, it is important to obtain the following information: • Dimensions of the attachment (height x width x depth), a drawing, datasheet or photograph is often helpful • The weight of the attachment and any brackets supporting it • The mounting height of the attachment above ground level • The offset distance of the attachment from the column centre line This information will need to be provided to the engineer carrying out the design checks on the lighting column. In addition to the checks on the lighting column, the structural assessment would comment on the suitability of different lighting column forms to accept the proposed attachment. For example, it is generally, not recommended that attachments are added to hinging columns. These are often used where there is restricted access or where there are electricity cables overhead making access to the lantern unsafe in a man-lift. Impeding the raise and lower operation can prevent a column being accessed as intended. Mid-hinged columns specifically are designed to be balanced to limit the

pull-down load on the lowering rope. Adding attachments will unbalance the moving part of the column and may result in the column becoming dangerous to operate as it may lower uncontrollably and strike or trap the operator. Base-hinged columns often employ a mechanical counter-balance tool and the addition of extra attachment weight on the column can overload the tool risking an equipment failure or potentially a catastrophic collapse.


Section 178 of the Highways Act 1980 enables the highway authority to control the erection of apparatus on or over the highway, including seasonal decorations, by way of a licence. Charges for the consideration of licence applications are authorised by the Local Authorities (Transport Charges) Regulations of 1998. But those regulations make no provision for charges to be levied for section 178 licences. The ILP’s PLG 06 Guidance on Installation and Maintenance of Seasonal Decorations and Lighting Column Attachments covers a variety of issues that may be governed by licence conditions. These include time limitations, emergency disconnections and repairs. Licences typically require the applicant to indemnify the authority against any and all claims that may arise as a consequence of the installation, with unlimited liability. Finally, authorities will often ask for liability to be supported by evidence of public liability insurance, typically to a value of at least £10m. However, applicants should appreciate that they are potentially exposed to claims beyond that value.

David Lodge CEng MICE MIEAust CPEng is EN40 consultant to Electrical Testing, as well as technical director at CU Phosco Lighting

The ILP’s PLG 06 Guidance on Installation and Maintenance of Seasonal Decorations and Lighting Column Attachments can be downloaded from The ILP’s new GN22: Asset Manag ement Toolkit: Minor Structures, also available to download, is useful in this context too

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal






November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Report from June’s CIE 29th quadrennial meeting


WASHINGTON POST The CIE held its 29th quadrennial meeting in Washington DC in June, where there was a wide range of updates and announcements. Nigel Parry was there and reports back for Lighting Journal By Nigel Parry

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


he CIE 29th quadrennial meeting was held in the good ol’ United States this year between 17-21 June and was followed by the annual meeting of the divisions and associated technical committees. The meeting was held at the Marriott Wardman Park hotel in Washington DC USA, which has a good heritage, having previously hosting meetings with US presidents. Our meeting had some 300 speakers and poster presentations. As usual with CIE conferences, keynote speakers were invited in each day to open the sessions. The first was Nobel Laureate Dr William D Phillips, who gave the most interesting paper on the update to the SI units (the international system of units). Considering the potential of this to be a somewhat drab topic, Dr Phillips had the audience hanging on every word. He took us from the early measurement techniques of a fathom, yard and foot all being related to the human body and then set at town halls across Europe for traders to use. That was before the French had their revolution and decided that part of the distance from the pole to the equator could be better measured and came up with the metre/meter! And that started the move to metrication. Following this, the sessions split and had two to three rooms with different

focus. For this article I intend to focus on a number relating to road lighting. The first was by Ron Gibbons, of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, who was key to bringing the event to the USA and organising the conference, and was conference chair for this event. He updated the audience on his research, including his conclusion that detection based on uniformity showed no difference that should be accounted for. He was followed by our own Steve Fotios, professor of lighting and visual perception at Sheffield University, who reviewed the findings of his latest report and suggested some proposed changes to the P class table in CIE115/EN13210. This included his conclusion that Eav should be replaced with a measure of uniformity. It will be interesting to see if this will be adopted when a review of the current CIE 115 takes place during the next year or so. Another Brit, Dr Jim Uttley (also from Sheffield University) presented findings on lighting requirements for cyclists, and suggested that lighting above 5 lux improved the number of cyclists willing to be out after sunset and thus increased the use of bicycles. John D Bullough of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute then presented his latest findings on car park lighting. This is something the ILP is working on as well and what I concluded from his research was that the key factor here is uniformity. Uniformity provides a greater sense of security and comfort to the users, more than just light levels alone.


The three-day conference was followed by divisional meetings. Division 4 held its annual catch-up and then a number of technical committees met to forward their reports. The list below are the current active Division 4 panels: • 4-33 Discomfort & Disability Glare in Road Lighting • 4-45 Performance Assessment Method for Vehicle Headlamps • 4-47 Application of LEDs in Transport Lighting and Signalling • 4-50 Road Surface Characterization for Lighting Applications • 4-51 Optimization of Road Lighting • 4-53 Tunnel Lighting Evolution • 4-54 Road Lighting for Ageing Drivers • 4-56 Masterplanning Urban Lighting • 4-57 Guide for Sports Lighting • 4-58 Obtrusive Light from Colourful and Dynamic Lighting and its Limitation

• 4-59 Guide for Lighting Urban Elements • 4-60 Road Traffic Lights – Photometric Properties of Roundel Signals • JTC 13 (D4/D3) Depreciation and Maintenance of Lighting Systems Of these, 4-33, 4-50, 4-52, 4-53, 4-54, and JTC 13 met in Washington. A brief summary of some of the work underway is outlined below. TC4-33 Discomfort & Disability Glare in Road Lighting (chair – Stephan Volker) Stephan and his committee have been studying this key factor for many years, and he is hoping to have a report in the next month for editing and voting. TC4-50 Road Surface Reflection (chair – Stephan Volker) Stephan has taken over this TC and is currently formulating a new workplan. TC4-52 Lighting for Pedestrians (chair – Steve Fotios) Steve Fotios has completed and forwarded this TC’s work for publication. TC4-53 Tunnel Lighting Evolution (chair – Jerome Dehon) Jerome Dehon was appointed as the new chair of the committee at the Washington meeting. There were discussions around short tunnels (and Allan Howard of WSP will be inputting into this), some clarification about walls brightness and importance when in field of vision, and discussion around the LTP to determine visibility. Dorian Talon advised on research into the impact of spectrum of light on visibility in tunnels and highlighted some interesting work related to LED sources integration in tunnel lighting, the results of which may be expected in 2020. TC4-54 Road Lighting for Ageing Drivers (chair – Maurice Donners) A review of literature has been completed and Maurice is looking for some more practical examples. JTC 13 Depreciation Maintenance of Lighting Systems (chair – Dionyz Gasparovsky) An update was given on JTC11 Lighting Maintenance Factors – way of working, and there was discussion on new terms for maintenance for the luminaire and for surfaces. It was noted that there are still many issues relating to road surface reflectance that will have an influence upon the design. Dionyz agreed to look at new suitable terms to be used.


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Report from June’s CIE 29th quadrennial meeting


The Washington meeting was also an opportunity to catch up and reflect on the CIE Division 4 publications published in the last 12 months. These are summarised below. TC4-15 = CIE140:2019. Road lighting calculations, 2nd edition This is a revision and update of CIE Publication 140-2000 Road Lighting Calculations and replaces CIE 140-2000. Clauses in this report are corrected and improved where necessary, taking into account recent CIE publications. Values of luminous intensity are generally not per kilolumen, taking into account LED luminaires. The calculation of the threshold increment (TI) is improved and the previous calculation formula is corrected. The edge illuminance ratio (EIR) is introduced, replacing the surround ratio (SR), previously used. The linear interpolation method is accepted as satisfactory for application both in I-tables as well as r-tables. A new test data clause is prepared to provide a standard set of input data for testing purposes together with benchmark results of the calculated lighting quality criteria of road lighting installations.

• TC4-55 = CIE 083:2019. Guide for the lighting of sports events for colour television and film systems, 3rd edition This document reports on current knowledge and experience within the specific field of lighting for sports events, and is intended to be used by all with an interest in excellence in light and lighting. It is an extended and revised edition of Publication CIE 83-1989 Guide for the lighting of sport events for colour television and film systems, 2nd edition, replacing CIE 83-1989. It summarises television and film techniques with regard to their influencing and determining the lighting needs. Detailed quantitative guidance is provided on the quality aspects to be fulfilled for colour television and colour film, including vertical illuminance, uniformity of horizontal illuminance, flicker, colour temperature and colour rendering of the lighting together with lighting requirements on the surrounding spectator areas. Reference is made to HDTV broadcasting techniques.

