Page 1

A Complete Guide for the Guitarist and Keyboardist

i

Produced by for

L w.

~

~

65 Bleecker Street. New York, NY 10012

Copyright @ 1996 by Carl Fischer, Inc. All Rights Assigned to Carl Fischer, LLC. International Copyright Secured. All rights reserved including performing rights. WARNING! This publication is protected by Copyright law To photocopy or reproduce by any method 1s an infringement of the Copyright law Anyone who reproduces copyrighted matter is subject to substantial penalties and assessments lor each infringement. Printed in the U S A

ISBN 0-8258-2679-9


CONTENTS HOW TO USE THE SCALE SECTION .................................................................. 1 THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF MUSIC ..................................................................... 2 SCALES AND MODES ........................................................................................... 5 MODES AND RELATIVE SCALES ...................................... .....:.............................. 8 PATTERNS AND FINGERINGS .............................................................................. 9 INTERVALSAND INSTRUMENT ............................................................................12 7. 5. 6. & 8 T O N E SCALES ..................................................................................... 13 7 TONE SCALES MAJOR ..................................................................................................................... 24 MELODIC MINOR .................................................................................................... 32 HARMONIC MINOR ................................................................................................34 HARMONIC MAJOR ................................................................................................36 HUNGARIAN MINOR .............................................................................................. 38 HUNGARIAN MAJOR ...... .......................................................... 40 NEAPOLITAN MINOR ............................................................................................42 NEAPOLITAN MAJOR .......................................................................................... 44 ENIGMATIC MINOR ................................................................................................ 46 ............................................................................. 48 ENIGMATIC ........................ ....................................................................... 50 COMPOSITE 11 ................... IONIAN b5 ................................................................................................................52 LOCRIANb7 ............................................................................................................. 54 PERSIAN ................................................................................................................ 56

5 TONE SCALES MINOR PENTATONIC (BLUES SCALE) .............................................................. 58 KUMOI .................................................................................................................... 60 HIROJOSHI .............................................................................................................62 6 TONE SCALES WHOLE TONE .........................................................................................................64 AUGMENTED .......................................................................................................... 66 68 PELOG ..................................................................................................................... DOMINANT SUS .....................................................................................................70 8 TONE SCALES DIMINISHED ...........................................................................................................72 8TONE SPANISH ................................................................................................... 74 BEBOP LOCRIAN b2 .............................................................................................. 76 BEBOP DOMINANT ................................................................................................ 78 BEBOP DORIAN ..................................................................................................... 80 BEBOP MAJOR ...................................................................................................... 82


CONTENTS continued HOW TO USE THE CHORD SECTION ................... CHORDS & NAMING ................ POLYCHORDS .......................... SLASHCHORDS ......................... SUBSTITUTIONS........................ COMPATIBILITY ........................ INVERSIONS ............................. ARPEGGIOS .............................. 3 & 4 NOTE CHORDS:

sus

5 NOTE CHORDS: 9 .................................................... 140 -9 .................................................... 142 b9 ....................................................144 Ç .................................................... 146 A9 .................................................. 148 -A9 ................................................. 150 A b 9 ................................................ 152 -Ab9 ................................................ 154 AÈ ................................................. 156 ALT (b5 $9) .................................... 158 ALT (b5 b9) .................................... 160 ALT ($5 b9) .................................... 162 ALT ($5È9 .................................... 164

.............................................. 6 NOTE CHORDS: 11 .................................................... -1 1 .................................................. $11 ..................................................

7 NOTE CHORDS: 13 .................................................... 182 -13 .................................................. 184 13#11 .............................................. 186 -13#11 ............................................. 188 A13 ................................................. 190 -A13 ................................................ 192 ~ 1 3 ~ 1............................................ 1 194 -A13^11 ........................................... 196

NUMERIC ANALYSIS SCALES .......... 198 NUMERIC ANALYSIS CHORDS ........ 200 POLYCHORD FORMULAS ................ 202


HOW TO USE THE SCALE SECTION The first section of this book deals with scales. The scales are divided into 7 tone, 5 tone, 6 tone, and 8 tone groups. Each scale consists of a title page and an interval map page depicting that particular scale's usage in all 12 keys. Diagrams are used for visualization instead of notation. Each title page contains various charts. The charts are your tools in analyzing modes, compatible chords, keyboard fingerings, and modal generation charts. Guitar and bass fingering patterns are also included.

TITLE PAGE -"c.."-..,-*m.

-..-..-"".

I

11 El I V

v

VI VII

SCALEIMODE- CHORDCHART

V

MIXOLYDIAN

7 9 11 13

VI

AEOUAN

7 -0 11

VII

LOCRUN

9

VII

NUMERIC SCALEIMODE CHART

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART Before we start with the scales, we will show you how each section of the title page works. The first section we will explain is the Numeric Scale /Mode chart at the bottom of the page (fig. 1). The Scalernode - Chord Chart will be discussed in the Chord Section.


THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF MUSIC Music is sound. But for now imagine that it is a set of 12 equal blocks (fig. 2). The distance from one block to the next block is a half-step. From block 1 to block 2 is a half-step, from 8 to block 9 is a half-step, etc..

fig.3

fig.2

7 of these 12 tones or blocks have been given positions of "major" importance (fig. 3). Looking at the diagram we only see 7 numbers, but there are still 12 tones or blocks. The empty blocks are reserved for flats b and sharps # . The distance from block 1 to the lstempty block is still a half-step. The blocks that are numbered are the tones that make up the Major scale. The various combinations of half-steps are called intervals. Basically, an interval is the distance between 2 tones. The names of the intervals are then divided into 2 sets: the majors and the perfects. The majors are 2,3,6, and 7 ;the perfects are 1,4,5, and 8. 1 would be a unison, such as 2 instruments playing the same note. An 8 would be the octave. Altering the intervals with flats or sharps changes them from major and perfect into minor, diminished, and augmented (fig. 4).

fig.4

In essence:

Flat a major - get a minor Flat a minor - get a diminished * Flat a perfect - get a diminished

Sharp a major - get an augmented Sharp a perfect - get an augmented

The entire set of major and perfect intervals are called diatonic intervals. Let's look at an easy way for memorizing interval distances by counting the amount of blocks. There are 12 building blocks within the major scale. Therefore, an interval has to consist of so many building blocks. We'll demonstrate first with a major 2nd.There are 3 blocks in a major 2nd (fig. 5), but the distance from the 2 to the 3 is also a major Pd(fig. 6).

6g.5

fig.6


Fig. 7 is a complete chart of intervals showing you a breakdown in building block format. Also observe, the chart tells you how many half- and whole steps make up each interval.

1 BLOCK = UNISON .............................................................................. (0 STEPS)

[TI

I 1 1

1

...................................................................(+STEP) BLOCKS = MAJOR 2" .................................................. (1 WHOLE STEP) 4 BLOCKS = MINOR 3" ....................................................... (14 STEPS) 5 BLOCKS = MAJOR 3" ......................................(2 WHOLE STEPS) 4 6 BLOCKS = PERFECT 4TH ..........................................(24 STEPS) b5 7 BLOCKS = DIMINISHED 5TH ....................(3 WHOLE STEPS) 5 8 BLOCKS = PERFECT STH ................................(3k STEPS)

2 BLOCKS3

1

1 1

MINOR2ND

b6

1

9 BLOCKS = MINOR 6TH

1

.........................(44 STEPS) MINOR 7TH..........(5 WHOLE STEPS)

10 BLOCKS = MAJOR 6TH

6

1

....................( 4 WHOLE STEPS)

11 BLOCKS =

b7

7

1

I

12 BLOCKS = MAJOR 7TH .................(5t STEPS)

Now let's look at all the individual components of the major scale in building block breakdown (fig. 8).

MAJOR 2ND...... MAJOR 3RD

....(2 WHOLE STEPS)

PERFECT 4TH ............. 5

PERFECT STH ............(34 STEPS)

1

MAJOR STH................(4k STEPS)

1

...... MAJOR 7TH ................. (54 STEPS)

We can clearly see here the individual intervals. We have a 2nd,3rd,4th,Sh, 6th,and 7th.With the block diagram we can also see exactly how many steps make up each interval. Using the same building block breakdown method, we can also analyze the intervallic relationship between the intervals themselves.


Fig. 9 clearly shows us the distance of the intervals from the intervals. For instance, from the major 2ndto the major 3rdis a major 2ndor a whole step. From the 3rdto the 4this a minor 2ndor a half-step, etc.

1 1

121

13141

151

161

171 .

...... .

.

MAJOR 2'4' .,..............(1 WHOLE STEP) MINOR 2NQ ...............................

.

................( 1 WHOLE STEP) .............. ....... MAJOR 2NQ ............... 'MAJOR 2ND MAJOR 2NQ

fig.9

In studying the altered intervals, many of them wi sonically, they are the s g. 10).

per and in theory, but

fig. 10 Notice the numbers to the right of each set above are different between the upper and the lower, yet each has the same number of blocks. The minor 3rdis the same as the augmented 2nd,the diminished 5this the same as the augmented 4th,the minor 6this the same as the augmented Sh, and the minor 7this the same as the augmeted 6th.

In the next example, the diminished 7th(a double-flat 7&)is the same as the major 6thin sound; although in theory, they also are two very different intervals (fig. 11).

fig. 11 The complete group of intervals which make up the scale, in this case the Major scale, can be theoretically repeated infinitely in both directions; although, in practice there are only so many octaves the human ear can hear (fig. 12).

This is the mathematics of music theory. It is important that you memorize the numerics behind the building blocks, in order to form a solid foundation for your musical creations.


SCALES AND MODES A scale is a sequence of tones comprised of varying intervals. Modes can be described as scales based upon the tones of the main scale. The Major scale has 7 modes, because it has 7 tones. The lst mode of any modal system is the scale itself. For many scales, the individual modes have been given names because they are used as scales themselves. The modes of the Major scale are the Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian. The Major scale is the Ionian mode (Major scale = Ionian) . Of all the scales, the Major is the only one that has a different name for the lst mode. The I1 mode of any scale is based upon the 2ndtone of the main scale, in this case the Major scale. A mode uses the exact tones of the main scale; however, what was a 2 becomes a 1, what was a 3 becomes a 2, etc. (fig. 13). 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

1

2

b3

4

5

6

b7

2

3

4

5

6

7

fig. 13

The process then continues for the other modes. For the 111 mode, the 3 becomes the 1, the 4 becomes the 2, etc. (fig. 14). 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

1

b2

b3

4

5

b6

b7

3

4

5

6

7

fig. 14

For the IV mode, the 4 becomes the 1, the 5 becomes the 2, etc. (fig. 15). 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

1

2

3

$4 5

6

7

4

5

6

7

fig. 15

For the V mode, the 5 becomes the 1, the 6 becomes the 2, etc. (fig. 16) 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

5

6

b7

5

6

7

fig. 16

For the VI mode the 6 becomes the 1, the 7 becomes the 2, etc. (fig. 17).

1

2

b3

4

5

b6

b7

fig. 17

For the VII, mode, the 7 becomes the 1, the 1 becomes the 2, the 2 becomes the 3, etc. (fig. 18). 1

fig. 18

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

b2

b3

4

b5

b6

b7

7

As you can see in all of the examples above, every mode has 7 tones; however, it has some kind of a 2, some kind of a 3, some kind of a 4, etc.. In other words, though you are using the same tones, the numeric value changes when you shift the tone center - that is the tone which you now designate as 1.


