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Tell me how it was in your time, Grandfather Comenius Project 2012-2014

3rd Theme Booklet

Everyday Life and Entertainment


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Βουλγαρία / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

Нашите баби и дядовци използвали дрехи и постелки от естествени материали / вълна, памук, лен, коноп/, които сами си изработвали, за покриване на подове, легла, топли завивки. Всичко това тъкали на стан. Тъкали и плели дрехите си- чорапи, блузи, престилки, елеци, ризи. В тъкането са вземали участие стари и млади. То се е предавало от поколение на поколение. В тъкането и плетенето народът е прилагал своето творчество. Използвали са мотиви от природата за украса на своите продукти.

Преди години стопанката месела хляб един път седмично. . Основната съставка на домашния хляб били царевицата и ръжта. Тестото опичали в домашната пещ. Опеченият хляб се нареждал и завивал в дълги тесни дървени платна От пшеница правели най вече булгур, кускус, юфка и трахана. Хлябът бил ръчен. . Най - вкусна била баницата с булгур. Юфка и кус-кус готвели през зимата и по време на усилена полска работа. За по - спорна и лека работа приготвянето на тези храни правели групово по комшийски. Навремето във всяка къща и двор се отглеждали зеленчуци и се правело консервиране на собствена продукция за зимата. В двора на баба – цялото семейство се събирало да участва в процеса - кофи зеленчуци навсякъде, печени чушки, огън в огнището, омаен и неповторим лютеничен аромат. Освен лютеница, за зимата се приготвяли и компоти, сокове, сладка, сушени плодове и зеленчуци.


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Βουλγαρία / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien Когато нашите баби и дядовци били млади също искали да се забавляват. След привършване на работния ден момите се събирали около трапезата, където си разказвали забавни случки, пеели песни, танцували. Наред със сладката приказка жените се надпреварвали да показват уменията си в преденето, шиенето и другите ръкоделни женски работи. Ергените също участвали в седянката. Там те си харесвали и избирали своята любима. “Вземането на китка” бил най-срещаният любовен знак. Момъкът крадял китката на момата, за да й покаже, че я харесва. Мома, която се завърнела вкъщи без китка е “белязана” и всеки знаел, че си има любим. Седенкарската веселба продължавала до ранни зори и след като пропеят петли те се разва ляла.

Земеделието и животновъдството са били и основен поминък за нашите баби и дядовци. Благодарение на земята и ръцете те не само се препитавали, но и помагали на децата си, които живеели и се трудели в градовете. Хората отглеждали в дворовете си работен добитък /коне, волове/, с които обработвали земята, на която засаждали картофи, боб, зеленчуци, царевица, пшеница. През лятото са косили трева и са я сушили, за да имат животните храна през тежката зима.


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Βουλγαρία / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

Our grandparents used clothes and bedding made from natural materials / wool, cotton, linen, hemp /. They make clothes and bedding to cover the floors, beds, warm blankets. Our grandmothers made these rugs on a loom. Socks, shirts, vests, shirts were woven by hand. In weaving have participated young and old. It was passed down from generation to generation. In weaving, knitting people applied their creativity. They used motifs from nature to decorate their products.

Years ago housewife kneading bread once a week. The main ingredient of homemade bread have been corn and rye. The dough is baked in an oven. The baked bread is one in the long narrow wooden canvases. Made from wheat bulgur, couscous, noodles and trahana. . The bread was handheld. The most - was tasty pie with bulgur. Noodles and couscous cook in the the winter and during the intensive field work. For more a questionable and light work of the preparation these foods made a together with its neighbors.

In every house and garden vegetables are having grown and made canning of own produce for the winter. In the yard of grandma - the whole family together to does chutney - vegetables buckets everywhere, roasted peppers, fire in the outbreak, enchanting and unique taste. For the winter was doing compotes, juices, jams, dried fruits and vegetables.


България / Βουλγαρία / Bulgária / Βουλγαρία / Bulgaristan / Bulgaria / Bulgária / Bulgarien

When our grandparents were younger also like to have fun. Upon completion of the business day the girls gathered around the dinner table, where I recounted to funny stories, sang songs, danced. Along with nice chat the women are racing to indicate their skills in the spinning takes place, sewing and other "rakodelni" women's work. The lads also involved in the sedanka. There they like and choose to your favorite. "Taking of bunch" been the most frequently met a sign of love. The young man took the girlthe wrist of to show her that he likes her. Maiden who returned home with a bunch of mean, she has a lover. The fun lasted a long time.

Agriculture and animal farming have been and still is the main livelihood for our grandparents. Thanks to land and labor and grandparents help children who live and work in cities. People had animals in small farms. These animals - oxen and horses cultivated the small fields. Grown potatoes, beans, vegetables, corn, wheat. Proceedings had been ecologically clean. In summer mow the lawn and dry it to have animal food during severe winters.


Deutschland/ Германия/ Γερμανία/ Germania/     Almanya/ Alemanha/ Németország  

   

 

       

Unsere Schüler/-innen berichten von ihrem Leben in den Kategorien Spiele, Schule und Freizeit heute:

    Ich spiele Computerspiele.

Ich arbeite gerne in der Schule. Nadia

Valentino   Ich gehe gern am Wochenende schwimmen. Vanessa  

Die Schule dauert von acht bis zwölf Uhr. Samira

Ich gehe jeden Mittwoch zum Gitarrenunterricht. Jeden Tag muss ich üben.

Ich spiele gerne, wenn ich Zeit habe. Vanessa  

Wenn ich Zeit habe, spiele ich Basketball.

Aryan  

Omar

   

Ich spiele gerne, wenn ich Zeit habe, Computer.

Wenn ich Zeit habe, spiele ich Playstation.

Evan  

Mohammed

  Ich gehe jeden Donnerstag mit meiner Schwester zum Theater. Am liebsten mach ich aber Kampfsport. Ich spiele Klavier, jeden Tag mit meiner Mama.

Schule macht Spaß. Ich mach gern Mathe. Robert  

Daniel  

Für unsere Eltern ist die Schule ganz wichtig, weil sie wollen, dass wir einen guten Beruf bekommen. Viele von uns kommen aus anderen Ländern. Wir sollen später dort wieder zur Schule gehen und müssen deswegen nachmittags noch unsere Muttersprache lernen. Musikunterricht ist für uns auch sehr wichtig, auch wenn das Üben nicht immer Spaß macht. Unsere Eltern mögen es gern, wenn sie wissen, was wir machen; deswegen beschäftigen wir uns viel mit dem Computer oder gehen zum Sporttraining.

 

 


Deutschland/ Германия/ Γερμανία/ Germania/     Almanya/ Alemanha/ Németország            

Our students report about their lives in the categories games, school and entertainment:

 Unsere Schüler/-innen berichten von ihrem Leben in den Kategorien Spiele, Schule und Freizeit heute:   I play computer games.

I like to work in school. Nadia

Valentino   I like to go swimming at the weekends. Vanessa  

School is from 8 to 12 o’clock. Samira

Every Wednesday I have guitar lessons. I have to practise every day.

I like to play in my free time. Vanessa  

Aryan  

If I have time I play basketball. Omar

   

I like to play with the computer when I have time.

When I have time I play Playstation.

Evan  

Mohammed

  Every Thursday I go to the theatre with my sister. But what I like to do most is martial arts. I play the piano, every day, with my mum.

School is fun. I like to do Maths.

