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Kingfisher Works

Design & Access Statement

December 2010 Kingfisher Works, Neepsend, Sheffield Design and Access Statement. Page: 1


F & M Sustainable Developers

Mathew Bayley

Matthew Taylor

Emma Fawcett

Christopher Frazer

Managing Director

Chief Planner

Chief Architect

Chief Designer

“F and M sustainable developments, is a not

for

because

profit we

organisation

are

passionate

formed about

developing places for artist to work and live as a community�.

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Contents CONTENTS

3

1. INTRODUCTION

4

ABOUT US ETHOS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT BRIEF CONCLUSION

5 5 5 5 5

2. AREA APPRAISAL INTRODUCTION SITE LOCATION THE SITE SITE HISTORY LANDMARKS AND VIEWS PERMEABILITY ACCESSIBILITY AND CONNECTIVITY LAND USE TOPOGRAPHY ARCHITECTURAL QUALITY CONCLUSION SWOT ANALYSIS 3. APPRAISAL OF RELEVANT POLICY

6 7 7 7 8 10 12 12 13 14 14 15 15

SCALE, MASSING AND HEIGHT ACCESS LANDSCAPING MEWS ROAD SECURITY RIVERSIDE

34 36 37 38 38 38

6. FINANCIAL VIABILITY

39

INTRODUCTION CURRENT USE FUTURE USE RESIDUAL EVALUATION VALUE OF THE SCHEME COST OF THE SCHEME SITE VALUE SITE VIABILITY FUNDING CONCLUSION

40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41

7. REFERENCES

42

8. LIST OF FIGURES

43

9. APPENDICES

44

LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: IDEAS BOARD APPENDIX 2. DE-CONTAMINATION PROCESS OF NEEPSEND GAS-WORKS APPENDIX 3. SHEFFIELD STRATEGIC FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT APPENDIX 4. 1:500 SITE LAYOUT APPENDIX 4. 1:500 SITE LAYOUT APPENDIX 5. 1:500 REVISED SITE LAYOUT APPENDIX 6. 1:500 3D BLOCK PLAN APPENDIX 7. 1:100 HOUSE SECTION APPENDIX 8. 1:100 HOUSE LAYOUT APPENDIX 9. 1:100 HOUSE FLOOR PLANS APPENDIX 10. 1:100 ELEVATION APPENDIX 11. LOCATION PLAN 1:1250

44 45 50 51 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

16

NATIONAL PLANNING POLICY AND DESIGN GUIDANCE LOCAL PLANNING POLICY CONCLUSION

17 20 20

4. PRE – APPLICATION ADVICE

21

5. COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

23

6. THE SCHEME

26

INTRODUCTION MEETING AFFORDABLE HOUSING TARGETS

27 29

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1. Introduction

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About Us F and M sustainable developments, is a not for profit organisation formed because we are passionate about developing places for artists to work and live as a community. Our approach is to work in close partnership with both Yorkshire Art Space and the Homes and Communities Agency who both specialize in affordable artist studio space and residential properties. This ensures we understand the proposed occupiers and how our development solutions will affect the sustainability of the projects. At present our development portfolio consists of producing art studio space for Yorkshire Artspace within the Sheffield City Centre. However, with this project we are evolving our organisation’s ethos to develop a sustainable artists’ community. We have taken influence from the European artists’ community of Kunsthaus Tacheles in Berlin Germany and the Old Jerome Artists’ Cooperative project in Arizona, USA. The Kunsthaus Tacheles sits in the old Jewish quarter of East Berlin and takes its name from the Yiddish for ‘truth’. Originally a department store, it was occupied by a collective of artists in 1990, two months before its planned demolition, and has been a tourist attraction and cultural hub ever since (Guardian 2009). The Jerome Artists’ Co-operative has been an important outlet for town social behaviour and cultural spirit since 1996 when space became available in an old hotel which the town owned. The Jerome Artists Cooperative Gallery is now an integral part of the tightly woven art community and is managed, manned and maintained by artist members (Jerome Artists’ Cooperative 2006).

Ethos The developmental ethos for Kingfisher Artists’ Communitiy is to provide affordable housing and workspaces to create a sustainable community of skilled workers and artists, without gentrifying the area or destroying its local skills base and community. Therefore our developmental process will be sensitive to the rehousing of existing companies within industrial units on the site. Our vision is for artists who work with metal to benefit from the skills offered by the metal trades on the site and so create a stronger community. Additionally through our projects we aim to work proactively to reduce the rate of local crime by close partnership working with the Probation Services and National Treatment Agency for Substance Abuse. These projects will work with local offenders and recovering drug users teaching them a new trade or skill to support themselves, therefore in turn reducing local crime and anti social behaviour rates.

Development strategy Our development strategy is to focus building our projects on under-used and under-appreciated previously developed land (PDL) within city centres. It is our belief that for a development on PDL to be successful, a project must create a sense of place using the built environment to encourage a community to take ownership. We therefore set high standards on the finish of all our projects. We use imagination and innovation to create exciting places which change environments and lives for the better.

We aim to help realise the 2018 vision in the Kelham Neepsend Action Plan (Sheffield City Council 2008): “A thriving and accessible business location north of the river housing small manufacturing, service industries, craft and artist workshops, studios, small professional offices and a mix of refurbished and new premises.”

Development Brief The development brief for this project is to create a sustainable and viable development which will promote not only the existing local community, local skills and trades but also a new artistic community at Kelham Neepsend. The mixed-use development will be delivered through the constraints imposed by sustainability, marketability and viability within a small industrial area. The aim is to deliver artist live work spaces in Sheffield and the surrounding area at affordable rents.

Conclusion This Design and Access statement has being produced to support the application for the development of a mixeduse artist’s community on the former Kingfisher Works site in Neepsend, Sheffield. The statement contains detailed information of the design process from first impressions of the site through to design proposals. The statement is accompanied with a number of supporting documents including a planning application form and detailed architectural drawings of the entire development.

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2. Area Appraisal

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Figure 1 Wider Site Location

Introduction

The Site

This chapter provides an appraisal of the Neepsend and Kelham Island area of Sheffield. It begins with an historical and contextual analysis of the site and surrounding areas. It then goes on to acknowledge the influences of topography on the site. The chapter aims to gain a detailed understanding of the physical and environmental quality of the area while defining the effects development can have on the socio-economic characteristics of the area. The section aims to understand the key characteristics of the area and gain an understanding of its positive and negative attributes.

The Kingfisher works is a large industrial site that is situated on two busy roads with good access to the city centre by a bus . The exterior of the site is largely run down and poorly maintained. The site also suffers from noise and air pollution due to the industry in the area. The public rights of way are again poorly maintained and there are very few crossing points on the Neepsend Lane side. The site is located within a primarily industrial area with factories and workshops surrounding the site. The site is predominantly made up of metal workshops with some light industrial units which house businesses that specialize in media, graphics and art. The former Neepsend Gas Works are located to the north east of the site, and have now been demolished and are currently undergoing a decontamination process. Further details of the decontamination process can be found in Appendix 2. The site has one remaining gas tower which is currently used to store North Sea gas. To the north of the site there are two small workshops currently containing JJ Autos and South Yorkshire Joinery Ltd. Development to the west of the site contains a large factory housing a number of metal fabrications and grinding services along with an indoor inline-skating and roller-skating park. To the south west of the site (along Neepsend Lane) there are a number of metal fabrication and welding factories along with the now derelict offices of cannon brewery.

Site Location Kingfisher Works is located around 1.5 km north of Sheffield City Centre in the Neepsend district of Sheffield. The site is accessed from the B607 Neepsend Lane and a second entrance to the site is located on Bardwell Road. Neepsend Lane is a busy road linking the Kelham Island district of the city to the B6079, a key arterial route linking Sheffield City Centre with the Hillsborough District of the city, Barnsley and the M1 Motorway. The table to the right gives details of the population of Sheffield and the Population of the Neepsend Output Area.

