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: Materials Matter MIT Climate CoLab - Nike

School of Design Strategies Integrative Design Studio 1.G.Sp16 Andrew Robinson Ching-Lun Teng Gonzalo Rovegno Rocha Yiqiao Gu


: MS in Strategic Design & Management The master's in Strategic Design and Management, launched in fall 2012, responds to the major restructuring of developed and emerging economies worldwide. Unlike traditional master's degrees in design and management, the MS in Strategic Design and Management incorporates design thinking, service design, and sustainability frameworks. As a design and management graduate student, you focus on the evolving global economy and are exposed to sophisticated real-world perspectives on business, operations, sustainability, management, leadership, entrepreneurship, design innovation, and design research.


Andrew Robinson Assistant Professor

Ching-Lun Teng tengc166@newschool.edu

: Integrative Design Studio 1 Spring 2016

Gonzalo Rovegno Rocha roveg317@newschool.edu

Yiqiao Gu guy558@newschool.edu

This studio explores the overlap between business and design. It brings together the students' backgrounds and current professional and educational contexts, with complex multidisciplinary projects requiring iterative, collaborative and innovative responses. The course is run as a studio: a comprehensive brief derived from a real case, or provided by a live project partner, will require the students to work in research teams to make and then intensively critique prototyped interventions. Teams are expected to present their findings and proposals to colleagues, experts and stakeholders for critical feedback. For this project, students will learn a range of research methods, ideation processes, and theoretical frameworks by which to make reasoned judgments about strategic responses to complicated situations.


: Table of Contents Materials Matter Challenge

4

Executive Summary

5

Parsons Design Strategy

7

The Big Picture

8

The Unwillingness to Pay for Sustainability

13

What is the Consumer willing to pay for

17

The Innovators’ Dilemma

23

Ideation

34

Business Case

44

Bibliography

51


: Challenge Materials Matter

The materials we use to clothe ourselves and cover our things have a profound impact on the climate. They are all around us – in the furniture we sit on, the cars we drive and the clothes we wear. The fact is, materials matter. Developing new material compositions and reducing the impact of fabric production is necessary, but not sufficient to reduce the climate impact of industries that rely on fabrics. So, how can we spark a materials revolution by rethinking how we value and use them? Before we can advance and scale innovation in materials, we need to build a common understanding of the challenges and opportunities that exist by redefining society’s relationship with fabrics and textiles. It is necessary to communicate a shared sense of their value to increase demand for lower impact options - from raw material to products to low impact usage. In order to engage the whole industry to achieve sustainable growth we want to develop a business model that promotes disruptive innovation by celebrating the understanding of how the processes involved contribute to the health of the whole ecosystem. |4


00: Executive Summary Findings:

Materials Matter

The complexity of sustainability: the adoption of sustainable practices is a wicked problem for every industry, and fabric production it's not the exception. The adoption of this processes through the entire supply chain is a challenge being addressed by every stakeholder in the supply chain, from scientists to policy makers, and product designers to brands and customers. The objective is to keep developing drivers for growth while reducing environmental risks; to come up with solutions rather than creating more problems. The fashion industry as a solution: advancements in technology and materials within the industry seem to be an opportunity to meet millennials zeitgeist of the smart-everything. Fashion apart from being a medium for personal expression is now being demanded by the growing multitasking public to cover multipurpose functions, from all conditions gear to easy maintenance, and high performance clothing. Apparels need now to become an essential to achieve individuality and personal empowerment and it looks like the only way to do that is by adopting the characteristics of the smart industry. Disruptive innovation is missed: if end products are fundamentally being defined by the margin between price and cost, it looks like big brands are the only ones to survive in the fashion industry. This is ruled by having a manufacturing process with a low labour cost employing cheap materials. This becomes a vicious circle which undermines the possibility for the process to change and adopt new |5


materials and advanced technologies, which while adding value will also make the end product to be more expensive. On the other hand, there are smaller brands that adopt these new processes but remain in a niche market due to their difficulty to scale production, basically due to the low margin and the slow return of the end product offered.

the environment towards an industry of solutions?

Trends in sustainable material innovation: we’ve identified two major trends from what we might call sustainable innovators to change the current production processes of the fashion industry. One is part of a macro economical concept known as the circular economy, in which products are designed from scratch taking into account its whole lifespan with the objective to avoid it from reaching landfills and using its material components for another use once the customer decides to throw it away. The other one is that of innovating around how the raw materials are obtained and/or grown without causing any harm to the environment, examples ranging from biofabrication of natural leathers in the lab from stem cells to harnessing proteins found in nature to create fibers and fabrics with both practical and revolutionary uses.

If it all comes down to feasibility at scale and price, we might ask the following: how can the fashion industry influence, inform, and collaborate with new technologies?

The obstacle for collaboration and shared knowledge: in an ultra competitive market such as the fashion industry, corporate secrecy is the main trend when dealing with intellectual property on product innovation. This is usually the reason why big brands cease to work together when dealing with disruption for competitive edge. Although this is true, we believe that collaboration is the key to make major structural changes, in order to do that, parties must align their incentives. This may involve altering payment schemes or using other types of incentives—for example, providing direct aid in the form of training or subsidies—so that all partners believe they will benefit from the collaboration. Such alignment is the key to the sustainability of the sustainability initiatives.

How might we encourage collaboration and networking as a solution to the innovator’s dilemma? Business Case:

In order to influence, inform, and collaborate with advanced materials and new technologies, our efforts are set to develop a catalyst for positive impact, i.e., a Smart Fashion incubator to continue building the global community to nurture young researchers and entrepreneurs to foster sustainable fashion innovation that serves as a problem solving tool that empowers consumers to become their better selves. With the help of a board of expert advisors and key opinion leaders of the industry we will identify and invite scientists, engineers, and designers developing and exploring new ways to create lower impact materials to create a New York-based team to foster a conversation strategy for close innovation and co-creation. An online platform and seasonal events will be the main channel to have the customer involved for feedback and further development. This intends to promote the notion of a field of development and production that will be endlessly customizable, increasingly high-performance and efficient, and inherently more sustainable than the current practices. To find this visionary solutions, the accelerator will provide mentorship and financial support to promote the ideas that satisfy unmet needs with creative solutions.