Daniel  

Robert  

School is very important for our parents because they want us to get a good job. Many of us come from other countries. Later, we have to go to school there again and therefore we have to practise our mother tongue in the afternoon. Music lessons are also very important for us, even though practising isn’t always fun. Our parents like to know what we are doing; that’s why we often deal with the computer at home or do sports in clubs.

 

 


Deutschland/ Германия/ Γερμανία/ Germania/     Almanya/ Alemanha/ Németország    

Unsere Schüler/-innen haben folgendes über das Leben ihrer Großeltern in den Kategorien Spiele, Schule und Freizeit herausgefunden:

Sie hatten eklige Mutproben. Zum Beispiel mussten sie lebendige Würmer oder Frösche schlucken oder sie mussten lebendige Fische essen. Osman

 

Ich fand komisch, dass früher die Kinder geschlagen wurden von den Lehrern. Und dass sie ohne Stifte geschrieben haben. Sie hatten Ranzen aus Leder und Fell. Und wenn sie zu spät kamen wurden sie geschlagen. Schukrije  

Schule in den 50er und 60er Jahren Ich finde komisch, dass früher ohne Stifte geschrieben wurde. Ich finde auch gemein und fies, dass die Kinder geschlagen wurden. Sina

Spielzeug kaputt unvergnüglich breit dick

laut langsam teuer

zerkratzt langweilig blöd

Armin

  Beim Reiterspiel wurde mit einem Abzählreim der Anfänger ausgewählt. Der wählte eine Partnerin. Sie einigten sich, wer Reiter und Pferd ist. Dann versuchten sie gegenseitig, die Reiter von den Pferden runterzuschubsen. Denita

 

Die Schulspeisung Ich habe gelernt, dass die Kinder früher sehr schlechtes Essen hatten. Wenn ich das gegessen hätte, hätte ich mich übergeben. Es gab so schlechtes Essen, weil der 2. Weltkrieg erst kurz vorbei war. Jedes Jahr wurde das Essen in der Schule besser, zum Beispiel gab es Haferbrei mit Rosinen und im nächsten Jahr gab es sogar einen Keks dazu. Die Kinder mussten das Geschirr selber von zu Hause mitnehmen. Hyobin

  Sie hatten Autos ohne Sicherheitsgurt und ohne Abgase. Manche Schüler waren nicht so schlau in der Schule. Yusif

Sie spielten unvorsichtig Fußball auf den Straßen. Dort fuhren nur selten Autos. Burak

 

 

Eigentlich hatten unsere Großeltern nicht das, was wir heute Freizeit nennen. Sie mussten zur Schule gehen; dort wurden sie strenger bestraft als heute. Ihre Spiele waren ganz anders als unsere; es gab noch gar keine Computer. Dafür konnten sie noch auf der Straße spielen.

 

 


Deutschland/ Германия/ Γερμανία/ Germania/     Almanya/ Alemanha/ Németország    

Our students found out the following about the lives of their grandparents in the categories games, school and entertainment:

They had yucky courage tests. For example, they had to swallow living worms or frogs or they had to eat living fish. Osman

I found it odd that they were beaten by their teachers. And that they wrote without pens. They had school bags out of leather and fur. And if they showed up late they were beaten. Schukrije

 

 

School in the 50s and 60s: I found it strange that they wrote without pens. I also found it mean and nasty that the children back then were beaten. Sina

 

At horse-back games they elected the beginner by a counting rhyme. He chose a partner. They agreed upon who would be jockey and who horse. Then everybody tried to push the other jockeys off their horses. Denita

 

TOYS broken unenjoyable clumsy thick

scratched loud lame expensive

boring stupid

Armin

School meals I learned that the children then had a bad nutrition. If I had eaten that I would have vomited. The food was so bad because WWII had just ended. Every year the meals improved, for example one year there was porridge with raisins and in the year after they even added a cookie. The children had to bring their tableware from home. Hyobin

 

They had cars without safety belts and without fumes. Some students weren’t so smart at school. Yusif

 

They played football in the streets without paying too much attention. Cars drove by rather seldom. Burak

 

Our grandparents didn’t actually have that what we call leisure nowadays. They went to school where punishment was much harder than today. Their games were different from ours; there weren’t any computers yet. But they were able to play in the streets, instead.

 

 


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция

Η καθημερινή ζωή στα χρόνια των γιαγιάδων και των παππούδων μας ήταν διαφορετική από πολλές απόψεις. Στις πόλεις συνήθως οι γυναίκες δεν εργάζονταν έξω από το σπίτι όταν δεν υπήρχε μεγάλο οικονομικό πρόβλημα και φρόντιζαν για την καθαριότητα του σπιτιού, το μαγείρεμα και την ανατροφή των παιδιών. Στα χωριά συνήθως οι γυναίκες ασχολούνταν και με τις αγροτικές εργασίες. Οι γιαγιάδες και οι παππούδες ζούσαν στο ίδιο σπίτι προσφέροντας την ανεκτίμητη βοήθειά τους στην φύλαξη και φροντίδα των παιδιών και μεταλαμπαδεύοντας τις πολύτιμες γνώσεις και την σοφία τους στις νεότερες γενεές. Ο σεβασμός και η αγάπη προς τα άτομα τρίτης ηλικίας αναπτύσσονταν αυθόρμητα.

Τα απογεύματα οι γυναίκες της γειτονιάς έπιναν τον καφέ τους παρέα συζητώντας και κάνοντας εργόχειρα ενώ οι άντρες στα σπίτια ή στα καφενεία έπαιζαν τάβλι, σκάκι και συζητούσαν για πολιτική και ποδόσφαιρο. Την ψυχοθεραπεία αντικαθιστούσε η παρέα. Το βράδυ το ραδιόφωνο συγκέντρωνε την οικογένεια γύρω του. Την Κυριακή το πρωί όλη η οικογένεια πήγαινε στην εκκλησία. Το μεσημέρι η συγκέντρωση στο οικογενειακό τραπέζι ήταν ιερή υποχρέωση. Παππούδες, γιαγιάδες, αδέλφια, ξαδέλφια, θείες, θείοι είχαν την ευκαιρία να συγκεντρωθούν, να επιλύσουν θέματα και να ανανεώσουν τους οικογενειακούς δεσμούς αγάπης.

Οι αρραβώνες, οι γάμοι, τα βαφτίσια, γενέθλια και ονομαστικές εορτές έδιναν την ευκαιρία για γλέντια και πανηγύρια. Συχνά τα γλέντια γίνονταν «ρεφενέ» σε φιλικά και γειτονικά σπίτια. Μικροί και μεγάλοι συμμετείχαν στο χορό και στο τραγούδι. Χοροί γίνονταν και σε πλατείες, ταβέρνες και αίθουσες χορού που έδιναν την δυνατότητα στους νέους ανθρώπους να γνωριστούν καθώς ήταν λιγότερο συχνό για τις νέες κοπέλες να κυκλοφορούν μόνες τους και συνήθως συνοδεύονταν από τους γονείς τους ή τους μεγαλύτερους αδελφούς. Κινηματογράφος, θέατρο, κονσέρτα, βόλτα στους κεντρικούς δρόμους ή την παραλία, τα καλοκαιρινά μπάνια στην θάλασσα ήταν άλλοι τρόποι διασκέδασης. Ο κόσμος χρησιμοποιούσε συχνότερα τα πόδια, ποδήλατα, μηχανές και λεωφορεία για να μετακινηθεί καθώς οι κάτοχοι ιδιωτικών αυτοκινήτων ήταν ελάχιστοι.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция

Στις πόλεις οι γυναίκες έκαναν τις καθημερινές αγορές τους από τον μπακάλη, τον μανάβη, τον φούρναρη, τον ιχθυοπώλη και όχι από τα supermarket. Πολλοί ήταν και οι πλανόδιοι που έφερναν τα προϊόντα τους στην πόρτα του σπιτιού. Ο γαλατάς, ο μανάβης, ο λουλουδάς αλλά η μεγαλύτερη χαρά ήταν για τα παιδιά ο ερχομός του παγωτατζή στην γειτονιά αρχές του καλοκαιριού. Υπήρχαν ακόμη τα μαγαζάκια του κουρέαξεχωριστά από της κομμώτριας- του τσαγκάρη, της μοδίστρας-αν και συνήθως κάθε νοικοκυρά είχε την ραπτομηχανή της. Ο κόσμος τότε επιδιόρθωνε τα ρούχα και τα παπούτσια του και δεν τα πετούσε όταν χαλούσαν λίγο. Στα χωριά κάθε σπίτι είχε ότι χρειαζόταν καθημερινά από τον δικό του λαχανόκηπο ή τα χωράφια και γάλα, βούτυρο, τυρί, γιαούρτι, αυγά, κρέας από τα δικά του ζώα. Οι γυναίκες ζύμωναν ψωμί και συντηρούσαν τρόφιμα με παραδοσιακές μεθόδους.

Οι άνθρωποι έγραφαν επιστολές για να επικοινωνήσουν εκτός από το τηλέφωνο που δεν υπήρχε τότε σε κάθε σπίτι και έστελναν ευχετήριες κάρτες για την νέα χρονιά, το Πάσχα, τις ονομαστικές εορτές και τα γενέθλια, τους αρραβώνες, γάμους, γεννήσεις και συλλυπητήρια τηλεγραφήματα για την αναχώρηση από την ζωή κάποιου αγαπημένου. Η προσμονή για τον ερχομό του ταχυδρόμου ήταν μεγάλη καθώς έφερνε νέα από τους αγαπημένους που ζούσαν μακριά. Αριστουργήματα έκφρασης έρωτα ή ανθρώπινου πόνου έχουν γραφτεί με τις επιστολές και τα ημερολόγια που κρατούσαν κυρίως οι νεαρές κοπέλες.

Τα παιδιά έπαιζαν μαζί τα απογεύματα στους δρόμους, τις πλατείες και τις αλάνες ομαδικά παιχνίδια απολαμβάνοντας τις χαρές της συντροφικότητας και μαθαίνοντας κανόνες της ζωής που θα τους χρησίμευαν αργότερα σαν ενήλικες αντί να απομονώνονται μπροστά στην οθόνη ενός υπολογιστή. Τα ματωμένα χέρια και γόνατα ήταν συχνό φαινόμενα και δεν προκαλούσαν πανικό ούτε στα παιδιά ούτε στις μαμάδες. Λίγο ιώδιο, ένα τσιρότο και ένα φιλί από την μαμά στέγνωνε τα δάκρυα στα μάγουλα και έκανε να ξεχαστεί γρήγορα ο πόνος. «Μέχρι να παντρευτείς θα γιάνει» ήταν τα λόγια παρηγοριάς για τον τραυματία.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция

Everyday life in the years of our grandmothers and grandfathers was different in many ways. In cities women usually did not work outside the home when there was no major economic problem and were occupied with the housekeeping, cooking and parenting. In villages women often were occupied with agricultural work. The grandparents lived in the same house offering their invaluable help in keeping and caring for children and spreading valuable knowledge and wisdom to younger generations. Respect and love for the elderly grew spontaneously.

In the afternoons the women of the neighbourhood drank their coffee together discussing and doing embroideries and needlework while men played backgammon, chess and talked about politics and football in their homes or in cafes. Psychotherapy was replaced by company. In the evenings the radio gathered the family around it. On Sunday mornings the whole family went to church. On Sunday midday gathering at the family table was a sacred obligation. Grandparents, siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles had the opportunity to gather, solve issues and renew family ties of love.

Engagements, weddings, christenings, birthdays and name days gave the opportunity for feasts and celebrations. Often the celebrations were in friendly and neighbouring homes sharing the expenses. Young and old participated in dance and song. Dances were also held in squares, taverns and dance halls where young people had the chance to meet each other as it was less common for girls to be alone, and were usually accompanied by their parents or older brothers. Cinema, theater, concerts, stroll along the streets or by the seaside, summer swimming in the sea were other ways of entertainment. People used more often to move on foot, bikes, motorbikes and buses as the owners of private cars were few.


Ελλάδα / Greece / Grecia / Yunanistan Görögország / Griechenland / Grécia / Гърция

In the cities the housewives did their everyday purchases from the grocer, the greengrocer, the baker, the fishmonger and not from the supermarket. Many were the roving professionals who brought their products to the door of the house. The milkman, the greengrocer, the florist but the greatest joy for the children was the appearance of the ice-cream seller in the neighbourhood in early summer. There were even the barber-shops separately from the hairstylist’s-the shoemaker, the dressmaker, albeit usually every housewife had her own sewing machine at home. People used to mend their clothes and shoes and did not throw them away when they had a small damage. In the villages every home had what they needed daily by their own vegetable garden or the fields and milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, eggs, meat from their own animals. Women knead bread and conserved foods with traditional methods.

People used to write letters to communicate instead of using the telephone which did not yet exist in every home and used to send greeting cards for New Year, Easter, the name days and birthdays, engagements, weddings, births, condolence telegrams for the departure from life of a loved one. The anticipation for the arrival of the postman was great who brought news of the loved ones who lived far away. Masterpieces on the expression of love or human suffering have been written in the letters and diaries mostly kept by young girls.

In the evenings the children played together in the streets, squares and vacant lots, group games enjoying the happiness of companionship and learning rules of life that would be useful to them later as adults rather than being isolated in front of a computer screen. Bleeding hands and knees were a common phenomenon and caused panic neither to children nor mums. A little iodine, a patch and a kiss from mum dried tears on the cheeks and helped the children forget the pain quickly. "By marrying will heal" were the words of consolation for the injured.