Figure 2 Birds-eye view of the site

Location Sheffield (Local Authority) Neepsend (S3 8AT) Output Area Figure 3 The Gardeners Rest

Figure 4 Cannon Brewery

Population 513,234 340

Figure 5 Neepsend Skate Park

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Site History The Neepsend suburb of Sheffield stands 1.5km north east of the city centre and interlinks with the neighbouring Kelham Island suburb of the city. The area has a rich industrial history stretching back over 800 years to when the first water-wheels were used to power mills in the area. The Kelham Neepsend area is one of the most intact industrial heritage sites in South Yorkshire and as a result, many recent developments have worked to maintain the area’s character. The majority of the industrial development in the area was the result of the areas topography, being located on the flat plains alongside the River Don.

Figure 8 Furnaces; a key part in the areas development

Figure 6 Character of surrounding areas

The Gardeners Rest public house and Jenkinson & Marshall Printers are located to the south of the site, with open views across the River Don to the South West of the site. Figures 3 to 6 shows the surrounding areas, each with their own individual characteristics.

Figure 7 Neepsend in the 1920s

The Kelham Island area of the city got its name when Kelham Homer, a sword and weapons maker built one of the city’s first waterwheels on the River Don in the 1600s. The flat land between the edge of town and the River Don provided the ideal location for large industrial factories to locate over the following century along with numerous mills, steel furnaces and iron works. By 1790 steam engines had been introduced to the area and the large steel works helped Sheffield’s industrial revolution take place. Neepsend is believed to come from the Old Norse language, with the word "nypr" meaning a peak, while the "end" comes from is location in the Don Valley. Sheffield Steel is well known throughout the world for its quality and beauty. Many of the factories, warehouses, workshops and yards developed as a result of the steel industry provided by the skilled metal workers in the area. The Neepsend area developed slightly later than its neighbouring Kelham Island due to lack of transport links across the river at the time.

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Figure 10 Neepsend Area in the 1960

Figure 9 Neepsend Area in the 1960

Neepsend remained relatively undeveloped until the eighteenth century onwards. The area was used mainly as allotments as can be seen on the historical maps in figure 15. The Kingfisher Works is situated in a busy area of Kelham Island and Neepend that is situated close to the city centre of Sheffield. It is the historic industrial area of the city and has managed to regain the heavy industry that was established there in the industrial revolution although many of the buildings have seen changes in the past century. Kingfisher Works was formally known as Neepsend Tannery which “started functioning in 1821 but sustained considerable damage in the Great Flood. It was demolished before 1890 and the site was added to the works of the Hallamshire Steel

and File Co., who owned the building next door probably used it as a steel yard” (Hodkinson 1999). The current brothel to the west of the site was originally the Neepsend Tavern. On 144 Neepsend Lane it was a pub from the 1839 right through to 1974. In more recent times the Neepsend area of Sheffield has featured in media productions including the film, ‘This is England 86’ while also featuring in music videos by the Sheffield band ‘The Arctic Monkeys’. The CD cover, from single ‘When The Sun Goes Down’, features industrial offices in Neepsend (Figure 14)

Figure 11 Tommy Wards Elephant

Figure 12 Nepsend Tavern, now the Crystal Suite

Figure 13 Arctic Monkeys Video

Figure 15 Ordinance Survey maps showing the development of Neepsend from 1851 to 1992 Figure 14 CD cover from single, ‘When The Sun Goes Down’

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Landmarks and views

Figure 16 Landmarks and Views

From the Riverside works building and the Neepend Lane faรงade there are views of the River Don. However towards the back of Riverside works the views of the river become obstructed with the emphasis turning towards the former gas works. Other views from the site are mostly of neighbouring workshops and on the Bardwell road however there are some obstructed views of a railway bridge seen in figure 16. By Design (DETR, 2000) explain how landmarks are buildings or structures that stand out from their background by virtue of height, size or some other aspect of design. Figure 16 shows a number of sketches of the key landmark buildings and structures in the area. These include the early Victorian railway bridges on Bardwell Road and Rutland Road, public houses the Parkland Inn and the Gardeners Rest and the Longden Works with its large distinctive chimneys. These landmarks make it easier for people to find their way around the area while emphasizing the hierarchy of the buildings, such as the public houses. A site analysis was undertaken to gain an understanding of all the influences which affect the site. Figure 17 on the following page shows the site analysis undertaken during the site analysis process.

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Figure 17 Site analysis

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Permeability

Accessibility and Connectivity

Permeability around the site is hampered by the large scale of blocks in the area. The bulky blocks are the result of the heavy industry and the large industrial yards required for indutry to take place. Trucks and cars gain precedence in the area with little thought put into safety of pedestrians. Figure 18 shows the large plot size in the area and the large individual building size. The Urban Design Compendium (2008, p67) suggests large plots simmilar to the ones in the Neepsend area should be wrapped to ensure rear elevations and servicing is not exposed to the street. The second image in figure 19 shows the street patterns in Neepsend and the surrounding areas. Its is clear from this image that the urban grain is much less dense in the Neepsend area leading to reduced permeability.

The site is served well by public transport with a bus stop situated on Neepend Lane that has regular buses to and from the city centre as is seen in figure 20. The site is also closely situated to a tram stop that also runs through the city centre (Figure 21). Around the site itself the public rights of way are poorly maintained with uneven footpaths and few pedestrian crossings. There is also a lack of car parking so there is a lot of on street parking that further narrows the public footpaths making disabled access almost impossible Due to the industry that is situated in and around the site, Neepsend lane and Bardwell Road suffer from heavy traffic with large HGV vehicles being the prominent users, this also adds to the noise and air pollution or the site.

Figure 21 Bus stop outside Kingfisher Works

Figure 20 Tram stop at Infirmary Road

Figure 18 Block patter around Kingfisher Works

Figure 19 The block pattern in the Neepsend area is much higher than surrounding areas.

Figure 22 Map showing major transport routes around the Kingfisher Works Site.

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Figure 22 shows how traffic passing the site is exacerbated by rat-run traffic avoiding slow moving traffic around the Rutland Road Bridge. The bridge on Rutland road limits the width of the road causing a bottleneck which slows traffic dramatically (Figure 23). The Riverside Walk runs from Rutland Road to the city centre following the rivers path. This provides a flat and safe, pedestrian and cycle friendly route through the area.

Land use The land use in the Neepsend area is predominately industrial with some leisure and commercial buildings in the area. Residential sites are located on the hills, each side of the valley. The industrial sites are located in the valley bottom due to flatter land and access to water for early industry. Figure 24 shows the land-use characteristics in the surrounding areas and it is clear that the yellow industrial areas have followed the contours of the land and the residential areas in blue have been built on the sloping hills.

Figure 23 Heavy vehicular traffic on Rutland Road

Figure 24 also shows the main transport routes through the neighbourhood. The brown circles show nodes of activity where transport meets bridges and large roads meet. These areas provide prime development opportunities while being the most complicated areas for traffic management. The blue arrow shows the railway route that runs through the area. There were stations in close proximity to the site , with one being located next to the Rutland Road bridge. These were closed during the ‘Beeching Axe’ during the 1950s. The station provides future opportunities and could be brought back into service in the future if enough development takes place in the surround areas.

Figure 24 Land-use in the Neepsend area and its surrounding neighbourhoods

The red area on figure 24 shows the area around Philidelphia which containsa number of mixed use buildings. The green circle shows the one remaining gas tower in the area and the pink buildings are buildings which provide leisure activities. Future developmet plans for the Cannon Brewery would provide more leisure facilities in the area enhancing the node of activity and number 4 on the map and drawing people into the area. This would have the nock on effect of inproving the local ecconomy.