Opportunities: An innovative solution to a wicked problem often needs a different and new business model – one that includes new ways to communicate with customers. Having identified a wide variety of emerging behavior patterns we were able to discover valuable opportunities that differ from traditional approaches. How might we encourage designers to come up with products for high performance rather than only aesthetics? How might we encourage designers to come up with smart fashion products to cover the customer’s essential needs? How might we raise the bar to encourage the design of high quality products to prevent mass production of cheap clothes? How might we encourage the influence of technology over the fashion industry to promote disruptive innovation? How might we change people’s perspective of the fashion industry as a risk to Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Executive Summary | 6


Parsons DESIGN STRATEGY Efective Design Thinking Tools

NATURE 1. SENSE INTENT

IMPACT

2. KNOW CONTEXT

3. KNOW PEOPLE

I

OPTIONS 4. FRAME INSIGHTS

SELECT & MAKE

5. EXPLORE CONCEPTS

6. FRAME SOLUTIONS

7. REALIZE OFFERINGS

II

360º APPROACH

EMPATHIZE

WHAT IS diverge

DEFINE

WHAT IF converge

ANALYSIS

III

SYNTHESIS

WHAT WOWS diverge

IDEATE

PROJECT PRESENTATION

WHAT WORKS converge

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Parsons Design Strategy | 7


01: The Big Picture Materials Matter

|8


The Big Picture A systems thinking perspective.

A system is a whole that contains two or more parts, each of which can affect the properties or behaviour of the whole and cannot be divided into independent parts. None of the parts have an independent effect on the whole. How any part affects the whole depends on what the other parts are doing. DESIGN

All parts are interconnected.

What happens if the whole is divided into parts? MAKE

PLAN

The consequences are not apparent. The essential properties of any system derive out of how its parts interact, not on how they are taken separately. Defining properties of any system are properties of the whole, which non of its parts have.

LOWER IMPACT MATERIALS INDUSTRY

Example – LIFE: there’s no part of you which separately lives. REUSE

MOVE

USE

SELL

The problems that exist today cannot be solved at

the same level of thinking that created them.” –

Albert Einstein, author of The General Theory of Relativity

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Big Picture | 9


Design AND use paradox The Big Picture

Our research revealed an on-growing problem, i.e., a discrepancy between the consumers’ perspective and relationship with the issue of sustainability and how they actually deal with it.

Is the use of paper bags ‘greener’ than using plastic bags? These are some of the issues around using paper bags: Logging industry: massive habitat destruction and long-term ecological damage Finishing process: using tremendous heat and pressure with a chemical mixture limestone and acid Transport and become bags: chemical, electrical and fuel these energy inputs Recycle: requiring a chemical process to re-pulp them and use water to wash any leftover link

Is bamboo an alternative sustainable material? Grown mostly in Asia: be shipped Finishing process: using carcinogen Keep up with demand: increasingly using fertilizers and pesticides Replace forest to have more profitable bamboo: decrease biodiversity in the region

10 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Big Picture


99 ways to approach sustainability Innovation

Reduced Material Impacts

Rethink how to provide the benefit

Design flexibility for technological change

Provide product as service

Serve needs provided by associated products

Share among multiple users

Mimic biological systems

Use living organisms in product system

Create opportunity for local supply chain

Manufacturing Innovation

Minimize manufacturing waste

Use carbon-neutral or renewable energy sources

Design for production quality control

Minimize number of production steps

Minimize quantity of material

Avoid materials that deplete natural resources

Use renewable resources

Use materials from reliable certifiers

Use recycled or reclaimed materials

Use waste byproducts

Reduced Distribution Impacts

Minimize energy use in production

Minimize number of components / materials

Avoid materials that damage human or ecological health

Seek to eliminate toxic emissions

Reduce product and packaging weight

Reduce product and packaging volume

Use lowest-impact transport system

Develop reusable packaging systems

Source or use local materials and production

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ The Big Picture | 11


99 ways to approach sustainability Reduced Behavior and Use Impacts Design to encourage low consumption user behavior

Reduce energy consumption during use

Reduce material consumption during use

Reduce water consumption during use

Seek to eliminate toxic emissions during use

Design for carbon neutral or renewable energy

Transitional Systems

Design upgradeable products

Design for second life with different function

12 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ The Big Picture

Design for reuse of components

System Longevity Design for durability

Design for Re-use and exchange of products

Design for maintenance and easy repair

Create a timeless aesthetic

Foster emotional connection to product

Optimized End of Life Design Integrate to encourage methods for low consumption used product user collection behavior

Reduce Design for energy fast consumption manual or during automated use disassembly

Reduce Design recycling material consumption business during model use

Use Reduce recyclable water consumption non-toxic during materials use

Provide Seek ability to eliminate to biodegrade toxic emissions during use

Design Design forfor safe carbon disposal neutral or renewable energy


02: The Unwillingness to pay for sustainability Materials Matter

| 13


to feel guilty or not about the impact we have on the environment How do consumers perceive and react to sustainability?

When presented with the statement ‘I feel guilty about the impact I have on the environment’, 28% of global consumers* scored themselves 4 or 5 (out of 5, with 5 being ‘strongly agree’).” – National Geographic Greendex, July

Indeed, a recent global study identified 2.5 billion of these 'aspirational consumers' (representing one third of the global consumer class). These consumers are defined by their love of shopping 78%, desire for responsible consumption 92% 2012. and their trust in brands to act in the best interest of society (*)Somewhat ironically, some emerging 58%.” economies had a higher guilt level: 45% of Indians, 42% Chinese and 40% – BBMG, GlobeScan and of Brazilians rated themselves 4 or 5. SustainAbility, October 2013. Contrast this with only 23% of British, 21% of Americans and 19% of Australians.

