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Sophie 3F Juliette 3G

The map and the flag First, Australia is in the southem hemisphere so the seasons are reversed. It's the smallest continent in the world. Australia is a huge country : it's 14 times as big as France but it has 3 times fewer inhabitants than France. It's composed of 6 states : Northern Territory, Western Australia, Queensland, South Australia, New South Wales, Vicotoria. There is also Tasmania. From East to West there are 4100 km. From North to South there are 3180 km. This doesn't include the state of Tasmania.

Next, Sydney is the biggest city in Australia but Canberra is the capital. Other important cities are Melbourne and Brisbane in the east and Perth in the west.


Finally, The Australian flag was adopted in 1901, after the creation of the Federation. There is the British flag (aka the Union Jack) in the top left hand corner because Australia was a British colony and is part of the Commonwealth. The big star (the commonwealth star) symbolizes the States of Australia and the 5 small stars represent the Southern Cross (the stars you can see in the Australia sky).

- A USTRALIAN A BORIGINES First, let's talk about the first inhabitants : Australian Aborigines, aka Aboriginal Australians, have been identified as a group of people who share, in common, biological ancestry back to the original occupants of the continent. That was 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Dispersing on the continent of Australia, over time the ancient peoples expanded and developed distinctions in languages and cultures. Four hundred and more distinct Australian Aboriginal peoples have been identified across the continent, each distinguished by unique names for groups of people, ancestral languages, dialects... Then, these are the different names given to them ( in different states ) : There are a lot of other names from Australian Aboriginal languages commonly used to identify groups based on geography, including: - Bama in north-east Queensland - Koori (or Koorie or Goori or Goorie) in New South Wales and Victoria


- Murri in southern Queensland - Noongar in southern Western Australia - Nunga in southern South Australia - Anangu in northern South Australia, and neighbouring parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory - Palawah (or Pallawah) in Tasmania. Finally, we'll see the differences between the Australian flag and the Aboriginal flag. 1. The flag of Australia is a blue flag with the Union Jack in the top left corner, a large white star which represents the Commonwealth. The flag contains a representation of the Southern Cross constellation, made up of five white stars – a small one ( a five-pointed star ) and four, larger, seven-pointed stars. 2.

The Australian Aboriginal Flag is a flag that

represents Indigenous Australians. It has been one of the official "Flags of Australia" since 1995, and holds special legal and political status, but it is not the "Australian National Flag". It was designed in 1971 by Aboriginal artist Harold Thomas. Black symbolizes the Aboriginal people of Australia, red represents the red earth and a spiritual relation to the land and yellow represents the Sun, the giver of Life and protector.

Marion et Baptiste, 3G


COLONISATION James Cook First, in 1770 Captain James Cook explored part of Australia and discovered Botany Bay in New South Wales ( which is now Sydney).

The first fleet Next, following the loss of the American Colonies after the American Revolutionary War 1775-1783, Great Britain needed to find alternative land for a new British colony. Australia was chosen for settlement and to establish a penal colony., and colonisation began in 1788 with Captain Arthur Phillip. After that, they landed in New South Wales until 1868 with the convicts, criminals by lack of space in prisons in England. This is how was the first shipment of the first convicts to Australia, and the first massacres of the Aborigines began.


Exploration by Europeans until the mid 19th century.. Finally, various gold rushes occurred in Australia over the second half of the 19th century. The most important of these were the Victorian gold rush in 1851, and the Western Australian gold rush of the 1890s. They brought a large number of immigrants to the states, and promoted massive government spending on infrastructure to support the new arrivals who came looking for gold.

Tom et Jules, 3F


FEDERATION AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA The Federation of Australia First, the Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-

governing colonies of Tasmania, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia formed one nation. The great majority of population wanted to become Australian. The colonies became states of the Commonwealth of Australia on January, 1 st 1901 when the Constitution of Australia came into force. A draft bill was drawn up in 1898. Referendums were held in 4 of the colonies in June 1898. referendum

NSW Qld SA 71,595 35,800 66,228 17,320 107,420 38,488 65,900 82,741 30,996 17,953

Tas 11,797 2,716 13,437 791

Vic 100,520 22,099 152,653 9,805

WA

total yes 219,712 1898 no 108,363 yes 377,898 1899 no 142,286 yes 44,800 44,800 1900 no 19,691 19,691 Then, the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution was passed on July 5 th 1900 and given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria on July 9th 1900. It was proclaimed on 1 January 1901 in Centennial Park, Sydney. The new constitution established a Parliament. It contains a Senate and a House of Representatives. Nowadays, the Queen of Australia is Queen Elizabeth II,who has been on the throne since February 6th 1952. The first prime minister of Australia was Edmund Barton (from 1901 to 1903). The Parliament house in Canberra


After that the Parliament House in Canberra is the building of the Parliament of Australia. It was opened by the Queen of Australia, Elizabeth II on 9 May 1988, the anniversary of the opening of both the first Federal Parliament in Melbourne on 9 May 1901 by the Duke of Cornwall and York and of the Provisional Parliament House in Canberra on 9 May 1927 by the Duke of York. It replaces the Provisional Old Parliament House.

