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M CULTURE AND SOCIETY Architecture Performing Arts Visual Arts Film and Music Music Nightlife Sports Food and Drinks Religion Immigration A Chicagoan POLITICS Government Structure Public Safety Public Health Education ECONOMY The Chicago School Key Industries Working in Chicago The State of Chicago Housing Architecture of Social Tension INFRASTRUCTURE City Growth 1850 - Present Road System Rail Network Aviation Water System Lakefront Parks and Public Place Social Infrastructure Neighbourhood Study Future Challanges


Complex Projects


M CULTURE AND SOCIETY Architecture Performing Arts Visual Arts Film and Music Music Nightlife Sports Food and Drinks Religion Immigration A Chicagoan POLITICS Government Structure Public Safety Public Health Education ECONOMY The Chicago School Key Industries Working in Chicago The State of Chicago Housing Architecture of Social Tension INFRASTRUCTURE City Growth 1850 - Present Road System Rail Network Aviation Water System Lakefront Parks and Public Place Social Infrastructure Neighbourhood Study Future Challanges


Chicago Graduation Studio South Works, Chicago Research Book Editor Mitesh Dixit

Department of Architecture Delft University of Technology The Netherlands

Research Coordinator Roberto Cavallo Department of Architecture Delft University of Technology The Netherlands

Studio Leaders Helena Casanova Olindo Caso Barend Koolhaas Charlie Koolhaas Tanner Merkeley Darrel Ronald Research Assistants: Dante Borgo Stef Bogaerds Yiannis Tsoskounoglou

Complex Projects

Chair: Prof.ir Kees Kaan


Group M Chen Li Fei Wu Gloria Chen Guang Ruey Tan Wilbert Lambertus Adrianus Veltman Jennifer Wichtowski Siwen Liu Mingjie Ning Wenjia Wang Peng Zhao Agata Majcherska Arnoud Stavenuiter Xuefei Li Varun Amar Kaushik


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M_POLITICS


M_POLITICS

POLITICS

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M_POLITICS

POLITICAL TIMELINE

Environment Iconic Project Infrasturcture Public Safety Race, Social, Equality Education

“Expressway” Network Completed Enlarge O'Hare International Airport

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Revitalizing the Loop & North Michigan Avenue

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Mayor Daley enjoyed great success, particularly in his early years, in reshaping Chicago's landscape. He presided over an unprecedented building boom that created a spectacular downtown skyline.

Build “The New White City”

Dal billio mill Saw tow

The First Environmental-affairs Department

Ma ma Val

Among the changes he made to the city's government was creating its first environmental-affairs department under the management of longtime Great Lakes environmentalist Lee Botts.

Light up every street in Chicago to provide an economic ambiance and prevent crime.

Created the Ethics Commission

“shoot-to-kill” Order The brutal suppression of dissent at the 1968 Democratic National Convention tarnished the city's image, as did his infamous “shoot-to-kill” order shortly after the rioting following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. This statement generated significant controversy. Daley's supporters deluged his office with grateful letters and telegrams (nearly 4,500 according to Time magazine), and it has been credited for Chicago's being one of the cities least affected by the riots.

Issued an executive order increasing minority business contracts Led fight for ward redistricting; more black and Hispanic representation

Public Service Equalization

Fought for equal provision of public services; neighborhood street, curb and gutter repair

Refused Affirmative Action Procedures in Police Build University of Illinois at Chicago

Policies Ambiance

1986 Education Summit In 1986, Mayor Harold Washington convened an education summit that became the impetus for 25 years of reform—in three eras, identified by the Consortium on Chicago School Research.

CPS’s Racially Exclusionary Policies Public Housing for Black He used urban renewal funds to erect massive public housing projects that kept black Chicagoans within existing ghettos.

1950s-1970s Richard J. Daley

1983-1989 Harold Washington 1987 Teacher Strike 19 days 1988 Chicago School Reform Act

1968 Chicago Race Riots The 1968 Chicago riots were sparked by the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Rioters and police in Chicago were particularly aggressive, and the damage was severe.[2] Of the 39 people who died, 34 were black.