JTC11 = ISO/CIE TS 22012:2019(e). Light and lighting — maintenance factor determination — way of working This document is a technical specification outlining a way of working to determine the maintenance factor for both outdoor and indoor lighting installations using the methodology as described in CIE 154:2003 and CIE 097:2005. It combines insights from IEC standards with regard to product performance of luminaires and light sources currently in the market with the existing determination methodology from CIE technical reports. Furthermore, it references the data in the CIE technical reports with regard to the impact of the environment on luminaires (accumulation of dirt on surfaces and luminaires). The document provides background information with respect to the principles of the maintenance factor and the relevant parameters for indoor and outdoor applications. It also outlines a detailed way of working on how to apply the maintenance factor determination method (as described in CIE 154:2003 and CIE 097:2005) for outdoor and indoor lighting designs using the technologies available in the market. And it provides an explanation and examples on how to apply the maintenance factor and how to ensure proper operation over time corresponding to the determined values. Finally, it was revealed in Washington that the following report has been passed forward for voting/publication. TC4-52: Lighting for pedestrians: new empirical data This document is to establish empirical data that might be used to determine design criteria when lighting to meet the needs of pedestrians. The next step is that the committee, under the chairmanship of Professor Steve Fotios, will review evidence of, and the applicability of, three approaches to establishing such criteria. These are: by considering how lighting influences the visual needs of pedestrians; by considering the costs and benefits of lighting; and by considering current practice in different regions.

Nigel Parry IEng, FILP, MSLL is principal at OrangeTek, CIE D4 editor and CIE UK treasurer


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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal




e have a new standard – BS EN 13032-5:2018 – as does the rest of Europe, which had to be implemented as a national standard throughout Europe by May of this year. To give it its full (and snappy) name, BS EN 13032-5:2018 is called Light and lighting – measurement and presentation of photometric data of lamps and luminaires – Part 5: Presentation of data for luminaires used for road lighting. The standard is a result of the Eco-design Directive 2009/125/EC, which requires a reduction of energy consumption for all lamps and light sources, and as a result of Commission Regulation (EC) No 245/2009. Of course, street lighting design already has a standard, EN 13201, which includes Part 5: Energy performance indicators.


The intention of EN 13032 appears to be the definition of a new word for the English language: utilance. What is means is, effectively, the ratio of luminous flux received by the reference area to the sum of the individual total fluxes of the luminaires of the installation. In order to implement the standard, the expectation is that manufacturers will publish tables of data with utilance factors for all products for different column heights, overhang/setback, inclination and road or carriageway width. These will allow designers to preselect a short list of products to use in their design. However, these tables are going to be gigantic and unwieldly. Using them to pre-select products will be slow and time-consuming. The calculation of the power density (watts/lux m²) and annual energy consumption indicator (kilo watt hours/m²) already does an adequate job to find the most efficient design solution.

A new EU regulation is requiring lighting manufacturers to publish data around luminaire ‘utilance factors’. But, given that manufacturers already ensure designs are fully compliant with the standards, is this extra level of bureaucracy really necessary? By Tony Cook

Although light falling outside of the road/footpath area is essentially waste light from an energy efficiency viewpoint, is it necessarily unwanted light? Some light falling on gardens/drives/ paths at the edges of roads may be viewed as desirable by some people. What is undesirable is light falling on windows of homes adjacent to roads. This is not a simple calculation of light outside the area to be lit to various classes of EN 13201 but may be a vertical grid setback from the road edge by x metres and at a height of y metres above ground. Light falling on this grid is clearly unwanted and undesirable. At Lighting Reality, we provide software technology to help designers implement designs that are standards-compliant. Do we therefore need to take note of EN 13032 and now also implement a report of utilance? Is that what end users, consultants and manufacturers require? Or has this all been a pointless EU-driven directive that does little to help achieve energy efficiency in street lighting designs? Discuss!

Tony Cook is chief operating officer at Lighting Reality

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Highway lighting and ‘smart’ motorways


ROAD SENSE The new M42 ‘smart’ motorway in the West Midlands has given manufacturer CU Phosco the opportunity to showcase how motorway LED lighting can increase visibility and improve safety, as well as reducing energy and maintenance costs By Nic Paton



iles of 50mph speed limits, years of lane closures, traffic jams and disruption – you may have gathered this author is not a particular fan of Highways England’s ambitions to transform our motorways into a ‘smart’ network whereby congestion is relieved by making the hard shoulder available for use by traffic. Nevertheless, irrespective of the strategic merits or not of ‘smart’ motorways, this new transport infrastructure still needs to be lit. And this is providing a genuine benefit – the invaluable opportunity for lighting designers and manufacturers to By Nic Paton

upgrade and improve our nation’s highway lighting. One such project can be seen on the new M42 smart motorway in the West Midlands, where manufacturer CU Phosco has been instrumental in replacing HID luminaires on the ‘Area 9’ network with LED, as the image on this page shows. The project has been carried out in conjunction with contractor Kier Highways and Carnell Group, consultant Mott MacDonald and, of course, Highways England as the client. The old 180W Sox, 150/250/400 and 600W Son T luminaires have been replaced with CU Phosco’s ‘King of the Road’ P860 highway luminaire on the main carriageway works and the P862 smaller road luminaire for the slip-roads.

Once the lighting designs had been completed by Kier Highways, CU Phosco was engaged in determining a roll-out programme for the luminaire deliveries. This, crucially, had to coincide with the complex traffic management programme required for such a busy stretch of motorway network in the region. The result was a series of structured, weekly deliveries stretching over 19 weeks into the Carnell depot in Redditch. Because of the size and complexity of the programme (including the need for variants in terms of power levels and optics), CU Phosco also created specific identification types for the luminaires to ease product selection from the lighting design. These ranged from A-I and gave a quick reference point for the installation teams picking product for the given section of the installation programme. The LED scheme has provided a white light solution, increasing visibility on the road and therefore improving road user’s awareness and subsequent safety, argues CU Phosco. There will also, naturally, be a huge energy and maintenance savings (an estimated 64% on energy alone) from the fact of switching to LED in this way. The project also included extensive collaborative working, with CU Phosco arranging orientation levels and toolbox talk videos.


And this approach was valued. As Steve Jones of Carnell Group has put it: ‘CU Phosco delivered lanterns on a Thursday of each week, just in time for installation on the network the following week. ‘This phased approach meant that the number of luminaires needing to be stored on site was kept to a minimum, which reduced storage costs and security requirements. ‘The luminaires themselves came pre-wired and have been very reliable and easy to install. Our electricians expressed their preference for fitting these luminaires above the other types we have previously installed. The toolbox talk videos are a useful aid to training and the recently added orientation level ensures the luminaires are installed in a consistent manner.’



November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Architectural lighting




The ‘Timeball’ Station in the town of Lyttelton, New Zealand, is an iconic, muchloved landmark. Damaged in the earthquake of 2011, it has now been restored and needed to be relit in a way that showed it to its full potential – which posed challenges By Kevin Cawley

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal



n an age that is becoming ‘let’s light everything in colour’, just imagine how so excited I was when I was invited to light the rebuilt historic ‘Timeball’ Station in Lyttelton, near Christchurch in New Zealand. Lyttelton is Christchurch’s port and the Victorian-built station was used until 1934 to signal the time to passing ships, with the ball dropping from the mast on its stone tower. But it was badly damaged in, first, a 2010 earthquake and then the massive 2011 earthquake that hit the region. This iconic structure has now been rebuilt as a result of the continuing recovery process following those quakes. The opportunity therefore to be involved in lighting such a structure was indeed an honour and privilege. However, it also brought with it a responsibility to respect the structure and to be deeply sensitive to the lighting it needed; it had to be accomplished in just the right way. Therefore, the first thing I did was to ask to look at the stone that was being used in the restoration. I recall the project manager asking why, with a look of amazement on his face. I explained that I needed to see which ‘white’ colour temperature would make the stone look and feel amazing. I’m sure he thought I was joking. But when I showed him the difference he was stunned, as most people are when you show just what effect the correct colour temperature has on stone: another convert to the art of great lighting…

The colour temperature and brightness had to be just right and with minimal light spill. The time ball on top of the tower had to be treated as a distinct identity, although it was very much the principal reason for the tower’s existence. The brief was to light this iconic structure to become a beacon of pride to the community. The architectural historical integrity of the tower had to be respected while enhancing the beauty of the structure by night. There were a few constraints in lighting the tower, as it is octagonal in plan with a triangular shaped plinth at the southfacing corner. The challenge was to light evenly all the faces of the octagonal prism, including the plinth that was the odd piece to a perfect octagon. To add to this, the tower was on a sloping hillside. I was mindful of the two types of stone being used, so I tested both stone types to decide on which colour temperatures would be suitable to enhance the stone. I also wanted to enhance the architectural integrity. I did this by shaping the light in such a way that it would separate the two types of stone. The roughness of the stone also allowed for dramatic shadowing, bringing the stone to life. To achieve this the focusing of the vertical angle of the light was critical. I also faded the intensity of the light toward the top of the tower and at the same time captured the light spill in the corbels. This produced a cap to the top of the tower and at the same time allowed the time ball to have its own stardom. Because the plinth interrupted the octagonal shape, I needed to find a way to light a structure of 12m high with minimal light spill. I wanted to ‘separate’ the two types of stone, as well as lighting each side of the tower. I needed to have the correct amount of light on the main stone and at the same time create just the right amount of light shadowing to reveal the pointing and by capturing the light spill in the corbels, the light spill was eliminated.


