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Tenter Street Urban Design Brief

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Supplementary Planning Document (SPD)

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Mathew Bayley 17018361 Helen Butcher 17001699 Joanne King 15033310 Joanna Stokes 17009859

Tenter Street Site

Planning Control Howden House 1 Union Street Sheffield S1 2SH Phone: 0114 273 4215 Website: www.sheffield.gov.uk

Urban Planning and Design

Foreword This design brief is a collaboration of work, undertaken by Mathew Bayley, Helen Butcher, Joanne King and Joanna Stokes. The Brief aims to provide developers with a set of material guidelines for future development of the site. The brief will be used to accompany any planning applications and appeals relating to this site. 2


Contents 1.1 Objectives ................................................................................. 5 1. Introduction .................................................................................. 5 1.2 Site Location ............................................................................. 5 Introduction ...................................................................................... 5 1. Introduction .................................................................................. 6 1.3 Site History ............................................................................... 6 2.1 Transport .................................................................................. 9 2.

Accessibility and Connectivity...................................................... 9

2.2 Nodes of Activity ..................................................................... 10 2.3 Pedestrian access and movement ............................................. 11 3.1 Building Height ........................................................................ 15 3. Layout and Built Form .................................................................. 15 3.2 Landmarks and Views .............................................................. 16 3.3 Topography ............................................................................ 17 3.4 Layout .................................................................................... 18 3.5 Urban Grain ............................................................................ 20 Public Realm and Open Space .......................................................... 21 5.1 Building Uses .......................................................................... 24 5. Uses and Activity ......................................................................... 24 6. Detail and Distinctiveness ............................................................. 28 6.1 Architectural Form ................................................................... 28 Character of Surrounding Area ....................................................... 33 Policy Context ............................................................................... 35 7. Policy Context .............................................................................. 35 8. References .................................................................................. 40

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List of figures 1.1 Map showing city centres distinctive quarters

3.5 Cathedral and skyline

1.2 Tenter Street

3.6 Landmarks

1.3 Garden Street

3.7 View of Hollis Croft

1.4 Birds eye view of the site

3.8 View of Garden Street

1.5 Croft House

3.9 View of Garden Street

1.6 Tenter Street roundabout in the 1940â€&#x;s

3.10 View of North junction along Broad Lane

1.7 38 garden Street

3.11 Urban grain

1.8 Public Amenities

3.12 Old urban grain map

1.9 City skyline 1.10 Historic tram

4.1 Birds eye view of St. Vincentâ€&#x;s

1.11 HSBC building

4.2 Public realm photos 4.3 Open space in new developments

2.1 Legibility map

4.4 Photos of old industrial art work

2.2 Major nodes of activity

4.5 Potential rooftop open space

2.3 Road dominance 2.4 Road crossings

5.1 3D land use map

2.5 Pedestrian access

5.2 Potential window designs

2.6 Street maintenance

5.3 Buildings on site as existing

2.7 New streetscape

5.4 Potential new buildings

2.8 Street improvements 2.9 Evolving street networks

6.1 Tenter street building materials

2.10 Possible pedestrian crossings

6.2 BMW showroom

2.11 Car parking

6.3 Building styles

2.12 Under croft parking

6.4 Window Styles 6.5 Window styles

3.1 Possible buildings heights

6.6 Roofing design

3.2 Building heights

6.7 Architectural detail

3.3 Building heights

6.8 Abandoned building

3.4 Skyline

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1. Introduction

1.1 Objectives This Design Brief is commissioned (as an academic article) by Sheffield Hallam University. The brief aims to provide a detailed analysis for future development of the site and suggest ways in which developers can improve the local area and keep within the character. The brief aims to help promote economic regeneration within the area whilst ensuring a sustainable future for the site. The brief is designed to supplement existing planning policy, providing design guidance for the area. The document aims to suggest ways in which problems of crime, public safety and parking could be resolved using innovative techniques.

1.2 Site Location The site is located within the historic core of Sheffield City Centre and is bounded by White Croft to the north, Garden Street to the south and Tenter Street to the east. The 2.5 acre site houses a large car sales room and garage, workshops and a large amount of indoor car parking within old factories and warehouses. The site, which sits within the „St Vincent‟s‟ area of the city, is located alongside the A57, a busy trunk road carrying traffic from the Sheffield University area of the city to the Kelham Island area. The site is located alongside a number of key walking and cycling routes which provide access to the city centre and the heart of the city. The areas dramatic topography and unique

townscape

have

helped

create

distinctive character, and a strong heritage within the quarter. Tenter Street is a key Gateway to the city.

Figure 1.0 Map showing Sheffield City Centres distinctive quarters.

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1. Introduction

Figure 1.3 Garden Street – Site on left, looking east

Figure 1.2 Tenter Street – Site on the right, looking south east

Figure 1.4 Birdseye view of the site (Shaded red). Direction of view: Top Left – South, Top Right – North, Bottom Left – West, Bottom Right - East

1.3 Site History The Tenter Street site is located within the St Vincent‟s quarter of the city and is rich in historical heritage. The narrow streets are the result of the long open field strips during the Sixteenth century and there extreme narrowness helps define the areas distinctive character. The area was “one of the cities most tightly builtup areas with densely packed courts of houses and cutlery workshops, inhabited by the substantial population for whom St Vincents Church was built” (Harman and Minnis, p159) A large amount of clearance took part in the early part of the Twentieth Century, however the original street pattern was retained leaving the street pattern seen today.