The good news: beset by these contradictory needs – to seek pleasure in the satisfaction of impulses, and to shake off a rising feeling of guilt – con2013 sumers are now hungry for a new kind of consumption, one that will allow them When asked about their own diet and levels of physical activity, to continue to enjoy consumption, yet not and to assign themselves a grade worry (or at least from ‘A’ to ‘F’, US consumers worry less) about its gave themselves an average grade negative impact. In 2013, 27% of US consumers were ‘more concerned’ about food waste than in 2012, with only 5% ‘less concerned’.” – BAV & Sustainable America, March

of ‘C+’ for their level of physical activity, and their personal diets an average grade of ‘B-’. Only 12% gave themselves an ‘A’ or ‘A-’.”

– International Food Information Council Foundation, May 2013

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Unwillingness to pay for sustainability | 14


The unwillingness to pay for sustainability How do consumers perceive and react to sustainability? 1. When was the last time you bought something that was promoted as being a sustainable product? 2. Does a product being promoted as ‘sustainable’ affect your choice when shopping? 3. Do you think the brand you choose when shopping cares about being sustainable? How? 4. Do you consider taking sustainable measures when shopping?

1. “I bought the sneakers on

zappos, it was around the beginning of summer last year and I bought mainly because I liked the way it looked and it looked comfortable. I bought the item online, tracked the shipping to know exactly when I would get it and then when it arrived tried it on and walked around with it to test comfortability.” – Ken, Engineer

5. Do you care about having sustainable practices? 6. Do you recycle your own clothes? If so, how often and how much? Do you consider sell or trade as an option for reuse?

4. “Mmm, not necessarily. It

depends on financial situation and desire...” – Ben, College Student

2. “Yes, it does matter. I think

it is every brand's responsibility to be conscious about their source materials of production.” – Agustin, PhD in Economics at CUNY

3. “No. I believe they don't.

They are corporations whose sole purpose and goal is making money. If they act that they are interested in being sustainable, I believe it is because they understand it is the best way to market their products.” – Grace, Digital Marketing

5. “YES! I do, I try to cut my 6. “Every 2-3 years, I would waste. I buy the exact amount of groceries I need and disconnect electrical devices and all that.” – Demi, Graphic Designer 15 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Unwillingness to pay for sustainability

try to sell them at a local thrift shop. Usually get to sell about 20 pieces.” – Carla, Graduate Student


The unwillingness to pay for sustainability Qualitative In-depth Interviews

Performance and price are the most influencial factors, I don’t really pay attention to what the materials are from or how it is made. Not because sustainability is not important, but because I think it is the corporate’s responsibility to make products that last longer and enhance our life better, and help us to find the product that fits our needs so that we’ll use that product more and become better.”

Ben is in his early 30s.

PHD students of Cognitive Psychology @ NYU The Rise Runner Club Member.

Sophie is 25 years old.

Behaviors PERFORMANCE INDIVIDUALITY

COMMUNITY

1

2

3

Works in a start-up business as a project management assistant. Also has always been interested in style versus fashion.

Behaviors PERFORMANCE INDIVIDUALITY

1 4

AFFORDABLE

SUSTAINABLE

Well, it's nice to be comfortable! I really think it's first and foremost about comfort—that, and being able to wear one thing throughout the day. You live a busy life, and you can go from work to drinks to dinner without the whole heels-in-your-bag thing.”

TECHNOLOGY

5

2

3

4

STYLE

SUSTAINABLE

5

STYLE

TECHNOLOGY

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Unwillingness to pay for sustainability | 16


03: What is the consumer willing to pay for Materials Matter

| 17


building a trend framework for the consumer in the fashion industry What are the Consumer’s Expectations?

STATUS SEEKERS

BETTERMENT

SNOBMODITIES

WELLTHY

STATUS STORIES

BENCHMARKED LIFE

STATUS SKILLS

CURRENCIES OF CHANGE

UBER PREMIUM

UBER PREMIUM

YOUNIVERSE

LOCAL LOVE

CUSTOMYZED

URBAN PRIDE

BRAND ME

STILL MADE HERE

REPYOUTATION

HYPERLOCAL

M.I.Y.

LIMITED LOCATION CELEBRATION NATION

FUNCTIONALL

PLAYSUMERS

LEAPS OF FAITH INTERACTVERTISING SWEAT EQUITY LASTING SPACES BRANDED GOVMENT

ALERTING

EXCEPTIONALL

FAKETASTIC

JOYNING

SNACK CULTURE

LIFE-SUBSCRIBED

F-TOGETHER

TRANSPERIENCIES

SYNCED SERVICES

MASS MINGLING

FAUX REAL

VENDOMATIC

P2P

INSTANT ENCOUNTERS

LIVING THE LIVE

TIME SAVIORS

S.I.P.s

F-FACTOR

POPUPPING

CASH-LESS

INTUITIVE INTERFACES

GIFTING GALORE

DIGITAL

INTUITIVE INTERFACES

DIGITAL BREADCRUMBING

BRAND MOVEMENTS

RAMPANT REAL-TIME

EMBEDDED GENEROSITY

VIDEO VALETS

FEMPOWERMENT

REWARD INC.