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan Családi élet – „Mi Pécset laktunk ebben az időben. Szüleim házában éltünk velük együtt saját családommal. A közös háztartás megkönnyítette az életünket. A házimunkát felosztottuk: az én dolgom volt a ház és az udvar takarítása, anyámé a főzés-sütés, a férfiak a favágást, kerti munkát és a szőlő gondozását végezték.” „A ház körüli kertben sok mindent megtermeltünk magunknak. Konyhakertünk és gyümölcsfáink voltak. A 60-as évektől volt szőlőnk is. Nem volt túl sok gép, eleinte a növényvédő permetet is seprővel spricceltük. A 80-as évek elején tudtunk kapálógépet venni.” Általában kevés elektromos háztartási gépet használtak. Kávét, mákot, diót, húst kézi darálóval daráltak. Az udvari porolófán porolta ki a szőnyeget, akinek nem volt porszívója. „A házimunka megkönnyítésére nálunk csak porszívó, majd később tárcsás mosógép és külön centrifuga volt. Automata mosógépet csak 1980-ban vettünk.” „Mi a családban katolikus keresztény nevelést kaptunk. Akkoriban ezt államilag tiltották és elfogadhatatlannak tartották a pedagógiai munkában. A vallásukat gyakorló családokban a szülőknek többnyire arra kellett koncentrálniuk, hogy az iskolai oktatásnak a keresztény elvektől eltérő, sőt ellentétes hatásaitól mentesítsék gyermekeiket,” az állam által kárhoztatott „kettős nevelés‟-re kényszerülve. A gyerekek nevelésében nagy segítséget nyújtottak a nagyszülők. Lakás – A háborús pusztítás következtében hosszan tartó lakáshiány alakul ki, jellemzőek a kényszer társbérletek a régi nagy polgári lakásokban. Az emeletes házak leginkább tanácsi tulajdonban vannak, gyakran alacsony komfortfokozatúak. A lakók nem tulajdonosok, hanem kiutalás alapján, hosszú várakozás után bérlik a lakásokat. Egyének csak családi házat építhetnek, állandó építőanyaghiánnyal küszködve, de a lakáskölcsönök kamata alacsony (3%). Vásárlás – A megfizethető zöldségek, gyümölcsök mind magyar termelőktől származnak. Déli gyümölcsöt – banánt, narancsot – csak nagyon ritkán lehet kapni, hosszú sorbanállással, főleg karácsony táján. „Nagymamám 17 éves volt, mikor először látott mandarint, és 30, amikor ananászt.” A jellemző autómárkák a Trabant, Lada, Dacia, Skoda, Polski Fiat, Wartburg.

Az emberek ruhagyárakban készült ruhákat hordanak, melyek csak megkésve követik a divatot. „Szerencsénk volt, hogy a dédnagymamád női szabó volt, neki nem okozott gondot, hogy a családot öltöztesse. Az ötvenes években – amikor nem lehetett itthon anyagot vásárolni – apám régi öltönyeiből varrt a fiúknak nadrágot, zakót, a saját régi ruháiból pedig én kaptam szép ruhácskákat. Ebben az időben a Csehszlovákiában élő rokonokhoz átmentünk családostól vásárolni. Csehszlovákia ipara fejlettebb volt, ott már az üzletekben nagyobb és jobb minőségű áru kínálat volt. Akkoriban tilos volt a határon bármit is áthozni. ... A vámvizsgálatnál elnézőek voltak és direkt nem vették észre a nyakig beöltözött embereket.” Szórakozás – Kezdetben rádiót hallgatnak az emberek, kedveltek a rádiójátékok. Hosszú időn át népszerű „rádiós szappanopera‟ a Szabó család. Gyerekeknek szóló TV műsor az Iskolatévé és az Esti mese, TV macival és Cicavízióval. Sok gyernekfilm, rajzfilm és klasszikus regényfeldolgozás készül.


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan

A lányok-asszonyok kézimunkáznak, a férfiak sportolnak, barkácsolnak. Az olcsó mozi- és színházjegyek lehetővé teszik mindenkinek a kulturált szórakozást, a színészek és a zenészek, énekesek gyakran szerepelnek vidéki kultúrházakban. Az emberek sokat olvasnak. „De volt olyan, hogy egy iskolába bement néhány aktív kommunista, lehordták az iskola könyvtárából a régi könyveket az udvarra és elégették őket azért, hogy a gyerekek ne tanulhassák meg a régiek szokásait, ne ismerhessék meg a vallásos és polgári gondolatokat. Ezután az iskola könyvtárába új könyveket hoztak, amit az ő íróik írtak és azokkal a gondolatokkal, eszmékkel voltak tele, amiket a Kommunista Párt akart.” Jellemző gyermekjátékok: fogócska, bújócska, ugróiskola, ugrókötél, számháború, társasjáték, kártya, gombfoci, sakk, malom, barkohba, babák és kisautók. „Még édesapámék is emlékeznek pl. a „Gazdálkodj okosan!‟ társasjátékra, mely kuporgatásra, a gulyáskommunizmusban elérhető anyagi javak – fridzsider, televízió, porszívó – elérésére és fogyasztására nevel, szemben a nyugati „Monopoly‟-val, mely a pénzzel, befektetésekkel való bánásra.” Nyaralás – „Balatonszepezden volt a több faházból álló vállalati nyaraló. Minden második évben sikerült ide beutalót kapni. Mehettünk külföldi csereüdülésre a szocialista országokba, így Csehszlovákia, Lengyelország és az NDK területén jártunk.” „Anyósomék Kőszeg mellett határsávban laktak. Beutazási engedély kellett, hogy meglátogathassam őket.” Sport – „A háború után úgynevezett tömegsportra törekedtek, hogy mindenki sportoljon. A munkahelyeken, az iskolában is voltak sportkörök, ahol a lekülönbözőbb sportágakat űzték. Természetesen a legnépszerűbb sport a foci és a torna volt. A grundokon és a tereken mindenféle szervezés nélkül is fociztak a fiúk, fiatal férfiak.” A tömegsport egy formája volt „a Munkára Harcra Kész (MHK) mozgalom is, melynek keretében széles dolgozó tömegeket vittek ki a sportpályákra. Különböző szintidőket kellett teljesíteni, és jelvényeket kaptak. A gyerekeknek külön úttörő bajnokságokat is rendeztek. A Margitszigeten felépült az úttörő stadion1949-ben.” „Az én gyerekkoromban a férfiaknak rendszeres vasárnapi program volt a meccsre járás. Természetesen a fiú gyerekeket és unokákat is vitték magukkal. Nem csak a nevezetesebb meccseknek pl. Fradi-MTK, hanem a legkisebb csapatoknak is volt számos nézője. Akkoriban nem verekedtek össze az ellentáborok, és nem volt rendbontás.” „Ettől kezdve a sportesemények közvetítését TV-n is nézték az emberek, sokszor klubokban, művelődési házakban, mert ekkor még kevés magánszemélynek volt TV készüléke. A fociközvetítéseken kívül, látványosságuk miatt népszerűek voltak az atlétikai, torna és jégtánc közvetítések.”


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan Family life – “We lived in Pécs at that time. We all lived together in my parents‟ house. That made our life easier. We shared the household jobs: my task was cleaning the house and the yard, my mother cooked and baked, the men chopped wood, did the gardening and tended to the vineyard.” “In the garden of the house we grew a lot of things. We had a vegetable garden and an orchard. From the 1960s we had a vineyard, too. We didn‟t have too many machines, first we had to do the crop dusting manually, using a wisp. We could buy a hoeing machine only in the 1980s.” In general, there weren‟t too many electric household appliances. Coffee, poppy seeds, walnuts and meat were ground/minced with manually operated grinders/mincers. Carpets were hung and dusted on a stand in the yard, until people could buy vacuum cleaners. “To make chores easier we only had a vacuum cleaner; later we bought an agitator operated washing machine and a separate spin-dyer, finally an automatic washing machine in 1980.” “We got a Christian upbringing in the family. The state considered it unacceptable in pedagogical work and banned it. Practicing Christian parents had to concentrate on saving their children from the effects of school education, which was different from and opposite to Christian principles.” They had to practice „dual formation‟, which the state was fiercely opposed to, i.e. they handed over Christian traditions at home, but kept it secret and conformed to the rules at school. Grandparents helped a lot with bringing up their grandchildren. Housing – Due to the destruction of WW2 there is a prolonged shortage of flats, and often a forced joint cohabitation of families in huge, old upper- or middle class flats is common. Blocks of flats are mostly owned by the councils, and are often of low comfort. The residents are not owners, they rent the flats based on allocations, after a long waiting period. Individuals can buy small lots and build houses for themselves, struggling with a shortage of building materials, but the interest rates on mortgage are low. (3%). Shopping – The fruits and vegetables people could afford came from Hungarian farmers. Tropical fruits – bananas and oranges – were rarely sold, mostly at Christmas time. There were long queues. “My grandmother saw tangerines only when she was 17, and pineapples at the age of 30.” The most common car brands are Trabant, Lada, Dacia, Skoda, Polski Fiat, Wartburg.