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Garden Street, located to the east of the site houses a mixture of post 1930s factories and warehouses as well as some old buildings detailing the original, tightly packed houses and cutlery premises from the past. The Croft House Settlement adjoining the proposed site “began as a congregational Chapel in 1866-7 [However] inspired by the work of East London‟s Toynbee Hall, the building was later converted to minister the needs of inhabitants of this poor district in 1902” (Harman and Minnis, p160).

Figure 1.7 Number 38 Garden Street. A grade

II

building,

listed described

as “the first of a number Figure 1.5 Shows Croft house, Located next to the site, previously used to minister the needs of the poor.

of

workshops

cutlery of

the

Figure 1.6 Tenter Street roundabout usual Sheffield type”. in the 1940s. (Harman and Minnis, p160)

Due to the large numbers of furnaces and factories the buildings in the area have suffered

great

decolouration.

The

South

Yorkshire

Historic

Environment

Characterisation Project explains; (2007, P3) “The smoky environment of 18th century Sheffield, resulting from the large number of small hand forges or smithies recorded in the town was compounded by the introduction in the first two decades of the eighteenth century of the cementation furnace”.

Figure 1.8 High quality, historic public amenities improve the look of the area and improve public realm.

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Following clearance, much of the housing in the area was replaced with high rise flats in the surround areas including Park Hill Flats, Kelvin Flats and Hyde Park Flats and social housing projects such as Norfolk Park. This along with the decline of the Steel Industry within Sheffield created a lot of derelict buildings within the area.

Figure 1.9 This 1960s photo taken from the Sheffield University Arts Tower, shows how the city skyline has changed. HSBC Building, Tenter Street Tenter Street was once served by one of the many tram services in the city. This was removed in the 1930s due to war damage and government policy focusing on vehicular transport. Figure 1.10 (Right) Shows a tram running along Tenter Street in the early 1930s. Figure 1.11 (left) shows the HSBC building, located opposite the site in 1971. The Development was originally built to provide, offices, housing, retail, licensed premises and a multi-story car park. The site is now the regional office of HSBC bank and provides many jobs for the area.

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2. Accessibility and Connectivity

2.1 Transport

Figure 2.1 Legibility Map of the Tenter Street Site Above is a legibility map demonstrating the different quarters of the city and there connectivity to one another. The figure 2.1 also pinpoints the different transport routes surrounding and serving the area lastly showing the situation of the minor and main transport routes and pedestrian walking routes. St. Vincent's is situated right beside the main transport corridor and is served by several bus stops and routes, thus the accessing the area is relatively easy. The node of activity links into the popular walking routes to and from the city and other areas within Sheffield City centre region. The following figures break down each transport route and identify the main issues and opportunities of each. Bus stops - Currently in the area there are three bus stops that best serve Tenter Street and Broad Lane. These bus routes connect the city centre to St. Vincent's creating accessible permeable routes for public transport users. Justifying further bus routes is not necessary as there is no further demand for bus usage in the area. Merely

9 strengthening current routes should be focused upon (UDP, 2004).


2.2 Nodes of Activity In figure 2.2 the most upper red node contains a small roundabout with four roads accessing it. This node of activity creates prominent issues for the area in relation to pedestrian crossing. The major traffic routes cross major pedestrian routes, there is potential to create a wide, well landscaped crossing with lights and other devices to define the crossing area. Opening up these pedestrian crossings would remove a town barrier for movement around the city (UDP, 2004) without un-crossable central divides.

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 People crossing the road in dangerous

places

due

to

poor

pedestrian crossing location.

Major road access - The through route demonstrated by the red lines in figure 2.3 gives life to the area and define the links to the city centre and the surrounding areas (UDP, 2004). This through movement of vehicular traffic has further opportunity to open up the area to mixed-use developments; therefore retaining the current road structure is vital. The St Vincentâ€&#x;s site needs to adapt its framework of routes and spaces in order to connect the local with the surrounding areas especially the city centre. It is important that vehicle access to and from the site does not cause any further congestion issues to surrounding areas. Within the site the design of roads, cycle paths and footpaths should focus on pedestrian emphasis and encourage the interconnection of spaces.

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2.3 Pedestrian access and movement A

pedestrian

walking

through

the

St

Vincent's quarter should be able to navigate easily

around

the

area.

Public

spaces

including the walkways, alley ways and paths should be well lit, portray a safe image and well maintained. The main issues with pedestrian accessibility in the St. Figure 2.5 Movement from the city into the area of St Vincentâ€&#x;s from pedestrians. Figure 2.6 shows the lack of care and maintenance for streets

Vincent's area is the lack of well maintained areas, and the narrow streets creating a negative perception of the area, therefore less people are enticed to visit the area. Currently the paving is poorly maintained with a lack of street lighting

present

present's

management and maintenance issues in the area (As can be seen by figure 2.6). A much stronger pedestrian connection to the cathedral quarter should be established in the form of upgraded pedestrian facilities and a more attractive streetscape.