At the bottom of the title page of each scale, the relative relationship of each mode to the main scale is graphed out for you along with the numeric formula for each mode (fig. 19).

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

I I1 Ill

IV

v

MIXOLYD.

VI

AEOLIAN

VII

LOCRIAN

4

1

2

3

4

5

6

b7

4

1

2

b3

4

5

b6

b7

f

1 b2

b3

4

b5

b6

b7

fig. 19

In the case of some of the exotic scales in this book, you weird combinations Also note some for the numeric anaysis of the modes such as double flats and do of the modes don't have names, they are merely called mode 11, mode 111, etc. (fig. 20).

.

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

I

ENIGMATIC

11

MODE2

Ill

1 1

b2

3 3

A

1

A

MODE 3

--

IV

MODE4

V VI

MODE5 MODE6

VII

MODE 7

2

--

5

4

6

7

95

96

92

93

#4

~5 96

1

2

3

--

-.

A b2

1 1

84

A

1

7 7

3

84

95

2 b2

-------

3 3

4

5 94

95

94

5

b6 ?7

3

4

b5 B6

7

2

b3 b4 lk5

b6

b7

1

b2 lk3 b4

b5

b6

b7

1 b2 h3

4

5

6

t 86

7 7

6 86

7

1

7

fig.20 The numbers above the graph will always be the Major scale numbers, so you can see how the new scale and its modes relate to the Major scale. There is actually only 1 scale, the Major scale and its modes. All other scales can be thought of as derived modes which also have modes. This may be a bit confusing at first, but an interesting thought to ponder. For the sake of simplicity, they will be called "scales" in this text.


As you study the numeric formulas for each scale or mode, there is a simple 4-Step system which will help you in understanding how the tones become flats or sharps. The three examples in fig. 19 demonstrate the application of this 4-Step rule. When you compare your tones to the Major, the number of boxes to the left or right of the original tone decides whether standard flats and sharps or double flats and sharps - are used. 1box over is a standard, 2 boxes is a double (fig. 21).

THE 4-STEPS: MARK where the tone falls NUMER tone positions: 1-7 COMPARE to major scale pattern ADD b / 9 symbols when needed

PHRYGIAN X

X

X

X

1 ?2

?3

?4

?5 ?6

1

ç--

4

5

X

4-2

1 1 1 b2 I

1 b3 1

1 4 1

X

+=

6

1 5 1 b6 1

X

1) MARK where the tone falls

?7

2) NUMBER tone positions: 1-7

3) COMPARE to major scale pattern

+-7

1 b7 1

1 4) ADD !J / 8 symbols when needed

ENIGMATIC MODE I11 X

X

X

X

?2

?3

?4 ?5 ?6 ?7

2

3

2

3

4 -+ 5

X

X

1) MARK where the tone falls

6--

ç-

2) NUMBER tone positions: 1-7 7

3) COMPARE to major scale pattern 4) ADD b / 9 symbols when needed

94 5 b6 *7

fig.21

1


MODES AND RELATIVE SCALES MODE GENERATOR CHART

Scales and modes are the foundation of your composition and improvisation. Modes are treated as scales. Just as we can change the pitch of the main scale, in order to play in one of the 12 keys, the same concept or principle can be used when using a mode. The mode generator chart of each title page will show you the main scale equivalent for each mode (fig. 22).

c

The concept and principles behind The Quick Mode Generator Chart are the same regardless of what instrument you play. The letters in column I indicate the pitch of the starting point. In other words it tells you what key you are in. The other columns tell you what key the relative scale is in. Column I also denotes the key for the keyboard patterns to the left.

0

1

DORIAN

1

-7 -9

m

PHRYGIAN

7

IV

LYDIAN

A 111

V

7 9 11 13

MIXOLYDUN

VII

Let's demonstrate this below with a G Mixolydian (fig. 23). The Mixolydian is the V mode of the Major scale. Beneath column I we go down to the G, because that will be our starting pitch or key. Over to where it meets column V we come to a C, therefore, if we are playing a G Mixolydian we are actually playing a C Major with the root note shifted to the G .

fig.22 QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART KEY

I

The modes of the Major scale are mapped out for your convenience.

f

Step 1 Place left finger on desired key in column I. Step 2 Place right finger on column of desired mode (in roman numerals at the top).

Step 3 Run fingers across and down until they meet. The point where they meet is the relative scale.

It's as simple as 1 - 2 - 3 ! fig.23

MODE

I1

I11 I V (^ V I VII


PATTERNS AND FINGERING On every title page, you will find a set of right handed keyboard patterns. The key follows, designated by column I of the Quick Mode Generator Chart (fig. 24). The patterns do not always start on the root note, because of the keyboard's design. On the interval maps white circles represent the notes in the scale. Numbers inside the circles are the intervals. Scales are fingered by breaking them up into 2 , 3 , and 4 note groups. How we devide up the groups is based on a system we will call the "Rule Of Thumb" method.

PATTERN

KEY MODE OEHEMTon CH*HT

............................................... .. .. .. .. ..

..

..

.. .. .. .. ..

;.............. ..!..:..:::..:..:.:::.;-. ..:..;,....!,-....,...-........................................... i..: ....:........ : ; 5i-i ; : ' : :.....:.;.,.. . . . . . F 1 ~b ~ c Ă&#x192; â&#x20AC;Ą / DC~ 1 Bb 1 Ab [FI/Q< .................................. ................................ J.......J .......J........ .a

fig.24

The "Rule Of Thumb": thumb always plays a white key. Visually inspect the interval map and see where groups are naturally formed. Right and left hand thumb-patterns work in opposite directions, due to the position of the thumbs. The thumb plays the first tone and the remaining fingers fall automatically into place (fig. 25).

LEFT HAND

THUMB-PATTERNS

RIGHT HAND +

I = Index finger M = middle finger R = ring finger, either hand

THUMB-PATTERNS

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

HOW TO CONNECT THUMB-PATTERNS

fig.25

Learn each hand separately before putting them together. Remember fingerings don't always start on the root note. To play more than an octave repeat the process. To complete an octave for the right hand use the consecutive finger; for the left hand start with the prior finger. The following pages show the remaining keys of the Major scale fingered with the "Rule of Thumb". By studying these pages you will be able to apply this method to finger any scale.


T =THUMB

I = index finger

M = middle finger

R = ring finger, either hand

C# /Db MAJOR

D MAJOR

*

D MAJOR

Eb MAJOR

E MAJOR

F MAJOR

*

F MAJOR

F#1 G MAJOR

I

I

I

I

I

I

F $ /G MAJOR

*

The Left Hand Fingerings vary slightly from accepted traditional fingerings. The L.H. Rule Of Thumb method is designed to give the guitarist instant access for sequencing.


T

MAJOR

*

=THUMB

I = index finger

M = middle finger

R = ring finger, either hand

1

A MAJOR

Bb MAJOR

B I Cb MAJOR

G

MAJOR

Exception to the Rule: Enigmatic Key of D

fig.26

*

The Left Hand Fingerings vary slightly from accepted traditional fingerings. The L.H. Rule Of Thumb method is designed to give the guitarist instant access for sequencing.


INTERVALS AND INSTRUMENT Now that we've learned about intervals, the building blocks of music, let's see how they tie into our instrument. We are going to take two octaves of the intervals which make up the Major scale and see how they match up to the keyboard in the key of C. The blocks which form the Major scale align with the "white" keys (fig. 27).

To change keys shift the pitch of the starting note, in other words shift the mathematical formula to the appropriate pitch or key. In this case the formula is the Major scale. On the Interval Map pages the numbers in the white circle show you the numerics (1,2,3,4,5,6,7) for all 12 keys. The key is stated next to each keyboard digaram. It will benefit you greatly to memorize the numerics of all 12 keys. Until then we have laid each key out for use as a reference tool. Pitches never change, as can be seen in the Pitch Indicator Chart below (fig. 28). I

PITCH INDICATOR CHART

sharp t

flat b

fig.28

12

-


7 , 5 , 6 ,& 8 TONE SCALES 7 tone scales are the basis for all scales.

PENTATONIC SCALE FORMULA CHART The tones or numbers left are "generic" meanin the could be either b h. Ex. b2 Ă&#x192;Ë&#x2020; $2 "2 2 The X indicates delated scale tones. All combinations with alterations would make 96 such charts.

A 5 tone scale, otherwise known as a pentatonic scale, is a 7 tone scale with 2 tones omitted. By a process of elimination, 15 pentatonics can be derived from any 7 tone scale. Fig. 29 turns any 7 tone scale into a pentatonic. Whereas 7 tone scales are fingered in 3 & 4 note groups, pentatonics are fingered with 2 & 3 note groups.

?

Step 1

Step 2

6 tone scales are 7 tone scales with 1 tone omitted. Their fingering is 3 & 3 or 2 & 4 note groups.

t

Pick any 7 tone scale or mode. Delete any 2 tones.

x x x

x x x

AUGMENTED SCALE FORMULAS

fig. 29

The most popular 6 tone scales would be the Whole- Tone and the Augmented Scale. Fig. 30 presents a method for creating augmented scale formulas based upon the Augmented Chord: 1 - b3 - 85. 3 tones are added to the chord, making 6 tone scales. Add 1 tone to a 7 tone scale to make an 8 tone scale. Use 4 & 4 note groups or 2,3, &3 note groups. During the bebop era popular 8 tone scales were named bebop scales.

DIMINISHED

-

SCALE FORMULAS

The X along with the numbers indicates tones to be PlayedThe Augmented scale: * Is the most common of ail scales listed.

fig. 30

Similar to fig. 30, fig. 31 creates diminished scales from the diminished chord: 1 - b3 - b5 - b7. 4 other tones are then added to the original 4, making 8 tone scales.

.

The X along with the numbers indicates tones to be played. e scales Half-Whole Diminished: H I W & Whole-Half Diminished:W I H are the most common diminished.

fig. 31


HOW TO USE THE CHORD SECTION The chord section is divided into chord groups. The groups are 3 tone, 4 tone, and polychords (5, 6, and 7 tone chords). Each 3 and 4 tone chord consists of a chord derivative page and an interval map page (fig. 32). The interval maps are set up the same as in the scale section.

INTERVAL MAP

CHORD DERIVATIVE CHART

. M (MAJOR)

c dim

-

HINDU V MELODIC QIANt3 V HARMONIC MINOR AN I 2 - V I HARMONIC MINOR HARMONIC MAJOR . .- - .... . ........... DOMINANT t2 - V HARMONGUANH

-

-

DOUBLEDIARMONIC V HUNGARIAN MINOR

-

4' I 6 I 2 VI HUNGARIAN MINOR 15*7

-

VIIHUNQARIAN MINOR

HUNGARIAN MAJOR . 8

-

.-

IIN W O L K A N MINOR

Z VI NEAPOLKAN MINOR OR

-

N NEAPOLITAN MAJOR

UATIC MINOR MODE Ill qIQMATIC MODE Ill 'IIQMATIC MODE N COMPOS~EI1 MPOSIE I1MODE 111

-

N IONIAN È

.YDIAN 12

ONIAN 16 IILOCRWH7 MINAKT 12 VI LOCRIANU7 PERSIAN MODE I1

-

PENTATONIC I1MINOR PENTATONIC AUGMENTED PELOQMODE VI DOMINANT BUS MODE Ill

Every chord in the polychord section has a page which translates polychord formulas into slashchords readily usable for all 12 keys plus the usual interval map page. The charts are your tools. in analyzing how chord voicings are derived and how they work.