I also needed to light the ball in such a way that it became ‘the jewel in the crown’ of the tower without compromising the tower’s perfect balance. The correct positioning

of metal posts around the tower to the exact distance from the tower was critical; each post had a different height, due to the sloping terrain. I also located the time ball lights at the exact position under the ball to minimise light spill, wrapping the bottom of the ball with just the correct amount of light. To achieve the correct amount of light on the main stone and correct shading on the pointing, I used a special diffusion and glare shield. The stone looks and feels stunning, with a warmth that would not normally be placed on such a stone structure. But the colour and texture of the stone needed to shine in the correct light. I used the same luminaire for lighting both the tower and the time ball but with different diffusion and colour temperatures. A different colour temperature was used to enhance the red of the ball, and these luminaires were located directly under it, wrapping the ball with light yet giving the appearance of the total ball being illuminated. The aiming and focusing of this project were paramount, as one degree of tilt both vertically and horizontally would make all the difference affecting the shape of the light beam.


Using correct colour temperatures, precise diffusion, exact wattage for the intensity and most importantly the accuracy and precision of the detailed focusing made this project one of the most challenging of my lighting design career. The detailed preparation in researching the two types of stone used and constant experimentation of the different types of colour temperature gives respect to this historical architectural integrity – and now it shines as a beacon of pride to the community of Lyttelton.

Kevin Cawley ALD (Lond) ILP (Lond) MIES (Aust.NZ) is a lighting designer based in Christchurch, New Zealand and runs Total Lighting Ltd. He is also a member of the Lighting Council New Zealand and the International Dark-Sky Association


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

SKY’S THE LIMIT In the second of his series on light pollution modelling, Chris Baddiley outlines how light pollution in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty has changed as streetlights have been converted to blue-rich LEDs

By Chris Baddiley



his article discusses the measured effect of street light angular cut-off and colour temperature changes on UK rural dark skies and Milky Way visibility, for which the contrast to background is now critical. It is a follow-up to my article in the July-August edition of Lighting Journal (‘Darkness, my old friend’, vol 84 no 7) [1]. For those who are interested, that article included a list of references, and further ones can be found in my paper in the 2018 -11-02 Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT) [2]. The examples used in this follow-up article are from the Mathon observatory in the Malvern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, (MHAONB). The observatory is on the Herefordshire/ Worcestershire borders. It has relatively dark skies, good for rural UK, but not exceptional. Malvern town over the hills is 5km north west and Worcester 18km, Ledbury is 11km south, south west, Birmingham is 60km to the north east. Light pollution from the east is usually dominant. From 2013-2015, Herefordshire road lighting was replaced with blue-

rich LEDs, while in the Severn Valley (including Malvern at that time) only a few had been converted. Since then, many towns and cities have had more conversions. Urban light-domes are n ow i n cre a s ing l y obvious ove r Cheltenham (56km south east), Gloucester (56km south), Monmouth (47km south west), and Cardiff (106km south west), with clearer separation between town and brighter sky domes.


The all-sky image (figure 1) (2018) shows these skydomes of differing colours, and also the Milky Way overhead. The sample photometry plot is shown in figure 2, (east-zenith-west = red) and (south-zenith-north= blue). It is corrected for lens vignetting to the horizon. The near central overhead uplift in the curve from the Milky Way can be seen. When overhead at the MHAONB, it is about 20% contrast above the moonless dark background of 0.37 mCdm^-2. A doubling of road lighting light level across Europe would render the Milky Way mostly invisible. To try and gauge the extent of light pollution in the area, a near-zenith

photometry and sky camera image survey on behalf of the Malvern Hills Conservators was carried out over the MHAONB (approximately 20km x 10km) on the darkest nights of autumn and winter of 2012. This was done near zenith with a calibrated visible band astronomical sensitive photometer, a sky quality meter (SQM) reading magnitudes per square arcsecod (convertible to milliLm/m2). The observatory has a mast-based system running at two-minute sampling every night, and all-sky camera at two minutes on dark clear nights only, with some six years of data. Figures 3 and 4 show the view of the Severn Valley from the Malvern Hills Wyche cutting high point in 2012 and 2018 respectively. There are fewer upward components (but still many even from some of the replacements) reaching the camera in its elevated location, polluting the sky of Herefordshire on the far side of the Malvern Hills. The blue-white luminaire dominance is changing the sky colour compared to 2012. From the survey, the whole AONB had the same zenith luminance readings within a few per cent, except in the towns of Malvern and Ledbury.

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


In the UK, the atmospheric conditions are controlled by the jet-stream meandering and breaking up and changing daily between five different weather zones. On occasions of partial high cloud, the blue colour of Hereford lighting can exceed all other sources across the sky, as shown in figure 5 overleaf. In figure 6, horizon cloud-scatter shows colour differences from different towns and cities. On this occasion distant Monmouth’s and Cardiff’s relighting is showing. Figure 7 is more typical, a clear sky with Herford re-lighting still clearly showing. For an overhead local clear rural sky to the viewer, the clouds on the horizon have a considerable effect. When they are high, they reflect the distant town light sources on or beyond the horizon into the local sky, and so the sky will be brighter than otherwise. If the clouds are only on the horizon and high, that will cause scattering from under the cloud base to reach the local sky, so brightening the local clear sky, as shown in figure 5. A clear sky towards the horizon, from forward aerosol particulate scattering, is typically over 4x brighter than near zenith, where it is mostly from Rayleigh molecular scattering which is very predominantly blue biased.

 Figure 1 2018-07-15 Mathon. The Milky Way is overhead running from SE to NW. It shows skyglow domes from many towns and cities over the horizon, the brightest are Birmingham, Worcester, Malvern, Cheltenham, Gloucester, Hereford, Monmouth, and Cardiff  Figure 2 2018-07-15 is the corresponding E-W and S-N photometry plot, showing the uplift of the Milky Way at 20% contrast to background in the blue E-W plot. It is more gradual along the red S-N plot Zenith background, at its darkest, 0.32 mCdm^-2 (21.3 mag.arcsec^-2)

 Figure 3 2012. Malvern and Severn Valley, seen from the Wyche cutting on the Malvern Hills, viewing north east. Much light directly upwards is polluting the Herefordshire skies west of the hills. Bright white lights are from school and other illuminated sports facilities  Figure 4 2018. Same view, at moon-rise (red disc, right horizon). On the horizon, the M5 LED relighting is only lit near junctions. The red lights of the Droitwich long-wave transmitter (mid-left horizon), are common to both images. The blue-white luminaire dominance is changing the sky colour compared with 2012. There are fewer sources with upward components, but still many, even from some of the replacements, reaching the camera in its elevated location, polluting the sky of Herefordshire on the far side of the Malvern Hills and deep into Herefordshire

If the clouds are low on the horizon, they absorb emissions from distant light sources scattering it away, and the sky can be locally darker than a fully clear sky, until the clouds arrive at the observer’s location. The darkest periods near zenith occur after rain or surrounding low-cloud or conditions of poor-visibility. Even on the clearest of

nights, relit towns and cities are always visible to the eye and in camera images.


On clear nights, rural sky brightness always decreases during the night until the early hours before dawn; see time plot (figure 8) and its histogram (figure 9). This may be due to a combination of distant lighting being turned off and reduction in traffic. But it is largely due to air cooling during the night towards the dew point, when water droplets condense out. The results are found to be much the same across Europe. The Hampshire Astronomical Group at the Clanfield Observatory has a similar SQM setup, contributing to the photometry data program of the British Astronomical Association’s Commission for Dark Skies, (BAA CfDS). Their findings are similar to those reported here. The darker histogram bars indicate sky values qualifying for IDA silver-band dark sky status. Many national parks have now similar status which attracts dark sky tourism, and contributes to the local tourist economy.


Figure10 (2016) and figure 11 (2018) show the colour whitening and horizon increased brightness continuing. Histogram analysis of the clearest of nights for the years 2015 to 2018 (figures 12 to 15) shows little change in near-zenith brightness as, unlike the human eye and the camera, the SQM is not sensitive to the increasing blue content. Most


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling

variation is from increased sampling of distant cloud-cover effects. Even on the clearest of nights, Herefordshire and Gloucestershire relit cities are always visible by eye and in camera images.



The effect of angular distribution and colour was discussed in the previous article. Highways England has specific criteria to be met for the overall fractions of light from any particular angle from vertically down, requiring complete cut-off well below the horizontal. This is not met for tilted luminaires or those LEDs mounted on curved bases for widening the illuminated area. The same issue applies for the illumination of sports and other facilities. If light sources are not of the asymmetric full cut-off variety, then any light from a tilted fitting reaching the sky causes significant atmospheric scatter. Scattering by low clouds can produce large colour changes to blue where high CCT LEDs are installed. If any blue light gets to the sky, then the scattering is much greater than that from more orange yellow sources. With good directional control, there is no need for direct light to go into the sky. The upward component off the ground from roads and verges in rural areas will be very small, as blue light is not reflected well by vegetation. But it is reflected from concrete surfaces in towns and so on. Most pollution is caused by poorly directed LED lighting from tilted luminaires as is often seen in car parks or privately installed exterior lighting. Any blue light to the sky is scattered to great extent, so the sky brightness trend over recent years is towards increasingly blue white; this is most obvious towards the horizon from distant light sources. The changes vary from the zenith to the horizon and are critically dependent on weather conditions. So, in some areas, the sky brightness measures much the same as before while in others it can increase due to particular sources and changes in lighting. The most