Illinois legislature passes the Chicago School Reform Act, which creates the local school council system in place today and initiates a period of aggressive reform.

1983-1987 Council War Washington's first term in office was characterized by ugly, racially polarized battles dubbed "Council Wars", referring to the then-recent Star Wars films. A 29–21 City Council majority refused to enact Washington's reform legislation and prevented him from appointing reform nominees to boards and commissions.

1997 G

The first m mayor in City Coun 1997. Be and anoth with sno operators


M_POLITICS

989-1991 Tax Cut

ley's first budget proposal, the 1990 budget, included $3 on in spending, $50 million more than 1989, featured a $25 lion reduction in the property tax levy, extended Mayor wyer's hiring freeze, piloted recycling, and privatized the City's w truck fleet.

995 Take Control of CPS

ayor wins authority to appoint CPS anagement team and school board. Paul llas becomes the first CPS CEO.

2003 Meigs Field Airport Turned to a Park

2011 High School Closing & CPS Reform

On February 6, 2008, the Chicago City Council approved, by a 41–6 vote, an increase in the city's real estate transfer tax to bail out the Chicago Transit Authority.

The mayor lengthened the school day for Chicago's elementary and high school students, reorganized the city's enormous system of community colleges to emphasize job-skills training. After reading in the Wall Street Journal about IBM's plans to create a six-year high school curriculum heavy in STEM subjects--science, technology, engineering and math--Emanuel decided to adopt the idea, but at five schools. He is determined to steer Chicago's leading universities into partnerships with local high schools.

2008 More Leases of Infrastructure

2011 Government Budget Cuts

2008 Real Estate Transfer Tax Increase

In September 2008, Chicago accepted a $2.52 billion bid to lease Midway International Airport for 99 years to a group of private bidders that included Citigroup. The Midway deal fell through when the private bidders were unable to secure adequate financing. In 2008, as Chicago struggled to close a growing budget deficit, the city agreed to a 75-year, $1.16 billion deal to lease its parking meter system

2006 Long-term Leases of Infrastructure In January 2006, Skyway Concession Company, a joint venture between the Australian Macquarie Infrastructure Group and Spanish Cintra Concesiones de Infraestructuras de Transporte S.A., paid the City $1.83 billion for rights to operate the Chicago Skyway and collect tolls for 99 years. The deal was the first of its kind in the U.S.

Take action to address gun violence Reduce summer violence, especially among youth Coordinate public safety efforts more effectively

2012 Environment & Sustainability 2010 Gun Control In May 2010, Daley held a press conference to address gun control and a pending possible adverse decision in McDonald v. Chicago.

1990-2010 Richard M. Daley 2002 Rubber Stamp Counsil Even More By 2002, more than a third of the Council's 50 aldermen were initially appointed by Daley.[78] The Council became even more of a rubber stamp than in Richard J. Daley's terms. In the 18 months from January 12, 2000 to June 6, 2001, there were only 13 divided votes in the Council, less than one a month. 32 aldermen supported the mayor 90-100% of the time and another 14 supported the mayor 80-89% of the time.

2006-2009 Budget Deficits 1999 Police Abuse In October 1999 the organization issued a report "Summary of Amnesty International's concerns on police abuse in Chicago" which expressed concerns regarding improper tactics during questioning, the detention and interrogation of children, allegations of excessive force, shooting of unarmed suspects, and the lack of any external oversight of police complaints and disciplinary procedures.

Government Corruption Scandal

major public corruption scandal of Daley's tenure as nvolved the circumstances of the resignation of his ncil floor leader, Alderman Patrick Huels, in October etween 1992 and 1997, the city paid Marina Cartage her Tadin company $49 million for supplying the city ow removal and other heavy equipment and s.

a new superintendent of police - Newark, N.J., police commissioner Garry McCarthy, a Bronx-born veteran of the New York City police and a disciple of the law-enforcement guru William Bratton Reintegrate policing with the needs and priorities of communities Improve street safety Place more police officers on active street duty

2012 Gun Control & Public Safety

2007-2009 Olympic Bid & Labor Union Contract In 2007 Daley entered into ten-year contracts with the city's labor unions to preclude labor unrest as Chicago launched a bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.[147][148] For months in 2009, Daley promoted the economic benefits of the proposal to the city and its corporate community. Failed

2012 Rebuild Police Department

2004 Hired Truck Program scandal The $40 million-a-year Hired Truck program was the biggest scandal of Daley's first 15 years as Mayor.[97][98] The Hired Truck Program hired private truck companies to do city work. Some participating companies were being paid for doing little or no work, had American Mafia connections or were tied to city employees, or paid bribes to get into the program.