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Architectural quality

Topography The site is located on flat land next to the River Don with a small gradient across the site, sloping towards the river. The valley is surrounded with large hills which have provided challenges for development while providing dramatic scenery and views. The Sheffield Ski Slope is located north of the site, using the steep gradient as is seen in figure 26. The flat bottom of the valley has caused issues during heavy rain due to flooding as recently as 2007. Figure 27 shows a geological map of the area and it is clear that the site is built on the non-porous rock in the valley bottom.

Figure 26 Birdseye photo showing the gradients of the land

Figure 25 Sheffield Ski Village

Figure 27 Geological Features in the Neepsend area

The Kingfisher site itself has a run down and poorly maintained exterior on the Bardwell Road with many of the windows smashed, shattered or boarded up. The actual faรงade also suffers from being poorly maintained with the paint on the walls cracking and weeds growing out of the guttering. On the Neepend Lane part of the site the faรงade has been maintained by pebble dashing and replacing the original windows with PVC doubleglazing. This has compromised the architectural relevance of the building. The red brick Victorian Building that is the Riverside works houses a small engineering firm on the ground floor but seems to be unused on the above floors, is again poorly maintained with boarded up and shattered windows. The detached former public house has went through a recent renovation and like the Neepsend Lane faรงade has been pebble dashed and the original windows have been replaced with new double glazed PVC windows.

Figure 28 Poorly maintained exterior on the Bardwell Road

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Conclusion Initial investigation of the site, its history and the surrounding area has highlighted the key characteristics of the area. The neighbourhood’s rich history has created a mixture of extremely poor buildings and some interesting buildings of architectural delight. Care should be taken to take the area’s character into account when designing the proposed development and not create structures which clash with the surrounding area. Any proposed design needs to work with the surrounding buildings to create an accessible, sustainable and economically viable development which will enhance the social capital in the area. A summary of key urban design strengths and weaknesses arising from this initial investigation is provided in the table to the right. The Swot analysis highlight the social problems in the area and the issues if contamination from previous industrial use. The site does however provide some fantastic opportunities for high quality design which could provide the inspiration for surrounding areas in vast need of redevelopment. The sites location with views across the valley and it unique curved facade which creates an attractive landmark for visitors to the area provide interesting opportunities for development on the site.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths       

Large site Good View across lower Don Attractive façade Good public transport links Thriving Working community Potential for redevelopment Area is highlighted in Sheffield Core Strategy and has an area action plan  Substantial sunlight  Character of the area  Historically Sheffield’s industrial area Weaknesses  Situated in Flood zone 2 and 3 as identified by PPS 25  Next to a large gas works  Noise pollution from the Heavy and light industry that surrounds the site  Red light district situated close to site  Noisy transport routes  Landfill behind site  Design constraints

Opportunities  Mixed use development  Live work artist studios  Flood protection would improve residential and retail opportunities on the site  Creating sustainable development  Improve the local infrastructure  Improve environmental impact of the site  Reduce the carbon emissions of the site  Situated within the area action plan  Introduce a more sustainable approach to transport  Preservation of Heritage  Gentrify Threats  Flood risks  Development costs  Economic sustainability in current economic climate  Lack of public interest in new development  Land contamination  Wildlife  Contamination of vital utilities

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3. Appraisal of Relevant Policy

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National Planning Policy and Design Guidance Relevant national planning policy is set out in PPS 1: Delivering Sustainable Development. PPS 25: Managing Flood Risk. PPS 1: Planning for Climate Change and PPS 3: Housing. These policies establish a number of principles which must be addressed when developing in the area.

residents have a desire to see the retention and re-use of architecturally and historically important buildings (Sheffield City Council 2008). Careful consideration has therefore been given to how a combination of reuse and new build can reinforce the existing character and urban form of Neepsend by studying the architectural style of existing buildings on the site and neighbouring sites. An initial site analysis which focused on architectural style was initially carried out, as detailed in the sketch in figure 29.

Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1): Delivering Sustainable Development states that planning authorities should ‘seek to promote the more efficient use of land through higher density, mixed-use development and the use of suitably located previously developed land and buildings’ (DCLG 2005, p.11). Kingfisher seeks to deliver this policy through a development which incorporates existing industrial and office use with new artist live-work units and retail alongside studio and workshop space for artists/craftspeople. PPS 1 (DCLG 2005) promotes good design as a key element in achieving sustainable development and states that this should be ‘integrated into the existing urban form and the natural and built environments’ (DCLG 2005. p.14). In addition, planning authorities should have regard to good practice set out in ‘By Design’ (CABE 2000). The latter states that good design must consider a site’s ‘character’ and hence ‘identity’ and should respond to local building forms, roof slopes and window types as well as local materials. These elements must be considered from the start and not as ‘add-ons.’ It is also important to note that Kelham

Figure 29 Site analysis of architectural styles

Riverside Works (Figure 30-32) is an attractive Victorian industrial building of Italianette style which is worthy of retention and reuse. Its form is considered appropriate to repeat in the new build to reinforce local distinctiveness

Figure 32 Riverside Works

Figure 31 south elevation.

Figure 30 west elevation

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Kingfisher Works (figure 33-34) is a Victorian industrial building which has a robust classical façade with repeating columns and arched windows and a distinctive vernacular curved corner which is considered important to retain.

p.19). In addition, brick will be used throughout the new build, not only to reflect the local palette, but for its properties low embedded energy. Figure 37 shows a Victorian building in Kelham Island with curved corner and original brickwork unaltered. Figure 35-36 illustrates the saw tooth roofs of Victorian industrial buildings on the adjacent site on Bardwell Road. Inspiration has been taken from these to inform the roofline of the proposed craft workshops and artist live-work units. This form has an important function in bringing north light into the studio and workshop space, and is not merely pastiche.

Figure 33 Kingfisher Works

Figure 37 Bardwell Road saw tooth roofs

Figure 34 Kingfisher Works

These architectural features are appropriate to repeat elsewhere in the new build of the development. Figure 34 shows that the façade has been rendered and it is proposed to return this to the original brick to reflect the ‘prevailing palette of materials in the area’ as emphasised in the Kelham Neepsend Action Plan (Sheffield City Council 2008,

Figure 35 Bardwell Road saw tooth roofs

Figure 36 Original brickwork

Planning Policy Statement 25: Managing Flood Risk (DCLG 2010) seeks to ensure that flood risk is taken into account at all stages of the planning process to avoid inappropriate development in areas at risk of flooding. It states that the design of development down to the micro-level can influence or exacerbate run-off as the effect of development is generally to reduce the permeability of at least part of the site. The Sheffield Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (Sheffield City Council 2008) (Appendix 3) shows the site sitting in zone 3 (high probability of flooding) and zone 2 (medium probability of flooding) which has significant implications for the design of the development. The courtyard form could provide an opportunity to reduce the building footprint, so reducing surface run-off, and will also act as a sustainable drainage system (SUDS) to manage flood pathways. Kingfisher Works, Neepsend, Sheffield Design and Access Statement. Page: 18


Figure 38 SUDS development

for

a

housing Figure 39 Flooding in Kelham Island 2007

Figure 41 permeable tarmac

Figure 42 rainwater harvesting Figure 43 Permeable Paving

In addition, hard surfaces of the proposed car park and mews road will be fabricated with permeable tarmac (figure 39) and paving (figure 40) respectively, and rainwater harvesting (figure 41) for the development will take place, so reducing water bills for residents and tenants.