Figure 2.7 New streetscape possibilities

Figure 2.8 Areas in need of street improvements

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An improvement in pedestrian facilities should aim to create a seamless transition into St. Vincentâ€&#x;s from the Cathedral quarter. Any new infrastructure to the highways should be kept to a minimum in order to reinforce key pedestrian desire lines and any design should take its inspiration from the current public realm works. There is an opportunity to create an attractive edge to St. Vincentâ€&#x;s with the overall aim to creating better linkages to surrounding areas. Creating a sense of wellbeing and amenity, a place with clear routes and pedestrian access that becomes more lively and pleasant to use will bring attention to the area. The idea of improving and re-designing the street walkability will create a feeling of safety and security for pedestrians. Issues with the pavements and streets at the moment include a lack of maintenance and a feeling of insecurity combined with a lack of pedestrian users in the area. However there are many opportunities to develop the streets into an aesthetically pleasing area with well designed streets furniture and planning. This will inevitably create a pleasant environment that suits the needs of everyone including the disabled and elderly people. In relation to new buildings the pedestrian routes in and around the area will need to be bordered by active frontages, windows, public spaces and office windows in order to create informal supervision. Key junctions where pedestrian accessibility and crossing facilities should be significantly improved Primary streets create linkages and should be protected Existing traffic dominant corridors calmed and refurbished Important connections to adjacent communities' including the city centre should be retained

Figure 2.9 Evolving street network

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Opportunity – It is extremely important that the area is more accessible to pedestrians drawing in people from the city centre regions. Here there is the opportunity to create two new crossings that will aid the increase of pedestrians to the area, along with public realm improvements. The ease of movement will be increased as roads and footpaths

Figure 2.10 Possible design: New pedestrian crossings

become connected into well-used routes.

2.4 Access and Parking

Underground parking

Outdoor parking at the top of Hollis Croft

Parking for the BMW garage

Figure 2.11 Car Parking

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The site currently provides under croft parking with outdoor parking behind the BMW garage on Broad Lane (See figure 2.11). Parking will have to be retained as relocation would provide problems in such a high density building areas. Parking on the street is creating issues as too much street domination and causing an inconvenience to other road users especially around the Garden Street area. For this particular area commercial parking areas would consume too much building space and would have to be designed as part of the integral landscape and managed communally (UDP, 2004). Therefore the current under croft parking has the opportunity to be retained in the re-development of the area. Under croft parking will allow the street frontage of buildings to be maintained (Davies, 2004), furthermore creating an uncluttered feeling to the streetscape and increasing pedestrian safety. Additional benefits for the St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area to retaining the under croft parking is its ability to incorporated ground level activities including shops, offices and residential areas and with carful design process can contribute to the street scene (UDP, 2004)

Figure 2.12 - under croft development

Figure 2.12 shows a development with an under croft parking alternative to on street parking. Retaining the current under croft parking would eliminate any street congestion whilst providing adequate parking facilities.

The existing

surface level car parking could be redesigned to create a more pedestrian orientated environment incorporating a limited number of parking spaces for disabled users only.

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3. Layout and Built Form

3.1 Building Height The site currently houses a number of buildings used for light industry and storage. There is also a large car sales room on the site with accompanying workshop, along with a small cafeteria. The buildings on the site vary in size throughout the site. The height and scale of buildings is a major factor in the area due to the dramatic topography of the site. The site would be suitable for large scale development with larger buildings up to a height of around seven floors along Tenter Street, reducing to around three stories at the end of the site on Garden Street. Figure 3.1 shows how the scale of the buildings might look.

Garden Street

Hollis Croft

White Croft

Tenter Street

Figure 3.1 possible building heights for the Tenter Street Site (Number of floors) The dramatic topography of the area allows for a variety of building heights and masses. Sheffield City Council (2004) explains how “Building heights should reflect and accentuate the existing topography. This means positioning taller building towards the crest of slopes and avoiding overly tall buildings lower down slopes which can effectively „even out‟ the topography and deaden the impact of the landscape”. Figure 3.2 (Left) Shows how larger buildings are located in the valley bottom, while figure 3.3 (right) shows how smaller buildings are located towards the crest of the hill.

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3.2 Landmarks and Views The dramatic topography and distinctive history of the Tenter Street area, provides many great views of landmark buildings. Garden Street, located to the south of the site, provides exciting views towards the city centre with the cathedral spire and a number of the cities tall buildings creating a distinctive skyline. St Vincent‟s church is a key land mark, visible from the Don Valley. The views towards the cathedral and city centre, as well as the channelled views along Tenter Street should be kept to improve legibility in the area and help keep the cities distinctive skyline. Lynch (1960, p3) explains this when he says “A legible city is one whose constituent parts are easily identifiable and are easily grouped into an overall pattern.”

HSBC Building

Tenter Street Roundabout

Cathedral

Figure 3.4 the Skyline looking west along Garden Street

Figure 3.5 (left) shows how the cathedral has remained a prominent feature on the skyline for many years, helping create character and improve legibility. Figure 3.6 The two images to the right show how landmarks on the horizon help to guide people through the surrounding area.

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3.3 Topography The buildings step up with the contours of the land and were clearly designed to take account of the topography. The photographs below illustrate the topography within the brief area.