Eliminate food deserts in Chicago Launch city-wide recycling Create a world-class bike network and increase cycling Improve water efficiency, water quality, and water infrastructure

2012 Infrastructure Development Develop bus rapid transit Support transit-oriented development Accelerate infrastructure projects that are critical to regional growth

2011-present Rahm Emanuel

2012 Teacher Strike Among the major issues, the teachers are negotiating over the length of the school day, objecting to their evaluations being tied to performance and fretting about potential job losses.

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M_POLITICS

GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE CITY OF CHICAGO ORGANIZATION CHART AS OF 12/31/2012 Citizens ORGANIZATION CHART MAYOR

CITY COUNCIL

CITY CLERK

CITY TREASURER

COUNCIL COMMITTEES

Organization Chart COMPREHENSIVE ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT2012

Originally settled by Jon Baptiste Point de Sable in the 1770s and incorporated as a city on March 4, 1837, Chicago developed from a small trading center on the shores of Lake Michigan to the vibrant modern metropolis of today. The city is divided into municipal legislative districts called “wards,” each represented in City Council by an Alderman. The original six wards established under the fect. The City of Chicago is a home rule unit of government under the Illinois Constitution and thereby authorized to perform certain functions pertaining to its government and exercised by the Mayor, the City Clerk, the City Treasurer, and the City Council. The Mayor is the chief executive of the city and responsible for the administration and management of various city departments. The Mayor submits proposals and rec-

ommendations to the City Council and is active in the enforcement of the city’s ordinances. The Mayor also subdepartment commissioners or directors, and members of city boards and commissions. During meetings of the City Council, the Mayor serves as of the Mayor, the President Pro Tempore, who is a member of and elected by the City Council, acts as presiding tions to the City Council of his own accord and on behalf of city departments. Council and the designated repository for city documents. The City Clerk also maintains the corporate seal of the city actions in the Journal of Proceedings and related pam-


M_POLITICS

POWER DISTRIBUTION

Rahm Emanuel Mayor 2011 – Present

The Mayor:

Susana A. Mendoza City Clerk 2011 – Present

The City Clerk:

the chief executive of the city and responsible for the administration and management of various city departments.

nated repository for city documents. tions

Stephanie D. Neely Treasurer 2007 – PresentSource of the picture

-

The City Treasurer:

the custodian and manager of all cash and investments for the City of Chicago.

chicago city clerk website

phlets as directed by state or municipal law or upon direction of the City Council. The City Treasurer is the custodian and manager of all cash and investments for the City of Chicago, the four City employee pension funds and the Chicago Teacher’s number of programs that promote economic development annual report with the City Council summarizing the city’s investment portfolio including the monies received, invested and dispersed. The City Council is the legislative branch of government

four-year terms. The legislative powers of the City Council

are granted by the state legislature and by the home rule its, the City Council has the general right to exercise any power and perform any function pertaining to its governregulate for the protection of the public health, safety and welfare; to license; to tax; and to incur debt. As established by resolution, the City Council is organized into sixteen standing committees. The jurisdiction, membership and appointment of chairman and vice-chairman are approved by the City Council. Subcommittees may be established for consideration of subject matter under the authority of the parent committee as determined by the chairman. Special committees may be created by the City dermen. Committees meet on call of the chairman or upon request of a majority of the members.