Figure 40 The Upper Don Physical Regeneration Strategy

Planning Policy Statement 1: Planning for Climate Change (DCLG 2007), states that planning has a key role to play in supporting the delivery of reducing carbon emissions from domestic and non-domestic buildings. Building Regulations require new homes to get to zero carbon by 2016 and PPS 3 states that ‘in identifying locations, account should be taken of the contribution to be made to cutting carbon emissions through proximity to good public transport and the potential for decentralized energy supply based on renewable and low carbon forms’ (DCLG 2006). Core Strategy (Sheffield City Council 2009) policy CS 64 requires that developments of 5 dwellings or over should achieve a Code for Sustainable Homes level 3 as a minimum and that non-residential over 500sqm should achieve a BREEAM rating of very good as a minimum. In addition policy CS65 requires all significant development to provide a minimum of 10% of energy from decentralized and renewable/low carbon energy. Overall carbon emissions should be reduced by 20% (Sheffield City Council 2009).Planning Policy Statement 3: Housing (DCLG 2006) states that new housing and residential developments should be well designed and make a significant contribution to promoting urban renaissance and the quality of life. In addition, at least 60% of new housing should be provided on previously developed land and a mix of housing in terms of tenure, price and different households should be delivered in new communities. The Regional Spatial Strategy (GOYH 2008) requires that 30-40% of new homes in the region are affordable, which is translated locally to the city centre market area as 25% social rented and 75% intermediate housing, which includes shared equity and rents below the market rate (Sheffield City Council 2010). A DTZ study into the sustainability of the city centre housing market found an over representation of 1-2 bed apartments with the need for larger 2-4 bed city centre properties with better space standards to retain existing residents for longer (Sheffield City Council 2008). City Policies require residential design to provide sufficient outdoor space or private gardens and have no difference in quality and appearance for different tenures (Sheffield City Council 2010).

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The decision to add residential to the scheme is not initially supported by local planning policy. The Upper Don Physical Regeneration Strategy (Sheffield City Council 2006) identifies potential business, employment, leisure and industrial uses for the site and adjacent sites (figure 29). In addition, the adjacent sites on Neepsend Lane to the west have been allocated in the City Policies and Sites (Sheffield City Council 2010) for industry, research and development or warehouses. However; a case for residential as part of a mixed use sustainable artists’ community can be made. The Core Strategy states in policy CS25 that land for housing in the city centre will be released only as part of a mixed use development which supports economic regeneration (Sheffield City Council 2009). Additionally, the City Centre Masterplan promotes exemplar sustainable residential developments through the application of new green space, decentralized energy schemes, car clubs, high quality sound insulation and innovative design (Sheffield City Council 2008). PPS 1 states that community involvement is vitally important to planning and the achievement of sustainable development; a community should be involved in the development of the vision for its area and asked for ideas about how that should be achieved (DCLG 2005). In October 2006 all residents and businesses in the Kelham Neepsend area were invited to give their views on issues of concern and the main findings were as follows (Sheffield City Council 2008): Concern over the general lack of local facilities.

Concern amongst the well established business community in Neepsend over the pressure from residential developers and the potential conflict with traditional industry. Concern over the lack of open space. In response to this consultation, the design strategy sought to retain some industrial use to support what is currently a thriving industrial business area. It is proposed to place this at the rear of the site with a sound barrier to achieve attenuation for the other uses. The introduction of new retail, both A1 (general) and A3 (food and drink), will provide much needed local facilities, and a proposed courtyard layout with soft landscaping will address the problem of a lack of open space in the area. A more detailed description of the consultation process is provided in the following chapter.

Local Planning Policy The Sheffield Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (Sheffield City Council 2008) requires that floor levels in new development in an area at medium and high probability of flooding must be 300mm above the 1 in 100 year flood level including climate change or in the case of sites which have previously flooded, 300mm above observed flood levels, whichever is higher (Sheffield City Council 2008). Consequently for the Kingfisher site, which experienced flooding of 900mm in 2007, new development has to be built at 1.2m above ground level

and ground floor residential development must be excluded, both of which have design implications. Introduction of green infrastructure in the form of the soft landscaped courtyard which will moderate the urban heat island effect in summer, and the development will promote car sharing and provide cycle parking, as required in City Policy E1 (Sheffield City Council 2010), so further responding to climate change imperatives.

Conclusion Planning policy has being addressed at all levels and a series of perimeters have being put in place for development proposals to ensure they meet all the planning policy requirements. Planning policy at both local and national levels address the need to reduce the risks involved due to flooding and this will be taken into account in the design process. The development will aim to address all the sustainability criteria set out in planning policy to create an environmentally, economically and socially sustainable neighbourhood. No residential development would be built in the ground floor to reduce the risk of damage if the area once again becomes flooded. The economic and social benefits residential development could have on the area help provide justification for this decision.

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4. Pre – application advice

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The layout at this stage of the design process is illustrated in figure 44. The initial idea for the use of the site was to utilize the type of industry that already existed there and to encourage the addition of artist’s workshops. There were originally no plans for residential use but to make the development finically viable it was advised at the first pre application meeting to add residential units. The pre – application stage continued for a couple of weeks with advice being given on issues such as car parking, sustainability measures concerning waste management, flood protection and pedestrian and vehicle access. The initial design of the redevelopment of Kingfisher works indented to keep the façade on Neepsend lane as well as the detached pub/brothel. During the first pre application meetings it was advised that the facades that where going to be kept offered very little in terms of aesthetics and practicality to the site. It was therefore decided to replace the entire building and replicate the red brick Victorian style of Riverside works. This offered more flexibility in the development as the floor space could be enlarged and the new building could be raised significantly to keep in line with flood protection policy of that area. Another major change is the addition of a new residential block. The only residential block that was intended in the redevelopment was the refurbishment of the Riverside works, however again to add to the viability of the site it was decided that a row of townhouses opposite the Riverside works on the site of the former pub/brothel would be added.

Figure 44 Initial site layout

Further pre application meetings raise concern about insufficient car parking. Consequently it was decided to provide 9 more car parking spaces within the courtyard to service the craft workshops and industrial units towards the back of the site. This meant adding another vehicle access point on the Bardwell Road and reducing the length of the office/studio block on Bardwell Road by 4m.

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5. Community Involvement

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The emphasis of the Kingfisher works project is that it should be a sustainable community driven development. Government’s planning policy defines sustainable development within Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development (2005). Furthermore it identifies that the principles of community consultation are key to sustainable development by stating:

‘Community involvement is vitally important to planning and the achievement of sustainable development. One of the principles of sustainable development is to involve the community in developing the vision for its area.’ PPS1: Delivering Sustainable Development (2005) Paragraph 40. Within the Local Development Framework of Sheffield City Council the Statement of Community Involvement (SCI), identifies the requirement of the local planning authority. Community Involvement in Planning: The Government’s Objectives (2004) identifies why SCIs are produced. The statutory requirements of community involvement can be found in The Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (England) Order 2010; Part 2: application, Section 13: Publicity for applications for planning permission as well as Part 3: consultation, which details what is required of a Development Management team in terms of the advertisement of applications for planning permission. Sheffield City Council first adopted its SCI on the 29th September 2006. At the heart of Sheffield’s SCI document is the influence of Sustainable Development and its link to involvement of community both within the design process and at the application stage. Sheffield City Council’s SCI encourages pre-application involvement strongly on all schemes of all sizes. The SCI describes pre-application advice as substantial consultation. Section 8.9 of the document explains the Added Value Test which identifies when pre-

application community involvement is required. The test gives three possible reasons why substantial additional publicity and consultation might be beneficial: to help the community shape a major regeneration scheme or a scheme with a wide community impact to overcome barriers to service and assist hard-to-reach groups such as Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities to generate informed debate about very complex planning issues of wide significance

When a proposed scheme meets one or more of the Added Value Test criteria stated above applicants will be advised to use whichever techniques and approaches they think are appropriate. In support of this ‘The Planning Officers Society’ has published a document Future of Planning portfolio of advice notes No. 8, titled PRE PLANNING APPLICATION CONSULTATION BEST PRACTICE (2010). F and M Sustainable Developments has the belief that the project meets the first Added Value Test because it is in one of the most deprived areas in Kelham Island and has not yet benefited from the investment which areas of Kelham Island closer to the City Centre have. Furthermore, we are intending to have a social impact, not just a physical one, and contribute to the growth of the community in the area. Using the Sheffield SCI it is or good practice obligation to involve the community before development proposals are submitted to the Sheffield City Council. Therefore we have held open forum public meeting at the established real ale house the Gardener’s Rest, to which local residents and representatives from the City Council, local business owners and prospective resident of the retail units were invited. The findings from the meeting and a summary of opinions are expressed below within the table in figure 45.