People wore factory-made clothes which followed fashion with delay. “We were lucky because your greatgrandmother was a tailor, so she could dress the family easily. In the 1950s, when there was a shortage of cloths she sewed trousers and jackets for the boys using my father‟s old suits, and cute dresses for me out of her old dresses. That time we traveled to our relatives in Czecho-Slovakia to do our shopping. Czech industry was more developed, there were goods of better quality and greater choice in the shops. It was forbidden to bring anything across the border. ... But the customs officers were easy-going and „accidentally on purpose‟ didn‟t „notice‟ the clothes we put on in several layers.” Entertainment – First people listen to the radio; radio plays are popular, especially ‟Szabó család‟ (The Taylors), a ‟radio soap opera‟. TV programmes for kids are ‟School TV‟ and ‟Bedtime tales‟, with TV Bear and ‟Cicavizio‟. A lot of films for kids, cartoons and classical novel adaptations are made.


Magyarország / Hungria / Ungarn / Ungheria Ungaria / Унгария / Ουγγαρία / Macaristan

Girls and women do needlework, boys and men do sports or DIY. The cheap cinema and theatre tickets make it possible for everyone to access cultured entertainment. Actors, actresses and musicians often perform in rural culture homes. People read a lot. ”It happened that some Communist activists went into a school, carried the books out of the library into the yard and burnt them, so that the kids couldn‟t learn the traditions, Christian and middleclass ideals. Then they brought new books, which were written by their writers and contained those ideas that the Communist Party wanted to promote.” Usual games for kids: tag, hide-and-seek, hopscotch, skipping rope, war of numbers, board and card games, button football teams, chess, merils, 20 questions, dolls and toy cars. ”My father still remembers the game ‟Wise management‟ which taught kids to be thrifty, to save for the goods one could own in ‟goulash Communism‟: a fridge, a TV set, a vacuum cleaner – in other words: to consume, as opposed to the ‟Western‟ game ‟Monopoly‟ which teaches investment. Holidays – ”There was a company holiday home consisting of several wooden cabins in Balatonszepezd. We managed to get a voucher every second year. We could also go to holiday exchanges to the Socialist countries, so we travelled to Czecho-Slovakia, Poland and GDR.” “My mother-in-law lived near Kőszeg, near the western border. We needed a special travel permit to visit them.” Sports – “After the war mass sport was promoted, so that everybody could do sports. There were a lot of clubs, in factories and in schools, doing lots of different sports. Of course, the most popular ones were football and gymnastics. Boys and young men played football in the streets and on empty lots, without any organisation.” There was “a movement called „Ready for Work and War‟ which gave a chance to wide layers of society to do sports. They had to meet certain standards to get badges. For kids separate Pioneer Championships were organised. The Pioneers‟ Stadium was built on Margaret Island in 1949.” “When I was a kid, men went to football matches regularly on Sundays. Naturally, they took their sons and grandsons with them. Not only the outstanding teams like Fradi or MTK had spectators, but also the smaller ones. At that time there was no football hooliganism, the fans of the opposing teams didn‟t pick fights.” “From this time on people watched sports on TV, quite often in clubs or houses of culture, because only a few individuals owned a TV set. Besides football matches, athletics, gymnastics and figure skating broadcasts were popular, due to their spectacular nature.”


Italia/ Itàlia / Италия / Ιταλία / Italia / Italien / Olaszország/ İtalya

In passato la gente viveva in case modeste e spesso teneva gli animali in casa (cavalla, asini,maiali,…), alcuni dei quali erano usati come aiuto nel lavoro dei campi o come mezzi di trasporto.

I nostri nonni lavoravano come contadini, come cestai, pescatori, manifatturieri di utensili in rame o alluminio “quararari”, ed altro.

La “mattanza” del tonno a Favignana (TP)

Nel loro tempo libero giocavano a carte qualche bicchiere di buon vino.

Nello stesso tempo, le nostre nonne aiutavano gli uomini nei lavori in campagna, lavoravano a casa facendo il pane, la pasta, conserve di pomodoro e altre verdure o frutta per l’inverno, badando, inoltre, alla loro numerosa famiglia (non c’era la televisione!)

Nel loro tempo libero si riunivano con altre donne (vicine di casa) per fare lavori tessili (ricamare, filare, uncinetto, ,…) e nel frattempo spettegolavano. Non c’era tv e questo era un “antico mezzo di diffusione delle notizie!”

fumando il sigaro o la pipa e bevendo


Per il bucato andavano al fiume o al lavatoio e usavano sapone fatto in casa o la cenere.

Nonostante questi duri lavori c’era anche il tempo per ballare!

Frequentare la scuola era obbligatorio fino all’età di 8 anni e i bambini aiutavano i genitori nei loro lavori. Durante il tempo libero giocavano per strada (c’erano pochissime automobili) con giocattoli costruiti da loro anche con materiale riciclato: la ruota, monopattini, giocattoli in legno, bambole di pezza ed altro. In particolare, i maschietti preferivano: le figurine dei calciatori, la fionda, le noccioline, la trottola, … mentre le bambine preferivano giocare con la palla, a moscacieca, con la corda, i cerchi, le catenelle, la pietra, …

Oggi, alcuni di questi giochi persistono ma, a differenza del passato, non si può giocare per strada (ci sono troppe macchine!) e i bei giochi di gruppo sono stati rimpiazzati dalle nuove tecnologie (videogames, TV, ipad, iphone, …)


Italia/ Itàlia / Италия / Ιταλία / Italia / Italien / Olaszország/ İtalya

In the past people were used to live in humble houses with their own animals (horses, donkeys, pigs..) some of which were also used as means of transport.

Our grandfathers worked as farmers, shepherds, shoemakers, basket makers, fishermen, metalworkers (“quararari”), and so on .. La “mattanza” del tonno a Favignana (TP)

In their spare time they were used to cards and drinking a good glass of wine.

In the same time, grandmothers helped their men in the country. They also worked at home making bread, pasta, tomato sauce for the winter and looking after their big family (there was no TV!).

In their spare time, they joined to other women (next-door neighbour) to make textile works (embroidery, yarn, crocket…) while gossiping. There was no TV so this was “a good way to exchange news!”

smoke pipes or cigars while playing


To wash their clothes they went to the rivers or to the lavatory and they used homemade soap or ashes as soap.

In spite of these hard works , there was also a dancing time!

To attend school was compulsory until the age of 8 so children helped their parents in their works. In their spare time they played group games in the street (there were few cars!) or with handcraft toys like the wheel, push scooter, wooden toys, stuffed dolls and so on. In particular, males preferred: footballers cards, the sling, peanuts, spinning top, ... while females preferred playing ball, blindman’s bluff, the rope, the circles game, the little coloured chains, the stone game, ... Nowadays, some of these games keep on being played, but, differently from the past, children cannot play in the street (there are too many cars!) and the good group games have been replaced by the new technologies (videogames, TV, ipad, iphone ...)