A basic understanding of chord mathematics is necessary to derive the utmost benefit of this book.


CHORDS We have already studied intervals. An interval is the distance between 2 tones. Therefore, let's define a chord. A chord is 2 or more intervals played simultaneously.

A basic chord "formula" for building chords is to use every other tone of the scale you are in. For example, a Major chord would consist of 1 - 3 - 5. A Major 7thchord would be 1 - 3 - 5 - 7. Using the building blocks format compare the Major scale, the Major chord, and the Major 7th chord (fig. 33). Major Scale Major Chord Major 7th

2

, ,

3

4

5

3

5

3

5

6

7

I 7

fig.33

CHORD NAMING SYSTEM In order to fully understand the numeric formulas, you first have to understand the chord naming system in this text. Certain rules or guidelines help the musician when communicating with other musicians. Once you fully understand music theory, you'll understand all naming systems. We feel that the system in this book is the most effecient ifusedp~apes'7y-

In the chart (fig. 34) there are 7 symbols. The 7 symbols are used to denote the status of specific tones within the chord. The flat and sharp symbols are used when altering any other tones. Some systems will use - and + as flats and sharps. Although this is not incorrect, we have found it more systematic to use them as represented in the chart below. Memorize these symbols and the tones they represent, as they will be your best friends when dealing with chords. RESULT

DENOTES STATUS OF

same b b

extra b

NAME

MINOR AUGMENTED DIMINISHED DELTA DOMINANT HALF-DIMINISHED DIMINISHED 7TH

EXAMPLE AND FORMULA


As you study the Numeric Analyis Chord Charts at the back of this book, notice some of the lar er chords have 6 or 7 tones. Using two octaves of the Major scale, we can see that a 9th,an 11Si,and 13thare actually a 2nd,4th,and 6threspectively using the every other note process (fig. 35).

fig.35 Before we continue let's analyze the naming of the larger chords. What we have in fig. 36 is some kind of 13thchord. The letter tells us what pitch the " 1" (root note) of our formula is on. The A (delta) tells us that it's a Major 7thchord. The + tells us to raise the Stha half-step, as in 1 sharp: and the 1 3 is~flat. ~ The chord is an E flat delta augmented, flat 13. Study the names of the chords in relationship to the formulas in the numeric chord charts,

NUMERIC FORMULA

............................... .....-........--......

fig.36 Comparing the diagrams of the C Major scale and the CAI3 in fig. 37 we can see that the 9th, 1lth,and 13thare actually a 2nd,4th,and 6thas both diagrams are identical. So, the CAI 3 chord of the second octave gives is in reality the same as the C Major scale. Using the 2nd,4th,and the chord a different texture - and a new realm of exploration.

fig.37


POLYCHORDS Playing the larger chords can be cumbersome sometimes. The way to simulate large chords is with polychords. In other words, use several smaller chords to make one big chord. The word bbpolychord"simply defined is more than one chord combined to make one complex chord. Let's look at a 1 3" chord with building blocks (fig. 38).

fig. 38 Now let's look at 1 possible polychord formula (there could be several) and analyze the equation. To the left of the equal sign is the chord name. On the right side of the equal sign it tells us to play a delta augmented over the root at the flated 7th (fig. 39).

1

A+ fig. 39

Let's see what this chord represents (fig. 40): 13"'

1 11

5

3

t ROOT

fig. 40

A+

b7

9

$11

13

I

I

I

I

1

3

)t 5

7

Placing the 1 of our A+(delta augmented) at the dominant 7thfrom the root, we see that the tones are the tones of our desired chord. 1381 1 -fig.41 Therefore we have simulated our 13"'. Now let's look at the same 9 chord except with a different polychord formula. The capital M is a Major triad over the root at the 9&.It looks like this: fig. 41 and fig. 42. You could also place the Major triad on the 2nd,since the 2ndis also a 9th(fig. 43 and fig. 44). The result would also be the sape.

-

t ROOT

1

ROOT I 13'''

1

fig. 42 #4=#11

2=9

M

b7

I

I

I

1

3

5

The bass player will usually play the root note, while the keyboard or guitar will play the 3 or 4 tone chord at the appropriate interval. The formula for polychords is depicted in the chart, fig. 45.

I

I

1

3

5

9

$11

13

6=13

5

3

11

M

I

1 3 Ă&#x192; Ë&#x2020; l =-

fig. 43

POLYCHORD FORMULA

M

fig. 44

0

^on7\,, TONE

fig. 45

ThePolychord Formulas chart at the back of this book does not contain every possible combination of polychords, but there is more than sufficient data to get you started.


SLASHCHORDS Another way of looking at the larger chords is by a method known as slashchords. A slashchord receives its name from the slash symbol used between the root and the chord. An example is By applying the Polychord Formula (fig. 45) we will demonstrate the mathematical synthesis of the A9 and A1 1. The A9 can be broken down into two different polychord formulas as shown in fig. 46. Let's see what this translates i n t o when using pitch.

Gg. 46

If C is the tone we place the root of our formula on, in this case the A9 , then the tone of the synthesis formula immediately below would start on an E and on a G. Therefore the slashchords for the formulas in fig. 47 would be:

CA9 = E-7 1 C CAg=G/C

fig.47 This means that you play an â â&#x20AC;&#x161; chord over a C tone or a G major chord over the C. Both of these are equivalent to the A9. Fig. 48 is another slashchord example using the A1 1.

C

D

1

-b9 All = -

E

G

F

B

A

C

D

E

F

3

5

7

9

11

I

I

1

I

I

b3

5

b7

b9

I

I

I

I

1

3

5

b7

I

I

I

b3

b5

3

7 All = 5

A11 =

0

-

fig.48

18

= E-b9 /

C

=Q7/C

=BO/C


Let's take a A13 and find a polychord formula (fig. 49) then convert it to a slashchord formula. C

E

G

B

D

F

A

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

0

CAI3 = Ba / C SLASHCHORD

A13 = -

7

I

I

b3

1

t

b5

I

b7

POLYCHORD

fig.49 The slashchord formula for the polychord above is BO1 C . Start by playing a B0 which would be a 1- b3 - b5 - b7 . Without moving the BO play it over a C note. Let's analyze what the BOfingering becomes on a CAI3 interval map. What was a 1 on the BOinterval map is now the 7 on the C A I 3 interval map. What was b5 now becomes the 11 and what was the b7on the B0 is now the 13th,what was the b3 is now the 9th (fig. 50).

IĂ&#x192;â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;b3-b5-b

starting on B...

played over a Cbecomes a 7-

9-1 1-13

which is a CA13.

Compare this to the CAI3 interval map.

fig. 50 For your convenience we have taken every complex chord, translated them into polychord formulas and slashchords in all 12 keys. Any combination of notes from the interval maps will give you the desired chord. Just remember, if you want to play a 13thand you don't have a 13thinyour voicing, you do not have a 13th.


SUBSTITUTIONS

fig. 51 The chart above (fig. 5 1) is a graphic building block representation of how substitutions are derived. By now you should be quite familiar with how to figure out the polychord formulas for the chart above. What the chart above is telling you in slashchord form is that in place of a ~ l 3 ^ 1you could play: C<' or CF or E - A or E- or G +

Anv one of the above mentioned chords will work over the ~ 1 3 " (fig. 52'). That is the secret to themystery of substitutions. However some may find this still a bit tricky to understand. All you have to do is use the interval map of the appropiate chord you want to play, use any 3,4, or 5 note combination on that map, and you will have that chord or one of it's substitutions. The companion page opposite the interval map presents all the polychord formulas and the formulas translated to slashchords in all 12 keys. Below that there are two substitution charts for each chord, also in all 12 keys. The two charts do not represent all the possible substitutions due to lack of space, however the interval maps do. Any combination you chose will fit. Remember whether you are doing chord solos or playing with a band you can play with or without the root. If you are playing with a band the bass player usually gets the root. Smaller chords can also be extended into 9th5,1 111",and 13%


COMPATIBILITY Now that we have covered chords and chord naming, let's return to the Scale/ Mode- Chord Compatibility Chart, located on the title page of each new scale (fig. 53).

SCALE1MODE

I

-

CHORD CHART

IONIAN

11

DORIAN PHRYGIAN

The roman numerals on the left side of the chart tell you the mode you are in. Next is the name of the mode, where applicable. On the right half are the chords that fit or match that mode. In other words, compatible chords you can use.

Iv

LYDIAN

v

MIXOLYDIAN

VI

AEOLIAN

MI

LOCRIAN

Z-\

811

9

7 -7

11

-9

13 -11

0

fig.53

Taking the Dorian, let's see how this works (fig. 54). DORIAN 1

I

2

b3

4

I

5

I

6

b7

1

I

2

b3

4

5

6

I

b7

A

fig.54

Comparing it in this way we see that all the tones in the '7 and 9 chords are in the scale, or in this case, mode. AEOLIA

1

2 b3

I

I

1 - 7 1 1 1

I

4

5 b6

b7

I

I

1

2 b3

1 1 b3 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 b7 1 I

I

I

4

5 b6

b7

1

fig. 55

The same chords ( 7 and 9 ) also fit the Aeolian, fig. 55.

However, the Minor 7Ă&#x201A;ÂĄ and the Minor 9"' (-7 and -9) do not work with the Locrian, but the halfdiminished does (fig. 56).

Now let's examine the Chord Derivative Charts in the chord section (fig. 57). The numeric formula of the chord is highlighted in gray so you can visualize how each scale contains the numeric formula of the chord. The formula for the chord is listed above the chart. M (MAJOR CHORD) = 1

3

5

fig. 57 As you become more familiar with the mathematics or numerics behind scales, modes, and chords, compatibility will become an automatic response. Till then, you have the Chord Derivative Charts and the Scale/Mode - Chord Charts to help you.


INVERSIONS We ask you to recall now the chapter entitled "Scales and Modes". Basically the lowest note for each mode was bounced up an octave, therefore, modes are inversions of scales. The same concept applies to chord inversions. Taking a Major chord, we'll take the lower note and bounce it up- an octave, creating the lst inversion of the chord (fig. 58). 7

Major scale

2

Major Chord 1st Inversion

3

4

5

6

7

1

3

5

3

5

1

5

1

2nd Inversion

3

2

4

5

6

7

1

3

fig.58

We duplicate the demonstration again using a A chord which has 4 notes in it, fig. 59. Major Scale

1

A 11 1 st

Inversion 2nd Inversion 3rd Inversion

2

3

4

5

6

3

7

1

7

1

3

7

1

3

2

4

5

6

7

" 1 1 1 5

5

fig.59

CA

The A chord inversions in the key of C are demonstrated on the keyboard in fig. 60 to the left.

1st Inversion

2nd Inversion 3rd Inversion

fig. 60


ARPEGGIOS People constantly ask about arpeggios, as though arpeggios are some ancient mystical secret. Arpeggios are actually quite simple. An arpeggio is nothing more than a "chopped up" chord. In other words, rather than one simultaneous strike on the keyboard play - - the notes in sequence: from low to high and or high to low.