PEER ARMIES

NOUVEAU BRICHE

HERITAGE HERESY

RECOMMERCE

ENTREPRENURIA

VIRGIN CONSUMERS

FAITH-FACTURING

FREE LOVE

OWNER-LESS

VISUAL LOVE

IMMIGREAT

NEW NORMAL

SYMPATHETIC PRICING

SELLSUMERS

POINT & KNOW

MADE FOR CHINA

TRIBE-FACTURING

DEALER CHIC

CUSTOMER MADE

MINT VALLEY

CITYSUMERS

NO FRILLS CHIC

PRESUMERS

INTIMATE INFO

PRICING PANDEMONIUM

FUZZYNOMICS

INFOLUST

POST DEMOGRAPHIC

GAME ON

HELPFUL

BRAND BUTLERS

DATA DIVINITY

DYNAMIC DEALS

BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID

REMAPPED

EPHEMERAL

MAPMANIA REAL WORLD LIVING

CHOICE CUTS

ECO CHIC ECO CHIC

TRANSPARENCY UNPLUGGED TRIUMPH

ECO BUSTERS

MATURIALISM

UPGRADIA

ECO VERTISING

PERKONOMICS

INTERNET OF CARING THINGS

ECO CYCLE

R.A.K.

OFF = ON

ECO URBAN

FLAWSOME

UBITECH

BETTER BUSINESS

HUMAN BRANDS

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · What is the consumer willing to pay for | 18


what is the consumer willing to pay for The Consumer Trend Radar.

T

ICE V ER /S

VI SI BETTER BUSINESS

UBITECH

ON

PR OD UC

To identify and plan the application of trends that are important to the Fashion Industry.

UBITECH BETTERMENT BETTERMENT

HELPFUL

S GN I PA INTENSE

LIGHT

19 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · What is the consumer willing to pay for

MA RK E TIN G

/C AM

TOTAL

YOUNIVERSE

FUZZYNOMICS

EL OD M

RESPONSE:

HUMAN BRANDS

BU S I NE S

FUZZYNOMICS

UBITECH

S

HUMAN BRANDS

BEYOND

BETTERMENT

NEXT

NOW

FASHION INDUSTRY


Fashion as a way for individual achievement and empowerment A living framework: spotting trends as they emerge.

Megatrends: Betterment

Ubitech

The universal quest for self-improvement.

The ever-greater pervasiveness of technology.

The desire for enhanced health, for greater knowledge, and the development of new skills.

Technology will become ever more ubiquitous, universal, and impossible to live without. Perfect and instant information, absolute transparency.

Trends: Currencies of Change

Multitask Madness Multitasking moving beyond the desktop and ferociously invading all aspects of daily life.

Customers on a never-ending quest for self-improvement will embrace ever more personal, innovative, fun, timely, targeted and ultimately relevant rewards and discounts that incentivize a desired behavior.

Some recent stats and random spottings that underscore, fuel and facilitate this phenomenon.

In a survey of US consumers, 89% said taking personal responsibility for health is the best way to stay healthy. Meanwhile, 91% admitted to 'snacking all day on candy, ice-cream and chips'.”

BIGresearch claims 70 percent of media users consume more than one medium at a time. Of those who listen to radio, 53.7 percent are online, 46.9 percent are reading a newspaper and 17.7 percent are watching TV. Of those watching TV, 66.2 percent are online and 74.2 percent are reading a newspaper.”

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · What is the consumer willing to pay for | 20


what is the consumer willing to pay for The Consumer Trend Canvas.

ANALYZE

CURRENCIES OF CHANGE

INSPIRATION Oscar Insurance Fitbit and Feeding America

BASIC NEEDS

DRIVERS OF CHANGE

Self Improvement

SHIFTS (long term)

TRIGGERS (short term)

Accomplishment

Human Brands

Recognition

Technology empowered connectivity

Authenticity after too much curated content

Social Status

Positive Impact

Urge for social innovation

21 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · What is the consumer willing to pay for

APPLY EMERGING EXPECTATIONS While being indulgent, can I also do some good at the same time? Brands that can help shape positive habits.

INNOVATION TARGET

Community Driven Activity

App

Business Model: 1x1

APPAREL AS PERSONAL BUTLER WHO

Stress ful people who want to do positive things to relieve tension.

Cause conscious millennials who thrive for change.


what is the consumer willing to pay for The Consumer Trend Canvas.

ANALYZE

MULTITASK MADNESS

INSPIRATION Coolest Cooler

iWatch

Excitement Self Improvement Entertainment Security Connectivity

SHIFTS (long term)

TRIGGERS (short term)

Internet of all things

Instant connection social gratification

Increase in global citizen population

INNOVATION TARGET

Tangible problem solving product Product Services Coaching & Education

A tool for every occasion to save time to change.

DRIVERS OF CHANGE

Evolution in health care, and education

EMERGING EXPECTATIONS Constant learning while waiting or while doing something automatically.

Baubax

BASIC NEEDS

APPLY

To do all things as providing a service

APPAREL AS A TEAM OF EXPERTS WHO

Constant travellers Entrepreneurs Busy millennials

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · What is the consumer willing to pay for | 22


04: The Innovator’s Dilemma Materials Matter

| 23


the innovators' dilemma And the anticipation of future needs. Established companies that fail to adopt new technologies or business models that will meet their customers' unstated or future needs. The innovator’s dilemma comes from the idea that businesses or organizations will reject innovations based on the fact that customers cannot currently use them, thus allowing these ideas with great potential to go to waste.

The Concept of Value Network:

So, how might we identify the next disruptive innovation for the fashion industry? Should we start by looking outside of its current value network?

An alternative explanation, however, is that these failed firms were as well-run as one could expect a firm managed by mortals to be— but that there is something about the way decisions get made in successful organizations that sows the seeds of eventual failure.

3 ways to enhance the capabilities for disruptive innovation.

In fact, the unique rank-ordering of the importance of various product performance attributes defines, in part, the boundaries of a value network.”