(This is the old Parliament House opening, 1927)

Finally the total size of the site is 32 hectares. The building itself contains 250,000 m2 of floor space. It was expected to cost 220 million $ but it cost more than 1 billion$. The flagpole weighs 220 tonnes. In the building, there are 4700 rooms. Every day there are 2000 to 3000 people working there. In the building, there is the great Hall, the houses of parliament which looks like the House of Commons decorated in green, the senate which looks like the House of Lords. Nicolas et Thomas S, 3G


Relationship between Aborigenes and white Australians White Australia policy : ''White Australia policy'' was various historical policies which took place in Australia from 1861 to 1973, in favor of white european migration to the detriment of the people of other continents, especially the East Asian. It restricted a non-white immigration to Australia. The Coniston Massacre : Relations between Aboriginal and White Australians before the 1920s were marked by several massacres. The Coniston Massacre is a famous massacre that took place in 1926. Europeans shot 32 Aboriginal people after a European dingo hunter was attacked by them. Stolen generations : " Stolen Generations ", aka ''Stolen children'', are the children of Australian Aborigines who have been taken away by strength from their parents by the Australian government since 1869 until approximately 1969. These children were mostly half-bloods of aboriginal mother and white father. They were placed in orphanages, boarding schools, either confided to Christian missions or to white host families.

On this picture we can see half-caste children 'kidnapped' by white officers. Racial Discrimination Act in 1975 : It was only in 1975 that the Racial Discrimination Act (RDA) made racial discrimination unlawful in Australia. The reconciliation policy / The Sorry Day : Reconciliation is about unity and respect between Aboriginal and non-Indiginous Australians. It began with the 1967-referendum in which 90% of Australians agreed to stop dicrimination against Aborigenes. The Aborigines had the right to vote in the 1960s and had their lands back in the 1970s. The first National Sorry Day was held on 26 May 1998 to say sorry to Aborigenes because of what white governements did to them. Quentin, Antoine and Robin P, 3FG


Population in Australia Nowadays, in Australia there are about 21,7 million inhabitants across the continent and its island territories. But in 2056, the Australian population would jump to about 30 million to 45 million ! On this picture, we can see that the population is concentrate in the southeast and in the east. In the middle of Australia there are few inhabitants because it's very arid ! The most populated state in the country is still New South Wales whose capital is Sydney, with about 7 million people.

Next, here are some famous Australian and Aboriginal people : – Tina Arena, born Filippina Lydia Arena on the 1st November in 1967 in Melbourn, is an Australian singer. She sold more than 8 million discs in the world.

– Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born on January 3rd , 1956) is an Americanborn Australian. He is a well-known actor. In 'Lethal Weapon', he is the main character. – David Unaipon was a Ngarrindjeri man, a preacher, inventor and writer. He is on the front of Australia's 50-dollar note !


– Julie Gillard was born on September 29th 1961. She has been the current Prime Minister of Australia since 2010.

– Andrew Barton ''Banjo'' Paterson was born on February 17th1964 and died on February 5th 1941, was the biggest Austalian poet and writer. He wrote many ballads and poems about Austalian life.

- Lionel Edmund Rose (21 June 1948 – 8 May 2011) was an Australian Boxer, the first Australian Aborigine to win the World title. - Russell Crowe, who was born on April 7th 1964, is a New Zealander Australian actor, film producer and musician. He plays in 'The Insider' (1999). So, there are lots of famous people in Australia ! Thomas F and Arthur, 3G


The Ayers Rock and the Aboriginal culture 1)Its Aboriginal name ? First, its aboriginal name is Uluru. 2) How high, how long and how wide is it ? Then, the Ayers Rock is 3,6 km long, 348 meters high and 2 km wide. 3) Where is it in Australia? Then, the Ayers Rock is situated in the south part of the Northern Territory. This rock is near Alice Spring. 4) Why is it so important for the Aborigines? Next, it is so important for the Aborigines because it is a sacred place. The Anangu, one Aboriginal people, had it back in 1985. 5) What is the Aboriginal culture ( explain the dreamtime) ? The dreamtime is the Aboriginal understanding of the creation of the world. The physical world is related to the human world and to the sacred world. Ceremonies, dance, songs with didgeridoo enable the dreamtime to continue. Ayers Rock belongs to the Dreamtime too because it is said that it was created during the time of the creation, the Tjukurpa.