An example of a basic triad arpeggio is demonstrated in figure 61.

c start here

-

t

end here

fig. 61

An example of a 7 tone arpeggio is demonstrated in figure 62 below.

1

la t

start here

fig.62

This concludes our study of scales and chords. We have given you the basics in harmony and theory, now you are ready to delve into this unique reference volume. To lay a proper foundation, we recommend beginners start with the Major scale. We invite all keyboardists to embark on their own quest through the astounding world of music.


MAJOR

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

11

v

Iv

111

VI

VII

GUITAR

BASS

PATTERNS

PATTERNS

I II

I11

IV

v

SCALE 1 MODE - CHORD CHART

I

IONIAN

M,A,A'

11

DORIAN

-7,-9

111 Iv

PHRYGIAN

-7

LYDIAN

A ,A9,A"'

v

MIXOLYDIAN

7, 9,11,13

VI

AEOLIAN

VI

VII

7 , 9 ,-11

LOCRIAN NUMERIC SCALE 1 MODE CHART

1

IONIAN

I1

DORIAN

I11

PHRYGIAN

Iv

LYDIAN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

b3

4

5

6 b7

1

b2

b3

4

5

b6

b7

2

3 2

3

4

5

6 1-7

1

2 b3

4

5

b6

-

1

b3

4

b5

b6

1

P

V

MIXOLYD

VI

AEOLIAN

VII

LOCRIAN

1

-

24

b2

b7

b7

7


MAJOR


DORIAN


PHRYGIAN

BIT


LYDIAN

I I !


MIXOLYDIAN

TIT

TIT


AEOLIAN

sir TIE

'BIT TIE Ill


LOCRIAN

Ill

I I !


I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

Ill

VII

GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

-

C#/DI

A

-

I

D BICb

I1

I11 BIC b

c

IV

C Wb

D

v

SCALE IMODE - CHORD CHART

I1I I 11 I I IV 1

MELODIC MINOR DORIAN b2

LYDIAN DOMINANT HINDU

I VII I

SUPER LOCRIAN

I I VI

I I

7H3, 7+

VII

1

ALT NUMERIC SCALE IMODE CHART

1

Ill IV

2

LYD AUG

3

1

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

$4

È

6

3

2

$4 5 -6 1-7 3 4 5 b6

1

2

b3

4

b5

b6

b7

1

b2

b3 b4

b5

b6

LYD DOM

-

V

HINDU

VI

LOCRIAN b2

I

SUPERLOC

2

3

4

5

6

---------7

----

1

7

b7 -

L

b7


MELODIC MINOR

TIT

TIT

I I

(Dl

l@l@I@l

I

l(D1

1@10l@


KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I

I1

111

IV

V

VI

GUITAR PATTERNS

VII

BASS PATTERNS

I

II

I11

IV

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

11I

HARMONIC MINOR

1

1

-A, 96

VI

1

IV

I

1V 1

DORIAN $4 PHRYGIAN MAJOR

I V1I I

ALT b7

1

1

I

, -7, -6,"9, '9, -9

1

+ ,7,7+, 7b9

I

VII

1

b5, o , '7 NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

v

PHRYG. $3

VI

LYDIAN32

VII

ALT ~7

I

92 3

1 1 I

1 b2

b3 b4

b5

b6 È


HARMONIC MINOR


I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

Ill

v

IV

GUITAR

BASS

PATTERNS

PATTERNS

IV

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

1

1 HARMONIC MAJOR 1

A, A+,Asus2,ASUS, b6

DORIAN b5

VI

Iv

1

LYDIAN b3

V

1

DOMINANT b2

VI

LYDIAN AUGMENTED $2

VII

LOCRIAN *7

A+,-A+.Ab5 0

VII

.O 7

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 1

2

3

4

5

7

6

I I1

I11 IV

v VI VII 36

1

2

3

4

5

6

/


HARMONIC MAJOR

TIT

TIT


KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I

I1

VII -

GUITAR

BASS PATTERNS

PATTERNS

:#ID b

I

II

I11

IV

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART HUNGARIAN MINOR

v

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ORIENTAL IONIAN AUGMENTED $2

LOCRIAN È È DOUBLE HARMONIC L A N6 2

I

VI

1

I I

7, -7,f , yb5,A,-A,A', Ab5

ALT 1)5È

VII

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

6


HUNGARIAN MINOR

TIT

TIT


GUITAR

BASS

PATTERNS

PATTERNS

I

I1

I11

IV

v

SCALE 1 MODE - CHORD CHART

ALT H6 H7

VI ALT h6

1 1 I VI I I 'I1 I

MELODIC AUGMENTED

I I

DORIAN b2 $4 LYDIAN AUGMENTEDtK3

'

A*'

VII (NO 3 5 )

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

1

HUNGAR MAJOR

I]

A L T 17 ~ ~

111

LOCRIAN 112 117

IV

ALT&

V

MELODIC AUG

VI

DORIAN t2 34

LYDIAN AUG $3

1 1

2

$2 3

$4 5

6 6 b7

1 b2

b3 b4

b5 b6

7

2

b3

4 b5

b6

7

1

b2

b3 b4

b5

6

1

2 b3

4

85 6

3

1

4

5

7

1 1

2

3 $2 3

4

5 $4 5

6

6 b7

b7

7

-

------1 b2

b3

84 5

6

1

2

S3 $4

$5 6

40

b7

7

7


HUNGARIAN MAJOR

TIT


I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

111

v

IV

VI

GUITAR PATTERNS

VII

;</Dbl

BASS PATTERNS

I

II FÈIG

F

G

FVGb

E

D

Ab

G

F

Eb CÈID

Eb CÈIDbBlC

c

Bb

I11

BICb

C

IV

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

1

LYDIAN 96

1

I

I11

(A, 7, Ab5,7b5)sus4, 9, $11

I

DOMINANT AUGMENTED

1v 1

LOCRIAN O

VI

IONIAN 92

VI

7+sus, 7+sus2

1 A, A S U S , -A, 6, -6

VII

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

1 1

LYDIAN $6

111

DOMINANT AUG

IV

HUNGAR GYPSY

V

LOCRIAN 13

VI

IONIAN $2

VI

A L T Ã ~7 ˆ

1

3

2

1 NEAPOL MINOR

4

5

6

7

1

3

2

4

5

4

5 b6

b2

b3

4

5

b6

7

1 b2

1

2

3

$4 5

96

7

1

2

3

4

$5 6 b7

1

2

b3

$4 5

b6

b7

1

b2

3

4

b5

1'6

b7

1

È

3

4

5

6

7

b4

b5

b6 È

1 b2 H3

b3

6

7 7


NEAPOLITAN MINOR

BIB


I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

111

v

IV

VI

GUITAR

VII

BASS PATTERNS

PATTERNS

I

II

I11

IV

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

1 1 1 IV 1 1V 1

LYDIAN DOMINANT AUGMENTED

LYDIAN MINOR MAJOR LOCRIAN

1 1 1

VI 7, 7*, 7b5,7sus2, 9, $11, b13

ALT h2

VII

ALT H3 NUMERIC SCALE 1 MODE CHART 1

1

1lb2

11

LYDIAN AUG $6

111

LYD TOM AUG

1V

LYDIAN MINOR MAJOR LOCRIAN

VI

ALT12

VI

ALT ts

3

2 1

b3

4

5

6

7

1

4

5

6

7

1

2 b2

3 b3

4

5

6

4

5

6

94 -2 -7 3 -96 95 -94 1 2 3 95 6 b7 1

7

-

2

3

04

5 b6

b7

1

2

3

4

b5

b6

b7

1

2

b3 b4

b5

b6

b7

1

b2 H3

b4

b5

b6

1

b7

1


NEAPOLITAN MAJOR


BASS

GUITAR PATTERNS

VII

PATTERNS

;#ID b

D Eb

E F D

BlCb

Bb

G

^/G b

Eb

C

BICb

Ab

G

Ab A Bb

IV

BIC b

c

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

I

1

I

ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE 2

VI

MODE 3

I

Iv

I

sus, 6,-6

MODE 4 MODE 5

1

SUS~ (NO 5)

MODE 6

VII

MODE 7 NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 1

1

ENIGMATIC MINOR

I1

MODE^

111

MODE 3

IV

MODE^

V

MODE^

VI

MODE%

VII

MODE^

j

3

2

5

4

6

7

1

7

1 b2

3

2

4

5

b2

b3

84

1

2

83 84

~5 86

7

1

82

3

x4 85

6

1

b2

3

4

b5 H6

È

1

È

3

4

b5

b6

7

1 b2 È È

H5

b6 H7

b4

5 b6

5

86

1

b3

84

5

86

b7

b2 H>3

7

7


ENIGMATIC MINOR

TIT

TIT


ENIGMATIC KEYBOARD PATTERNS

QUICKMODE GENERATOR CHART

I

I1

I11

IV

V

VII

VI

GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

I

I1 F

E C#/Db B/Cb

A

G

F#/Gb

D

Bb

Ab

G

A

Ab

F#/GbF

G

C

F#/Gb Eb C#/DbB/Cb

A b G

E

D

C

B

b

I11

A

IV

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

v VI

VII NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART


ENIGMATIC

TIT

TIT

TIT TIT


COMPOSITE 11

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

VI

KEYBOARD PATTERNS I

I

I

I

,

,

I

I

, I

, I

I

I

i

l

l

1

GUITAR

VII

BASS PATTERNS

PATTERNS

I

I

II

I11

IV

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

MODE 2

VI

Iv I

MODE 5

VI

MODE 6

A+, -A+

MODE 7

S U S ~S , US~

VII

VII

NUMERIC SCALE I MODE CHART

I

COMPOSII

1 2 1 b2

11

MODE2

1

111

MODE 3

-

IV

MODE^

V

MODE^

VI

MODE6

VII

MODE^

4

5

6

7

3

3

$4 5

b6

7

1 2 1 b2

92

$3 $4 5

96

7

2 b3 b4 5 b6 *7 -------1 b2 b3 4 b5 H6 1

b2 1

3 3

4

5 $4 5

6 b6

b7

4

b5

6

92 3

4

#5

7 $6 7

1 b2 Ã ˆ

4

5 b6 b7

3

7 7


COMPOSITE I1


IONIAN b5


LOCRIAN U'

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART GUITAR PATTERNS

VII

BASS PATTERNS

I

I1

I11

IV

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

I 11

LOCRIAN ll7

A O , -A+

IONIAN 96

A, 7, A s U s 2 , 7^s2, 9, 1 1

111

DORIAN AUG

1 IV I

VI

SUS~+

PHYRGIAN $4

1

ALTALT

1

0

1

, -7

VII

6 NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

1

1 I

IONIAN 86

111

DORIAN AUG

[V

PHRYGIAN

V VI

VII

$4

LYDIAN $3

DOMINANT $2

ALTALT

3

1

b3

4 b5

b6

2

3 4

5

$6 7

-

1 L

5

1 2 3 1 b2 b3

7 7

2

4

6

4 4 b5

5

6 b6

4 (85 6 b7 ------

b 3 1 b2

-

1

b3

84

2

83 $4 5

---

5 1-6 6

7----

1

1 b2 ?3

7

7 --

-

5

6

b4

b5 ?6

b7

tt 7


LOCRIAN h7

TIT

Ill TIT


PERSIAN

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I

I1

I11

IV

v

A

Ab

F

E

Eb C#/Db Bb

Bb

A

F#/Gb

F

E

D

BICb

B/Cb

Bb

G

F#/G~ F

Eb

C

VI

GUITAR PATTERNS

VII

v

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

1 1I

PERSIAN

1

b5, Ab5

1

MODE 2

1

A,7, -7, $9,11

11

1

BASS PATTERNS

1

~

VI v

MODE 5

VI

MODE 6

1 V1l 1

S U S ~ SUS, ,

Asus2, Asus

+ ,7+

1

MODE 7

VII

I

sus2, sus NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

I

PERSIAN

1 2 1 I,?