1. Acquire a different organization whose processes and values are a close match with the new task. 2. Try to change the processes and values of the current organization. 3. Separate out an independent organization and develop within it the new processes and values that are required to solve the new problem. (*) The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. – Clayton Christensen, 1997. Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma | 24


12 Leverage points Places to intervene in a system. These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything. Counterintuitive. That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems. Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve.

In increasing order of effectiveness. 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards). 11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures).

People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says (Jim Forrester). “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of a company, and I’ve figured out a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!”

9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change. 8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to transcend paradigms.

25 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma

(*) The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. – Clayton Christensen, 1997.


ANALYZING THE VALUE NETWORK OF THE FASHION INDUSTRY Places to intervene in a system for disruption.

ADVANCED MATERIALS RAW MATERIAL

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

INTERNAL LAB R&D MANU FACTURERS BIG BRANDS

CONSUMER

SMALL SCALE MANU FACTURERS

SMALL BRANDS

SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma | 26


ANALYZING THE VALUE NETWORK OF THE FASHION INDUSTRY Places to intervene in a system for disruption.

GOVERNMENTS ADVANCED MATERIALS RAW MATERIAL

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

INTERNAL LAB R&D MANU FACTURERS

EXTERNAL LABS

sustained innovation

disruptive innovation

BIG BRANDS

NGO’S

CONSUMER

SMALL BRANDS high cost

high cost

SMALL SCALE MANU FACTURERS

SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS

27 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma

ACADEMIA


ANALYZING THE VALUE NETWORK OF THE FASHION INDUSTRY Places to intervene in a system for disruption.

GOVERNMENTS ADVANCED MATERIALS RAW MATERIAL

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

INTERNAL LAB R&D MANU FACTURERS

sustained innovation

e rtn

pa

ip

rsh

EXTERNAL LABS disruptive innovation

BIG BRANDS

ip

rsh nso

spo

SMALL SCALE MANU FACTURERS

ACADEMIA

CONSUMER

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

SMALL BRANDS

INDEPENDENT RESEARCHERS

NGO’S

SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma | 28


small scale designers Exploring innovation opportunities. Nervous System is a generative design studio that works at the intersection of science, art, and technology. Creating through a process that employs computer simulation to generate designs and digital fabrication to realize products. She writes computer programs based on processes and patterns found in nature and use those programs to create unique and affordable art, jewelry, and housewares. The studio releases the work online as a series of interactive applets which customers can use to craft their own personalized products.

Jessica is in her mid 30s.

Co Founded Nervous System in 2007. Jessica graduated from MIT in 2005 and holds degrees in architecture and biology. Afterwards, she studied architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design.

We created Nervous System to explore a design approach that relates process and form in a context of interactivity and openness. Our trajectory focuses on generative design methods using both algorithmic and physical tools to create innovative products and environments.”

Behaviors PERFORMANCE INDIVIDUALITY

COMMUNITY

1

2

3

4

AFFORDABLE

5

STYLE

The intersection of art, science and technology throught 3D Printing. Computer simulation to generate designs and digital fabrication to realize products. Releasing source code under creative commons license. Rapid Design Prototyping. Rapid Materials Testing.

SUSTAINABLE

29 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma

TECHNOLOGY


product manufacturing Exploring innovation opportunities. Trendmill S.A. is a wholesale company based in Argentina dealing with the textiles, garments and footwear industry. They have had the local exclusive representation of brands like Vans and Diesel in the past. Nowadays Skechers is one of their most important clients, while they also deal with Zoo York and Ecko Ltd. As a wholesale company they supervise the materials and manufacturing process to guarantee the quality of the products they sell to independent retailers.

We want to reduce to a minimum the amount of operations and materials involved during the assembly process. This will get us closer to the ideal concept of an effective product manufacturer.”

This production process provides a job offering that can help to strengthen community bonds and allow for individuals to prosper socially and economically.

José is in his mid 30s.

Works at Trendmill as a Product Manufacturing Manager. He’s a Product Designer from FADU, University of Buenos Aires, specialized in footwear design and manufacture.

Behaviors Hyperqualified workforce with better incomes.

PERFORMANCE INDIVIDUALITY

COMMUNITY

1

2

3

4

AFFORDABLE

SUSTAINABLE

5

STYLE

Less materials and minimum operations in assembly. Reduce to a minimum the waste products at the end of the assembly.

TECHNOLOGY

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma | 30


advanced materials and new technologies Exploring innovation opportunities. The Bio-Knit trainers by Ammo Liao. Bio-Knit trainers formed by a 3D-knitting process, which enables different material properties across a single surface. Made from a single polymer, can therefore be recycled as a whole.

Data-driven Midsoles by Nervous System. Functional 3D-printed midsoles for performance running shoes. Generated midsole designs from pressure data from runners, cushioning customized to how a person runs.

The Amoeba Running Shoe by Shamees Aden. The Amoeba running shoes use protocells' capabilities of responding to pressure, and inflates or deflates according to the texture of ground the wearer is running on to provide more or less cushioning. 31 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ The Innovators’ Dilemma


advanced materials and new technologies Exploring innovation opportunities.

Materials revolution: Suzanne Lee’s Biocouture

Artificial honeybee silk

A new approach to textile manufacturing – growing it.

A recombinant protein as a biomimetic structural material.

Combine compostable materials together they form a static culture, so there’s no spinning, weaving or printing involved, you just sit back and watch it grow.

Honeybee larvae produce silken cocoons that provide mechanical stability to the hive. Silk proteins are non-repetitive and can be produced at large scale by fermentation in E. coli

Microorganisms eat the sugar from the materials as the mixture ferments, spinning tiny fibers made of pure cellulose in the process. They stick together into layers and form a mat on the surface. After a week, the “fabric” sheet should be about an inch thick. The sheet is then dried and cut or shaped and molded into clothes and accessories. Though you may be relying on the complexity of biology to form your clothing, the technology presents some green advantages. It’s efficient because you only grow as much material as you need.