6) What do tourists do on Ayers Rock? Finally, the tourists can walk around the Ayers rock, they can jump into an helicopter and just look at the magnificent red landscapes (the sunset and the sunrise are popular)., Mathew Vincent


MONUMENTS AND ATTRACTIONS First, here is the Katherine Gorge

In the southeast of Darwin, the capital of the Nothern territory, thirteen gorgeous gorges make up the major attraction of Katherine Gorge (some 340 kilometres). As a consequence, there are many visitors because it's a natural park with vegetation.

Next, this is the Arnhem Land and Kakadu national park Arnhem Land is located in the middle of Australia's northern coast and it's near Kakadu national park.

Then, we are talking about the Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world. It is located off the coast of Queensland, in Australia. It has more than 2000 islands and around 30000 reefs. There are over 300 species of coral and over 1500 species of fish and shellfish.

And now, the Harbour Bridge


It's a metal arch bridge which is located in Sydney, in Australia. This is the widest bridge in the world ( 48,8 m). In 2012, it will be 80 years old.

The view of the Bridge and the Opera is emblematic of the city and Australia.

After that, let's present the Uluru! Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock, is a large rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory. The ayers rock is the biggest rock on the surface of the earth with its 9,5 km circumference and its height is 348m.

Finally, here is the Sydney Opera House. The Sydney Opera House is an arts center in the city of Sydney. It was built by a Danish architect. It finally opened in 1973 and it cost $ 102 million. It looks like a shell or a sailboat.

Agathe 3°G Héléna


• The sports : Cricket : Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Australia, at international, domestic and local levels. Unlike most other sports played in Australia, cricket generates equal interest in all states of Australia.

Netball : The game of netball is an international sport and is played by two teams of seven players; based on throwing and catching. The aim is to score goals from within a defined area, by throwing a ball into a ring attached to a 3.05 metres (10 feet) high post. It's a sport played only by women. Amy, our English assistant, likes this sport and plays it.

Field hockey : 'Field Hockey', aka 'Hockey', is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks. It is most commonly known simply as 'hockey'; however, the name 'field hockey' is used in countries in which the word 'hockey' is generally reserved for another form of hockey, such as 'ice hockey' or 'street hockey'.

Rugby Union : Rugby union is the third most popular winter sport in Australia, with its history dating back to 1864. The principal competition in Australian rugby union is Super Rugby which is a multi-regional competition across the southern hemisphere. Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. It is based on running with the ball in hand. It is played with an oval-shaped ball on a field up to 100 metres (330 ft) long and 70 metres (230 ft) wide with H-shaped goal posts on each goal line.

Rugby League : Rugby league football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. It is the dominant winter sport on the eastern seaboard of Australia. It is the most watched sport on Australian television, with an aggregate audience of 128.5 million viewers in 2009. Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field.


• Surfing : In Australia surfing is not only a sport but also a culture because Australia counts more than 37,000 kilometers of beach so it's very easy to surf and swim in the Pacific Ocean with friends. What is curious is that surfing is native of Hawaii and was introduced in Australia only after 1915. Winter is the best season to surf because the waves are very big. The biggest brands of industry of surfing are Australian!!! (For example, Rip Curl, Billabong and Quiksilver)

• The Olympic Games Australia hosted the Summer games twice. In 1956 in Melbourne and in 2000 in Sydney. Australia finished at the third and fourth respective medal counts. Swimming is the strongest of these sports ; Australia is the second-most prolific medal winner in the sport in Olympic history. Australia has already been in the top-five medal-winners at Olympic or World Championship level since 2000. Three Sydney Olympics' mascots : Olly the kookaburra, Syd the platypus, Millie the echidna.

The Olympic Games ended with fireworks

• The outback : What's the outback ? The outback is the big desert in the middle of Australia. Only 10 percent of the population lives there. It's very arid and hot.

What's the School of the Air ? Contrary to what we could think, it is not a school of aviation. It's a school for the children who live in the outback because the other cities are too far. For example, the Titooburra Outback School of the Air which is located in far north west New South Wales.