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View Expressed Concerns

Groups In Attendance

LPA

Potential Retain Unit Occupiers

Potential Residential Unit Occupiers

Potential Industrial Unit Occupiers

Existing Community Groups

Existing Site Tenants

   

Highway issue Residential Curtilage size Issues Open space Contributions Design and finish of project.

  

Shop Frontage to the main highway. Area for Customer Parking Area for deliveries

    

Lack of Local Facilities Noise from other use types Rental and Purchase Costs Anti-social behaviour in the area

   

Desires 

Problems    

Lack of open space Major road bound the site Small development site Contrary to local Action Plan Policies

Minimal Passing trade

Retention and reuse of architecturally and historically important buildings Onsite public open space

 

Disabled access Both Public and private transport link for shoppers.

 

Personal unit Curtilage with Storage space for bins Two parking spaces per unit.

Noise and pollution within area

Conflict with other uses types on site. Unit Size Unit Facilities Deliver and loading Areas.

 

Large unit size that is divisible Good unit facilities and other amenities on site, i.e. shops and cafes.

Downsizing in industrial units.

  

Maintaining of local character Improvement of local infrastructure Provision of local open space

Retention and reuse of architecturally and historically important buildings Onsite public open space

Effect of building new development in red light will have on anti-social in the area.

Pressure from Residential Development which conflict with traditional Industries. Re-housing during development build time. Property cost implication if rent of buying units.

Promise of same Unit area and unit cost.  

Loss of space in units Cost effect in both rental of new units and movement costs.

  Figure 45 Summary of opinions.

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6. The Scheme

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Introduction The proposed scheme has been prepared following a detailed analysis of the site and surroundings, and the identification of key constraints and opportunities and extensive consultation. In preparing the detail of the scheme regard has been had towards the relevant national and regional guidance and development plan policies. The scheme will provide a mixed use development with the following building types: industrial, office, retail A1, retail A3, artist studios, craft workshops and residential. The site will consist of a central court yard and surrounded by the buildings which will keep some of the original façade. There will be a clearly defined edge to the perimeter block. An attenuating wall between the craft workshops and industrial buildings will protect the other uses from unacceptable noise levels. Figure 31 shows the proposed development and the different land use types across the site.

Kelham Island and this proposal aims to repair the damaged urban form by introducing a courtyard within Kingfisher development which will provide open space and a focal point for social contact within the artists’ community. Riverside Works has been retained and reused for housing and the adjacent pub/brothel (figure 46) has been demolished and replaced with additional housing which takes its style from Riverside.

Changes to the original scheme as a result of preapplication discussions meant that office floor space has reduced by 192sqm and studio space by 42sqm. So the final floor areas are:      

Residential – 2640m² Office – 2638m Retail – 392m² Workshops – 706m² Studio – 986m² Industrial – 484m².

As the site assessment and design principles discussed, the courtyard form makes up the original urban grain of

Figure 47 Proposed scheme with land use types.

Figure 46 The Crystal Suite will be demolished

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Meeting Climate Changes Targets Kingfisher will deliver the targets specified in the planning policy appraisal through placing photovoltaic cells on south facing roofs on the residential blocks, artist studio/office/retail block and the craft workshops. These details are illustrated in the 3D block plan in figure 56. A CHP boiler will be housed in the development, and the narrow plan of the proposed buildings will allow for natural light and ventilation. The aim is to achieve a CSH level 4 for our housing and a BREEAM rating of very good for the rest of the development. Consideration has been given to the fact that a tram stop is 10 minutes walk from the development which is also served by a bus stop outside on Neepsend Lane. Consequently car parking is limited for the commercial element to loading and short-stay only in the courtyard, as office and retail workers should be able to make use of the good public transport links.

Meeting Flood Policy requirements Flood policy has necessitated that the ground floor levels are raised to 1.2m and that ground floor residential is excluded from the development. Consequently the residential ground floor levels are to be water-proofed, and used for under croft parking and garden and bin storage. The retail/office/studio block is raised at 1.2m as illustrated in figure 48. This will require the demolition and rebuilding of part of the Neepsend Lane faรงade illustrated in figure 50 so as to meet the requirements of sustainable design guidance. Due to the sloping nature of the site northwards, the industrial and workshop uses at the back of the site, will be raised to a lesser degree.

Figure 48 Neepsend Lane proposed elevation

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Figure 49 Existing faรงade

Sustainable design guidance states that active shop frontages with primary access from the street are more successful and provide natural surveillance (CABE 2000). The integrity of the existing faรงade has already been compromised by the addition of non-period UVPC windows and pebbledash render which further led to the decision to demolish and rebuild it. The office accommodation above the retail units will overhang the concourse so as to sympathetically maintain the integrity of the original building line, as illustrated in the sketch in figure 50. This decision was made with regard to Planning Policy Statement 5: Planning for the Historic Environment (DCLG 2010), which requires that careful consideration must be given to the design of new buildings which stand alongside historic buildings. This policy has also been taken into account in the design of the new facade. The proposed elevation in figure 49 illustrates the appearance of the new retail/office/studio block in which curved windows sympathetically mirror the style of windows found in the original faรงade and the adjacent Riverside Works.

Figure 50 Integrity of the original building line,

Meeting Affordable Housing Targets Kingfisher will be helping to achieve the above policy targets by providing 25% social and 75% intermediate new housing on previously developed land. It will consist of 8x3 bed town houses in the new block and 8x3 bed maisonettes with 8x1-2 bed studio flats in the converted Riverside Works, all of which will provide studio space for their artist residents. Each residential unit has a parking space, as required in local planning policy (Sheffield City Council 2010); the town houses will benefit from undercroft parking and the maisonettes will have a dedicated space in the car park at the end of the residential block (figure 51). 5 parking spaces remain for visitors, 3 of which are for disabled drivers.

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PPS 3 seeks to create housing developments which provide inclusive access (DCLG 2006) and this is translated locally into a requirement for 30% of residential to have wheelchair access (Sheffield City Council 2010). In response to this Kingfisher will provide 8 studio flats with lift access and under croft disabled parking. The footprint of each unit is 55sqm. Private gardens are provided for the town houses and maisonettes and the studio flats will benefit from balconies overlooking the courtyard, as illustrated in the sketch in figure 52. Design and quality will be to the same standard irrespective of tenure, as recommended in sustainable design guidance (CABE 2003).

Figure 51 Car park Layout

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Figure 52 Balconies overlooking the courtyard

Figures 53 to55 illustrate the proposed residential scheme. Light will enter the studio floor level through glazing in the saw tooth roof and then flow into the floors below via the stairwell as a result of the open plan layout.

Kingfisher Works, Neepsend, Sheffield Design and Access Statement. Page: 31


Figure 53 Town house layout

Figure 54 Floor plans for town houses

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Figure 55 Town house section

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Scale, massing and height Figure 56 illustrates scale and massing of the development through use of an axiometric drawing. The residential block on the right acts a reference point, as this is the original Riverside Works which, apart for the addition of a saw tooth roof to replace the existing hip roof, remains unchanged.