Figure 3.7 View, Looking West on Hollis Croft

Figure 3.8 View West

Garden Street

Sheffieldâ€&#x;s topography has shaped its history; it is a green city which nestles in a natural basin surrounded by seven hills, at the confluence of two major rivers, the Don and the Sheaf (from which Sheffield gets its name) including the Porter Brook. Sheffieldâ€&#x;s geography provided a wealth of natural resources, such as iron ore for smelting, oak woods for charcoal and fast-flowing streams for water power, which together gave rise to the metal trades. Dramatic views across the city skyline from vantage points and framed vistas along streets to the neighbouring hills are afforded due to the topography of the City Centre. The skyline comprises a mixture of landmarks from the spires of historic buildings to the monolithic slab forms of modern buildings, with some recent developments undermining these views with no regard for the city's topography, leading to a flattened skyline.

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3.4 Layout “The degree to which a city is sustainable is affected both by the form of the urban street block and also by the composition of the activities it accommodates� (P Shirley, 2005 p193). Traditionally the buildings are of a simple functional design and appearance and positioned on the back of the footpath line, they range from 1- 4 storeys high, dependent upon the contours of the site. However, the wider area is fragmented due to the traffic on Tenter Street, the variety of designs, scales, materials and construction periods of architecture with many of the building being underutilised. There is a wide variety of uses beyond the brief site within the locality such as; residential, administration, offices, sandwich shop, solicitors, car showroom, workshops, professional services, student accommodation and university buildings. The Footprint Tools Works have a long building frontage situated along generally narrow streets.

These factors create a fairly dark environment with limited

sunlight penetrating through along Hollis Croft, whereas Garden Street has more natural daylight because the buildings on the southern side of the street are lower in height and scale together with a slighter wider highway.

There are

several smaller buildings beyond the brief site; some are historic live work industrial workshops. The car showroom on Broad Lane curving the roundabout maintains the height and long frontage of the Footprint Works building along Garden Street and it also aims to replicate the horizontal rhythm of the fenestration details, but it fails to follow the horizontality of the adjacent building.

The photograph below

illustrates how the car showroom building follows the curve of the roundabout, together with the office building in the background and how it works well when viewed from the corner of Broad Lane and Garden Street. The next photograph illustrates the relationship between the Footprint Tools Building and car showroom building described above.

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Figure 3.9 View east along Garden Street

Figure 3.10 View north junction Broad Lane & Garden

Further north-west is an open area used for displaying cars for sale; this area is likely to have suffered war damage given its inconsistent form with the rest of the brief area.

The redevelopment is not in keeping with the context and

layout of the brief area. There is an isolated three storey detached, pitched roof building sat onto the footpath, this building originally formed the end of a row of terraced properties fronting onto Broad Lane. The photographs below show the gap site, where the cars are positioned and the isolated property with a car showroom and workshop to the rear.

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3.5 Urban Grain Urban grain is essential as it subdivides areas into smaller development blocks and reflects on decades of history for a city. It clarifies the pattern and scale of street, blocks and blocks and contributes towards ones move ability, accessibility and legibility. The current streets running through the site are clear and easily understood, furthermore being extremely well connected to surrounding street pattern as shown by figure 3.11 below.

Figures 3.11 highlight the street pattern linking into St. Vincent's The map highlighting the old street pattern clearly defines a tight and well defined urban grain which is still present to this very day. Tenter Street and Broad Lane were part of the original town structure and boundaries to the original field strips in the 18th century (Harman and Minnis, 2004). The street pattern within St. Vincentâ€&#x;s has undergone vast changes over the years. Retaining and enhancing the Figure 3.12 Old map -

irregular

highlighting

developments in order to maintain site history and character

street pattern

the

old

street

pattern

will

be

vital

during

new

(Action plan, 2004).

A well defined street network provides the basis for a legible townscape and connectivity. Legibility from streets is essential if people are to understand and identify why they are and which way they need to go (Burton and Mitchell, 2006), thus retaining this orderly, fine grained street pattern is critical in new developments. The organic parallel running streets distinctly show the era of construction and provide a clear history to the area in which people already know how to navigate their way around, thus any alteration would confuse people in their orientation abilities. The street pattern makes the site extremely accessibly to all

20 with the easy to follow irregular grid pattern.


Public Realm and Open Space

Figure 4.1 showing a bird‟s eye view of St. Vincent‟s and a lack of open space and public realm.

Figure 4.1 shows a bird's eye view of the St Vincent‟s area, it is clear that there is a fundamental lack of public realm spaces. Public realm and open spaces are vital for areas in a city, spaces attract people to an area and provide a form of public expression which buildings have often neglected in the pursuit of a anonymous modernity (Canniffe, 2006). Although this area provides little potential for green open spaces there is an opportunity for developers to incorporate green aspects into street design and rooftop gardens. As there is little communal space and any present is in a poor state of repair (see figure 4.2) opportunities arise to redevelop open space, this re-development and improvement in quality would re-establish a sense of place for pedestrians who use the area. They would begin to associate the area with a positive image of safety and contemporary modern design, thus as distinctiveness of clear streets, where they are and where they lead will be formed (Burton and Mitchell, 2006).

There is a need to create more public

Two pictures showing the

spaces, especially green spaces for

lack of public realm care

community use. Currently there is no

and attention

public space. These spaces need to be made a focal point, defined and set back from the street edge. They need to be functional and well designed, not too cluttered with street furniture but

provide somewhere to sit. When creating public spaces, views should be exploited, which in the Tenter Street area is very important as there are some impressive views. The street layout should be robust and hard wearing. Street furniture should include bins, seats, bollards, lights, signs and drain covers. Reflecting upon Sheffield's “Steel city” slogan developers could use steel for any public realm improvements in order to represent the city‟s history.