Raphaël and Victor, 3G


FAUNA First, in Australia, there is a large of number of animals which are unique to country. The main animals are Kangaroos and koalas. But there are other animals as crocodiles, wombats, whales, thorny devils, parrots‌

Some birds

The turquoise parrot The emu The laughing Kookaburra

Some sea animals

The fairy penguin

The dugong

The Giant Cuttlefish


Some marsupial

Koala

Wombat Eastern Pygmy Possum

Dingoes First, the Dingo can be found in almost any part of the Australian mainland (except Tasmania). It is a wild form of the domestic dog . Next, they live and hunt alone or in pairs . Dingoes appear to have clearly defined home territory. Finally, its short-haired coat color ranges from reddish ginger, rust, yellow to browns and (rarely) to black with white points on the feet.

Kangaroos

First, the red kangaroo is Australia's

largest kangaroo of the nearly 60 species in the kangaroo family .

Then, the majority of kangaroo species

are not at all endangered. In some parts of

Australia, they are considered as a pest and, unfortunately, farmers have successfully lobbied to have them culled.

Finally, Kangaroo meat products can

also be bought at butchers' shops and supermarkets.


Platypus First, the Platypus is an extremely

different Mammal found in Eastern Australia where they live on the edges of rivers and

freshwater lakes. Platypuses are known for

their excellence in the water as both a diver and swimmer.

Next, the body of the platypus is 30 to

45 cm (12 to 18 in) long; the flattened tail

measures 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) in length.

Lisa and Sophie


AUSTRALIA Food, Religion, National Anthem and Music

I./ AUSTRALIAN FOOD First, the original native food of Australia is what they called « bush food » or «bush tucker» : that constituting of native animals and plant foods. So, Native meat bush food include crocodile, kangaroo, emu and more... But, Australian food has evolved and adapted a lot of foreign recipes, cooking techniques and rich spices over the years. Then, Asian influence is very strong in each corner of the country ; that's why there's often a « sign » : Mod'Oz gastronomy, that mean it's a fusion between Australian and European cultures. For example :

Australian meat pie is very popular there, it's composed of sausages or meat, often kangaroo... But that may be stodgy, and so not very fine...

Next, Vegemite is certainly the food product the most popular : it's a kind of spread for toasts or sandwiches, made from yest extract. However, it's taste is very salty ; first you spread butter, then you toast a thin layer of Vegemite.

Anzac biscuits/cookies were baked by anxious wives and mothers during World War I, packed in « food boxes » and sent to the Australian soldiers in the trenches.


Finally, in 1935, a chef of an hotel in Perth, in Western Australia, created the Pavlova to celebrate the visit of a famous ballerina : Anna Pavlova. This meringue is crispy outside, soft inside and often decorated with fruits on the top.

II./ RELIGION The main religion in Australia is demographically dominated by Christianity ; of course there's a freedom of religion.

III./ NATIONAL ANTHEM The national anthem of Australia, called “Advance Australia Fair” has knew a lot of changements over the years. But, it was declared official in 1984. Advance Australia Fair was composed by Peter Dodds McCormick. The official lyrics are as follow : Verse 1

“Australians all let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We've golden soil and wealth for toil, Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in Nature's gifts Of beauty rich and rare; In history's page, let every stage Advance Australia fair! In joyful strains then let us sing, "Advance Australia fair!" Verse 2

“Beneath our radiant southern Cross, We'll toil with hearts and hands; To make this Commonwealth of ours Renowned of all the lands; For those who've come across the seas We've boundless plains to share;


With courage let us all combine To advance Australia fair In joyful strains then let us sing "Advance Australia fair!"

IV./ MUSIC First, Aboriginal song was an integral part of Aboriginal culture. The most famous feature of their music is the ÂŤ didgeridoo Âť. This wooden instrument is used amongst the Aboriginal tribes of Northern Australia. Australian country music has been popular among indigenous communities. Next, Contemporary fusions of Indigenous and Western styles mark distinctly Australian contributions to world music. After that, HUTCHENCE Michael is a singer who was born in 1960, in Sydney and committed suicide in 1997. He belonged to a rock band, called INXS. Finally, BON Scott, alias RONALD BELFORD Scott was born in 1946 and died in 1980. He was an Australian singer too, same if he's from Scotland ; he also belonged to a very famous rock band : AC/DC.

HUTCHENCE Michael on the left and BON Scott on the right Moreover, there's a group as popular as AC/DC in Australia : Yothu Yindi.

Justine & Wafa


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AUSTRALIA  

French pupils, aged 14, worked on different topics about AUSTRALIA.

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