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz Vida quotidiana no tempo dos avós… As mães eram, geralmente, donas de casa e ocupavam-se da educação dos filhos. Os pais trabalhavam, para sustentar a família. Na classe mais pobre todos os membros trabalhavam no campo ou nas fábricas. As crianças mais velhas tomavam conta dos irmãos ou também ajudavam no campo. A maioria terminava a escolaridade no fim da escola primária e começava a trabalhar muito cedo. A maioridade era aos 21 anos. A família portuguesa reunia-se ao serão. Os homens jogavam e contavam anedotas. As mulheres conversavam e faziam tricô. Ouviam-se as emissões da rádio e havia um enorme culto pelos cantores moda. Havia jornais diários e revistas especialmente vocacionadas para as senhoras aprenderem costura, culinária e assuntos domésticos. A televisão, no final dos anos 50, veio alterar por completo os serões em família por só haver nos cafés, centros recreativos e nas famílias com mais poder económico, no entanto, trouxe um acesso à informação e cultura como nunca antes. Só foi massificada nos anos setenta. As comunicações pessoais eram feitas essencialmente através de carta. O telefone era caro e pouco difundido. Só as famílias mais abastadas tinham telefone em casa. As deslocações para distâncias longas eram feitas de comboio ou de camioneta. No dia-a-dia, usava-se muito a bicicleta e a lambreta nas vilas e cidades e a carroça nas aldeias. O automóvel particular só era acessível a pessoas abastadas ou usado como táxi.

Entretenimento no tempo dos avós… Os bailes eram muito populares. As raparigas solteiras faziam-se acompanhar por alguém mais velho, como a mãe, tia ou vizinha. Os bailaricos decorriam no sábado à noite e domingos à tarde nos salões, em arraiais nos largos das igrejas ou nas eiras. Nas grandes cidades os nossos avós já tinham acesso a um entretenimento mais diversificado, como é o caso do cinema, do teatro e da ópera. Os domingos eram sempre passados em família e, após o almoço com todos os membros da família, davam o famoso passeio de domingo, que se repetia pelo mesmo itinerário, a pé ou, para algumas famílias, de carro. As aldeias espalhadas por todo o país, eram visitadas pelos circos itinerantes, um momento de grande alegria para toda a população que não tinha acesso a uma diversidade de ofertas típicas no litoral do país. No litoral, estava enraizado o hábito de ir a banhos às praias e todos se lembram das famosas bolas de Berlim e dos gelados fresquinhos que se vendiam em plena praia. As crianças brincavam, na rua em frente à sua casa ao jogo do berlinde, à malha, às rodas, saltar à corda, ao jogo da macaca, às escondidas, à apanhada, ao pião, ao eixo, fazendo por vezes até os seus próprios brinquedos, como as bonecas ou as bolas de trapo e os carrinhos de rolamentos. As meninas de antigamente aprendiam costura e lavores com as mulheres mais velhas da família. Além disso, tinham o hábito de usar e guardar para as gerações mais novas os seus diários, cartas, caderninhos de notas com agendas domésticas e truques de culinária.


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz Vida quotidiana nos nossos tempos… Nos últimos 30 anos, o conceito de família tem vindo a mudar no sentido de responder, por um lado, à consagração do princípio da igualdade e, por outro, à sua transformação. A mulher ganhou direitos até então consagrados só a homens e o núcleo familiar conheceu transformações profundas em relação ao padrão tradicional do tempo dos nossos avós. Hoje é comum encontrar famílias funcionais que são monoparentais, em união de fato ou mesmo constituída por pessoas do mesmo sexo. Ao nível do trabalho e das ocupações, o séc. XXI trouxe toda uma vaga de novas profissões ligadas essencialmente às novas tecnologias. Cada vez mais cedo as mulheres ingressam no mercado de trabalho, deixando para mais tarde assuntos como o casamento e a maternidade. O ensino adaptou-se às novas tecnologias e às necessidades da sociedade. A escola tem mais horas de funcionamento e maior oferta de cursos. Os alunos dispõem de vários tipos de percursos escolares adequados às suas capacidades/necessidades. Verifica-se hoje em dia um aumento do consumo muitas vezes em produtos supérfluos e sem utilidade imediata mas que são moda. Este hábito é induzido quer pela publicidade massiva, quer pela associação que se faz entre o que se compra e a aparência de uma vida com posses. A ida aos centros comerciais tornou-se uma das principais opções para as famílias portuguesas nos seus tempos livres, daí a proliferação destas infra-estruturas. O aumento da esperança de vida tem levado a uma procura de maior qualidade na ocupação quotidiana das pessoas. Os avós de hoje em dia frequentam estudos e formações pessoais, fazem passeios, convívios e interações várias. Surgiram as universidades seniores, as casas de repouso com ofertas mais abrangentes e os centros de dia com ocupação de tempos livres e terapias ocupacionais. Os transportes públicos quer nas cidades, quer ao nível nacional, cresceram e disseminaram-se contribuindo para uma maior movimentação de pessoas e mercadorias, tornando os locais mais acessíveis. O carro particular como transporte familiar também se popularizou e, o avião tornou-se um meio de transporte muito usado. Contrariamente, em Portugal, o comboio entrou em desuso.

Entretenimento nos nossos dias… Os jovens usufruem de maior liberdade e cada vez mais cedo, comparando com os seus pais e avós. Nas áreas metropolitanas existem diversos espaços para os jovens se divertirem, como bares ou esplanadas, discotecas e locais de concertos musicais. O futebol, as touradas e o cinema continuam a ser entretenimentos muito populares. As nossas crianças estão a trocar as brincadeiras de rua, a bicicleta, os passeios e o desporto, por horas a fio sentados em frente ao computador a navegar em redes sociais ou a jogar com as consolas Felizmente existe um maior acesso a diversas atividades, como é o caso das atividades desportivas, como a ginástica, futebol e desportos relacionados com o mar. Também a mentalidade dos pais e avós está a mudar e estão a readquirir alguns hábitos de vida saudável praticando atividades físicas, muitas vezes em família, nomeadamente em ginásios.


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz Everyday life in the time of our grandparents ... Mothers were usually housewives and held up their children's education. Fathers worked to support the family. In poorer class, all members worked in the fields or factories. The older children took care of siblings or also helped in the field. For the majority schooling ended at the end of primary school and they started work very early. Legally, adulthood was at 21. The Portuguese family would gather in the evening. Men played cards and told anecdotes. Women talk and knit. The radio broadcasts were very popular and was a huge fashion cult by radio singers. There were newspapers and magazines specifically targeted at women teaching them how to sew, cook and do other domestic affairs. The television in the late '50s, changed completely the evenings in the family because most of the TV sets were available only in cafes, recreational centers and families with more economic power, however TV brought access to information and culture as never before. Only in the seventies the TV set started to be a household appliance. Personal communications were made mainly by letter. The phone was expensive and not widespread. Only the wealthiest families had a telephone at home. Long distances trips were made by train or bus. In a daily basis the bike and scooter in towns and cities were largely used. In the villages the wagon was used as transport. The private car was only available to wealthy people or used as taxi.