ď ľ Figure 8 2018-01-19 Time plot of a long winter clear night. Sky brightness always decreases with time of night, to before dawn. Spikes are the floor reflection into local air of the observatory lights briefly switched on when slewing the telescope between imaging dark sky objects

commonly installed LED lighting has a blue-white colour, because of the high efficiency blue type phosphors in the LEDs, which also match the peak dark-adapted eye response, where colour vision is absent. At full daylight levels, the human eye has little sensitivity in the blue. The SQM filter response is optimised for visible



FIGURE 5 2018-01-21 Mathon. Low cloud and mist causing domination of distant west horizon Hereford, converted blue rich LED lighting FIGURE 6 2019-03-28 Mathon. Horizon cloud-scatter shows colour differences from different towns and cities. On this occasion (albeit very faintly), besides Malvern and Worcester (NW), distant Monmouth and Cardiff relighting (SSW) dominated for much of the night (bottom right) FIGURE 7 2017 Mathon. Example image of a part cloudy sky, clear overhead. Top is north, left is east. The light pollution from Malvern, Worcester and the Severn Valley over the hills to the east is usually dominant. Some blue skyglow WSW is reflected off the clouds over Hereford, now Monmouth and Cardiff (bottom right). The Milky way is on the east horizon



FIGURE 10 2016-08-05 Mathon. The Milky Way visible overhead from SW-NE 11 FIGURE 11 2018-01-12 Cloud reflection and LED colour changes. High cloud on the west horizon reflecting Hereford, newly installed blue rich LED lighting. The Milky Way just visible west. The horizon brightening and whitening over the last two years (cf. adjacent image) is apparent

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Light pollution modelling


Histogram of Duration, #006 2018-01-18::2018-01-19, {cloud all-clear: :: :all-clear cloud}







0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.3 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.75 0.82 0.9 0.98 1.08 1.18 1.3 1.42 1.56 1.71 1.88 2.06 2.26 2.47 2.71

 F igure 9 2018-01-19 Histogram of sky brightness, power scaled mCd/m2 binning based on equal (logarithmic) 0.1 mag/arcsec2 bin sizes. Dark blue values meet the International Dark Sky Association silver standard


and not blue, while satellite-based photometry such as the Suomi VISIIR data, often used in studies, has no blue response. The lower CCT LED lighting (<3000K), produces far less scattering for the same ground brightness; it also causes a lot less glare. This is a requirement near sites of international observatories. The International Dark-Sky Association and other organisations have been advocating the use of CCT<3000K LEDs for many years. There are many other issues concerning night-time pollinating insects and other creatures being attracted by blue lighting for more than yellow, also many other environmental consequences and human health issues, which are not the subject of this article.

CONCLUSIONS   Figure 12 2015 Histogram of photometry for darkest nights, 9 cases AVERAGE FOR SET, MINS. FOR BIN

Histogram of Duration, All Cases of 2015 {all-clear}


Histogram of Duration, All Cases of 2016 {all-clear}






  Figure 13 2016 Histogram of photometry for darkest nights, 16 cases

70.0 100.0 60.0 80.0



40.0 30.0

40.0 20.0 20.0



0.0 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.3 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.75 0.82 0.9 0.98 1.08 1.18 1.3 1.42 1.56 1.71 1.88 2.06 2.26 2.47 2.71

0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.3 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.75 0.82 0.9 0.98 1.08 1.18 1.3 1.42 1.56 1.71 1.88 2.06 2.26 2.47 2.71



  Figure 14 2017 Histogram of photometry for darkest nights, 30 cases


Histogram of Duration, All Cases of 2017 {all-clear}


 F igure 15 2018 Histogram of photometry for darkest nights, 17 cases


Rural sky brightness near zenith is mostly determined by distant cities, including those well beyond the horizon. Towards the horizon it is more visually obvious and increasingly blue-white, from atmospheric scattering and cloud reflection over and between the sources making them seem brighter and more distinct. Commercial and private uncontrolled non-directional LED lighting is increasing, negating the improvements in road lighting. The trend to increase brightness of road lighting and adding luminaires to increase uniformity across Europe could double the light getting to the sky, making the Milky Way contrast 10%, in which case it would be hardly ever visible. This can be reversed with more thoughtful control and restrictions as suggested. The loss of visibility of starry skies and the Milky Way, our heritage, legacy and inspiration, is at stake. Chris Baddiley is science advisor to the BAA Commission for Dark Skies

Histogram of Duration, All Cases of 2018 {all-clear}


90.0 100.0

80.0 70.0



[1] July-August edition of Lighting Journal (‘Darkness, my old friend’, vol 84 no 7)

60.0 60.0

50.0 40.0

[2] “Light pollution modelling, and measurements at Malvern Hills AONB, of county conversion to blue rich LEDs”. C.J. Baddiley, November 2018, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT).


30.0 20.0


10.0 0.0


0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.3 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.75 0.82 0.9 0.98 1.08 1.18 1.3 1.42 1.56 1.71 1.88 2.06 2.26 2.47 2.71

0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.3 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.57 0.62 0.68 0.75 0.82 0.9 0.98 1.08 1.18 1.3 1.42 1.56 1.71 1.88 2.06 2.26 2.47 2.71 BINS


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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Countdown to 2020 Light School


With the countdown to next year’s ILPsupported Light School well underway, Nic Paton looks back at one of this year’s keynote ‘Light Talks’ presentations, where Paul Kerrigan talked through some of the creative solutions used to light the new £16bn Elizabeth Line

By Nic Paton


uch delayed it may be – with even a 2 0 2 1 delivery now uncertain – but Crossrail, or the £16bn Elizabeth Line, remains one of Europe’s largest infrastructure projects [1]. The line will run from Reading through to Shenfield in Essex and will encompass Heathrow and relieve congestion on the London Underground system. It is expected eventually to transport 200 million passengers a year. Naturally for a scheme of this size and complexity, the project has been a collaboration involving a range of partners, including TfL, Atkins (on the M+E side) and Grimshaw (architects). On the lighting side, key names involved in the project have included GIA Equation, Designplan Lighting, FUTURE Designs, DAL (Designed Architectural Lighting), controls specialist Delmatic and Tridonic (and see panel for more on this), among others. The challenges and opportunities posed by this massive project were put in the spotlight at 2019’s Light School in February, when Paul Kerrigan, Crossrail MEP engineer (lead lighting and UPS), talked

visit o r s through some of the thinking behind the lighting solutions that have been put in place. What Paul spoke about was not, to be fair, completely new, with the CIBSE Journal in particular publishing two in-depth overviews (including an interview with Paul) in the run-up to Light School, LEDs Magazine highlighting the work FUTURE Designs was doing on the project and Lux doing

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

much the same for Designplan Lighting [2]. For those keen to get under the skin of the project, these are all good articles to check out. But Paul’s presentation was a good example of the type of high-quality CPD that has become the norm at Light School, in no small part thanks to the ILP’s commitment to the event. It is also a guide to the sort of learning likely to be on the agenda this coming February, details for which can be found at the end of this article Paul, first, emphasised how the decision to use LED throughout for the scheme had been, for its time, a brave one even if, now, it would probably be something of a no-brainer. ‘The lighting design brief was always going to be LED throughout. Bear in mind when we started this was seven years ago and so very early days for LED. ‘ T h e r e were many unknowns and, really, the lighting industry hadn’t f u l l y encompassed LED technology at that point. But it was always TfL’s aspiration, because of the potential m o n e y sa v i n g aspects and reduction in maintenance; it was always an aspiration to be LED-led,’ he said. One initial lighting challenge was that the Elizabeth Line has very long platforms (213m), Paul explained. ‘We’ve got a single source of lighting on the platform, which is a light box. It is manufactured from glass and each is 1.5m long and 1m high, with 133 per platform. We’ve got concourse lighting, which is the main passenger route through the station at low level. We’ve also got cross-passage lighting, which are the areas between the concourse and the platform; so they are the crossover sections. And then of course there is escalator lighting,’ he highlighted.


Another key focus of Paul’s presentation was the use of lighting to create ‘intuitive wayfinding’. For example, in fast-moving passenger spaces the colour temperature is set to be a relatively high 5000K. ‘This is designed to encourage the fast movement of passengers and to stop people stopping unnecessarily because, obviously, people will move to warmer colours,’ Paul explained. ‘The warmer colours are there as you come further into the station and at points of destination, such as the platforms. Each platform, for example, has a very warm colour temperature of 3000K. The general movement spaces, even the ticket hall, we consider a fast-moving space. When you walk into a Crossrail ticket-hall you’ll see quite a bright light, but you will be encouraged by the warmer light to move forward down towards the platform,’ he added. The concourse lighting ‘totems’ were a further talking point. These, Paul explained, had been ‘a massive challenge’ to get right. ‘We were restricted to where we could put the totems because they formed part of the signage and so had to be aligned with cross-passages. Therefore, the ultimate distance to achieve the lighting levels ended up being in the region of 9m; and that was a hell of a challenge. Of course, too, we were reflecting on to a tunnel surface of about 8m with GRC material, which isn’t particularly reflective, around 48% reflective. So it was very hard,’ he said. ‘We had to achieve 150 lux on the floor from lighting upwards, with 0.5 uniformity. We established we needed somewhere in the region of 120deg beam angle to achieve this across the GRC to get the reflectance back on to the floor. A further complicating factor was the life safety systems; there are customer help points, there are dome cameras, there is what we call PA-VA, which is customer information announcements. All of these had to be incorporated into the totem, which again was challenging. ‘Then you come to the totem beam angle. There is the polar curve, and the challenge was to get the biggest beam angle that we possibly could, so we got the maximum number of reflectance on the floor. It was also critical from a passenger perception of walking along the sub-surface concourse to have an even light source in the ceiling. ‘We had to produce 60,000 lumen output, which is somewhere in the region of 700w of conventional lighting, and of course LEDs are destroyed by heat. We had to achieve 150 lux on the floor, 0.5 uniformity and, of course, heat rises. I saw three different conceptual designs, all of which

needed passive cooling of the LEDs, and that was a big ask. The heat sink had to be quite large and very effective. And the LEDs are actually bonded to the heat sink to dissipate the heat downwards,’ Paul added.