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Figure 4.3 demonstrating how open space could be incorporated into new developments

Figure 4.3 shows how the St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area could use its new developments to its full potential and include an area of green space to define the public from the private. If this development was residential then the residents could use it as a place to relax, socialise and to get away from the hustle and bustle of the city behind them. The lack of lighting within the area is a prominent issue; therefore any lighting introduced should aim to enhance pedestrian's safety and up lighting could improve features such as trees and other structures. Distinctive streets here would reflect the local character of the area and have a variety of uses, built form, features, colours and materials that give the streets their own identity within the overall character of the neighbourhood (Burton and Mitchell, 2006). In order to create distinctiveness there is an opportunity for developers to use subtle street art incorporating St. Vincentâ€&#x;s history of steel and iron works into new street designs - mixing the contemporary with the history and the character of the area. For example using images such as in Figure 4.4 Figure 4.4 old industrial art work

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Rooftop gardens in the St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area would benefit the sustainability of the area, environmentalists portray the concern each citizen should have with regard to climate change, therefore as a council and city planners it's an issue that should be more so incorporated into planning new developments. A rooftop garden area would show a renewal interest in gardens and garden design (Urban Roof Gardens, 2009), promoting green spaces within cities will bring both economic and social benefits including insulating roof coverings, clean air from the foliage and creating new spaces for living working and entertaining (Urban roof gardens, 2009). The area highlighted in red has a potential to create a rooftop garden

Figures 4.5 show possible rooftop designs that could be incorporated into the new development in order to contribute towards a greener city.

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5. Uses and Activity

5.1 Building Uses

Figure 5.1 3D land use model of the St Vincent's area Tenter Street is an important transport corridor and is required here to deliver high quality development to transform the edge and front and approach to St. Vincentâ€&#x;s. Mixed use development is a significant opportunity on this site to provide quality business buildings for the future (CABE, 2005). Currently within the St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area the building uses are limited as you can see from figure 5.1 the majority of the buildings are mainly industrial purposes and primarily storage uses. There are two buildings at the top of Garden Street which are derelict and the rest of the buildings are in a poor state of repair. The issues presented for building uses is the lack of care for the buildings' in the area, there is a huge opportunity to build on what is there to create a mixed use are which could lead to a hub of activity forming in the area. Building on the former character of the area would revive the area and create a sense of vitality (CABE, 2005). As you can see from the pictures below the material generally consist of red brick and retaining such materials and building on top would create several opportunities.

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Active frontages would be welcomed in the St. Vincent's Quarter, a convenience store frontage at ground level in this development area would be beneficial for the mixed use of developments. The frontages are to be introduced into new buildings leading onto Garden Street and Broad lane leading into Tenter Street aiming to be sympathetic to the original design and character of original buildings. These active frontages on well located premises will add to the perception of a safer environment as more pedestrian will be drawn into the area to use the facilities. Currently in the area there is a need to promote diversity and choice through a mix of compatible developments and uses that work together to create viable places that respond to local needs (DETR, 2000). Linking developments, routes and open spaces one other. The richness of a building lies in its use of materials which contribute to the attractiveness of its appearance and the character of an area (DETR, 2000). Ultimately this under maintained area has the potential to emerge as a diverse area creating a more attractive development. Creating office space has the prospective of increasing business activity and creating a residential area, in conjunction with Sheffield University, would bring more activity to the area and create a link for the Sheffield University buildings and the city. The issue of topography is critical any new development that is built and should be designed with height issues in mind. The tallest building approaching the crest of the hill should be lower that the tower of St. Vincentâ€&#x;s. The building to the left is a listed one (although not a building within the allocated site), its design features must be incorporated into the new developments. Good design results here would have to take into consideration the local character of the current materials

whilst

introducing

new

urban

design

techniques. For example the colour and texture of building materials should reflect on the area's special character and function (DETR, 2000) and recognising the place and its buildings as a whole not isolating buildings from one another.

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Figure 5.2 incorporates the window style from the two buildings shown to the Figure 5.2 Potential incorporation of old character windows into new developments

right. The style of window in the old warehouse above could be used in the new design in order to retain the historical character of the past decades.

Architectural form and layout Figure 5.3 demonstrates the current layout of the St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area. The large block building to the lower part of the figure consists of storage and warehouse utility. These have great potential to enhance the areas business and residential uses as there are many prominent gap sites that exist in St. Vincentâ€&#x;s which are beginning to undermine the townscape of the area (Sheffield City Council, 2004).

Figure 5.3 Buildings on site as existing Abandoned buildings Underground parking and storage spaces CafĂŠ/snack bar

Run down warehouses and BMW garage 26


Due to the modernisation of production and manufacturing techniques the buildings which once accommodated machinery and large numbers of workers have become redundant and it is now primarily used for storage. These modest buildings provide opportunities to mend the derelict feel to the area, as figure 5.4 demonstrates putting back street frontages and re-defining street and building relationships will revitalise the area.