Entertainment at the time of grandparents... The balls were very popular. Single girls were accompanied by someone older, like her mother, aunt or a lady neighbor. The balls stemmed on Saturday evening and Sunday afternoon in the halls, churchyards or the threshing floors. In big cities our grandparents had access to a more diverse entertainment, such as cinema, theater and opera. Sundays were always spent in family and, after lunch all family members, had for the famous Sunday stroll, which was repeated on the same itinerary, on foot or, for some families, by car. The villages scattered throughout the country, were visited by traveling circuses, a moment of great joy for all the people who had no access to the variety of the typical offerings of the coast cities. On the coast, it was a rooted summer tradition “to go to the baths” on beaches and everyone still remembers the famous “Berlin cakes” and the vanilla ice cream that were sold in the beach by hawkers. Children played in the street in front of their houses. They play marbles, the mesh, wheels, jumping rope, to hopscotch, hide and seek, the spinning top and the axis. Sometimes they even made their own toys such as dolls, rag balls and bearings carts. Girls learned sewing and needlework with the older women of the family. Moreover, they had the habit of writing and save for the younger generations, diaries, letters and notebooks with their domestic agendas and cooking tricks.


Portugal / Portogallo / Португалия / Πορτογαλία / Portugália / Portugalia / Portekiz Everyday life now a day … Over the past 30 years, the concept of family has been changing in order to incorporate the principle of equality of both sexes and to accommodate the family transformation itself. Women gained rights hitherto devoted only to men and the nuclear family met profound transformations over the traditional pattern of the time of our grandparents. Today it is common to find functional single-parent families, union families out of the traditional marriage or even same sex families. Work and occupational wise, the 21st century brought a whole new wave of professions related primarily to new technologies. Women target the labor market much earlier, leaving for later stages options like marriage and motherhood. The school has adapted itself to the new technologies and society needs. The school has more hours of operation and greater offers. Students have various types of school courses appropriate to their abilities / needs. There is today an increasing consumption often superfluous of useless products but fashionables. This habit is induced either by massive advertising or the association that is made between the products and the life style they induce to. Going to the malls became one of the main options for Portuguese families in their free time, hence the proliferation of these infrastructures. The incensement in life expectancy has led to a demand for higher quality in people's everyday occupation. The grandparents of today attend studies and personal training, do tours, meetings and various other interactions. The senior universities become a reality, modern nursing homes offer the most comprehensive activities and day centers provide leisure time and occupational therapies. Public transport grew and spread nationally contributing to greater movement of people and goods and making remote places more accessible. The private car as a family transportation also became popular, and the plane has become a widely used means of transport. In contrast, in Portugal, the train fell into disuse for the long connections and is mainly used as a city commuter.

Entertainment now a day… Young people enjoy greater freedom at an increasingly earlier age, compared to their parents and grandparents. In metropolitan areas there are several spaces for young people to enjoy and socialize, such as bars and outdoor cafes, night clubs and concerts. Football, bullfighting and cinema remain very popular entertainments. Our children are exchanging the former street games, bike rides and sport from their grandfathers and parents times for hours sitting in front of a computer surfing the social networks or playing with the game consoles. Fortunately now a day there is a greater access to various activities, such as sports activities like gymnastics, football and sports related to the sea. Also the mentality of parents and grandparents is changing and are regaining some healthy lifestyle habits on practicing physical activities, often in families, especially in gyms. Due to economic crises, outdoor activities are gaining popularity and several cities provide free outdoor exercise machines and fitness trails. .


România / Roménia / /Rumänien / Romania

Румъния / Ρουμανία / Romanya

VIAȚA ÎN ROMÂNIA COMUNISTĂ A FOST DURĂ Libertatea nu era permisă în timpul regimului comunist. Nici măcar libertatea presei sau libertatea de opinie. Programul TV dura numai două ore pe zi și era plin de propagandă politică. Cultul personalității președintelui Ceaușescu era omniprezent. La radio, la televizor, în ziare erau numai comentarii despre cât de bun și cât de genial era Ceaușescu și cum toată lumea se învârtea în jurul lui și cum toată România îl iubea. Acest tip de propagandă era și în școli unde copiii învățau cântece care glorificau pe Ceaușescu. Viața zilnică a însemnat o mare depresie națională: fără transport, fără hrană, fără căldură, fără electricitate, fără mijloace de informare, fără posibilitatea de destindere.

Propaganda vorbea numai despre rezultatele mărețe ale economiei României. În viața reală oamenii se confruntau cu mari lipsuri. De exemplu, ca să cumperi lapte, trebuia să stai la coadă, în fața magazinului, una – două ore, în zorii zilei. Oamenii stăteau la cozi toată ziua, pentru hrană. Supermaketuri nu existau. Majoritatea produselor de bază pentru existență erau raționalizate, chiar și pâinea și benzina. Așa a funcționat sistemul comunist.

Istoria a fost falsificată în școli și în ziare. Unul dintre scopurile falsificării istoriei era să mărească rolul Partidului Comunist și al președintelui Ceaușescu. Cărțile vechi nu se găseau în bibliotecile publice, tocmai pentru a ascunde trecutul. Chiar și literatura era cenzurată. Scriitorilor, a căror operă nu corespundea cu anumite concepții ale Partidului Comunist, nu li se tipăreau cărțile. Traducerile din alte limbi erau puține și trebuia să corespundă politic. Urmarea a fost că oamenii au început să citească mai multe cărți. Cel mai bun cadou, la o sărbătoare, era o carte bună, ascunsă în pod, păstrată departe de cenzură sau moștenită de la bunici. Exista un singur ziar plin de minciuni. Electricitatea se întrerupea de mai multe ori pe zi. Copiii făceau temele la lumina lumânărilor. Oamenii erau speriați tot timpul.


România / Roménia / /Rumänien / Romania

Румъния / Ρουμανία / Romanya

Viața în familiile din mediul rural era diferită, prin multe aspecte, de viața familiilor urbane. Standardele de viață erau joase și se mențineau valorile și tiparele înrădăcinate în tradiționala viață rurală. Lipsa electricității din multe case rurale însemna imposibilitatea de a folosi frigidere și mașini de spălat, care, oricum, ar fi fost pentru multe cazuri prea scumpe. Chiar și atunci când aveau acces la electricitate, multe femei din mediul rural preferau să spele și să fiarbă rufele în stilul tradițional, acesta fiind și un mod de interacțiune socială. Când o femeie folosea mașina de spălat, avea o reputație de leneșă și antisocială. Multe familii rurale preferau modul tradițional de a conserva hrana și nu foloseau congelarea. Hrana zilnică era mămăliga însoțită de varză, brânză, ceapă, lapte. Această dietă frugală era înlocuită cu „ festinuri” la ocaziile speciale: nunți, înmormântări, Paște, Crăciun. Viața familiilor rurale era influențată în mai mare parte de religie în comparație cu cea a societății urbane. Biserica ortodoxă românească, bogată în tradiții, a dictat ritmul vieții într-un calendar cu numeroase sărbători. Mulți dintre oamenii din mediul rural considerau căsătoriile civile o formalitate și trăiau impreună numai prin cununia la biserică. Divorțul nu era întâlnit prea des în mediul rural. Ceremonia religioasă durează, în medie, mai mult de trei ore. Rezultă că o mare parte a timpului liber era petrecut la biserică sau în activități legate de biserică. Vizitele la prieteni și în familie, muzica folclorică, dansurile populare, emisiunile radio, plimbările în parcuri, cititul cărților erau activitățile cele mai frecvente pentru destindere și recreere.