Paul also discussed the cross-passage lighting, or the areas between the platforms and the central passageways. As he said: ‘The design brief here was for a wide-angled symmetrical distribution of light. The size of the tunnel and the limited space for lighting modules was a challenge, compounded by the fact the boom, again, had to incorporate life-safety systems – PA systems, cameras, antennas and so on – and then above this there is a cable management system housing all the MEP services. Of course, too, you needed to be able to access the LEDs. ‘On top of this, all the cross passages are unique; they’ve got curves, angles, different lengths. So to get a homogenous effect across the glass was, again, very difficult because we had to angle the LEDs across different areas. Tottenham Court Road is a great example of this in that you almost have a hockey stick going round a bend; so there is a complete curve of the system. ‘To maintain a homogenous effect through glass, which is not particularly transmission-friendly, was very difficult. The requirement to use glass because of the fire requirements, and the fact glass has low transmission, also meant that reducing LED spotting was very difficult,’ Paul added.


Finally, Paul outlined some of the thinking behind and approach to the escalator lighting. ‘Probably the biggest challenge we had here was that we were not really allowed to put lighting above escalators,’ he explained. ‘The reason is that, if you walk around the London Underground system at the moment there is lighting above escalators, but to maintain that lighting – it could be fluorescent lighting currently – the price is currently about £1,000 to replace a tube. So it is a massive maintenance cost. ‘Working with Otis and FUTURE Designs, we therefore had to come up with a solution to illuminate the escalators safely on two levels: tread lighting and deck lighting,’ Paul said. ‘The important thing about the deck lighting was to give customers sort of a safe transition through the escalator barrel. The challenge was the 70deg beam angle and the need for zero glare. It doesn’t matter what height you are, putting those deck lights on an escalator deck you transition


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Countdown to 2020 Light School


through different elements of the escalator at different heights; and every person had the potential to look into that LED fitting. So glare eradication was fundamental. There are three layers of optical diffusion used to achieve this, and it took somewhere in the region of 18 months finally to crack it. ‘The tread lighting is the other source of lighting on the escalators,’ Paul highlighted. ‘If we have a power failure on Crossrail we have uninterrupted power supplies, which is unusual for an underground environment. Obviously, we can’t use generators because of fumes and so on, but we’ve got three hours of emergency back-up of lighting. The strips are staggered in 5m LED strips to provide resilience; you know, never will the tread lighting be inoperable. And they should also create passenger awareness of direction,’ he said. Paul wrapped up his presentation by praising TfL for its ‘bravery’ in going for LED when, at the time, this technology was still in its infancy. ‘It has been a long process. But my life is about ensuring that everything I am involved with is of minimal combustibility and minimal risk and the blast proof issues as well; so it is safety to the public that is paramount. This has been TfL’s opportunity really to bring Crossrail to the standard,’ he added.


[1] ‘No guarantees Crossrail will be open by 2021, but bosses optimistic’, BBC, September 2019, uk-england-london-49646570 [2] ‘Alight here for Crossrail – lighting design on the Elizabeth Line’, CIBSE Journal, August 2018, www.; ‘Train of thought – Elizabeth line lighting concept’, CIBSE Journal, November 2018, train-of-thought-elizabeth-line-lighting-concept/; ‘Future Designs reveals custom LED lighting scheme for UK Crossrail project’, LEDs magazine, October 2018, thermal/article/16701666/future-designs-reveals-custom-led-lighting-scheme-for-uk-crossrailproject; ‘Revealed: Radical lighting of Elizabeth Line’, Lux, July 2018, article/2018/07/ revealed-radical-lighting-of-elizabeth-line

The collaborative nature of lighting the Elizabeth Line is well illustrated in the way lighting designer FUTURE Designs and long-term partner Tridonic worked together to create a rang e of bespoke products for the scheme. FUTURE Design’s concept uses the light-grey, matt-textured, glass-reinforced concrete lining of the station and escalator tunnels to reflect light onto the passenger areas. Tridonic therefore worked to create a range of new luminaires, called ‘IKON’, ‘IKON EMERGENCY’ and ‘PLINTH’ specifically for Crossrail to help it address the technological difficulties presented with the design brief for such a challenging environment. The IKON uplighter luminaire sits on top of wayfinding ‘totems’ and is designed to illuminate the area via the ceiling, which then reflects the light back down to the floor. To provide the illumination needed to achieve this, FUTURE Designs used Tridonic’s LCAI 150W 350mA-1050mA ECO INDUSTRY drivers along with the LLE 24x280mm 2000lm 830 EXC modules, operating at a current of 950mA. The space between each of the totems bearing the uplighters is between 7-11m. Therefore, these luminaires needed to produce 58,000 lumens/850 watts (compared with typical office lights of 5,000 lumens/32 watts). Weighing in at 80kg per unit and measuring 685mm x 185mm across

the lit face, the high wattage of IKON also means it generates an enormous amount of heat from such a small area. That heat of course needs be dissipated, and therefore one of the most critical aspects of the design was in calculating the precise dimensions and area of the bespoke heat sink to ensure heat was drawn away and the device’s temperature properly regulated. The second product, the IKON EMERGENCY luminaire, has (as its name suggests) been designed to automatically illuminate in the event of a power failure. The design features high- and low-level lights mounted on the sides of totems and horizontal luminaires mounted on the front faces of the totems to spread light in all directions and throw the light across a large distance on the floors. Each emergency system is 35,000 lumens/230 watts. The lights are operated from a 230-volt generator. Finally, the PLINTH luminaire uplighters are located within the deck area between individual escalators. These are designed to diminish visual glare to passengers travelling on the escalators, preventing direct view of the LED source and providing well-balanced lighting. The positioning at a low level in the fixture and a black louvre at high level ensures dark light antiglare illumination. The luminaire is sealed to IP68 with a high-level clear glass panel.

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Countdown to 2020 Light School

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Electric vehicles and EV charging

PLUG IN AND PLAY? In the second part of our series on electric vehicles and EV charging, we review Josey Wardle’s presentation from June’s Professional Lighting Summit, which looked at some of the funding streams and opportunities available to make EV charging schemes a reality


By Nic Paton


ick Ebsworth from Siemens gave delegates to the ILP Professional Lighting Summit in June a quickfire overview of the evolution of the electric vehicles (EVs), the development and growth of EV charging and some thoughts around how this technology might develop in the future. This was highlighted in last month’s Lighting Journal (‘Electric Avenues’, October 2019, vol 84, no 9). As one of three linked presentations at the Summit, Nick was followed by Josey Wardle, infrastructure manager at Zero Carbon Futures (UK), who in her presentation looked at charging requirements for today’s plug-in vehicles and some of the funding streams and opportunities available to make such schemes a reality. Josey outlined some of the activity going on in government to kickstart the UK’s transition away from conventional petrol and diesel vehicles to EVs. This has included the establishment of an Office for Low Emission Vehicles, its 2018 Road to Zero

strategy, the 2018 Automated and Electric Vehicles Act, the creation of low emissions zones (notably in London) [1].


But there have also been a range of infrastructure funds and financial incentives put in place. Josey highlighted that these have included a £30m ‘plugged in places’ framework and fund (between 2010 and 2014), a £35m ‘go ultra low city’ fund, a £25m fund for taxi EV charging, £15m for rapid chargers on motorways (by 2021), and a £400m charging infrastructure investment fund [2]. The government in August (so after Josey’s presentation) announced an extra £2.5m for EV charge points on residential streets, which in turn is designed to complement the government’s on-street residential charge point scheme that has been in place since 2017 [3]. The Office for Low Emission Vehicles also unveiled plans over the summer for EV charge points to

be installed in all future new-build homes from and for rapid charge points to accept card payment from next year [4]. The Office for Low Emission Vehicles, Josey emphasised, has fully recognised that, if they are to become mainstream and the norm on our roads, EV cars will need to be able to charge somewhere. ‘It is about accessibility, availability, higher convenience overall. People want to be able to charge at home, at work and at destinations, basically wherever and whenever they fancy in public places,’ she said. ‘To an extent, it is not about it is where the charging infrastructure needs to be that matters. What type it needs to be to deliver the speed and type of charge that a user wants, when they want it. And that is the challenge,’ she added. The On-street Residential Charge Point Scheme was one of the key funds that local authorities could tap into to finance these sorts of charging schemes, she pointed out [5]. It has made £6m available

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

to local authorities (up to 2020), and covers 75% of the capital costs of installation, up to a maximum of £7,500 per charge point and a maximum of £100,000 per funding application. The authority or applicant will need to show evidence of need for public charging points in residential areas, will have to meet minimum technical specifications and can only use approved charge points and installers. ‘The local authority has to be able to prove there is demand for electric vehicle charging from their residents in areas where they cannot charge at home or off-street,’ Josey highlighted. While probably of less relevance to lighting professionals, Josey also pointed out that there is a voucher-based workplace EV charging scheme fund available [6]. This again covers up to 75% of the capital costs of installation, up to a maximum of £500 per charge point but, crucially, is limited to a maximum of 20 charge points per applicant (covering all sites). It may therefore be less attractive for organisations with multiple sites looking to put in place EV charging infrastructure for their workers.