11

MODE2

1

111

MODE 3

IV

MODE^

V

MODE5

VI

MODE6

3

4

3

4

b5

$2 3

4

1

7

1

b6

7

1 b2

5

$6 7

b2 H3

b4

5

b2

b3

$4 5

b6

7

1

2

$3 È

5

$6 7

1

#2 3

4

$5 6

1

5

6

2

3

3

4 4

5 b5

b6 *7

b7

6 b6

7 7


PERSIAN

BIB


GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

I

MINOR PENTATONIC

11

MAJOR PENTATONIC

111

MODE 3

S U S ~ SUS ,

Iv

MODE 4

Q3

MODE 5

sus2, sus

-7

S U S ~ M, ,

6

The Minor Pentatonic i s the most common pentatonic scale. The Minor Pentatonic can be interspersed with the Dorian, Phyrgian, and Aeolian (of the Major scale), because the tones of the Minor Pentatonic are contained in all 3 modes, as well as other scales.

NUMERIC SCALE 1 MODE CHART


MINOR PENTATONIC

TIT

TIT

TIT


KUMOI

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

IV

Ill

v

GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

1

1

1

I

I1

The Kumoi can be used in place of the Melodic. IV mode of the Harmonic Maior. as wellas any scale that contains the same notes as the Kumoi.

- , -6, sus2

KUMOI I

sus, 7sUs

MODE 2

1 1~~1

MODE 3

sus2, sus

MODE 4 MODE 5

NUMERIC SCALE 1 MODE CHART 1

I I1 I11 IV V

MODES

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7


KUMOI

TIT

urn TIT


HIROJOSHI

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

I11

IV

v

GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART HIROJOSHI

, 36

1

MODE 2

Q3

I IV I

MODE4

I 11

v

I

The Hirojoshi can be used in place of the Harmonic Minor and the Hungarian Minor, as well as any scale that contains those tones.

I

SUS

A,Ab5

MODE 5

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

1

HIROJOSHI

11

MODE^

Ill

MODE 3

IV

MODE^

V

MODE5

1 1

3

2

4

6

7

2 b3

5 5

b6

1 1

1

4

b5

b7

b2

1

--

6

3

2

2 b3

b2

4

5

-

1

3

5 5

6

b6

7

-

1

4

$4

----5 b6

7


HIROJOSHI

Ill

Ill (Dl

I


WHOLE TONE

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART GUITAR PATTERN

Ab FÈ/G

E

A

G

F

Bb

Ab FÈIG

G

A

BICb

BASS PATTERN

SYMMETRICAL PATTERN REPEATS

BIC b

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART Due to the symmetrical nature of the Whole Tone scale, it has no modes.

WHOLE TONE WHOLE TONE

1V 1 1 VI 1

It also has only 2 fingering patterns which repeat: C = D = E = F#/Gb= A ^ = Bb C#/Db=Eb=F=G=A=B/Cb

+

WHOLE TONE

WHOLETONE

1

WHOLETONE

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

1

WHOLE TONE

11

WHOLE TONE

111

WHOLE TONE

IV

WHOLE TONE

v

WHOLE TONE

VI

WHOLE TONE

1

2

1

2

3 3

1

2 1

6

5

4

#4

7

1

2

3

4

5

5

)t 6

3

$4

$5

96

2

3

JÈ

Ã5

$6

1

2

3

$4

JÃ 5

Ã6

1

2

3

JÈ

$5

$6

1

2

3

$4

$5

6

96

7


WHOLE TONE

" I l l

TIT

w

TIT @@@@

" I l l


AUGMENTED

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

SYMMETRICAL PATTERNS REPEAT 1,2,1,2 ETC.

SYliimerfHGAi. PATTERNS REPEAT 1.2,1.2 ETC.

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

1 1 I 1

1 I11 111 1 IvI 1

1V 1

1 1 1 1

AUGMENTED MODE 2 AUGMENTED MODE 2

1

AUGMENTED

1 1 1 1

A, A+,-A, - b6 ,6+ A, A\ -A, -b6 +

+

,6+

The Augmented scale is symmetrical, it has only 2 modes. Also, t h e r e a r e only 4 fingering patterns which repeat: C=E=Ab C#/Db = F = A D = F#/Gb= Bb Eb=G=B

1

A,A+, -A, 36

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 1

I

AUG

1

MODE^

ffl

AUG

V I

MODE2

V

AUG

VI

MODE^

1

2

tt2 3

5 5

1'6

7

b2

3

4

$5 6

1

$2 3

5

b6

7

1

92

3

5 b6

7

3

#5 6

3 1

4

6

7

1

1 b2

2

3

4

4

5

6

7


AUGMENTED

TIT

TIT

TIT

TIT

TIT


PELoG

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTERNS

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

I

PELOG

I I

11

3 6 , b6, -

I

-A, - , S U S ~ A0 ,

MODE 2 MODE 3

I I

I

MODE 4

A+

v

MODE 5

11

VI

MODE 6

A, 1'6,sus

Iv

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART

I

PELOG

11 .

MODE2

Ill

MODE 3

IV V VI

MODE4

MODE^ MODE^

1 2 1 b2 1

3 4 b3 b4

5

2

b3

04 5

7

1

b2

3

6

1

--

7

6

1

3

2

4

5

5 b6 4

02 3 1 b2 1

68

b7

05 6

7

4

b5

b6 b7

3

4

5 b6

7

6

7


PELOG

BIB

TIT TIE

TIT TIT


DOMINANT SUS

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

Ill

v

IV

GUITAR PATTERNS

VI

BASS PATTERNS

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

111

DOMINANTSUS

1

1

11

MODE 2

111

MODE 3

6,

Iv

MODE 4

-7, S U S ~ SUS, , 9, #9, 1 1

v

MODE 5

Q3, b9,09, 1 1 , b13

VI

MODE 6

6, A,s u s 2 , 9 , 1 3

S U S ~ SUS, , Q3,9 36, -7, sus, Q3, 1 1 SUS~ , SUS,

9,11, 13

NUMERIC SCALE 1 MODE CHART

7

5

6

2

4

5

6

1

b3

4

5 b6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

b3

4

5

b7

4

b6

b7:

5

6

2

1

3

1

1

11

MODE^

I11

MODE 3

IV

MODE^

V

MODE^

1 b2

b3

VI

MODE6

1

2

sus

2

3

4

5

4

1 DOMINANT

6

b7 b7

3

7

7


DOMINANT SUS

TIT


DIMINISHED

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

I11

IV

v

VI

VII

C B b A 2ÈIDbBlC

D

C

Eb CÈID E

1 ^ 1

SCALE IMODE - CHORD CHART WHOLE - HALF

11

1

111

1

DIMINISHED

HALF - WHOLE DIMINISHED WHOLE-HALF DIMINISHED

1

!a O -7,O7 I

07,~0

0

WHOLE - HALF DIMINISHED

1 vll r 1 VIII 1

WHOLE - HALF DIMINISHED HALF - WHOLE DIMINISHED

*,O

1

G

Bb

Ab

BICb

A

C

Bb

GUITAR PATTERNS

SYMMETRICAL PATTERNS REPEAT 1,2.1,2 ETC.

BASS PATTERNS

D C#/Db B/Cl

The Diminished scale only has two modes which repeat: the WholeHalf and the Half-Whole.

Ã

9

HALF - WHOLE DIMINISHED

VIII

, -7,O7

Keyboard patterns above are for the Half-Whole Diminished. Patterns on next page are for the Whole-Half Diminished. Also note the fingering patterns repeat every third key. In other words: C, Eb, FÈI b, and A have the same fingering patterns.

NUMERIC SCALE IMODE CHART

SYMMETRICAL PATTERNS REPEAT 1,2,1,2 ETC.


WHOLE - HALF DIMINISHED

Ill


8 TONE SPANISH KEYBOARD PATTERNS

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

11

111

Iv

v

C

B/Cb

A

Ab

G

Bb

A

C#/Db C

D

C#/DbB/Cb

D

Eb

C

VI

VII

VIII

FSIGb

E

D

Ab

G

F

Eb

Bb

A

Ab FttiGb

BICb

6b

A

GUITAR PATTERNS

BASS PATTCTHB

I

E

I1

F

G

I11

IV

v SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

VI

MODE 2 MODE 3

IV

I

I

MODE 4

VII

MODE 5

VI

MODE 6

7,A, 6,9, $11, 13

VII VIII

MODE 7

7, b6,9, 11, 1'13, 13

VIII

1 1 SPANISH

1 2 1 b2

MODE 2

1

8-TONE

,--------------

MODE 3 MODE 4 MODE 5

MODE 6

MODE 7 MODE 8

3

4

b3 3

4

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 5 6 7 1 2 b7 b5 b6

3

4

5

2 b 3 3 4

5

6

7

b2 2

b3

4

5

6

1 b2 2

3

S4

$5 6

7

1 b2 -

b3

4

5

b7 7

1

2

3

$4 5

6

b7 7

1

2

3

4

5

b6 6

b7

1

2

b3

4

b5 5

b6

1

6

b7 b6

b7

7


TONE SPANISH

c Ctf / Db

TIT


VII

GUITAR PATTERNS

VIII

BASS PATTERNS

I I1 I11 IV

v SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART BEBOP LOCRIAN h2

AO,@, '9, b13

11

MODE 2

b9, $9, $1 1 3 3 , 13

111

MODE 3

-A, -b6, -6, -9,$9

Jv

MODE 4

, -6, -7, 1'9, $9, 11, $11, 13

v

MODE 5

VI

MODE 6

I

VI

-

-

7^5, 7

VII

+9, 11, $11, b13, 13

6, -6, 7, 7 , 9 , 9, #9,#11,13

MODE 7

1 VIII 1 1

I

BEBOP L O C R I A N ~1 ~

I1

MODE^

111

MODE 3

IV

MODE^

V

MODES

VI

MODE^

VII

MODE^

VIII

MODE8

VIII

MODE 8

3

2

2 b3 1

4 4

NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 5 6 7 1 2 b7 7 b5 b6

3

4

b2

b3 3

$4

$5 6

1

2

b3

4

5

b6 6

7

1

b2

b3

4

b5 5

6

1

2

3

4

b6 6

7

1

2 b3 3

5

6

b7

b5

tÈ

b7

-1 b2 b3 3

b7

5 b6 b7 -

94- 5

6

7


BEBOP LOCRIAN h2

TIT

Ill

TIT


BEBOP DOMINANT

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

11 I 11 1

BEBOP DOMINANT

1

IV

v

VI

VII

GUITAR PATTERNS

VIII

BASS PATTERNS

E,!g[

111 IV

BEBOP LOC add 5

MODE^

A,6,7, S U S ~SUS, , 9,11,13 3 6 , -6, -7, sus2, sus, 9, $9,-11, bl3, 13

1

MODE 5

-6, 6, -7, 7, S U S ~ SUS, , 9, $9, 11, 13

MODE 6

-6, -7, sus2, sus, b9, 9, 11, b13

MODE 7

A , Ab5,6, S U S ~b9,9 ,

VII

VIII NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 5 6 7 1 2 5

3 3

4 4

11

2

b3

4

1 b2

b3

4

2

3 4 1 ' 5 5

6

7

1

2 b 3 3 4

5

6

1 b2 2

b3

4

5

b22

3

#4 5

6

7

1 b2

b3

4

b6

b7 7

1

b5 5

3

4

MODE5

VI

MODE%

VII

MODE^

V111

MODE 8

-

2 2

I

-

b6

.