Figure 56 3D Block plan

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Figure 57 compares the existing elevation in the photographs on the right with the proposed elevation on the left so that a sense of the scale and height of the new development can be appreciated. Riverside Works to the far left of the photographs again acts as the reference point as this building will be retained for the proposed residential block on the right. The proposed retail/office/artist studio block consists of 4 floors, whereas the existing buildings have 3 floors. However, the additional floor of artists’ studios will be set back, so as to reduce the visual impact of an extra storey. Currently the height and scale of the corner is greatly increased by the addition of the imposing red pediment as seen in the photograph. This will be removed, so in effect the scale of the new build will read as being relatively unchanged. In addition, the setting back of the upper floor will allow light to enter the courtyard.

Figure 59 Existing and proposed elevations on Neepsend Lane

Figure 57 How the proposed elevation will look Figure 58 How the elevation looks now.

Kingfisher Works, Neepsend, Sheffield Design and Access Statement. Page: 35


Access Vehicular access to the site will be from three points as illustrated below in figure 60. The industrial units and courtyard car park is accessed from Bardwell Road and the residential units and associated car park from Neepsend Lane. Pedestrian access into the courtyard will be from three points; the car park at the end of the residential development, between the residential and retail blocks on Neepsend Lane and through an entrance via the curved corner of Kingfisher Works. The latter will be achieved by removing three panels between the pillars, as illustrated in the sketch in figure 57. This will give legibility to the scheme by providing an imposing gateway into the development which will not only act as a point of transition, but also as a landmark and focus for the area. Stairs and a disabled ramp from street level will give access to a concourse for the retail units which is raised at 1.2m to meet flood policy requirements as illustrated in the Neepsend Lane elevation in figure 34.

Proposed Pedestrian Access Proposed Vehicular Access Current Pedestrian Access Current Vehicular Access

Disabled access to the courtyard is via a circular ramp within the curved corner façade on Neepsend Lane as shown in the site layout in figure 61. This meets with the requirements of PPG 17: Planning for open space, sport and recreation. This state’s ‘new open space developments should ensure that facilities are accessible to people with disabilities’ (2006,p9).

Figure 60 Access to the site

Figure 61 Circular ramp

Kingfisher Works, Neepsend, Sheffield Design and Access Statement. Page: 36


Landscaping The Landscaping within this development will be undertaken in three forms. The first is within the courtyard set at the heart of the development, an area that is to be for all manner of uses. These include an area to eat, relax, work and socialise. The second area of landscaping is the hard landscaping around the perimeter of the site where the development meets the public highways (Street Scene). Finally the last major area of landscaping is to be the mews road which splits the area of residential apartment and town houses, which will incorporate both hard and soft surfaces into the home zone to minimise car usage and speed.

Materials In regards to the landscaping of the street scene both on Neepsend Lane and Bardwell Road the Sheffield City Council has set requirements in its Material Palette Zones for the Inner City Plan (figure 62) which shows that Kingfisher Works is within the Secondary Zone requirements.

All the paving surfaces will be resin-bound aggregate to provide a smooth, even and well-laid surface to avoid tripping. The detailed design has not been developed at this stage though it is intended that the routes will incorporate the following features:  Seating at intervals along the path diagonally across courtyard, any seating will have arm and back rests and be located so not to obstruct routes  Street furniture will be grouped to avoid obstructing routes  Adequate lighting to assist visually impaired people  Soft landscaping in the way of small specimen trees and planting beds.  Areas for artist display space.  Sufficient hard standing area on the outside of the court yard for cafe/restaurant seating areas.

Kerbs to be 310mm wide mid grey granite with radius blocks to all radii less than 40m and special chamfered angled blocks at parking/loading bays. Chamfered tree grille edging blocks to be 310mm wide dark grey-black granite. Tree grille to be SCC standard ductile iron model with up lighter extensions where required. Channel in smooth hot rolled asphalt (without aggregate). Carriageway in hot rolled asphalt with green aggregate in clear binder.

Figure 62 material palette zones

Secondary Zones Figure 63 Street Furniture to SCC standard range.

All materials finishes, dimensions, layout patterns and bedding systems to meet with the Sheffield City Council specifications, this also includes all street artwork and lighting. These requirements are stated below in an extract form the Council’s document: Paving Footways to be paved in 600x450x63mm thick fibre mesh reinforced concrete slabs with a ‘natural’ pale buff colour and ground surface. Unreinforced slabs of these dimensions/finish may only be used where there is no risk of vehicle overrun

Lighting Streets with narrow footways should be lit from building mounted lighting wherever possible. Where column lighting is to be used, columns should be elegant and tapered in form. Lanterns should be of a high quality, simple and elegant in design. Special lighting may be required in streets of Special Character including the use of additional feature lighting. The highest standard of street tree planting is required. Quality / size / planting system for street trees must be to SCC approved specifications.

Kingfisher Works, Neepsend, Sheffield Design and Access Statement. Page: 37


Mews Road

Riverside

With regards to the mews road the town houses will have their private gardens that will be landscaped as they see fit. However, in relation to the mews road the concept is to create a HomeZone. It will be designed primarily to meet the interests of the local community, whether they are walking or in a vehicle. It will be an enabling surface operating primarily as a space for social use. The surface will include features such as trees and areas of planting, ideally maintained by residents, with some on-street parking also as part of the layout.

The Sheffield City Centre Urban Design Compendium (2004) acknowledges the important role the Kelham Area plays in Sheffield’s industrial heritage and recognizes the need for greater interaction between the built form and the river. The Core Strategy proposes a new walking and cycling route along the River Don with a crossing opposite Kingfisher Works. Kingfisher can contribute to this greater connectivity by funding riverside improvements and a pedestrian crossing over Neepsend Lane to the Kingfisher development as part of planning obligations. The design has responded to this by creating pedestrian access between the residential and retail development on Neepsend Lane, emphasized by a curved corner for the retail/office block, as illustrated in the 3D block plan in figure 56.

Security Sustainable design criteria (CABE 2000) emphasise the importance of design in delivering natural surveillance. Security for the courtyard will be provided by overlooking of residential and office upper floors and security for the mews road and car park by overlooking from the residential block.

Figure 65 The scheme will encourage people to cycle

Figure 64 Secure Parking above and Natural Surveillance Below

Figure 66 How walking and cycling routes along the River Don could look

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6. Financial Viability

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Introduction The viability appraisal has been commissioned by F and M Sustainable Developments to access whether the proposed development solution for the Kingfisher works site is financially reasonable within the present economic circumstances. The Kingfisher Works development houses both the artist community while creating a higher capital value for the site via retaining the commercial uses, by linking them as a local community. Therefore this report forms part of the evidence that this innovative development type can be viable with the right expertise and funds. The funders of this development include Homes and Community Agency, the Arts Council, the Probation Service and the National Lottery Fund.

Current Use The majority of the site is currently used as a light industry/unit office and what was a public house is presently being used as a massage parlour. The majority of the industrial space is rented; the average rate for the rental of one square metre of industrial space within this area of Sheffield is approximately £18.83. The total area of industrial space within the existing buildings is estimated at around 4,000 square metres, this therefore puts the value of the whole area, once rented, at around £75,320 per calendar month. However, presently on site less than half of the space is rented which decreases the earning potential for this development. Additionally the building is around 100 years old and has gone through many additions and alteration which could mean the existing building is not structural sound which could result in a vast amount of money being required to

renovate the present building. To recoup this sort of investment in the building would take a lengthy period of time due to the present rental monthly value being low.