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M_POLITICS

POLITICIANS VS WARDS

1983 General Election Winner Harold Washington 1975 General Election Winner Richard J. Daley

Harold Washington 51.7% Bernard Epton 48.0% Ed Warren 0.3%

Richard J. Daley 77.7% N

N

Km 0

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Rahm Emanuel Richard M. Daley 71.9% 1999 General Election Bobby L. Rush 28.1% Winner Richard M. Daley

Miguel del Valle

N

N

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1

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2011 General Election Winner Rahm Emanuel

Gery Chico

1

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M_POLITICS

The northerners always win, except for Harold Washington.

Emanuel is the Second Washington, and this time, even the northerners said yes!

The former mayor’s base is the last strength Emanuel can count on.

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M_POLITICS

POLITICAL MACHINE

“Machine� in evolving by machine politics in many ways. In the classic Richard J. Daley Machine, control of the government by winning elections allowed the Democratic Party to provide favors for voters in the form of special city services like tree trimming, bulk garbage pick-up, sidewalk repair, a free garbage can. The party could provide who worked the precincts and provided services for constituents in return for votes. The party also provided government contracts, zoning, and protection from inspection and police raids for businesses who made campaign conIn the few decades after 1970s, the economic, industrial and culture environment have shifted. The manufacturing base of Chicago’s regional economy has been replaced by the service economy and, now, by the global economy. Since it now becomes part of the global economy, international economic conditions and transnational corporacan no longer be controled within the city. As a result, in the evolved Richard M. Daley Machine, one third of those contributions come from traditional sources like city contractors and construction unions, another and

is amenities like Millennium Park, the Museums, Opera, and policies which allow them to do global business such as the failure to enact transaction taxes on the stock and commodity exchanges. And the money from contractors sultants, direct mail, TV ads, and public opinion polling to conclusion here to characterise the rough outlines of the New Daley Machine. the machine towards the global economy. cases paying for amenities like Millennium Park. Quasiindependent government agencies govern many sectors of Chicago governance such as tourism, conventions, and sports without oversight by the city council or the voters. chine to match the New Daley Machine in precinct captains from ward organizations or from mayoral sponsored organizations like HDO.


M_POLITICS

Both Daleys won long-term office by “Machine“ opperation.


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M_POLITICS

“MACHINE“ IN EVOLVING

AMENITIES PARK MUSEUM OPERA POLICIES CANDIDATE MAYOR

GLOBAL BUSINESS INDIVIDUALS

VOTES JOBS CONTRACTS

CONSULTS PRECINCT WORKER

$$$$ COMPAIN CONTRIBUTES

Richard M. Daley’s Machine

Patronage reciever

Party ward organizations

Party ward organizations Personel pro-Daley group

Interests stream

Jobs, contracts, favors

Jobs, contracts, favors, amenitiese, policies

Interests group

Precinct workers

City contractor, construction union,

Economic pattern

Manufacturing

Supporting ethnics

Chicago Machine Before

White, progressive white, African American

Old Machine

Richard J. Daley

Manufacturing - service

Service - global economy

Latino, progressive white, African American

Latino - White

Machine “Dead, dead, dead“

New Machine

1983-1987 Harold Washington

1989-2011 Richard M. Daley


M_POLITICS

CANDIDATE

VOTES

MAYOR

FAVOR JOBS CONTRACTS

PRECINCT COMPAIN WORKER CONTRIBUTES Richard J. Daley’s Machine

Stakeholders is changing with the transforming in industrial and economic patterns. Now global companies, law firms and financial institutes have joined the game.

As the Machine evolving, public projects and policies have become the new interests.

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC SAFETY: PERCEPTION VS. REALITY?


M_POLITICS

“I say to the power structure in Chicago that the same problems that existed and still exist in Watts, exist in Chicago today, and if something isn’t done in a hurry, we can see a darkened night of social disruption.” --Martin Luther King Jr., 1966

