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MINE & CITY

OR

MINE VS CITY Mathilde GRELLIER


ABOUT THE COMPLEXITY OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MINE ANS CITY We have the exemple of cities which live thanks to the mine, some times who where build with the mine, and exemple of cities which dead after the fermeture of there mine. The city of Pyramiden, Svalbard, is a good exemple of this close relationship, of the dependance that exist the most of the time and can lead to the destruction of the city, a gost city. The mine is for the city a help to development, it bring poeple and economy which provide life and help the city to grow. It’s olso a source of destruction, environmentaly (polution, transformation of the landscape), but olso economicly. Indeed, the fact of basing an economy olnly on the mining industry is not promoting future.If the mine close, the city hardly survive. In an other way, the mine and the city can put distance between them and create a certain independence. The mine employe migrant workers not realy integrated. The city policy promote the divercity of the activities sectors, trying to develope the city by an other way. Mine and City : Dependence / Independence Development / Destruction Are Mine and City incompatible? How to not became a Pyramiden? What challenges teh city have to be able to survive to her mine?


pikene pa broen culture infrastuctures be stronger

POLITIC open border breathing city network

north-east passage investisment

port development

rail road export ice melting

urban planning

temporary infrastructure

barackment

permanent

reasearch

imigration

university

integration

housing

Local

POPULATION prices rents work salaries

Tourism mine diversity aquaculture shipping king crab fish

ECONOMY

KIRKENES

comerce


POPULATION EVOLUTION IN KIRKENES

720 700

General population Emmigration Immigration

680 660 640 620 600 10300 580 560 10200 540 520 10100 400 480 10000 460 440 9900 420 400 9800 380 360 9700 340 320 9600 300 280 9500 260 240

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

9400

THE MINE IN THE CITY, AGAIN _ REACTION OF THE CITY The reopening of the mine in 2009 bring new factors to considerate in the life of the city. Indeed, after its closure, the city finded the way to survive and create a new dynamic in its economy. Even if they are not against, the habitant doesn’t feel the necessity of a come back from this industry. Sydvaranger provides to employ 500 poeple to work to the fonctionment of the site. In 2011 on the 398 employees, only 47 were from Kirkenes. The majority are migrnant workers mainly from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. This new population compence the strog emigration of locals and ensure a growing population to the city and like that participe to its development. But those new inhabitants need to be housed. The placement of a part of the workers in barracks - 30% of the employees- or in hotels involve a temporary migration. Those are poeple who doesn’t plan to stay, they come without family and doesn’t realy participate to the city life. In front of that phenomene the city looks for how to integrate them, how to offer them permanent houses and how to make of their presence a benefit for the development of Kirkenes. In an other way, the city is fully conscious that it has to keep its independence from the mining industry. A lots of development projects are planing by the politics. Expension of the port providing Kirkenes as a central point in the Barents sea with the development of shipping and fishing, development of the exchange between the cities in the area to create a stronger economy and influence of the North, development of local industries to compense the influence of the mine policy on the standart of living in Kirkenes.


398 workers in 2011 500 workers planed

47 local workers

Sydvaranger industry Barracks - 30% of the workers Hotels +351 immigrant workers

Private houses


Sydvaranger policy / how to attract workers

Higher local prices

Higher salaries

Survive to the mine / Diversity

500 WORKERS

MINE

Integration New residential area

Higher rents

LOCAL ECONOMY WORKERS

POPULATION

SEA INDUSTRY

King crab industry

CITY POLICY

AQUACULTURE

Shipping industry Port development

King crab industry BORDER CROSSER

CITY NETWORK

RAILWAY


Sources Northern experiments, The Barents Urban Survey 2009 _ 0047 Transborder Kirkenes _ 0047 Field of exploration, Limite of exploitation _ http://fieldsofexploration.blogspot.com/ Lectures : Barents observer _ Barents institute _ Pikene pa broen _ Sydvarenger AS World port Kirkenes group AS _ http://www.wpk.no/wpkprospect.pdf http://www.sikunews.com/News/Norway/Reopened-iron-mine-near-Kirkenes-looks-past-region-for-workers-6340 The Norwegian Barent Secretaria _ www.barents.no

Reflection Mathilde Grellier  

Mine & City or Mine VS City

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