Furthermore being adjacent to the Central Business District

naturally this area provides space for business expansion to carry the rising demands. Figure 5.4 shows office blocks could be a potential development for the area and the active frontages could consist of mixed food and drink usages, creating an attractive mix use area (Sheffield City Council, 2004)

Office use

Improved public realm and pedestrian access Active frontages retail/confectionary

Residential use

New pedestrian crossings

Figure 5.4 Potential new buildings

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6. Detail and Distinctiveness

6.1 Architectural Form Local history plays a key role in understanding the architectural form of the area, together with the appreciation of its context and urban form.

The brief area

leading off Broad Lane/Tenter Street roundabout, encompassing Hollis Croft and Garden Street originally formed part of “The Crofts” area of Sheffield. The wider area of The Crofts comprised of back to back terraced housing, mixed with high density of iron and steel works. Many of the residential properties no longer exist following the slum clearances of the early 20 Century and war damage. The most notable legibility, falls just outside our brief area to the south east (Townhead Street) with its curving lines of street and property boundaries, which represent the shapes of post medieval fields (Weeb, 2005). The majority of the brief area is made up of the former “Footprint Tools Ltd” works situated along and interlinked between Hollis Croft, Garden Street and Broad Lane. Many of the smaller buildings formerly used as steel or iron works are outside the brief area and located on the southern side of Garden Street and along Broad Lane leading west. The dramatic topography of this area provides panoramic views north-westerly. The land steeply rises westwards along Hollis Croft, Garden Street and Broad Lane and also eastwards along Hawley Street and Townhead Street. The Footprint Works Since the recent decline of the 134 year old family owned company, The Footprint Tools Works buildings have remained predominantly vacant. The range of buildings were constructed around 1920-30s and comprise of a sprawling maze of little rooms, corridors, bridges and basements which reflect its industrial heritage. The company manufactured a variety of tools for use by tradesmen such as chisels, grips, screwdrivers and hammerheads.

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The brief area comprises of the Footprint Tools premises on Hollis Croft and Garden Street, car showrooms, offices and workshop for the BMW, there is also a small redundant workshop to the north-west corner adjacent to St Vincent Church on Hollis Croft.

The evolution of the brief site is evident in the

architectural details. The 1970s corporate designed BMW building situated on the corner of Hollis Croft and Tenter Street has a modern design and utilises modern construction methods, it is two-storey showroom/office along Tenter Street with workshops to the rear. The workshop is constructed of a portal frame with corrugated metal walls and roof and brick work on the lower elevations, the car showroom has a bland modular design and cladding to the higher level elevations, the design and appearance, together with its materials are incongruous with the character of the area, see photographs below.

Figure 6.1 View from Tenter Street. Modern

Figure 6.2 The 1990s BMW showroom on

materials and construction

the corner of Garden Street and Broad Lane, which was discussed above is also out of character with the area in terms of architecture, design and materials.

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The Footprint Tools range of buildings have a mixture of designs, some parts of the building are in Art Deco style, with horizontal fenestration details serving the workshop areas of the building, see Figure 6.3 below.

Whereas there are

elements which have a vertical window design but are arranged in a horizontal manner, these appear to serve the associated offices, see Figure 6.4 below. The windows are of a geometric modernist style popular in the 1920s and 1930s, influenced by the Art Deco style developed in hot-rolled steel and surrounded by stonework. Known as Crittall windows they are simple functional windows of striking modern appearance in keeping with crisp minimalist International style as can be seen in figure 6.5.

Figure 6.3 (Top Left) Figure 6.4 Right Figure 6.5 Left

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The buildings also have a range of roof designs, flat, parapet and pitched roofs together with a stepped gable design on the Hollis Croft northern elevation, see Figure 6.6 below. The use of Portland stone around the significant entrances to the offices provides a focal point. There are several larger entrances on Hollis Croft and Garden Street leading to the various workshops areas. It should also be noted that the works are constructed of a similar colour brick and stone to the adjacent St Vincent‟s Church, probably specifically chosen for this area and locally sourced in order to be in keeping with the character of the area. “The works are a maze of buildings, corridors and bridges interlinking behind the brickwork elevations, see the following photographs” (Weeb, 2005)

Figure 6.6 – Roof designs. This photograph illustrates the mixture styles used to enable the building to function for a multiple uses i.e.: offices, workshops and storage. (Form follows function).

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Figure 6.7 Architectural Details

The Footprint Tools works where concerned with the manufacturing of steel and tradesmenâ€&#x;s tools.

These materials were used within the building for

features such as staircases, see the adjacent photograph. The moulding (or relief) to the front of this entrance signifies what type of business operated from the site. The relief shows a variety of tool which were manufactured at the site. This is an important feature which clearly tells the history of the premises.

The remaining building at the brief site is a small two storey red brick workshop building with a corrugated roof, steel windows and a vertical timber loading door with stone headers and sills.

This building was

constructed in 1946 according to the date stone on the front gable and is designed to accord with the surrounding architecture. The materials used are typical for the post war period when mass clearance and reconstruction took place.

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Figure 6.8 North east corner of brief site situated on Hollis Croft. St Vincentâ€&#x;s Church to the rear.