Figure Cum 1- conservarea se distrau hranei copiii: Citeau cărți Întâlniri în familie Mergeau pe munte Vizitau prieteni Bicicleta Jocuri: -Țintar -Șah -Maroco -Dame -Jocul cu cărți -Șotron -Coarda

În Parcul Național Bucegi În parcul Chindia - Târgoviște

Figure 2Chindia Park in Targoviste


România / Roménia / /Rumänien / Romania

EVERYDAY LIFE IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA WAS ROUGH Freedom was not allowed in Romania during the communist regime. Neither was freedom for press or speech. The television programme lasted only two hours every day and was full of political propaganda. The personality cult of president Ceausescu was omnipresent. The TV and radio programmes and the newspapers were full of comments about how good president Ceausescu was, what a genius he was, how the entire world spun around him and how the entire Romanian people loved their president. This kind of propaganda was present even in schools, where children learnt songs that glorified president Ceausescu. Everyday life ment a big national depression: no transportation, no food, no heating, no electricity, no mass media, no entertainment at all.

Румъния / Ρουμανία / Romanya

The propaganda spoke only about the great results of the Romanian economy. In the real life people were faced with a shortage of many products. In order to buy some milk, for example, you had to queue at the grocery for 1-2 hours early in the morning. People had to queue all day long for food. Supermarkets didn’t exist. Most of the basic needs were rationed, even bread and petrol. This is how the communist system worked.

The history was falsified in schools and newspapers. One direction of falsifying history was to increase the role of the communist party and president Ceausescu in some historical events. Old books were not available in libraries, exactly for the reason of hiding the past.Even literature was censored. Writers, whose works were not “politically correct” from the communist point of view, were not allowed to print their books. Translations from other languages were very few, and of course, only “politically correct” works were translated. As a result people started to read more books. The best present at a celebration was “a good book” found hidden in the attic and kept away from censorship or inherited from grandparents. There was only one newspaper full of lies. Electricity was cut off quite often during a day. Students had to do their homework using candle lights. People were scared all the time.


România / Roménia / /Rumänien / Romania

Румъния / Ρουμανία / Romanya

Family life for rural Romanians differed in many aspects from that of urban families. Their living standards were lower, and they maintained values and behavior patterns that were firmly rooted in traditional peasant life. The unavailability of electricity to many rural households made it impossible for them to use refrigerators and washing machines, which in many cases would have been prohibitively expensive. Even when electricity was available, many peasant women still did their laundry at the stream because it was a traditional site of social interaction. Using a washing machine gave a woman a reputation for being lazy and antisocial. Many rural families eschewed refrigerators in favor of traditional ways of preserving food. The farm produce was a source of income for many rural families. The rural diet remained maize porridge flavored with cabbage, cheese, onion, or milk. This frugal everyday diet was interspersed with feasting on special occasions such as weddings, funerals, Easter, and Christmas. Rural family life was much more heavily influenced by religion than urban society was. Romanian Orthodoxy, rich in tradition, dictated the rhythm of life in a calendar of numerous holiday celebrations. Most rural people viewed the civil marriage ceremony required by the state as a mere formality and lived together only after a church wedding. In addition, divorce was much less common in rural parts. The average sermon lasted more than three hours. Rural families spent a remarkable amount of free time in church and in church-related activities. Visiting friends and family, listening to music, folk dancing, listening to the radio, walking in the parks, reading books were other popular activities for entertainment.

Entertainment for children Reading books Family meetings Hiking and trekking Visiting friends Walking in the park Cycling Games: - Nine Man’s Morris Game - Chess - Mikado - Chinese Checkers - Cards - Hopscotch - Skipping rope

Chindia Park in Targoviste Figure 1Chindia Park in Targoviste

Hiking- National Park of Bucegi Mountains


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia Atalarımız genellikle geçimlerini tarım ve hayvancılıkla sağlıyordu. Sanayinin tam gelişmediği dönemlerde bir kısım insan farklı mesleklerde yapıyorlardı. Zamanlarının çoğu tarımla uğraşarak ve hayvan yetiştirerek geçiyordu.Genelde buğday,arpa,çavdar, yulaf gibi ürünler yetiştirdiler. Bir çiftçinin tarlasında ekin biçileceği zaman genelde tüm komşular arasında yardımlaşma olur ve sırayla tarlalardaki ekinleri biçerlerdi. Dinlenme aralarında hep beraber oturulup evden getirilen yiyecekler yenirdi. Tüketilen her türlü sebze ve meyveler genelde kendileri bahçelerinde yetiştirilirdi.

Çocukların ve yaşlıların çoğu zamanlarını hayvan otlatarak geçiriyorlardı. Her evde koyun, keçi gibi küçükbaş hayvanlarla bazı büyükbaş hayvanlar ve kümes hayvanları beslenirdi. Yetiştirilen hayvanların etinden, sütünden, deri ve yünlerinden faydalanırlardı.

. Türk geleneğinin vazgeçilmez içeceğidir.Kız isteme törenlerinde bayramlarda vede misafire verilen özel bir içecektir.Közde bakır cezvede yapılır.Günümüzde özel Türk kahvesi makineleri kullanılmaktadır.

Eski dönemlerde komşular aralarında anlaşarak haftada bir gün tandır denilen ocaklarda ekmek yapıyorlardı.


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia

Geçmişten günümüze kadar süren kına gecesi.Düğünden bir gün önce yapılır.Geline özel yöresel kıyafet giydirilir.

Kına

hazırlanır.Kına gecesine özgü türkülerle gelinin eline kına yakılır. geline para takılır. Büyüklerimizden günümüze aktarılan bir gelenek olmuştur.

Elişi örtüler Türkiye’de önemli bir yeresahiptir.Her Türk’ün evinde ve gelinlerin çeyizlerinde mutlaka örtüler vardır. Kadınların en çok zaman harcadıkları etkinliklerden birisidir.Geçmişte daha yaygın olan bu örtülerin yerini günümüzde,hazır örtüler almıştır.

Her bölgeye ait mutlaka bir halk oyunu vardır.Kıyafetler bölgeye göre değişir.Halk oyunları geçmişten günümüze kadar değişmeden gelmiştir.


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia

Hacıvat and Karagöz shows are the one of the oldest events.At schools,these shows are often performed in the frame of projects.Our ancestors used to perform these events to entertain people. .

This is a game performed by the competitors throwing stick to each other according to certain rules.Cirit is one of the oldest Turkish game performed by the horses.It is a team game.The aim of the game is to hit the opponent player on the horse. The stick called Cirit is in the form of spear with iron tip and it is in the various lenghts.

In many parts of the country, oil wrestling has been very Popular sport from past to present. It is an ancestor sport. Especialy, oil wresting in Kırkpınar is very popular tradition in our country.


Türkiye / Turkey / Турция / Türkei / Τουρκία / Törökország / Turchia / Turquia

Due to the structure of the land, there aren’t hhuge fields In Black Sea Region. In this region, people grow tea, Nuts and corn and they do these works by manual labor. Also, people help each other to continue their daily life.

Fishing is the major source of livelihood of the people in Turkey. As it is surrounded by the sean from three sides. Fishing has been an occupation in our country. Fish is one of the most important things in Turkish kitchen.

The largest sources of in come of the people living in the villages are self-produced products. They earn money by selling these products in village markets.


Booklet everyday life and entertainment