“Chicago Police” Source: chicagomag.com

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC SAFETY

Originally settled by Jon Baptiste Point de Sable in the 1770s and incorporated as a city on March 4, 1837, Chicago developed from a small trading center on the shores of Lake Michigan to the vibrant modern metropolis of today. The city is divided into municipal legislative districts called “wards,” each represented in City Council by an Alderman. The original six wards established under the fect. The City of Chicago is a home rule unit of government under the Illinois Constitution and thereby authorized to perform certain functions pertaining to its government and exercised by the Mayor, the City Clerk, the City Treasurer, and the City Council. The Mayor is the chief executive of the city and responsible for the administration and management of various city departments. The Mayor submits proposals and rec-

ommendations to the City Council and is active in the enforcement of the city’s ordinances. The Mayor also subdepartment commissioners or directors, and members of city boards and commissions. During meetings of the City Council, the Mayor serves as of the Mayor, the President Pro Tempore, who is a member of and elected by the City Council, acts as presiding tions to the City Council of his own accord and on behalf of city departments. Council and the designated repository for city documents. The City Clerk also maintains the corporate seal of the city actions in the Journal of Proceedings and related


M_POLITICS

FIRE STATIONS

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC SAFETY POLICE DISTRICT & POLICE STATIONS


M_POLITICS

CRIME NUMBER 2013

THE NORTH SIDE HAS A SURPRISINGLY LOW MURDER RATE IN COMPARISON WITH THE SOUTH

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC SAFETY HOMICIDE RATE BY 1990


M_POLITICS

HOMICIDE RATE BY 2010


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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC SAFETY HOMELESS SHELTERS


M_POLITICS

WOMEN’S SHELTERS

SHELTERS ARE CONCENTRATED IN THE CENTRAL AND WEST PARTS.

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC HEALTH: HOW HEALTHY ARE WE?


M_POLITICS

“I say to the power structure in Chicago that the same problems that existed and still exist in Watts, exist in Chicago today, and if something isn’t done in a hurry, we can see a darkened night of social disruption.” --Martin Luther King Jr., 1966

“Chicago Runners” Source: chicagohealthonline.com

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC HEALTH

Chicago Public Health system has a direct impact on the quality of life of this vibrant city. A healthy city is a city physically active. Is prepared to respond to public health threats. Creates healthy and safe environments. Ensures access to care for all its residents. Works to eliminate health disparities for all communities. The department have seen dramatic improvements in many of these areas – but it’s only the beginning. The Chicago Department of Public Health has created a new public health agenda with an ambitious sense of purpose for Chicago – an agenda that engages our city with bold action and goal-driven results. Together they are going to transform the health of Chicago city. It will make Chicago the healthiest city in the nation.

Healthy Chicago focuses on 12 key priorities:


M_POLITICS

CLINICS IN CHICAGO

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PUBLIC HEALTH HOSPITALS IN CHICAGO


M_POLITICS

PHYSICIANS IN CHICAGO

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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC HEALTH HIV RATE


M_POLITICS

BREAST CANCER


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M_POLITICS

PUBLIC HEALTH CHILD OBESITY


M_POLITICS

TEEN PREGNANCY

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M_POLITICS

EDUCATION: THE FUTURE OF CHICAGO


M_POLITICS

“Chicago Teachers Union” Source: msnbc.msn.com

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M_POLITICS

EDUCATION

0-200 201-400 401-800 801-1600 >1600


M_POLITICS

EDUCATION WELL EDUCATED PEOPLE AND MANUFACTURING

Top 1 Industry by Jobs of each Community Heath Care&Social Assiatance Accommodation&Food Service Admin.&Sup.&Waste Mgmt.&Remed. Transportation&Warehousing Manufacturing Educational Service Retail Trade Finance&Insurance NA

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M_POLITICS

EDUCATION COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES 2013

HIGH SCHOOLS 2013

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Source: http://www.ibhe.org/default.htm Source: http://www.cps.edu/Pages/home.aspx

This maps is current as of August 26, 2013 and intended for use until June 30, 2014

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M_POLITICS

Private Schools 2013

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Source: http://www.cps.edu/Pages/home.aspx This maps is current as of August 26, 2013 and intended for use until June 30, 2014

2012 School Actions

CPS Class 2002 and Potential School Closings High School Dropout School Actions 2012 Rate Not Available 1%-21% School Closings and Potential School22%-25% Actions 2012 26%-29% School Actions 2012 Proposed Schools Closed since 2001 30%43% CPS School Closings and Potential School Actions 2012

Proposed School Actions 2012

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CPS Schools Closed since 2001

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! ! !