Recombinant silk proteins which have a coiled coil structure can be fabricated into a range of forms including sponges and fibers. The resultant material is soluble in water and requires a post-production stabilizing treatment. The unique ability to stabilize material by controlling secondary structure rearrangement and covalent cross-linking allows us to design recombinant silk materials with a wide range of properties and potential applications.

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · The Innovators’ Dilemma | 32


identified 2 fundamental leverage points in the system. 1. Consumer's perspective 2. material sourcing

33 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ The Innovators’ Dilemma


05: Ideation Materials Matter

By unveiling the expected needs of fashion as a problem solving tool from consumers, we realized that it is not a job of one product or one brand, but a generation of designers, engineers and scientists who are willing to work together to create enough impacts so that finally we fill alter the fundamental perspective of garments from a passive consumptive possession of beauty and warmth to an interactive problem solving tool that empowers everyone’s daily life. Moreover, standing at the point of strategic design and management students, we naturally want to create a service, a business model or an environment to facilitate the collaboration of above talents, other than directly create a garment that can solve a problem.

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how might we 1. How might we encourage designers to come up with more high performance products that empowers people more than just a pretty face? 2. How might we encourage designers to come up with smart fashion products to meet the customer’s essential needs? 3. How might we raise the bar to encourage the design of high quality products to prevent mass production of cheap clothes? 4. How might we encourage the influence of technology over the fashion industry to promote disruptive innovation? 5. How might we change people’s perspective of the fashion industry as a risk to the environment towards an industry of solutions? 6. How might we encourage collaboration and in-depth networking for multi-disciplinary talents to come up with solutions outside of the current value network of fashion industry? Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Ideation | 35


how might we design a platform for collaboration to serve as a catalyst for Smart Fashion

36 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ Ideation


open source collaboration platform across the value supply chain How do stakeholders meet one another and offer their services.

RECOGNITION

FABRICS INDUSTRY

CAPITAL

REVIEWS

COMPETITIVE

RETURN & REFUND

FASHION SHOWS

BIG BRANDS

INFLUENCERS

IN HO E

US

C2C

RAW MATERIALS

TRADE FAIR

MANU FACTURERS

TRADE FAIR

DESIGNERS

SOCIAL MEDIA

REVIEWS QUALITY COST

REVIEWS QUALITY COST

SMALL BRANDS (MAKERS)

SHARED

P2P SHARED

ONLINE SOCIAL MEDIA

OPEN SOURCE

IDEAS REVIEWS QUALITY COST

CROWD SOURCING

REVIEWS QUALITY PRICE

CUSTOMERS

RETAIL BRICKS & MORTAR

REVIEWS FREE

TRY IT

CONTRIBUTION

RETURN & REFUND

INDEPENDENT

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Ideation | 37


open source collaboration platform across the value supply chain Insights. 1. Long process and multiple cooperations Create something brand new is an unknown journey that involves a lot of uncertainty. It combines research and iteration process that the creator may be required to cooperate with multiple people for different tasks ranging from simple inquiry to in-depth partnership. Moreover the failure of some prototype will potentially end a partnership and causes more complexity. Uncertainty during the unpredicted creation process leads to an limitedless candidates to be involved. Without knowing what exact problem we are trying to solve, we don’t even know who to target and recruit

2. Communication efficiency. The more in-depth you go into one discipline, the more difficult it is to simply explain that to someone else outside the disciplinary without releasing some potential intellectual property. Other than knowledge barrier, there are also language, geographic barrier, and cultural barrier to solve to form into a mutual understanding takes far longer than we think. However, to trigger others' interests to contact you and follow you does require those intensive communication and we find an open online platform can only provide very limited help.

3. Motivation It can be an intricate or external reason that you have to collaborate with others. But for an open platform, it mostly requires intricate reasons like a marriage, which both participants are willing to collaborate. But in fact, whether or not the initiative creator is willing to share doesn’t mean he or she can find someone who is willing to listen. As most people are tend to focus on their priority jobs. We can only hope to find a perfect partner is just as simple as finding someone to marry.

4. Culture vs. Resources As we all know the culture and embedded value of an organization defines the kind of people working with it and the product they work for. In real cases like 3M, google, and IDEO, the success of collaboration starts from

38 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ Ideation

only recruiting the best people in the industry with great communication skills and strong curiosities. Those companies resolved the communication efficiency from the very beginning, then adding up real support by allocating resources like time and money to encourage people keeping trying. As an open-platforms, it seems like what we have is called passion, which seems strong but very intangible to establish a strong network

5. A huge labor to cater smooth communication In 3M, they have forum in different dept to foster communication and rule out replicate research and works. However we realized that there are more than 500 collaboration software out there that cater the same problems. Slack, which recently acquired by google, is an online platform designed to ease up communication in a way like social media and obsolete emails. A seemingly specific function like that requires a whole big company and array of engineers behind to realize.


how might we encourage consumers to come up with the design brief

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ Ideation | 39


To establish a conversation with consumers To integrate positive impact as an innovative solution. In order to involve consumers into the conversation and lead designers to create products that actually have market potentials, we want to create a platform combining the feature of both Quora and Kickstart.

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

CUSTOMER

CUSTOMER

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

Start with consumers ask questions and lead the conversations, and designers offer solutions and products.