Â

V

VI

1

MODE 8

1

11

1

BEBOPMINOR

v

1

I11

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART

BEBOP LOCRIAN ADD 5

VI VII VIII

I1

b71 b6

b5

1 b7

1

1


BEBOP DOMINANT


BEBOP DORIAN

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

I1

I11

IV

v

VI

VII

GUITAR PATTERNS

VIII

BASS PATTERNS

I

I1 I11 IV

v 111 1

111

SCALE / MODE - CHORD CHART BEBOP DORIAN

I

1 1

MODE 3

VI

I

A,b6,9, <h 1, b13, 13

VII

1 VIII 1

1

MODES 1

2

3

4

VIII

1

o , a , b9, $9,$11, b13 NUMERIC SCALE / MODE CHART 5 6 7 1 2

3

4

5

7

6

I I1 Ill IV

v VI

MODE 6

VII

VIII

b2 2

b3

4

b5

b6

b7

MODE 7

1 b2 2

3

4

5

6

7

MODE 8

1

$4

$5

6

1

b2

b3 3

,

7


BEBOP DORIAN

TIT


BEBOP MAJOR

QUICK MODE GENERATOR CHART

I

KEYBOARD PATTERNS

11

111

Iv

v

VI

VII

VIII

GUITAR PATTERBS

BASS PATTERNS

I II I11

c

IV

A

G

Bb

Ab FtfIGb F

Eb

D CÈIDbBlC

G

E

Eb

BICb

A

F

E

FÈIG

D C#/Db

D

Bb

C

v

SCALE IMODE - CHORD CHART

I 1

1 I1

I 1

BEBOP MAJOR

VI

MODE 2

MODE 4

VII

MODE 5

1

v1

I

1 V1l I VIII 1

MODE 6 MODE 7

VIII

MODE 8 NUMERIC SCALE IMODE CHART

6


BEBOP MAJOR


M (MAJOR CHORD)

LYDIAN DOMINANT = IV MELODIC

1

2

3

HINDU = V MELODIC

1

2

3

4

5 b6

b7

PHRYGIAN h3 = V HARMONIC MINOR

1

3

4

5 b6

b7

b2

$4 5

6

b7


M (MAJOR)

^K TIT


- (MINOR)

DORIAN = I1 MAJOR

111

PHRYGIAN = III MAJOR AEOLIAN = V I MAJOR MELODIC

1 11


- (MINOR)


sus2 (SUSPENDED 2)

LYDIAN b3 = I V HARMONIC MAJOR


SUS (SUSPENDED FOURTH)

PHRYGIAN = I11 MAJOR

ENIGMATIC MODE IV

I 2

I

I 3 I 4 I b 5 ~ 6 I

1 b2 b3

ENIGMATIC MODE VII

4

COMPOSITE I1 MODE I1

1

COMPOSITE I1 MODE IV

1

b2 b3

4

COMPOSITE I1 MODE VII

1

b2 b3

4

PHRYGIAN b3 =I11 IONIAN b5

1

I

1

1

#2

Ib2Ib3I

5

I 6

$3

I

I 4

LYDIAN $3 = V LOCRIAN 17 DOMINANT $2 = VI LOCRIAN 17

1

#

PERSIAN MODE I1

1

-

#2 3 4 $2 3 4

-

PERSIAN MODE V PERSIAN MODE VII

4

b5 b6

I

Ib7I

b7

7


m TIT m


b5 (PLATED FIFTH)


O

(DIMINISHED)


(DIMINISHED)


+

1

(AUGMENTED)

ALT k 3 b7 = VII NEAPOLITAN MINOR


+ (AUGMENTED)


b6 (FLATED SIXTH)

HARMONIC MAJOR PHRYGIAN b4 = HI HARMONIC MAJOR

1

DOUBLE HARMONIC-V HUNGARIAN MINOR

I 1 1 b2 1 1 1 3

ALT h5 b7 = VII HUNGARIAN MINOR

1

LYDIAN MINOR = IV NEAPOLITAN MAJOR ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE III ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE V I I ENIGMATIC MODE III COMPOSITE II

1 1 1

COMPOSITE II MODE I11 PERSIAN MODE 111 AUGMENTED

I 11 1 2 1 13


mar

m TIT

rn


3 6 (MINOR FLATED SIXTH)


Ill


6 (MAJOR SIXTH)

BEBOP MAJOR MODE I V


TIT


-6 (MINOR SIXTH)


Ill

TIT


7 (DIMINISHED SEVENTH)


TIT

TIT

rn TBT

TIT

m


Q(3)

(QUARTAL or DOUBLE FOURTH)


Quartal or Double 4th

TIT TIT

rn m an ^11


7 (DOMINANT)


TIT TBT

TIT


-7 (MINOR SEVENTH)


TIT

w Tfir


7sus2

DORIAN = I1 MAJOR

AEOLIAN = V I MAJOR

(DOMINANT sus2) 1

2

b3

4

5

6


7SUS

(DOMINANT SUS)

DORIAN b2 = II MELODIC HINDU = V MELOI3IC

I

2

PHRYGIAN h3 = V HARMONIC MINOR DOMINANT b2 = V HARMONIC MAJOR ENIGMAl7C MODE IV

I b2 I

2

3

4

5

b6

3

4

5

b6

3

4

5

3

4

b5 b 6

6


7b5

(DOMINANT FLAT 5) 3

BEBOP DORIAN MODE I V

b7


(HALF-DIMINISHED)

8 TONE SPANISH MODE VIII

BEBOP LOCRIAN 12

BEBOP MAJOR MODE VIII

1

2

b3

4

b5 5 b6

b7


(HALF-DIMINISHED)

1ST -?!I

TIT


7+ (DOMINANT AUGMENTED)


c

ctf I Db D

BIB Ab

"BIT

TIT


A

(DELTA)

LYDIAN = IV MAJOR LYDIAN $2= VI HARMONIC MINOR HARMONIC MAJOR DOUBLE HARMONIC = V HUNGARIAN MINOR

11

LYDIAN 96 92 = VI HUNGARIAN MINOR LYDIAN $6 = 11 NEAPOLITAN MINOR

11

IONIAN $2= VI NEAPOLITAN MINOR

1

ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE VII

1

COMPOSITE 11

1

LYDIAN 1.2 = IV IONIAN b5

1

IONIAN $6 = I1 LOCRIAN h7

1

PERSIAN MODE 11 HIROJOSHI MODE V AUGMENTED PELOG MODE VI DOMINANT SUS MODE V I 8 TONE SPANISH MODE 11

11

8 TONE SPANISH MODE VI

1

BEBOP LOCRIAN >2. MODE VIII

1

BEBOP DOMINANT

1

BEBOP DOMINANT MODE IV

1

BEBOP DOMINANT MODE VII

1

BEBOP DORIAN MODE HI

1

BEBOP DORIAN MODE VII BEBOP MAJOR BEBOP MAJOR MODE IV


A

(DELTA)

I I !


-A(MINOR DELTA)

1

LYDIAN 92 = VI HARMONIC MINOR

1 1

LYDIAN b3 =IV HARMONIC MAJOR

1

2

53

HUNGARIAN MINOR

1

2

53

LYDIAN 96 92 = VI HUNGARIAN MINOR

1

NEAPOLITAN MINOR

1

IONIAN $2 = VI NEAPOLITAN MINOR NEAPOLITAN MAJOR ENIGMATIC MINOR

\S231

$2 3 b3

4

1

$2 3

4

1 b2

b3

4

1

b2

N'21

Ib31

1

ENIGMATIC MODE 11

1

82

93

COMPOSITE H MODE I1

1

$2

93

PERSIAN MODE I1

1 1

PERSIAN MODE IV

1

AUGMENTED

1

PELOG MODE 11

1 1

1 b2

Ii2314

b3 $2 3 12b31

1


Asus* (DELTA sus2)

HARMONIC MINOR

1

2

HARMONIC MAJOR

1

2

LYDIAN b3 = IV HARMONIC MAJOR

1

2

b3

È

5

HUNGARIAN MINOR

1

2

b3

È

5

LYDIAN $6 = I1 NEAPOLITAN MINOR

11

I

12

ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE VII

1

b2 H3

ENIGMATIC MODE VLI

1

b2 Ã ˆ

b3 3

I

I 3

4

5

b6

7

4

5

b6

7

1

lÈ4, 5 5

b4 4

5

7

6

7

b6

1 1,

lÈ6 7 , 7 I

b6 6

7


ASUS

(D ELTA S US) 4

PERSIAN MODE I1

5

7


Ill

I I ;

slim

BIB


Ab5 (DELTA FLAT 5)

1

ENIGMATIC COMPOSITE I1

BEBOP DORIAN MODE VIII


Ill


AO (DELTA DIMINISHED) AO =

1

b5

7

ENIGMATIC MINOR

BEBOP LOCRIAN 42 MODE VHI

1 b2

BEBOP DOMINANT MODE VIH

1

BEBOP DORIAN MODE VIH

b2

1

BEBOP MAJOR MODE V I

1

2 b2

4

6

7

1'5

b6

b7 7

b3 3

$4

Ã5

È 7

b3 3

34 5

b3 3

H

b3

1 b2

BEBOP MAJOR MODE I V

$4 5

1'3 3

6

7

$5 6

7


Iff

^


A+ (DELTA AUGMENTED) LYDIAN AUGMENTED = III MELODIC

1

IONIAN $5= III HARMONIC MINOR

1

HARMONIC MAJOR

1

LYDIAN AUGMENTED È = VI HARMONIC MAJOR

I1

IONIAN AUGMENTED (2 = III HUNGARIAN MINOR

1

DOUBLE HARMONIC = V HUNGARIAN MINOR

1

LYDIAN AUGMENTED $6= II NEAPOLITAN MAJOR

1

ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE V

1

ENIGMATIC MINOR MODE VII

1

ENIGMATIC

1

COMPOSITE II

1

1 i'

11

COMPOSITE 11 MODE VI

1

PERSIAN

1

AUGMENTED

1

PELOG MODE IV

1

PELOG MODE VI

1

8 TONE SPANISH MODE IV

1

BEBOP DORIAN MODE VIE

1

BEBOP MAJOR BEBOP MAJOR MODE VI

I 1

1


Ill

TIT

mat


-A+(MINOR DELTA AUGMENTED)


