History of Trigonometry History of Trigonometry Trigonometry is a field of mathematics first compiled in 2nd century BCE by the Greek mathematician Hipparchus. The history of trigonometry and of trigonometric functions follows the general lines of the history of mathematics.In 1595, the mathematician Bartholemaeus Pitiscus published an influential work on trigonometry in 1595 which may have coined the word "trigonometry". Early study of triangles can be traced to the 2nd millennium BC, in Egyptian mathematics (Rhind Mathematical Papyrus) and Babylonian mathematics. Systematic study of trigonometric functions began in Hellenistic mathematics, reaching India as part of Hellenistic astronomy. In Indian astronomy, the study of trigonometric functions flowered in the Gupta period, especially due to Aryabhata (6th century). During the Middle Ages, the study of trigonometry continued in Islamic mathematics, whence it was adopted as a separate subject in the Latin West beginning in the Renaissance with Regiomontanus. The development of modern trigonometry shifted during the western Age of Enlightenment, beginning with 17th-century mathematics (Isaac Newton and James Stirling) and reaching its modern form with Leonhard Euler (1748). Our modern word "sine", is derived from the Latin word sinus, which means "bay", "bosom" or "fold", translating Arabic jayb. The Arabic term is in origin a corruption of Sanskrit jīvā "chord". Sanskrit jīvā in learned usage was a synonym of jyā "chord", originally the term for "bow-string". Sanskrit jīvā was loaned into Arabic as jiba. Know More About :- Square and Square Root

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Early trigonometry :- The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians had known of theorems on the ratios of the sides of similar triangles for many centuries. But pre-Hellenic societies lacked the concept of an angle measure and consequently, the sides of triangles were studied instead, a field that would be better called "trilaterometry". The Babylonian astronomers kept detailed records on the rising and setting of stars, the motion of the planets, and the solar and lunar eclipses, all of which required familiarity with angular distances measured on the celestial sphere. Based on one interpretation of the Plimpton 322 cuneiform tablet (c. 1900 BC), some have even asserted that the ancient Babylonians had a table of secants. There is, however, much debate as to whether it is a table of Pythagorean triples, a solution of quadratic equations, or a trigonometric table. The Egyptians, on the other hand, used a primitive form of trigonometry for building pyramids in the 2nd millennium BC.[2] The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, written by the Egyptian scribe Ahmes (c. 1680–1620 BC), contains the following problem related to trigonometry. "If a pyramid is 250 cubits high and the side of its base 360 cubits long, what is its seked?" Ahmes' solution to the problem is the ratio of half the side of the base of the pyramid to its height, or the run-to-rise ratio of its face. In other words, the quantity he found for the seked is the cotangent of the angle to the base of the pyramid and its face. Indian mathematics ;- Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. The next significant developments of trigonometry were in India. Influential works from the 4th–5th century, known as the Siddhantas (of which there were five, the most complete survivor of which is the Surya Siddhanta[16]) first defined the sine as the modern relationship between half an angle and half a chord, while also defining the cosine, versine, and inverse sine. Soon afterwards, another Indian mathematician and astronomer, Aryabhata (476–550 AD), collected and expanded upon the developments of the Siddhantas in an important work called the Aryabhatiya. The Siddhantas and the Aryabhatiya contain the earliest surviving tables of sine values and versine (1 − cosine) values, in 3.75° intervals from 0° to 90°, to an accuracy of 4 decimal places. They used the words jya for sine, kojya for cosine, utkrama-jya for versine, and otkram jya for inverse sine. The words jya and kojya eventually became sine and cosine respectively after a mistranslation described above. Read More About :- Continuous and Differentiable

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History of Trigonometry