Josey then highlighted two further funds available: the EV Homecharge Scheme and the ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) Taxi Infrastructure Scheme [7]. The first of these is for private plug-in vehicle owners or primary users with eligible EV models and again covers up to 75% of capital costs, up to a maximum of £500 per charge point. However, it is also limited, this time to one charge point per household. The second, taxi, scheme has made £20m available to local authorities, again covering up to 75% of capital costs up to a maximum of £22,500 per charger, with minimum technical specifications required and approved charge points and installers only. Further to all this, Josey highlighted the government’s £25m ‘zero emission transport innovation fund’ launched in May. This is designed to help fund a range of projects looking into new forms of EV and ‘green’ vehicles and charging innovations [8]. Finally, in what she conceded had been only ‘a whistle-stop tour of what’s available’, Josey outlined some more detail around the government’s £400m Charging Infrastructure Investment Fund. This is designed to accelerate the rollout of charging infrastructure by providing access to finance for companies to

deliver charge points, is a 50/50 public/ private matched fund. ‘The idea is that private investors will put 50% in and the government will match that. That is intended to provide subsidy for more public roll-out of infrastructure right across the country, maybe using new technology, maybe using existing technology.’ Josey said. ‘It is increasingly about getting the right number of charge points in the right places to meet users’ needs,’ she concluded. Look out the final part of our series on EVs and EV charging in the January edition of Lighting Journal, where we will look at the Summit presentation by Allan Howard of WSP on some of the electrical considerations for lighting professionals around EV charging infrastructure


[1] ‘Government launches Road to Zero Strategy to lead the world in zero emission vehicle technology’, Department for Transport, July 2018, government-launches-road-to-zero-strategy-to-lead-theworld-in-zero-emission-vehicle-technology; Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018 ukpga/2018/18/contents/enacted; Office for Low Emission Vehicles, office-for-low-emission-vehicles [2] Go Ultra Low City, uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_ data/file/386854/141211_City_Scheme_Guidance_Final. pdf; ‘Lessons Learned from the Plugged in Places Projects, Office for Low Emission Vehicles’, https://assets.publishing.service. attachment_data/file/236750/plugged-in-places-lessonslearnt.pdf; ‘EV charging covers 98% of UK motorway network’, EV Fleet World, 2015, ev-charging-covers-98-of-uk-motorway-network/; ‘Government's £400m Charging Infrastructure Investment Fund set to launch this Spring’, Business Green, February 2019, governments-gbp400m-charging-infrastructure-investment-fundset-to-launch-this-spring [3] ‘Government doubles funding for on-street electric car charging’, Department for Transport, August 2019, uk/government/news/government-doubles-funding-for-onstreet-electric-car-charging [4] ‘‘Electric car chargepoints to be installed in all future homes in world first’ July 2019, OLEV,


LDC Manchester is holding a CPD technical event on 14 November and so, if you want to find out more about EVs and charging, get it in your diary. Tickets cost £6 for members and £60 for non-members. Speakers will include Nick Ebsworth and Kelly Reeves from Siemens, Mark Moscrop from WSP, Mike Rymarz from Nexans and James Everley from Ubitricity. The event is being held at Swinton Park Golf Club and will start at 10.30am and run through to 3pm.

For more details go to

government/news/electric-car-chargepoints-to-be-installed-inall-future-homes-in-world-first; ‘All new rapid chargepoints should offer card payment by 2020, July 2019’, OLEV, https://www. [5] ‘‘On-street Residential Chargepoint Scheme guidance for local authorities’, Office for Low Emission Vehicles, April 2019, [6] ‘‘Workplace Charging Scheme guidance for applicants, installers and manufacturers’ , Office for Low Emission Vehicles, workplace-charging-scheme-guidance-for-applicants-installers-and-manufacturers [7] ‘‘Customer guidance: Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme’, Office for Low Emission Vehicles, publications/customer-guidance-electric-vehicle-homecharge-scheme; ‘Ultra Low Emission Taxi Infrastructure Scheme: winners’, Office for Low Emission Vehicles, uk/government/publications/ultra-low-emission-taxiinfrastructure-scheme-round-2 [8] ‘‘Government awards £25 million to fund zero-emission transport innovations’, Department for Transport, May 2019,; ‘Ultra Low Emission Taxi Infrastructure Scheme: winners’, Office for Low Emission Vehicles, ultra-low-emission-taxi-infrastructure-scheme-round-2


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

LuxLive 2019



You have just days left to register for this month’s LuxLive at London’s ExCeL centre, from 13-14 November. The ILP will have a high-profile role this year and the expertise on display from members is not to be missed

By Nic Paton


he ILP’s new Guidance Note 22 Asset Management Toolkit: Minor Structures (ATOMS) is set to be one of the key talking points of this month’s LuxLive, with the ILP running sessions offering practical advice on how to implement the GN and even a free mini conference during the second day. But ILP members – and their knowledge and expertise – will be on display aplenty across the two days of LuxLive, which takes place from 13-14 November at London’s ExCeL centre. There is not room here to run through all the content you can find over the two days – but the full seminar programme is now available online at https://luxlive.


The ILP will also have a stand within the Lightspace area, focusing on its recently launched ‘Lighting for Good’ forum. And the whole idea of how lighting can act as a force for good and help shape positive change within communities and our social fabric will be an important theme of

this year’s show, through its focus on ‘the illuminated city’. For instance, Don Slater, associate professor in sociology at London School of Economics, will be discussing ‘social lighting: understanding the life you light’. This will address the question of how can ideas and methods from leading-edge social research help designers better understand the complex social spaces they light, and the diverse people, purposes and activities that go on in them? Similarly, Dr Navaz Davoudian, senior lighting researcher at UCL, will give what promises to be a fascinating keynote presentation on ‘urban lighting for people’ where she will explores research into the effect of urban lighting on behaviour, environmental psychology and social interaction.


Smart cities and spaces, perhaps unsurprisingly, will be high on the agenda, too. For example, Allan Howard, technical director at WSP, and David Lodge, technical director at CU Phosco, will be discussing the challenges and opportunities of integrating smart technologies on to lighting columns and/or minor structures. The role and visibility of women in lighting, wellbeing and human-centric lighting and emergency lighting will also key themes over the two days. Co-located alongside LuxLive will be, the event for lighting designers and architects, while the LIA will be running its lighting academy. So, as ever, there will be a lot to check out, learn about, and help to improve your practice. So get your skates on and get registered.


To find out more about what is happening at this year’s LuxLive, including the full speaker line-up, registration and how to plan your visit, follow the updates on

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW What: LuxLive 2019 When: 13-14 November Where: London ExCeL Centre Full details:

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

The new-look ILP




CHAMPIONING BEST PRACTICE In our final update on Vice President activity during 2019 and into 2020, Nic Paton spoke to Graham Festenstein and Haydn Yeo By Nic Paton

t’s been a very busy year on the architectural lighting side of the ILP. Our “How to be brilliant” lecture series has continued to run in both London and Edinburgh, which has been great. It is a really popular initiative and has brought in a lot of really good, top people to support the ILP, even if they’re not members. It raises our profile because we are gaining membership through events; it is certainly good PR. We’re also hoping to extend the idea to Manchester in 2020, though whether under the same name we’re not quite sure yet. ‘Another initiative that I’ve been working closely on this year has been “Lighting for Good”. Some of you may remember our original Lighting for Good event three years ago. That was a one-off event where we talked about lighting for people and communities; things like lighting for health, lighting that benefits and so on. ‘This year we wanted to do something slightly different and so, while there is a launch event this month (November) that will showcase a range of topics, there will also be a research element to it where academics, including key names from UCL, and the industry can co-ordinate and communicate through a web portal. ‘The idea is that practitioners can say, “I’ve got a problem or I need some evidence, is there any research out there that will help me with this problem?”. Or, “does anybody want to undertake some research; I’m happy to collaborate”. And then from the other perspective, it is for academics who have a good idea for a bit of research and are looking for collaborations with designers and engineers. ‘Our partnership with the Surface Design Show and Light School in February is continuing, as was highlighted in last month’s

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

Lighting Journal and in this edition. And we also have a partnership with the Landscape Show, which took place in September. ‘Our involvement with the Illuminated River art work has also been fantastic for our team of ILP volunteer members. ‘Looking ahead to 2020, a lot of my priority as VP – Architectural, much like many of the other VPs, will be about trying to engage beyond the Institution, to raise the profile of the profession and the Institution outside. I’m trying to get out to the Lighting Delivery Centres, and will be visiting LDC Durham this month, to coincide with Lumiere Durham 2019. ‘We’ve been talking for a long time about a new professional lighting guide (PLG) for public realm lighting from an architectural perspective. I’m pleased to say that

FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE HAVE A CORE OF VOLUNTEERS WORKING WITH THE ARCHITECTURAL SECRETARIAT, WHICH IS HUGELY PROMISING FOR THE FUTURE has now shifted to the top of the priority list. While there is as yet no firm timeframe for this, the hope is something will be published during the course of 2020. ‘Finally, but importantly, I need to emphasise that we do now have a team of people supporting “How to be brilliant” and “Lighting for Good” and ready to support the PLG. For the first time, we have a core of volunteers working with the architectural secretariat, which is great news and hugely promising for the future. We are, however, always keen for new volunteers to come forward and work with us. So please do get in touch, at the email address below.’ Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL is Vice President – Architectural Lighting and owner of Graham Festenstein Lighting Design Contact:



lot of the past 12 months has been taken up with the development and launch of the ILP’s new Guidance Note 22 Asset Management Toolkit: Minor Structures (ATOMS), which was of course launched at the Professional Lighting Summit in June. We’ve also begun training during the autumn, offering an introduction to ATOMS and the fundamentals behind it. ‘That has inevitably had an impact on the rest of our technical output and pipeline of activity, even though there has been a range of other documents published too. Moving forward and looking into 2020, we have our update to GN01 on obtrusive light, which is set to published imminently. We have a new document coming out shortly on column protection, which is an update to an existing technical report. ‘We’ve got a document underway looking at overhead lines, although again some of the work on this has been delayed by the focus on ATOMS. In the same way, we’re working on a document on surge suppression, in part prompted by this year’s changes in the wiring regulations. ‘One important thing to emphasise is that a lot of our documents are put together by members who volunteer their time, and even non-members as well. This is always hugely greatly appreciated because, without their input, we simply would not have these documents – and so I would like to use this opportunity to say thank you to all of them. ‘Having said that, one of the improvements with having a permanent

technical director in the shape of Peter Harrison is that Peter is now able, if needed, to parachute into projects to effectively act as secretariat to keep them moving forward. ‘Another document we’re currently working on is an update to PLG04 on impact lighting assessments. This is a good example of external collaboration, as we’re working with landscape architects on this. Much as with many of the other VPs, there is a focus on working with the wider industry and engaging beyond the Institution. ‘It is important we involve the right organisations that can bring their expertise to us, and enable us to put these documents together. Furthermore, by involving other organisations with the

WE CAN ONLY PROVIDE TECHNICAL CONTENT THAT IS RELEVANT TO WHAT PEOPLE WANT, SO FEEDBACK FROM MEMBERS IS VITALLY IMPORTANT training and publicity, they can take the document to their conferences and promote it in other ways. It is kind of putting the ILP out there. ‘Finally, we’re trying to provide best practice either to ILP members or people outside, that is what we’re here for. But of course we can only provide technical content that is relevant to what people want, so feedback from members is vitally important. For example, and this is something I’d like to thank members for, the feedback we’ve had from members when we’ve put out questionnaires has been great and is always appreciated.’ Haydn Yeo is Vice President – Technical and street lighting asset manager at Highways England Contact:


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

London Design Fair 2019: Women in lighting




Is lighting and lighting design still very much a man’s world? And what can be done to improve the representation and visibility of women within the industry, especially at more senior levels? A panel discussion at the London Design Fair tried to find out By Nic Paton


tepping out of the shadows’. This was both the apt title and the worthy ambition of a panel discussion at the London Design Fair in September designed to discuss the profile, visibility and promotion of women within lighting and, in particular, lighting design. How inclusive and equal is lighting as an industry, how accommodating or welcoming of gender and diversity, and what are the barriers and challenges commonly faced by women working within lighting design? The event was hosted and led by Women In Lighting, the campaigning project (which can be found at launched in

March of this year to coincide with International Women’s Day. As founder Sharon Stammers described it: ‘Women In Lighting is a beautiful website where we have interviews from female lighting designers from around the world. It is now open for any women in lighting to upload a video and talk about their career and their challenges and their hopes for the future; the whole aim of the project is to push people to look at the fact that as an industry we still do discriminate.’ The project also runs a global network of ‘ambassadors’, currently in 65 countries, with Greta Smetoniute, project lighting designer at Michael Grubb Studio, acting as the UK’s ambassador.

The eight-strong panel was chaired by Greta and Urban Electric lighting designer Katia Kolovea and included senior lighting designers, both female and male, along with the ILP’s very own Jess Gallacher, engagement and communications manager. Opening the discussion, Sandra Brookes, senior lighting designer at Lighting Design International, emphasised that it was important – and indeed valuable – that male panellists had been brought into this discussion. ‘May I just say that I am very happy to have males on the panel as well; to have some supporters from the male side of things,’ she said.

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London Design Fair 2019: Women in lighting



Sandra then spoke about some of the cultural and attitudinal differences she has experienced, given that she grew up in Colombia, is married to a Briton and has spent time working in Denmark. ‘In Latin American countries there is more of a macho culture. But Colombia is also very forward thinking. I never felt discrimination that comes from being a female, fortunately. But there is a tendency on construction sites, especially, for women to be patronised a little. ‘When I moved to Denmark there was a natural way to how people lived – people were just people. In England I find they are trying hard to be equal but sometimes do not find the right balance. ‘For example, I got very surprised when men were not opening doors to you, and saying they should not do it. And it was like, they’re not going find equality that way; kindness is a global thing,’ she explained. Neil Knowles, director and principal of Elektra Lighting Design, was then asked whether he felt the industry had become more diverse over the past two decades, both within his own company and more widely. ‘We’re quite a small company, there are only about ten of us. So our balance goes up and down quite randomly. We had four guys, two of them left and we replaced them with two women, so we are now 80% female. But five years ago we were 80% male so it really

 Women within lighting can encounter sexist and condescending attitudes when working on site especially, the panel concluded

randomly fluctuates,’ he said. ‘The important thing is always just to make sure you are hiring the best person and not the only who looks most like you. If you’re a white, middle class, educated public schoolboy you tend to think that’s good. But if you then just hire other white, middle class, educated public schoolboys that’s a major mistake. ‘And the reason for that is when something goes completely wrong, none of you will be able to cope, none of you will know what to do about it. But if you’re really diverse and different, you’ll have a massive range of backgrounds to draw from and one of you will go ‘ah this is like that time when xxx happened’ and you’ll be OK,’ Neil added. Katia Kolovea then turned to Aiman Shah, intermediate lighting designer at Iosmetrix Lighting Design, who had been conducting a research project for Women in Lighting looking at the representation of women at conferences, within industry associations, on juries and so so. ‘I did find statistics – jury members, mostly men. Board members in lighting associations – mostly men. The countries that I found find were really quite balanced were Sweden; if anything, there are more women in editorial and jury members. Even their boards are almost like 50%, it’s not less. But in most of the other countries you will see quite a big difference in terms of the representation of women,’ she explained.

From her personal experience, lighting design specifically did seem welcoming to women, Aiman felt, although the experience when going on site could still be more inclusive. ‘In lighting design I do find that it’s a very well-balanced profession, but I suppose it can always get better. In general, I think the men in lighting design are there to support you as a woman. All my colleagues that I work with I have never felt my gender was ever a discussion. It is just about what you can do and what you can’t do.’ Emilio Hernandez, director at Nulty, was then asked to give his perspective. ‘At our practice we are 75% women; I’ve always had a female boss and there are lots of positives that come out of that. I think everyone is pretty liberal minded, but I know we’re quite fortunate that everyone has a voice and everyone feels they can speak up,’ he said. What, then, had been the experience of Paulina Villalobos, founder, DIAV Lighting, given that she runs her own business, asked Greta. ‘Did you ever feel you had to put on a “strong” persona for example?’ she asked. ‘I’ve never felt discriminated against; I never even think about it. I just run my company in a very responsible way,’ answered Paulina. ‘I am a person who does not work well if I am “a boss”. What matters when you are a boss, and it doesn’t matter if you are male or female, is distance. When you are boss you are responsible, so you have to have a bit of distance.’

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


Katia Kolovea now turned to Jess Gallacher, who explained: ‘The overwhelming thing that it boils down to when people get in touch with me for any kind of support, the common thing, whether any background, age or experience, is really the pressure of time. ‘We’re not a counselling service at the ILP; we’re there to link people’s skills up and help educate each other on all sorts of lighting subjects. I think time pressure affects everybody but there some ways women are disproportionately affected,’ she said. Even in joint-earning households, women still tended to take primary responsibility for juggling childcare, dependents or managing the household, she pointed out. There were also subtle challenges women faced that perhaps might not even have occurred to most men w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y, h o w e v e r well-meaning. ‘For example, we tend to think of the default person as being a man; a lot of research has been published about this. If you go out on to site the PPE (personal protective equipment) is generally based around the male body, and that actually slows women down. I can see some nods around the audience, which is good! It puts you at a disadvantage through no fault of your own. I hasten to add this is not necessarily men’s fault either; it is just a society problem where people fall into this trap,’ Jess said. It was also important for employers and managers – especially male managers – to consider and think about the vulnerability dangers of, say, asking a female employee to go on site late at night. ‘You might not want to be the one who is out commissioning late at night in the dark, but that is part of the job. And so what we need to do is not say, “ooh the job is a bit difficult for a woman”, but say, “let’s make the job inclusive for women and let’s build it in so that it is the same”,’ Jess pointed out. Sandra Brookes also highlighted some of the issues female designers can face in terms of juggling family and work life, especially if they’re working in a freelance capacity, as many women decide to do when they have young children. ‘I tried very hard to seem like I did not have a kid. You just don’t know if there is going to be prejudice – “oh she has got to leave on time”, “oh she has got to pick up the kid from nursery”. Unfortunately, the UK office culture at the moment is “you’ve got to stay long”, you’ve got to be seen to stay


 There was inherent, if perhaps unconscious, discrimination in the fact PPE (personal protective equipment) was designed as standard for male rather than female bodies, argued the ILP’s Jess Gallacher

long” and as a mother (or as a father) logistically, you can’t because you cannot just stay. ‘So that’s been my main challenge – just to pretend I am single and it is all hunkydory while having to juggle my kid and my new “logistics team” of my husband! Fortunately, I have found a place that is very understanding and generous, so I can’t complain. But it was tough at first,’ she added.