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

PROTOTYPE

PROTOTYPE

PROTOTYPE

DESIGNER DESIGNER

CUSTOMER

DESIGNER

CUSTOMER

BIG DATA TREND REPORT

DESIGNER

DESIGNER

PROTOTYPE

PROTOTYPE

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

DESIGNER

CUSTOMER

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

DESIGNER

PROTOTYPE

PROTOTYPE

CUSTOMER

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

40 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Ideation

INNOVATIVE SOLUTION

CUSTOMER


To establish a conversation with consumers Insights. In order to try the consumer journey in real time, we start from our own group. 3 team members of us, one from business and marketing background, one from fashion, and the other is both a designer and an architect, and all have been working on the problem for more than 2 months, a team seems have a perfect candidate to start testing. However, within one hour of discussion, we’ve only come up with one requirement, an all weather waterproof blazer. Then we quickly realized that consumers can only articulate what they want based on their knowledge, and most adults’ imaginations are being limited by our daily objects that make senses.

Paradox:

If there are two ways markets

are created.

One is simple demand. People need stuff, and there is a market right there.

Then the other one is to create demand through innovation.

You can't just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. By the time you get it built, they'll want something new.” – Steve Jobs in an Interview with Inc. Magazine for its "The Entrepreneur of the Decade Award" (1 April 1989)

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Ideation | 41


factors that drive consumer's trade off between big and small brands

“My friend recommended me kickstarter when I tol d them I want to find a multifunction blazer. However, it took me a very long time to search and didn’t find anything satisfying. They are either not good looking enough or too expensive. I’ll wait for my favorite brand to go sale.”

SMALL

BIG

RESEARCH TIME

“In almost every category of products, you find a lot of alternatives. Information is just overwhelming, so finally i’ll either trust my friend’s recommendation or pay whatever I think i can afford.”

DESIGN

basic & mass

customized

42 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Ideation

QUALITY

basic

“I usually spend more time when looking for high functional objects, like snow boots and outdoor gear, because I’m not an expert. But normally I ask my friends for recommendations. I’d love to try out new products and ideas as long as they look appealing and convincing.”

FUNCTION

basic

specific

ALTERNATIVES

“If there is an alternative from existing brands, I wouldn’t spend money for the items available in kickstarter. I doubt these products meet the quality they guarantee, I would also love to get the chance to try them on before buying.”

TRUST

POSITIVE IMPACT


factors that drive consumer's trade off between big and small brands Identified behavior patterns to address unmet needs. Pains = Opportunities. 1. Consumers wasting too much time to find the product they need, usually as a result of a poor communication strategy.

IRABILITY DES

SIBILITY FEA

BETTER USER EXPERIENCES

FUNCTION

TRUST UNIQUENESS BRANDING

GOOD IMPACT

2. Poor quality control standards. 3. Too many options available may feel overwhelming and make the consumer to lose interest. 4. Consumers have a hard time trying new products from unknown brands.

QUALITY

VIA BILIT Y

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Ideation | 43


06: Business Case Materials Matter We hereby present a solution that drives collaboration across the industry and supply chain. A business model for a Smart Fashion Incubator to support demand creation for lower impact materials by encouraging multidisciplinary teams of scientists, designers and entrepreneurs to come together for the co-creation of innovative solutions for the fashion industry.

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a smart fashion incubator Innovative solutions for the fashion industry. Seed Funding (and more):

Lab and studio facilitation:

1st hand feedback:

Mentorship:

Multi-disciplinary Teams:

We provide seed funding for startups. Seed funding is the earliest stage of venture funding. It pays your expenses while you’re getting started. Our funding are mostly equity funding that goes from $20,000 to $500,0000. When your ideas are ready to launch in the market, we will help you to get attention and raise funds from our investors network for Series A, B, and C round.

In order to realize the collaboration between fashion and technology, we also provide lab and studio facilitation for you to prototype and iterate your ideas. We also realize that the first 10 weeks after you got your funding are the most productive period to finalize an idea. During the first 10 weeks teams are asked to come up with a ready to launch prototype.

From Key Opinion Leaders of the industry and Influencers after you prototype is done, we offer face to face dinner conversation to get feedback from Fashionistas in New York, and technology fanatics in Boston and the Valley to ensure the desirability of your ideas.

Around business, financial model, and marketing to enhance the viability of your ideas. Meanwhile we offer you mentorship to better prepare your pitch and presentations for further fund options, and furthermore we also offer you training to analyze your exit strategy if you want to be acquired in an early stage.

You’ll be with your cohort entrepreneurs who share the same passion and multi-disciplinary approach as you when you spend your time here. From them you’ll not just be inspired to be more creative and productive, but also learn their experiences and lessons to avoid some predictable risks. Every week we’ll invite speakers to give seminars on topics that are crucial to the success of your business and foster conversations and build networks.

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · A Smart Fashion Incubator | 45


a smart fashion incubator Innovative solutions for the fashion industry. Duo-program from Parsons and MIT for Technology, Engineering, and Design. In order to cultivate more talents that want to develop towards the direction of Smart Fashion, we are into fostering multi-disciplinary education to cater more young professionals who have a passion in both fields to become the next generation inventors.

IRABILITY DES

SIBILITY FEA

KEY OPINION LEADERS

MENTORSHIP

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

Internal Talent Recruitment Plan: One thing in common, which all Google, Intel, and 3M did to keep themselves stay very agile and competitive in the field of innovation, is that they all spend a significant amount of resources to encourage and support creativity from their internal staff, to work on projects that are irrelevant with their current projects. We want to learn from this approach that encourage recruitment from internal staff whoever has a feasible ideas on how to make fashion smart. The advantage behind this strategy is to leverage the existing expertise and passions inside the company to drive for future growth.

46 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ A Smart Fashion Incubator

MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAMS

VIA BILIT Y


a smart fashion incubator Web Mock-Up.

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ A Smart Fashion Incubator | 47


48 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ A Smart Fashion Incubator


Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ A Smart Fashion Incubator | 49


a smart fashion incubator Business Model Canvas. Key Partners

Key Activities

Value Proposition

Customer Relationships

Customer Segments

Expert Advisors

Report Meeting

Collaborating Programs

Collaboration with Key Opinion Leaders

An Incubator for Small Smart Fashion businesses.