Further aspects to sustainabilityDevelopers will be required to ensure that a sustainable development process is obtained throughout the full design process. The incorporation of efficient energy usage, promotion of public transport usage and renewable sources of energy should be sought out. During the design phase it is important that all environmental options are considered and integrated within the new developments. Character of Surrounding Area The area to the south of the site consists of the city centre and west street and contains dense retail properties, licensed premises and civic buildings. There is a verity of architecture ranging from post nineteenth century buildings to a variety of 1970s modernist movement structures with an emergence of modern sustainable buildings using revolutionary materials. To the north of the site the Lower Don Valley contains a number of large factories and warehouses, many of which were used for the steel and cutlery manufacturing. The area also contains a number of small terraced houses, built to house the steel workers and their families. To the east of the site, the Kelham island area houses a number of private breweries, and is one of the oldest industrial sites in Sheffield having being built in 1100s when the goit or mill stream was formed. The site has been used for all kinds of manufacture, ranging from iron production to the production of beer. The site has seen rapid development in recent years along the riverfront with modern offices and housing.

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To the west of the site, the architecture has being shaped by the large growth of the University of Sheffield. Many of the buildings, ranging from churches to office blocks have being converted to provide accommodation and learning space for students attending the university. The architecture varies dramatically, from the historic buildings of Sheffield University and the Museum, to the modern student accommodation built to replace the small foundries and factories that used to be situated in the area. Figure 6.9 below shows the different styles of buildings and their general uses, for the different areas around the site.

Figure 6.9 Character areas 34


7. Policy Context

Policy Context This Urban Design brief is a supplementary planning document that provides design principles and standards for the Hollis Croft, Garden Street, Broad lane and Tenter Street section of the St. Vincent‟s area of Sheffield.

Urban Design is concerned

about making better places, in terms of a pleasing appearance and the proper functioning of the area. The basis of this design brief has been set out in: 

National Planning Policy

Local Planning Policy

Consultation with key stakeholders, and

Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the area.

At a higher tier level the Regional Spatial Strategy is influenced and implemented by the government office for the Yorkshire and The Humber, providing frameworks for planning application, Local Development Plans and Local Transport Plans. The following policies affect the St. Vincent‟s area. SY1: South Yorkshire sub area policy 1. Continue to develop Sheffield as a Regional City offering a wide range of activities. 2. Support the role of Sheffield as a major provider of jobs. 3. Improve green infrastructure through enhanced wood planting safeguard and harness industrial heritage. 4. Develop high quality non-car transport systems and secure excellent road links. All of the policies referrals stated above should be taken into consideration by developers when building in the St. Vincent's area. Policy E1 in the regional document: Creating a successful and competitive and regional economy.

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1. Hopes to create a more successful and competitive economy through several strategies and plans including: a more entrepreneurial region with a promotion of a higher rates of business start ups both micro-businesses, small and medium sized businesses. Policy E3: Land and premises for economic development 1. Developments in the St. Vincent‟s area should take account of the additional need to office floor space and the ongoing restructuring of the manufacturing sector and promote employment opportunities. Both E1 and E3 policy need to be considered during the development and design process to ensure the standards of the policy are met and to ensure that a contribution to a thriving economic industry is met. Planning Policy Statement One (Delivering Sustainable Development), states that Planning Authorities should prepare robust policies on design. This design guide builds upon Government advice contained in PPS1 and other guidance noted below; including DETR‟s „By Design‟ (Urban Design in the Planning System: Towards Better Practice). Other relevant National Planning Policies are:

Planning Policy Statement: Planning and Climate Change: Supplement to Planning Policy Statement 1.

Planning Policy Statement 3: Housing.

Planning Policy Statement 4: Planning for Sustainable Economic Growth.

Planning Policy Statement 11: Regional Spatial Strategies.

Planning Policy Statement 12: Local Spatial Planning.

Planning Policy Guidance 13: Transport.

Planning Policy Guidance 24: Planning and Noise.

Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) in the form of the Sheffield Urban Design Compendium is a policy document which offers advice to the Sheffield Development

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Framework is of relevance. The guide is used by the City Council to guide future development within the City Centre and was endorsed in 2004 by Sheffield Cabinet. St. Vincent‟s Action Plan (2004-2014) has been prepared to offer a vision of the development and investment opportunities within the St. Vincent‟s area, of which our design brief sits within. The St. Vincent‟s Action Plan strongly advises that our brief area should allow a new business development to thrive. The preferred use is business (Use Class B1), the document also advises other uses which maybe acceptable, such as:

Small convenience shopping (A1) - a possibility to be considered in order to re-instate active frontages.

Hotels (C1) - not viable for this site as its main focus is business development.

Offices (A2) - prominent development should undertake this form.

Food and Drink outlets (A3)

Housing (C3) - should be in the form of student halls in connection with the Sheffield University buildings next to the site.

Community facilities and institutions (D1) - not viable for this area.

Leisure and recreation facilities (D2) - not viable for this area.

Open Space - should be incorporated into rooftops or internal courtyards.

Car parks for public use - retaining of under croft parking.