TIT TIT

air Ill

lir 15 B I B Iff! 7

3

TIT


SUBSTITUTIONS

C7 = C#7 or Db7 =

EO/C FO/C#

=

G-/C

=

GWCS

=

A-ID

=

AS - / D#

=

B-/E

=

C-IF

=

C# - / F#

=

D-/G

=

D9-/G#

=

E-/A

=

F- / A #

=

F#-/B

SUBSTITUTIONS

C^

=

Bb/C B/C# C/D C# / D#

D7 =

F#O/D

C#11 or Dbl1 = Dl1 =

D#7 or Eb7 =

Go/ DÃ

DÈ1 or Eb11 =

E7 = G V / E

E" = F11 =

F7 = AO/ F FÈ or Gb7 =

A#' / F#

FÈ1 or G U l

=

G7 =

BO/G

GI1 =

G#7 or Ab7 =

C0 / GÃ

G#11 or Ab11 =

A7 =

CÈ0/

A#7 or Bb7 = B7 or Cb7 =

DIE D# / F E/F# FIG F#/G#

AH

=

G/A

DO/A#

AÈ1 or Bbll

=

G# / A #

D#/B

B11 or Cbll

=

A/B


I I ! TIT

TIT

'BIT

TIT

TIT


C-9

=

EbA/C

c-9

=

G- / c

CÈ- or Db-9

=

E A / CÃ

CÈ- or Db-9

=

G#-1CÃ

D-9

=

FA/D

D-9

=

A- / D

DÈ- or Eb-9

=

F # A/ D#

DÈ- or Eb-9

=

A#-/ DÃ

E-9

=

GA/ E

E-9

=

B- / E

F-9

=

GÈA/

F-9

=

C- / F

FÈ- or Gb-9

=

AA / FÃ

Fit-9 or Gb-9

=

CÈ / Fit

G-9

=

AÈAI

G-9

=

D- / G

GÈ- or Ab-9

=

B A / GÃ

GS-9 or Ab-9

=

D#-/ GÃ

A-9

=

CA/A

A-9

=

E-/A

A#-9or Bb-9

=

C # A/ A#

A#-9 or Bb-9

=

F- / A#

B-9 or Cb-9

=

DA/ B

B-9 or Cb-9

=

Fit- / B

C-7

=

Eb/C

C-11 =

Bb/C

(3-7 or Db-7

=

E / CÃ

C#-11 or Db-11 =

BlCÃ

D-7

=

F/D

DÈ- or Eb-7

=

FÃ / DÃ

E-7

=

G/E

F-7

=

GÃ I F

FÈ- or Gb-7

=

A / Fit

F-11 = FÈ-1 or Gb-11 =

G*7

=

A4 / G

G-11 =

Gf-7 or Ab-7

=

B / GÃ

GÈ-1 or Ab-11 =

A-7

=

CIA

AÈ- or Bb-7

=

CÃ / A #

A#-11 or Bb-11 = G#/ AÃ

B-7 or Cb-7

=

D/B

B-11 or 0 - 1 1 =

D-11 = DÈ-1 or Eb-11 = E-11 =

A-11 =

C/D Cà / Dit DIE DÈ/ E/F# FIG Fà / G # G/A

A/B


- .. --

SUBSTITUTIONS


,

SUBSTITUTIONS

C7 = C#70r Db7 = D7 =

EO/C FO/C# F#O I D

D#7 or Eb7 =

Go / D#

E7 =

G#O / E

F7 = A0 / F F#7 or Gb7 = A#'/ F# G7 =

BO/G

G#7 or Ab7

=

Co / G#

A7

=

C#O / A

#7

or Bb7 =

B7 or Cb7

=

DO/A# D#O/B


CA9

=

EV7/C

CA9

=

G/C

CÈA or DbA9

=

F-7 / C#

C#A9 or DbA9

=

G#/ C#

DA9

=

F#-7/ D

DA9

=

AID

DÈA or EbA9

=

(3-7 / DS

DÈA or EbA9

=

A# / D#

EA9

=

G#-71E

EA9

=

B/E

FA9

=

A-7/F

FA9

=

C/F

F#A9 or GbA9

=

A#-7/ F#

FÃ A9 or GbA9

=

C# / Fit

GA9

=

B-7/G

GA9

=

DIG

GSA9 or AbA9

=

C-7 / G#

G#A9 or AbA9

=

D#/ G#

AA9

=

C#-71A

AA9

=

E/A

ASA9 or BbA9

=

D-7 / A#

AÈAgo BbA9

=

F/A#

BA9 or CbA9

=

D#-7/ B

BA9 or CbA9

=

Fit / 6

CA =

E-/C

CAI1 =

Bb/C B / C#

C # A or DbA =

F- / C#

CXA-ll or DbAH =

DA =

F#-/ D

DA11 =

C/D

EA1-1 =

DlE

D # A or EbA = G- / D# EA =

Gf-/ E

FA = A-/F FÈ or GbA = A#- / F# GA = GÈ or AbA =

AA

=

B-/G C-/G# CÈ-/

AÈ or BbA =

D- / A#

B A or CbA =

DÈ-/

FA11 = FBA-1-1or GbA-11 = GAl1 = GttA-11 or AbA-11 = AA11 = ASA1-1 or BbAll

=

BAA1 or CbAH =

D#/F E/F# FIG F#/ G# G/A G#/ A # A/B


G-A9

SUBSTITUTIONS

=

SUBSTITUTIONS

DIG


SUBSTITUTIONS

C11È

=

C# 11*9 or Db l l à ˆ

=

Dl189

=

D# l l à § or Eb l l à ˆ

=

E11ç

=

F11È

=

F#11È or Gb11È

=

GI189

=

G#11^ or Ab11È

=

A11ç A# 11È or Bb l

=

lÈ

=

B l l ~ gor Cb 1l * 9

=


Ill


ALT (b5 $9)


ALT (b5 $9)

TIT TIT


ALT (b5 b9)

SUBSTITUTIONS

c

=

~6b5

=

F6b5

=

~ # 6 b /5 D

or EbALT

=

~ 6 b /5 D#

EALT

=

~ # 6 ^/ 5E

FALT

=

~ 6 b /5 F

or G bALT

=

~ # 6 b /5 p#

GALT

=

~ 6 b /5 G

or AbALT

=

~ 6 b /5 G#

AALT

=

~ # 6 ^/ 5A

A#ALT

or BbALT

=

~ 6 b /5 A#

BALT

or C bALT

=

~ $ 6 1 - /5 B

cALT C#ALT

or D bALT DALT

D#ALT

F#ALT

Q#ALT

/ C)t


ALT (b5 b9)

TIT

TIT

Ill 'SIT TIT

TIT


ALT (È b9)

SUBSTITUTIONS

SUBSTITUTIONS

C#ALT

DOALT

F#ALT

G#ALT

or or

or or

CALT

=

DbALT

=

DALT

=

EbALT

=

EALT

=

FALT

=

GbALT

=

QALT

=

AbALT

=

AALT

=

ABALT

or

BbALT

=

BALT

or

CbALT

=


ALT ($5 b9)

TIT

" I "

TIT

Ill BIB


ALT ($5$9)

Ab5

I

ALT = -

3

I

sus2 ALT = -

C#ALT

D#ALT

F#ALT

G#ALT

A#ALT

I

I

I

3

b5

7

I

I

I

CALT

=

CALT

=

or DbALT

=

C#ALT or DbALT

=

DALT

=

DALT

=

EbALT

=

D#ALT or EbALT

=

EALT

=

EALT

=

FALT

=

FALT

=

GbALT

=

F#ALT or. G bALT

=

GALT

=

GALT

=

AbALT

=

G#ALT or AbALT

=

AALT

=

BbALT

=

or

or or or


ALT ($5$9)

M TIT


SUBSTITUTIONS

I

SUBSTITUTIONS


SUBSTITUTIONS

SUBSTITUTIONS

C-7 =

Eb/C

C#-7 or Db-7 =

E/C#

D-7 = DÈ- or Eb-7 =

F/D Fit / D#

- 7 =

G/E

F-7 =

G# / F

F#-7 or Gb-7 = A / FÃ G-7 =

A# / G

Gfl-7 or Ab-7 =

B / G#

A-7 = A#-7 or Bb-7 = B-7 or Cb-7 =

CIA C#/A# D/B

C-9

=

G-/C


sir TIT

TIT

TIT

Tit


C

BIB

RIB

Ctf I Db

TIT

TIT

TIT

TIT


C-#11 = EbAÈ / C

C-$11 = G - A / C

C#-$11 or Db-$11= E A N / D311 = FA#9/ D D#-#I1 or Eb-#I1= F#A#9/ D E-$11 = G A O / E

C-S11 = Bb+ / C #-#I1 or Db-$11= B+ / C #

D311 = A - A I D DÈ-#I or Eb-$11 = AS-A/

D-È1 = C+ / D 8-411 or Eb-$11 = C#+/ D#

E-Ã11 = B-A / E

E311 = D+ / E

F-tf11 = G#AÈ / F

F311 = D#+/ F

F#-$11 or Gb-$11 = AAç9

F#-$11or Gb-#I1 = E+ I F #

G-#11 = A#A^ / G

G-$11 = F + / G

GiÈ-$1 or Ab-$11 = BAg9 / G A31 1 = CA'9 / A At81 1 or Bb-$11= CÈAà /

#-#I1 or Ab-$11 = F#+/ G # A-#11 = E-A / A Bb-#11= F - A / A #

A-$11 = G+ / A A M 1 1 or Bb-$11 = G#+/ A #

cif

C#-9 or Db-9

=

GO- /

D-9

=

A- / D

D#-9 or Eb-9

=

A#- / D#

E-9

=

B- / E

F-9

=

C- / F

F#-9 or Gb-9

=

CO- / Fit

G-9

=

D-/G

G#-9 or Ab-9

=

D#-/ G#

A-9

=

E-/A

A#-9 or Bb-9

=

F- / A#

B-9 or Cb-9

=

F#-/B


TIT

TIT

TIT

TIT

"IT


CAI1 = B O / C #A11 or

DA-11 = Fit-1.91 D

DbA-11 = C O / C # DA11 = C ) t O / D

DKA11 or EbA11 = D O / D # EA11 = G#-b9/ E

EA-11 = DÈ 1 E

FA11 = A-b9/F

FA11 = E O / F FÈA-1 or GbA11 = Fo/ FÃ

GA11 = B-b9 /

G

GA-11 = D 7 / G

GAIA = F#O/ G

AA11 = E7/A

AA11 = GÈO/ AXA11 or BbA11 = AO/ A#

BA11 or CbAll = D#-b9/B

CA

=

E-/C

CÈ or DbA

=

DA

BA11 or CbAll = F # 7 / B

BAA1 or CbAll = A#O/B

CA9

=

G/C

F- / C#

CSA9 or DbA9

=

G#/ C#

=

F#-/ D

DA9

=

AID

DÈ or EbA

=

G-ID#

D#A9 or EbA9

=

A# / DÃ

EA

=

G<f-1 E

EA9

=

B/E

FA

=

A m /F

FA9

=

C/F

FÈ or GbA

=

A#- / F#

F4A9 or GbA9

=

CÃ / FÃ

GA

=

B-/G

GA9

=

DIG

GÈ or AbA

=

C- /GÃ

GÈA or AbA9

=

D#1 GÃ

AA

=

C#-/A

AA9

=

E/A

AÈ or BbA

=

D- / A#

AÈA or BbA9

=

F / A#

B A or CbA

=

DÈ-/

BA9 or CbA9

=

F#/ B


TI-


SUBSTITUTIONS


TIT SIT

TIT

TIE


CAÈ1 = G A / CtAÈ1 or D bA^ll = GÈ /

CA"