A channel for small businesses to scale up.

Small Brands which target smart fashion

(good design, high function, and a limited range of options)

Mentorship from experts and big brands.

Small Maker Communities

Universities Key Opinion Leaders Labs Materials Scientists

Facilitate Prototyping Facilitate Conversation between partners and consumers

Designers Venture Capitals

Engineers Tech Companies Suppliers Manufacturers Retailing

Key Resources

Channels

Capital

Office Space

Judging Committee of Experts

Lab

Manufacturing Consulting

Cost Structure

Human Capital Infrastructure Management Costs

50 | Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge ¡ A Smart Fashion Incubator

Online Platform Seasonal Events

Revenue Streams

ROI Share from Invested Business


07: Bibliography Materials Matter

| 51


Bibliography and references Acaroglu, Leyla. “Paper beats plastic? How to rethink environmental folklore.” Filmed February 2013. TED video, 18:07. http://www.ted.com/talks/leyla_acaroglu_paper_beats_plastic_how_to_rethin k_environmental_folklore

Hanington, Bruce, and Bella Martin. “Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions.” Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers, 2010.

Ap, Tiffany. “Met Gala 2016: Fashion veers into tech on the red carpet.” CNN Style. Last modified May 3, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/05/02/fashion/met-gala-2016/

“Kickstarter.” Accessed April 2016. www.kickstarter.com

“Hello Tomorrow.” Accessed April 2016. http://challenge.hello-tomorrow.org/ Adidas Group. “2015 Sustainability Progress Report - HOW WE CREATE RESPONSIBLY.” Adidas. Accessed February 2016. Keeley, Larry, Ryan Pikkel, Brian Quinn, and Helen Walters. Ten Types of http://www.adidas-group.com/media/filer_public/9c/f3/9cf3db44-b703-4cd0-98c5 Innovation: The Discipline of Building Breakthroughs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2013. -28413f272aac/2015_sustainability_progress_report.pdf

Kumar, Vijay. 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2013.

Apple. “Apple Environmental Responsibility Report 2015.” Apple. Accessed February 2016. Lee, Suzanne. “Grow your own clothes.” Filmed March 2011. TED video, 6:40. https://www.apple.com/environment/pdf/Apple_Environmental_Responsibility_ http://www.ted.com/talks/suzanne_lee_grow_your_own_clothes Report_2015.pdf Lidwell, William, and Kritina Holden and Jill Butler. “Universal Principles of Benyus, Janine. “Biomimicry in action.” Filmed July 2009. TED video, 17:42. Design, Revised and Updated : 125 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence http://www.ted.com/talks/janine_benyus_biomimicry_in_action Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design” Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers, 2012. BMW Group. “Sustainable Value Report 2014.” BMW Group. Accessed February 2016. Lohr, Steve. “U.S. Textile Industry Turns to Tech as Gateway to Revival.” The https://www.bmwgroup.com/content/dam/bmw-group-websites/bmwgroup_com New York Times. April 2016. /responsibility/downloads/en/2014/BMW_Group_SVR2014_EN.pdf http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/01/technology/us-textile-industry-turns-to-tec h-as-gateway-to-revival.html?_r=0 Christensen, Clayton M. The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Lovins, Amory. “A 40-year plan for energy.” Filmed March 2012. TED video, Cause Great Firms to Fail (Management of Innovation and Change). Boston: 27:10. http://www.ted.com/talks/amory_lovins_a_50_year_plan_for_energy Harvard Business Review Press, 1997. Kindle edition. Furr, Nathan, and Clayton M. Christensen and Jeff Dyer. The Innovator's Method: Bringing the Lean Startup into Your Organization. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2014.

Mason, Henry, David Mattin, Maxwell Luthy, Delia Dumitrescu, and Maria Isabel Reyes. Trend-driven Innovation: Beat Accelerating Customer Expectations. New Jersey: Wiley, 2015.

H&M Foundation. “Global Change Award.” Accessed April 2016. https://www.globalchangeaward.com/articles

Meadows, Donella H., and Diana Wright. Thinking in Systems: A Primer. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub., 2008. Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Bibliography | 52


Bibliography and references Mohr, Catherine. “The tradeoffs of building green.” Filmed February 2010. TED video, 6:13. http://www.ted.com/talks/catherine_mohr_builds_green Osterwalder, Alexander, and Yves Pigneur. “Business Model Generation.” Hoboken: Wiley & Sons, 2010 Parley for the Oceans. “Parley.” Accessed April 2016. http://www.parley.tv/#fortheoceans Research Center of the University of the Arts of London. “Center for Sustainable Fashion.” Accessed April 2016. http://sustainable-fashion.com/ SecondMuse. “Launch.” Accessed April 2016. http://www.launch.org The True Cost. Dir. Morgan, Andrew. Prod. Michael Ross. Documentary. 2015. Torvalds, Linus. “The mind behind Linux.” Filmed February 2016. TED video, 21:30. http://www.ted.com/talks/linus_torvalds_the_mind_behind_linux Visocky O’Grady, Jennifer, and Ken Visocky O’Grady. “A Designer’s Research Manual.” Beverly Massachusetts, Rockport Publishers, 2006. White, Philip, Louise St. Pierre, and Steve Belletire. “Okala Practitioner: Integrated Ecological Design.” Okala Team. Accessed April 21, 2016, http://www.okala.net Y Combinator. “Y Combinator.” Accessed April 2016. https://www.ycombinator.com/ “Zady.” Accessed April 2016. https://zady.com/

Climate CoLab - Nike: Materials Matter Challenge · Bibliography | 53


School of Design Strategies Integrative Design Studio 1.G.Sp16 Andrew Robinson Ching-Lun Teng Gonzalo Rovegno Rocha Yiqiao Gu

Profile for Ching

Materials Matter  

Materials Matter  

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