The Sheffield Core Strategy was adopted in March 2009 therefore several UDP policies have also been superseded by the Core Strategy. The core strategy has many policies that will affect any development that occurs within the St. Vincent's: CS74 “Design Principles” of the Sheffield Core Strategy requires that high quality development will be expected, which should take advantage of a number of key issues. These include topography, land forms, views and vistas to skylines, Scale layout and built form of surrounding townscapes. Any new developments should take into consideration these noted aspects especially regarding views and vistas for

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example any new buildings should prevent obstruction to the view of the cathedral and city landscape. CS26 - Efficient use of housing land and accessibility Developers wishing to use any land for residential sue are required to make efficient use of the land and buildings should be in keeping with the character of the area and promote a sustainable community - with at least 70 dwellings per hectare CS45 - Quality and accessibility of open space Green and open space is a vital and valued part of Sheffield city as it contributes to a distinct character and improved health and well-being. As the site is too restricted for developers to design a large open space plan, ensuring that greenery is introduced into public realm is vital. A possibility for developers to adopt is a possible open space courtyard within a residential development or a rooftop garden. CS45 suggests that small green areas are beneficial (private - courtyard or rooftop garden) as they offer opportunities for informal recreation in the home place. CS51 - Transport priorities Transport presents a number of challenges and Sheffield's core strategy aims to reduce congestion, promote good health and offer a choice of public transport methods. Developers should seek (within the St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area) to maximise accessibility, improve road safety and contain congestion levels where possible. Making places accessibly by all is a major priority especially for disabled people. The existing policy context for design lies in the Unitary Development Plan (UDP) and the emerging Local Development Framework (LDF). The UDP was prepared prior to the emergence of urban design as a major element of planning policy, and was subsequently adopted in March 1998. The following UDP will have an influence of the development process in St. Vincentâ€&#x;s area:

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BE5 of the Unitary Development Plan on - “Building Design and Sitting” states that new buildings should complement the scale, form and architectural style of surrounding buildings and it is particularly important that high design quality of any new development is achieved. Site history, character and building materials should be in context with the area and complement current materials whilst aiming to introduce a contemporary edge to St. Vincent‟s. New developments should encompass its surroundings and when being linked to the public realm informal supervision is a critical aspect. Active frontages should be street level, including shop fronts, cafes and other retail facilities, and any tall buildings should have balconies and windows overlooking the street for additional security levels. BE7 of the Unitary Development Plan on - “Design of Buildings used by the Public” requires ease of access and facilities for people with disabilities in all new buildings with public access. Should new developments take place an encouragements for developers to take into consideration on aspects in ease of access for those who are disabled is necessary.

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8. References References Burton E and Mitchell L (2006) Inclusive Urban Design: Streets for Life. Architectural Press Oxford CABE & DETR (2000) By Design. Urban design in the Planning System: Towards

better Practice. Thomas Telford Publishing. CABE & DETR (2001) By Design. Better Places to Live. Thomas Telford Publishing. CABE (2005) the councilor's guide to urban design Commission for architecture and the Built Environment: London Canniffe E (2006) Urban Ethic: Design in the Contemporary City. Routledge Oxom COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2006). Planning Policy Statement

3(PPS3) Housing [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. CURL, James Stevens (2006). Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape

Architecture. 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press. D Weeb, (2005) Footprint Tools, Admiral Works, Sheffield. [Online] 28dayslater The UK UE Urbex Urban Exploration Forums. Accessed: [18.02.2010] Davies L (2004) Urban Design Compendium English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1994). Planning

Policy Guidance 24: Planning and Noise. [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2001). Planning

Policy Guidance 13: Transport. [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk.

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DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2007). Planning and

Climate Change: Supplement to Planning Policy Statement 1 [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2009). Planning

Policy Statement 4: Planning for Sustainable Economic Growth [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. Department of the Environment, Transport and the regions (2000) urban design in

the planning system: towards better practice London ENGLISH PARTNERSHIPS (2007). Urban Design Compendium 1 & 2. [online]. Last accessed 18 February 2010 at: www.englishpartneship.co.uk Harman P and Minnis J. (2004) Pevsner Architectural Guides: Sheffield. Yale University Press K Lynch. (1960) The image of the city. Harvard University Press OFFICE FOR THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER (2004). Planning Policy Statement 11

Regional Spatial Strategies [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. OFFICE FOR THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER (2005). Planning Policy Statement

1(PPS1) Delivering Sustainable Development [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. OFFICE FOR THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER (2008). Planning Policy Statement 12

Local Spatial Planning [online]. Last accessed February 2010 at: www.communities.gov.uk. SHEFFIELD CITY COUNCIL (1998). Sheffield Unitary Development Plan. [online]. Last accessed 17 February 2010 at: www.sheffield.gov.uk SHEFFIELD CITY COUNCIL (2004). Sheffield Urban Design Compendium. [online]. Last accessed 17 February 2010 at: www.sheffield.gov.uk

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SHEFFIELD CITY COUNCIL (2009). Sheffield Development Framework Core Strategy. [online]. Last accessed 17 February 2010 at: www.sheffield.gov.uk Sheffield City Council, 2004 St. Vincent's action plan Sheffield City Council City

Development Division Shirley P (2005) Urban Design: Greener Dimensions. Elsevier South Yorkshire Historic Environment Characterisation Project. (2007) Complex Historic Town Cores. [Online] Available at: http://www.sytimescapes.org.uk/files/uploads/pdfs/sheffield/S10_Sheffield_Historic_ Core.pdf [Accessed 10.02.2010] Urban Roof Gardens, 2009 Roof Gardens [online] (updated 2009) available at http://www.urbanroofgardens.com/menu/roof_gardens.htm [accessed 10.02.2010] WINKLER, Astrid (2007), Sheffield City Report, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion [Online] http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cr/CASEreport45.pdf [Accessed 09.02.2010]

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Urban Design Brief