Future Use The proposed development is a mixed use development with the additions of two car access entrances, a car park and a court yard area of open space. Together this lowers the amount of building footprint on site, which could mean the amount of rentable floor space could be decreased however, to over come this the development has been designed to increase the volume through increasing the height of both the Residential blocks and retail/ Office building. The table below shows the exact amount of floor spaces created, once the development is full completed: Rental Summary

Area

Rate m²

Gross MRV

OFFICE

2,374

£72.00

179,0942

Retail A1

157.95

£113

17848

Retail A3

157.95

£113

17,848

Intermediate Housing(75%

74.25

£54.99

4,083

Art Studios

936.70

£39.99

37,402

Industrial

435.60

£18.83

8,202

Craft studios

670.70

£39.99

26,781

Social Housing

24.7

£49.99

1,089

Totals

4,832.10

From the information it is fully understood that the highest rental values come by way of the retail floor space that is £113 per square metre. However, in the sites location it is not viable to create purely a retail use based development; therefore it is supplemented with the addition of the largest floor space which is the Office use at 2,374 square metres which creates a rental value to the development of £179,942 per calendar month. By doing this the development can support other lower rental value buildings such as the artist studio spaces, industrial units and craft workshops which, even added together each month, does not create the same amount of capital.

Residual Evaluation From the Residual evaluation of the project, if it was to be sold at the present time in present market conditions, it would yield £578,867 after the subtraction of construction of costs. However it must be understood that the project is being undertaken by the non profit organisation of F and M Sustainable Developments.

Value of the Scheme The value of the scheme has been based on the rental value of the various use types, these rental values are based on the lower rentals within the Sheffield Inner City prices.

£284,197

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All are identified below in the table: Rental Summary

Area

Rate m²

Income Tenant

OFFICE

2,374

£72.00

299,149

Retail A1

157.95

£113

31,235

Retail A3

157.95

£113

31,235

Intermediate Housing(75%

74.25

£54.99

7,145

Art Studios

936.70

£39.99

65,454

Industrial

435.60

£18.83

14,354

Craft studios

670.70

£39.99

46,867

Social Housing

24.7

£49.99

1,905

Totals

4,832.10

from

497,344

Net Realisation = £4,115,264

Cost of the Scheme The cost of this development on the completion of all building works is set at around £3,536,397. Within this figure are the main construction costs and the addition of a contingency for the Development at 5% total development costs. However, due to the development being within a flood risk zone and historic industrial area, the ground materials and condition could cause for added cost whilst the current climate economically could cause the finance borrowing rate increasing, and VAT is set to rise in the New Year. Additionally the professional fees; one of the highest bills which comes to £800,391, is

possibly underestimated both the developers fee and the legal fee ramification of both the sinking of the exposed gas pipe and finalisation of the 106 agreement payments.

Site Value The gross residual value is the difference between the gross development value and the total cost of the development which comes out at around £578,867 this additionally takes into account the cost implication of which short term finance will have in relation to the interest cost. However what the valuation does not take into account is the fact that the project is to be majorly funded through different organisation grants.

Site Viability A net residual valuation of £578,867 suggests that this site is economically viable if the site can be constructed within the time constraints of the Phasing programme within relation to the short term finance cost implications. Furthermore the viability has a major dependence on many factors which could be interchangeable within the economic climate and the VAT increase in January. Many of these factors can be influential even if they have been included within the construction costing report, such things like specification of units, demolition cost, refurbishment and Section 106 contributions. The valuation would suggest that development could occur profit and be viable, which is overshadowed by the fact that the development is additionally got prospective tenants and funding.

Funding Further profit could be generated from the site through external funding that could sustain the development process and avoid the requirement of short term finance. The sources of funding will come from four main contributors, the Housing and Community Agency, The Arts Council, the Probation Service and the Lottery Fund.

Conclusion Without funding from external sources, the scheme would not be viable, but then it is not a commercially driven development, but an egalitarian one. We have secured tenancies from the Probation Service and the National Treatment Agency for Substance Abuse for some of the office space. We have also secured tenancies from the existing industrial users on the site. Market research undertaken by Yorkshire Art space has identified huge demand for artist and craft workshop space in the city of Sheffield, with demand outstripping supply. Despite recent artist studio space developments at the Persimmon Works and Manor Oak studios and the soon to be opened Knutton Road studios, there is still an undersupply of space for artists. Porter Brook studios have a temporary lease from Sheffield City Council, but this expires in July 2011. Kingfisher will provide secure tenancies for artists and affordable housing in live work units on site. It is an attractive proposition to the artistic community of Sheffield and we believe it has the potential to become a new cultural hub of Kelham Neepsend, in the manner of the artist communities in Berlin and Arizona, which have been referred to in the introduction of the design and access statement.

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8. List of Figures FIGURE 1 WIDER SITE LOCATION ..........................................................................................................................................................7 FIGURE 2 BIRDS-EYE VIEW OF THE SITE ...................................................................................................................................................7 FIGURE 3 THE GARDENERS REST...........................................................................................................................................................7 FIGURE 4 CANNON BREWERY...............................................................................................................................................................7 FIGURE 5 NEEPSEND SKATE PARK .........................................................................................................................................................7 FIGURE 6 CHARACTER OF SURROUNDING AREAS ......................................................................................................................................8 FIGURE 8 FURNACES; A KEY PART IN THE AREAS DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................................................................8 FIGURE 7 NEEPSEND IN THE 1920S .......................................................................................................................................................8 FIGURE 9 NEEPSEND AREA IN THE 1960 ................................................................................................................................................9 FIGURE 10 NEEPSEND AREA IN THE 1960 ..............................................................................................................................................9 FIGURE 11 TOMMY WARDS ELEPHANT ..................................................................................................................................................9 FIGURE 12 NEPSEND TAVERN, NOW THE CRYSTAL SUITE ...........................................................................................................................9 FIGURE 13 ARCTIC MONKEYS VIDEO .....................................................................................................................................................9 FIGURE 14 CD COVER FROM SINGLE, ‘WHEN THE SUN GOES DOWN’..........................................................................................................9 FIGURE 15 ORDINANCE SURVEY MAPS SHOWING THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEEPSEND FROM 1851 TO 1992.........................................................9 FIGURE 16 LANDMARKS AND VIEWS....................................................................................................................................................10 FIGURE 17 SITE ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................................................................11 FIGURE 18 BLOCK PATTER AROUND KINGFISHER WORKS .........................................................................................................................12 FIGURE 19 THE BLOCK PATTERN IN THE NEEPSEND AREA IS MUCH HIGHER THAN SURROUNDING AREAS. ...........................................................12 FIGURE 21 BUS STOP OUTSIDE KINGFISHER WORKS ...............................................................................................................................12 FIGURE 22 MAP SHOWING MAJOR TRANSPORT ROUTES AROUND THE KINGFISHER WORKS SITE. .....................................................................12 FIGURE 20 TRAM STOP AT INFIRMARY ROAD ........................................................................................................................................12 FIGURE 23 HEAVY VEHICULAR TRAFFIC ON RUTLAND ROAD .....................................................................................................................13 FIGURE 24 LAND-USE IN THE NEEPSEND AREA AND ITS SURROUNDING NEIGHBOURHOODS .............................................................................13 FIGURE 26 BIRDSEYE PHOTO SHOWING THE GRADIENTS OF THE LAND ........................................................................................................14 FIGURE 27 GEOLOGICAL FEATURES IN THE NEEPSEND AREA .....................................................................................................................14 FIGURE 28 POORLY MAINTAINED EXTERIOR ON THE BARDWELL ROAD........................................................................................................14 FIGURE 25 SHEFFIELD SKI VILLAGE ......................................................................................................................................................14 FIGURE 29 SITE ANALYSIS OF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES ..............................................................................................................................17 FIGURE 32 RIVERSIDE WORKS............................................................................................................................................................17 FIGURE 30 WEST ELEVATION ..............................................................................................................................................................17 FIGURE 31 SOUTH ELEVATION. ...........................................................................................................................................................17 FIGURE 33 KINGFISHER WORKS .........................................................................................................................................................18 FIGURE 34 KINGFISHER WORKS .........................................................................................................................................................18 FIGURE 37 BARDWELL ROAD SAW TOOTH ROOFS...................................................................................................................................18 FIGURE 35 BARDWELL ROAD SAW TOOTH ROOFS...................................................................................................................................18