B- / C

CÈAÃ1 or DbAsll = C- / CÃ

DAu11 = A A / D D # A # l l or EbA'll = AKA/ D#

1=

DA^l = C#-ID ÈAÈ

or EbAu 1 = D- / D#

EAu11 = B A / E

EAUl 1 = DÈ / E

FA'll = C A I F

FAÈl = E - / F

F#Aull or G bAu11 = CSA / F G A ^ 1 = FÈ / G

GAÈ1 = D A / G G#AÈl or AbAÈl = DÈ / G

GÈAÈ or AbAÈ = G- / GS

AAu11 = E A I A AÈA 1 or BbA^ 1 = F A / A#

Mu11 =

G#-/A

AÈAÈ or B bAU11 = A- / AX BAÈ1 or CbA-11 = A # - / B

I

SUBSTITUTIONS

II

SUBSTITUTIONS

CA CÈ or DbA DA DÈ or EbA EA FA FÈ or GbA GA GÈ or AbA AA AÈ or BbA


TIT

TIT

TIT

TIT


SUBSTITUTIONS

1 <4

SUBSTITUTIONS

C-A

=

Eb/C

C # - A or Db-A

=

E / C#

D-A

=

F/D

D # - Aor Eb-A

=

F# D#

E-A

=

G/E

F-A

=

G#/F

F # - A or Gb-A

=

A / F#

G-A

=

A#/G

GK-A or Ab-A

=

B / G#

A-A

=

CIA


TIT Tar

TIT TIT

"mar


C13 = E011b9/C C#13 or Dbl3 = F011b9 / C# Dl3 = F#"11'-9/D D#l3 or Eb13 = G011b9/D#

C13 = G-9 IC

C13 = B b A / C

C#l3 or Dbl3 = G#-9/ C

C#13 or Db13 = B A / C #

D13 = A - 9 / D

D13 = C A I D

D#13 or Eb13 = A#-91D#

D#l3 or Ebl3 = C # A/ D#

El3 = G#011b9/E

El3 = B-9 / E

E13 = D A I E

F13 = A011b9/F

F13 = C-9 / F

F13 = D # A / F

F#13 or Gb13 = A#011b9/ F# G13 = B O 1 l ^ / G

FÈ1 or Gbl3 = C#-9/ F#

F#l3 or Gb13 = E A / F #

GI3 = D-9 / G

G#13 or Abl3 = C O 1 l b9 / G#

G#l3 or Abl3

A13 = C#011b9/A

A13

G13 = F A / G

= D#-9IG# =

G#13 or Abl3

E-9/A

A13

A#13 or Bbl3 = D011b9/A#

A#l3 or Bbl3 = F - 9 / A #

B13 or Cb13 = D#011b9/B

B13 or Cbl3 = F # - 9 / B

= F # A / G# =

A#l3 or Bb13 = G # A / A # B13 or Cbl3

= AA/B

SUBSTITUTIONS

C9 = C#9 or Db9 = D9 = D#9 or Eb9 =

G-/C G#-/C# A-ID A#-/ D#

E9 =

B- / E

F9 =

C-IF

F#9 or Gb9 = G9 =

C#-/ Ftt D-/G

G#9 or Ab9

=

D#- / G#

A9

=

E-/A

AÈ or Bb9 =

F- / A #

B9 or Cb9 =

F#-/B

GAIA

C11 = CÈl or Dbll

=

Dl1 = D # l l or Ebl1 = Ell

=

F11 = F # l l or Gbl1 = GI1 =

Bb/C B/C# C/ D C# / D# D/ E D#/F E / F# FIG

GÈI or AH1

=

F# / G#

All

=

G/A

A # l l or Bbl1 =

G#/A#


C-13 = B b A l C C#-13 or Db-13 = B A I C # D-13 = C A I D D#-13 or Eb-13 = C # AID# E-13 = D A I E F-13 = D # A l F

A-13 = E - 9 l A

1 :I

SUBSTITUTIONS

rl

A-13 = G A I A

SUBSTITUTIONS

G- IC

BblC

G#-IC#

BlC#

A- 1 D

CID

A#- ID#

C# ID#

B- IE

DIE

c- 1 F

D# IF

C#-IF#

E IF#

D-IG

FIG

D#-IG#

F#IG#

E- / A

GIA

F- IA#

G# IA#

F#-IB

AIB


t

SUBSTITUTIONS

G-IC G# - l C # AID

A# ID# BIE C IF C# IF# DIG D# IG#

EIA

SUBSTITUTIONS


SUBSTITUTIONS

SUBSTITUTIONS


TIT @@@a


1

SUBSTITUTIONS


TIT

TIT TIT


13

13

C#A)iiiorDbAçi= F-11 / C# 13

DAÈI 13

13

13

DSAtfii or EbAifii = G-11 IDS

13

DAÇI = AA9/ D

= F#-11/ D 13

13

D # A t i i or EbA8ii = AllA9/ D

DAÈ I = Ctt-7 / D 13

13

DtfA81i or EbA#ii= D - 7 / D #

13

13

13

EAKI i = DÈ- / E

EAÈI = B A g / E

E A Ã =ˆGP11 1 E

13

13

FA811 = E-7 / F

FA811 = CA9/ F 13

13

F#Att11or GbAx11 = C # A g / F

FHA

or G bA<n= F-7 / FÃ

13

13

GAÈ I = FS-7 / G

GAii11 = D A g / G

SUBSTITUTIONS

H

SUBSTITUTIONS


Cff1 Db

D

TIE

Ill

HIT

TIT


13 D - A $11= 13

$9

F A + $ i i /D

13

$9

13

99

13

$9

DÈ-A Ior Eb-A d I= FÈA+$ I/

E-A $11= G A + $ i /i E F-A $1i = GÈA+$I/ F 13 ~ à ˆ - A à §~~bi - A$11= A

$9

A+çii

13 D9 G - A $11= AÈA+$i/ 13 13 $9 i à ˆ - A i tor Ab'A $11 = B A + # i i / $9

A-A 13

= C A +$11/ 13

$9

M-A$11 or Bb"A $1I= C#A+~I 1/

13

D - A $11= A A 9 / D 13 13 DÈ-Aà 1 or E b - A #I 1 = AÈA

/ DÃ

13

ETA$11= B A 9 / E 13

F-A $11= C A 9 / 13 13 FÈ- d 1 o r G b - A $11= C # A 9 / 13 G - A 811 = D A g / G 13 13 GÈ- $11or Ab-A $11 = DÈA

/ GÃ

13

A - A $11= E A 9 / A

13 C - A $11 = B-7 / C 13 13 CÈ-Ai 1or D b - A $11 = C - 7 / C# 13 D - A $11 = CÈ- / D 13 13 DÈ-A#1 or E b - A $11 = D - 7 / Dà 13 E - A $11= D # - 7 / E 13 F - A $1I= E-7 / F 13 13 FÈ- $11 or G b - A $11= F-7 / Fà 13 G - A $ I f = FÈ- / G 13 13 $11 o r A b - A # l l = G - 7 / G à 13 A - A i t i i = GÈ-7/

13 13 AÈ-AI 1 or B b - A $11 = F A 9 / A# B-A

SUBSTITUTIONS

C-9

=

G/C

or

13

C b - A #ii = AH-7 / B


TIT

TIT

TIT

HUB


NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF SCALES

LOCRIAN MELODIC DORIANÈ

LYDIAN AUG

1 b2 b7 b6 b3 4b5 1 7 5 6 4 2b3 1 b2 5 6 b7 b3 4 1 94 7 956 2 3

ALT o ENIGMATICMINOR

MODE 5 MODE 6

LYDIAN b3

DOMINANTQ LYDIAN AUG $2 LOCRIANH~

HUNGARIAN MINOR ORIENTAL

1 2 1 b2 1 1 b2 1 2 1 b2

LYDIAN AUG $3

b7 96 7

1 92 3 4 b5 1 b2 lt3 M t5

b6 b6 H7

7

3 4 b5 $2 3 4

6

7 96 7

7 6 945 5 6b7 3 4 94 $5 6 $2 3 7 b6 It7 4 b5 b3 . 94 5 b6 b3 7 3 4 b5 6 b7

MODE 6

DORIAN t 2 ~ 4

b5 b6 $4 5

b3

MODE 5

MELODICAUG

1 b2lt3 b4 1 b2 b3

1 2 b3 1 b2 b3 1 2

7 95 6 94 5 6 b7 7 $5 6 $3 #4 4

1 b2 1

45


NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF SCALES continued

ALT ALT PERSIAN

1 b2 tt3 b4 tt7 b5 *6 1 b2 7 b6 3 4 b5 1 1 1 I 1 # 2 1 3 1 4 1l 5 1 I 1 8 6 1 7 1 1 b2 H3 b4 5 b6 b7 1 b2 94 5 b6 b3 7

1

MODE 2

MODE 3 MODE 4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

MODE 4 MODE 5

1

BEBOP LOCRIAN 42

1 1 1

2 3 4 5b66b7 2 b3 4 b5 5 b6 b7 4 b5 2 b3 b7 7 b6

MODE 3

1

4 5b66 7 4 b5 5 6 b7

MODE 7 MODE 6

1 92 3 4 95 6 b7 1 b2 H3 4 b5 H6 I47

MODE 6 MODE 7

MODE 4

1

MAJOR PENT

1 11 121 1

MODE 4

I

1 1 1

MODE 3 MODE 4 MODE 5

MODE 2 1

1

2

1

1

1

7

6 5 b6 b7

1 b2 MODE 6 b7 4 -3 -5 b6 -------2 -bMODE 7 1b22 3 7 6 1945

5 1-6 94 5 1

1

~

1

7

1

~

1

3 6 b7 MODE 3

MODE 4 MODE 5 MODE 6

DOMINANTSUS

MODE 2 MODE 3 MODE 4 MODE s

21'3 1 b2 b3

1

5 b6

b3 b4 2 b3 1

1 ~ 5 1lb71

4 4 b5

b3 2 b3

1

I

b5

3

1 b2

PBLOG

lb31 1 4 1

1b22 3 94 7 956 1 b2 b7 7 b3 4 5 b6

1 $2 3 7 95 6 1 b2 4 b5 b6 *7 1 3 4 7 5b6 1 2 4 6b7 5 1 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1 2 6 3 4 5 1 2b3 b7 4 5 1 b2 b3 b7 4 b6


NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF CHORDS


NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF CHORDS continued


POLYCHORD FORMULAS NINTHS

ELEVENTHS

THIRTEENTHS

ALTS ALT =

Asus21-5

3 M

OR-

b5

OR

fino5

5

OR

Rb5

OR

OR-

3

fisus2 1'5

3 42 -

95

The keyboard grimoire a complete guide for the guitarist and keyboardist 1993  
The keyboard grimoire a complete guide for the guitarist and keyboardist 1993  
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