November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

London Design Fair 2019: Women in lighting

 • • • • • • • •

PARTICIPANTS Sandra Brookes, senior lighting designer, Lighting Design International Jess Gallacher, engagement and communications manager, ILP Emilio Hernandez, director, Nulty Neil Knowles, director and principal, Elektra Lighting Design Katia Kolovea, lighting designer Urban Electric and digital marketing specialist, Women in Lighting (co-chair) Aiman Shah, intermediate lighting designer, Iosmetrix Lighting Design Greta Smetoniute, project lighting designer, Michael Grubb Studio and UK Women in Lighting ambassador (co-chair) Paulina Villalobos, founder, DIAV Lighting



The discussion was then opened up to audience, with the panellists asked about perceptions and attitudes towards women when on site. Paulina Villalobos recalled a time early in her career when she had been working on a 33-floor high-rise and had been one of just four women and 100 men. ‘They did not listen to me and I got super frustrated, and then one of these girls took me aside and taught me to act more. It takes a lot of energy and it is very exhausting. But now I enjoy it; they respect me more. It is an acting thing, but you have to be more tough.’ ‘If you’re on site and you’re commissioning and you’re on a ladder – and this is something a colleague told me a few days ago – she was getting up and it was like “oh

be careful” or “do you want to wait for someone?”,’ agreed Aiman Shah. ‘I can imagine what went through her head – “no, I can do it, I’ve been doing this for a while!”. So it can get condescending on site. And it is obviously because you are a woman; I don’t think he would have said that to a man.’ Another audience member then asked whether the panel felt there were different gender attitudes to asking for a promotion and, critically, being confident enough to ask for a pay rise to reflect that new seniority. ‘One of the easiest ways to combat that is just to publish your pay,’ said Neil Knowles. ‘We have an Excel sheet in the office with everyone’s pay on it. You can just look at it; everyone knows what you’re getting and you know what everyone else is getting. And if you’re getting less you can just

ask for me. That is the easiest way to combat inequality.’ ‘Unfortunately, pay gaps is not something I think a lot of companies would want to comment on,’ conceded Aiman Shah. ‘It’s not something that would even be online. The pay gap is a slightly more sensitive issue. We already know it exists in a lot of other professions, but I can’t say about lighting because companies are just not talking about it.’ As the discussion drew to a close, Katia Kolovea was asked what she felt could be done to bring more female newcomers into lighting and, indeed, whether an organisation such as Women in Lighting could be extended to cover all women in the industry and not just those within lighting design. ‘We do have the intention to make Women in Lighting bigger, but of course we are expecting the ambassadors to do this individually as well. It is a very small team here. But we can definitely have this for the next steps. ‘We do already women in theatre lighting, women in products and sales, and other lighting departments, not just design. But all of this is really valid and you can contact ambassadors and suggest things – we would like this project to work independently as well in different places,’ she said.

The ILP supports the aim of the Women In Lighting platform to increase the profile of successful women working in lighting design to help encourage, support and inspire the next generation. To find out more about how to submit a profile go to site/page/join-us or to contact Greta Smetoniute, email For a general email enquiry go to


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Herbie Barnieh

Stephen Halliday

Nick Smith

Project Centre


Nick Smith Associates Limited


London WC1X 9HD


Manchester M50 3SP

T: 0330 135 8950, 077954 75570

T: 0161 886 2532 E:

Efficient, innovative, and bespoke lighting design services from an award winning consultancy. Experienced in delivering exterior lighting projects from feasibility studies to post construction. Whether it’s highway, street, or public realm lighting, let us assist you to realise your project goals.

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Steven Biggs

Allan Howard

Skanska Infrastructure Services



Peterborough PE1 5XG

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E:

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07827 306483 E:


Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses

Alan Tulla IEng FILP FSLL

Alan Tulla Lighting

Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E:

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.

Simon Bushell

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

SSE Enterprise Lighting


McCann Ltd


Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: Professional consultancy from the UK’s and Irelands largest external lighting contractor. From highways and tunnels, to architectural and public spaces our electrical and lighting designers also provide impact assessments, lighting and carbon reduction strategies along with whole installation packages.


Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E:

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning. Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.


Nottingham NG9 6DQ M: 07939 896887 E: Design for all types of exterior lighting including street lighting, car parks, floodlighting, decorative lighting, and private lighting. Independent advice regarding light trespass, carbon reduction and invest to save strategies. Asset management, data capture, inspection and testing services available.

Lorraine Calcott

Tony Price

Peter Williams

it does Lighting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

Williams Lighting Consultants Ltd.


T: 01908 560110 E:

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690

Bedford, MK41 6AG T: 01234 630039 E:

Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.

Specialists in the preparation of quality and effective street lighting design solutions for Section 38, Section 278 and other highway projects. We also prepare lighting designs for other exterior applications. Our focus is on delivering solutions that provide best value.

Mark Chandler

Alistair Scott

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Designs for Lighting Ltd


Reading RG10 9QN

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MHEA Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 0118 3215636 E:

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E:

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest

Anthony Smith

4way Consulting Ltd

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd

T: 0161 480 9847 E:

T: 01642 565533 E:

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.



Stockport, SK4 1AS

Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX


This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

Go to: for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.



CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • Lighting Standards

• Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please contact

Venues by arrangement Contact Nick Smith

Nick Smith Associates Ltd

t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 588 604 e: w:

36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR M 07795 903858 T 01202 530166 E

We offer straightforward, no-nonsense, professional advice and solutions to all those involved in street lighting and the highway assets maintenance: to implement integrated asset management programmes in a cost effective, sustainable manner.

Your contact is Martin Wyeth


Multi-Award Winning Structural Testing Business


BSI Cert No. FS607666 I BSI Cert No. OHS 660317 I HERS Reg No. SSR539

Delivering Decorative Lighting Festoons for over 25 years

ILLUMINATING THE WAY Survey, design, energy management & distribution of road, commercial, industrial & architectural lighting solutions.

To illuminate your next project, contact our lighting team on 01236 458000 or 0191 217 0119.

European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

We create bespoke low energy, durable festoon lighting for architects, designers, retail chains, sign makers, ship builders, and more. Contact us to discuss your lighting project. 01245 329 999

Patented Raised Lamppost Banner System that significantly reduces loading on columns and prevents banners twisting and tearing. Column testing and guarantee service available. The most approved system by Highways Engineers

Cumbernauld Newcastle Aberdeen Dingwall Great Yarmouth Light & Energy Distribution, formerly known as MacLean Electrical Lighting Division. Part of the MacLean Electrical Group.

0208 343 2525

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Meter Administrator Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email:

Power Data Associates Ltd are Power Associates the leadingData meter administrator in Great Britain. We Ltd are the achieve leading accurate energy calculations meter assuring youadministrator of a cost effective quality in service. Great Offering Britain. We independent consultancy advice achieve to ensure correct accurate inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and energy calculations impact of market developments.

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

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01525 601201 a cost effective Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


THE DIARY General Events



Fundamental lighting course Venue: The ILP, Regent House, Rugby

(London), with Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva, senior lighting designers at BDP Venue: Body & Soul, Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R



‘This is engineering day’, run by the Royal Academy of Engineering to raise awareness of engineers and what they do. Website:


Lighting for Good Venue: Neuron Pod, Centre of the Cell, 4 Newark Street London


LuxLive and lightspace (supported by the ILP) Venue: ExCeL Centre, London Website:


Lumiere Durham Website:


How to be brilliant… with ‘the colour blue’

Light School, part of The Surface Design Show 2020 Venue: Business Design Centre, 5 2 Upper Street, Islington, London Website: light-school


LDC Durham technical meeting with CPD papers on Lumiere Durham Venue: Radisson Blu Hotel, Durham


LDC Durham networking evening – Ten Pin bowling Venue: Planet Leisure, Newton Aycliffe, Co Durham


Smart motorways – LDC Durham technical event Venue: Durham County Council, County Hall, Durham


LDC Scotland dinner dance Venue: Airth Castle, Airth, Stirlingshire For full details of all ILP events, go to:


EV charging options and solutions: LDC Manchester CPD technical event Venue: Swinton Park Golf Club


Understanding underwater lighting, and how to maximise light in this challenging environment


Electrical considerations for lighting professionals around electric vehicle charging infrastructure


How the ILP’s Lightscene CPD event unpicked the changing role of the lighting professional


November/December 2019 Lighting Journal


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November/December 2019 Lighting Journal

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