FIGURE 36 ORIGINAL BRICKWORK ...................................................................................................................................................... 18 FIGURE 38 SUDS FOR A HOUSING DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................................. 19 FIGURE 39 FLOODING IN KELHAM ISLAND 2007 ................................................................................................................................... 19 FIGURE 40 THE UPPER DON PHYSICAL REGENERATION STRATEGY ............................................................................................................ 19 FIGURE 41 PERMEABLE TARMAC ........................................................................................................................................................ 19 FIGURE 42 RAINWATER HARVESTING .................................................................................................................................................. 19 FIGURE 43 PERMEABLE PAVING......................................................................................................................................................... 19 FIGURE 44 INITIAL SITE LAYOUT ......................................................................................................................................................... 22 FIGURE 45 SUMMARY OF OPINIONS. .................................................................................................................................................. 25 FIGURE 47 PROPOSED SCHEME WITH LAND USE TYPES............................................................................................................................ 27 FIGURE 46 THE CRYSTAL SUITE WILL BE DEMOLISHED............................................................................................................................. 27 FIGURE 48 NEEPSEND LANE PROPOSED ELEVATION................................................................................................................................ 28 FIGURE 49 EXISTING FAÇADE............................................................................................................................................................. 29 FIGURE 50 INTEGRITY OF THE ORIGINAL BUILDING LINE, .......................................................................................................................... 29 FIGURE 51 CAR PARK LAYOUT ........................................................................................................................................................... 30 FIGURE 52 BALCONIES OVERLOOKING THE COURTYARD .......................................................................................................................... 31 FIGURE 53 TOWN HOUSE LAYOUT ...................................................................................................................................................... 32 FIGURE 54 FLOOR PLANS FOR TOWN HOUSES ....................................................................................................................................... 32 FIGURE 55 TOWN HOUSE SECTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 33 FIGURE 56 3D BLOCK PLAN .............................................................................................................................................................. 34 FIGURE 58 HOW THE PROPOSED ELEVATION WILL LOOK.......................................................................................................................... 35 FIGURE 57 HOW THE ELEVATION LOOKS NOW. ..................................................................................................................................... 35 FIGURE 59 EXISTING AND PROPOSED ELEVATIONS ON NEEPSEND LANE...................................................................................................... 35 FIGURE 60 ACCESS TO THE SITE ......................................................................................................................................................... 36 FIGURE 60 CIRCULAR RAMP .............................................................................................................................................................. 36 FIGURE 62 MATERIAL PALETTE ZONES ................................................................................................................................................. 37 FIGURE 63 STREET FURNITURE TO SCC STANDARD RANGE. ..................................................................................................................... 37 FIGURE 66 HOW WALKING AND CYCLING ROUTES ALONG THE RIVER DON COULD LOOK ................................................................................ 38 FIGURE 64 SECURE PARKING ABOVE AND NATURAL SURVEILLANCE BELOW ................................................................................................ 38 FIGURE 65 THE SCHEME WILL ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO CYCLE ................................................................................................................... 38 FIGURE 67 THE FORMER SHEFFIELD GAS WORKS, NOW BEING DE-CONTAMINATED.................................................................................... 50 FIGURE 68 THE EVENTS OF JUNE 2007 WITHIN THE KELHAM ISLAND AREA. ............................................................................................... 51 FIGURE 70 A MAP SHOWING AREAS COVERED BY THE ENVIRONMENT AGENCY’S FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM ..................................................... 52 FIGURE 72 FLOOD ZONE MAP 6.1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 52 FIGURE 69 A MAP SHOWING THE CITY’S TOPOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................... 52 FIGURE 71 DEPTH OF THE FLOOD ON KINGFISHER WORKS IN 1864 ........................................................................................................... 52

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9. Appendices List of Appendices 1. Ideas Board 2. De-Contamination Process of Neepsend Gas-Works 3. Sheffield Strategic Flood Risk Assessment 4. 1:500 site analysis 5. 1:500 site layout 6. 1:500 revised site layout 1:500 3D block plan 7. 1:100 house section 8. 1:100 house layout 9. 1:100 house floor plans 10. 1:100 elevation 11. Location plan 1:1250

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Appendix 1: Ideas Board This board aims to give a step-by-step guide of the design inspiration which has shaped the Kingfisher works development. The following collage shows a number of buildings which were used as inspiration for our designs. A number of buildings came to mind when we thorough of curved buildings such as those on Leadmill Road in Sheffield, and in Sheffield city centre. Modern design’s such as the Tuti-Fruti development in London inspired some of our earlier ideas before we decided to keep the historical character of the area.

A series of ‘green’ buildings were researched for the environmental credentials and design quality. Street furniture was researched to find suitable items for the public realm within the development.

Early design ideas proposed a number of different building layouts. Some if the original ideas are listed below. Firstly the site was broken down into possible developments with a courtyard similar to the final idea. The first design kept the brothel and had large areas of unused open space.

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A second series of ideas proposed utilising the site of the brothel and creating residential development on the space. The massing and size of the buildings meant this idea was dropped at an early stage.

Another proposal was to create a shopping are diagonally through the centre of the site creating greater permeability in the area. This idea was dropped due to poor air flows within the buildings.

The ideas above proposed keeping the buildings original facade and focusing on a courtyard idea. This idea was partially adopted in the final design.

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The current site was modelled to create comparisons during the design process.

The final design has taken features from all the previous ideas and worked them into a design which will provide the most benefits for people using the area. The sketches below show how ideas for car park designs and possible steps leading to the raised shopping idea were discussed to choose the optimal design.

These sketches show how ideas were shared between the designers as they worked to try different building formations.

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Access points to the site were discussed. Floor plans and section planes were created to share design ideas among the team.

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A series of design principles were addressed during the design process.

Left: The original design ideas in its surroundings. Right: The proposed development in its surroundings. Below: Elevation of the proposed development. The final design was the result of an in-depth design process.

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Appendix 2. De-Contamination Process of Neepsend Gas-Works The former Neepsend Gas works is located to the west of the Kingfisher works development. Its is currently undergoing a detailed process of decontamination to enable future development on the land. The decontamination process is being undertaken by CL:AIRE and is a pilot scheme for the de-contamination of similar land throughout the world. “The pilot (CLUSTER) site is situated at the former Neepsend gas works site on Neepsend Lane (Upper Don Valley, Sheffield). It is the first of its kind and an example of sustainable development in practice in the field of rehabilitation of contaminated land. It will also provide English Partnerships and Sheffield City Council with a valuable new tool to help regenerate sectors of the city faster and more cheaply with substantial environmental benefits.” (CL:AIRE – www.claire.co.uk) The planning application for the De-contamination of the site can be found using the code (Ref 06/01370/FUL). The planning application states that site remediation is likely to take around 5 years to complete. Figure 67 The former Sheffield Gas Works, Now being De-contaminated

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Appendix 3. Sheffield Strategic Flood Risk Assessment

Figure 68 The events of June 2007 within the Kelham Island area.

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Figure 70 A map showing areas covered by the Environment Agency’s Flood Warning System

Figure 69 A map showing the city’s topography

Figure 71 Depth of the flood on Kingfisher works in 1864 Figure 72 Flood Zone Map 6.1

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Appendix 4. 1:500 site layout

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Appendix 4. 1:500 site layout

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Appendix 5. 1:500 revised site layout

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Appendix 6. 1:500 3D block plan

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Appendix 7. 1:100 house section

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Appendix 8. 1:100 house layout

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Appendix 9. 1:100 house floor plans

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Appendix 10. 1:100 elevation

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Appendix 11. Location plan 1:1250

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Design and Access Statement  

Design and Access Statement for MSc

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