Chicago Public School Locations

Charter/Contract Elementary Schools Charter/Contract High Schools

! !

! ! !

!

! !

! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Source: Chicago Teachers’ Union, Woodstock Institute, 2011

! ! ! !

!

! !

43


44

M_POLITICS

EDUCATION

Less Than High School 2011

High School Graduate and Only 2011

0-10%

0-10%

10%-20%

10%-20% 20%-30%

20%-35%

>30%

>35% N

N

Km 0

1

2

4

Km

10

0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

College Graduate 2011

1

2

4

Associate&Bachelor Degree 2011

0-10%

0-10%

10%-20%

10%-20%

20%-30%

20%-35%

>30%

>35%

N

N

Km 0

1

2

4

Km

10

0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

10

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10


M_POLITICS

Notes: Only adults aged 25 and older are included in the analysis. Community areas in white indicate data not available. Source: Social IMPACT Research Center’s analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007-2011 5-year American Community Survey

Master&Doctor Degree 2011 0-10% 10%-20% 20%-35% >35% N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10


46

M_ECONOMY


M_ECONOMY

ECONOMY

“Davies Pen of Hogs” Source: commons.wikimedia.org

47


48

M_ECONOMY

THE CHICAGO SCHOOL


M_ECONOMY

WHAT IS THE CHICAGO SCHOOL?

Milton Friedman Papers, Hoover Institution Archives

BACKGROUND INFORMATION The Chicago School, as it has come to be called, is associated with the University of Chicago and represents a Neoclassical school of economic thought. The University of Chicago is commonly held as one of the world’s foremost economic institutions. Over the course of its history, the school has produced, and been host to, a number of the United States’ foremost economists including Milton Friedman and Robert Lucas, including Ronald Coase, George Stigler, and Robert Fogel. Scholars from the Chicago School have had pioneering public choice theory, law and economics economics, and economic history. Although the University of Chicago’s Economics Department was founded in the 1892, the Chicago School as we know it, did not begin until the 1930’s. From the beginning, the University has always taken a practical approach to the study of economic theory, which became the basis for The Chicago School. The School now specializes in The Chicago School focuses mainly on macroeconomics,

and is connected to the freshwater school of economics. called saltwater school of economics, which has been adopted by coastal schools such as Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and UC Berkeley. The School emphasizes theoretical price theory, a strong belief in free markets, and ,therefore, limited involvement from the government in the economy. In 2010, Kaufman said of the Chicago School that it holds “...a deep commitment to rigorous scholarship and open academic debate, an uncompromising belief in the usefulness and insight of neoclassical price theory, and a normative position that favors and promotes economic liberalism and free markets.” The “Old Chicago” School predates the current incarnation. The theories of this school tended to lean heavily to the left and upheld primarily Keynesian ideals. Notable scholars from this period in the school’s history include Frank Knight, Henry Simons, and Paul Douglas. The research and investigations of these scholars Milton Friedman and George Stigler in the development of price theory and transaction cost economics.

49


M_ECONOMY

THE CHICAGO SCHOOL: NOTABLE SCHOLARS

Frank Knight, educated at Cornell University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Iowa, is one of the world’s foremost economists. He is most well known as one of the founding fathers of the Chicago School. Knight spent the majority of his academic career at the University of Chicago, where he is the Morton D. Hall Distinguished Service Professor, Emeritus, of Social Science and Philosophy. During his tenure he served as mentor to nobel laureates such as Milton Friedman, George Stigler, and is best known for , which studies the role of the entrepreneur in the economy and is the origin of the term “Knightian Uncertainty.”

classical liberalism, receiving the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, with Gunnar Myrdal, in of systems thinking, jurisprudence, neuroscience, and the history of ideas. His academic career was spent at the London School of Economics, the University of Chicago, and the University of Freiburg. Knowledge in Society” was amongst the top 20 articles in the American Economic Review.

Ronald Coase was a British economist and author, educated at the University of London and the London School of Economics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1991. He was the Clifton R. Musser Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Chicago Law School, and is

Commission” marks him as the father of reform in allocation policy of the electromagnetic spectrum.

George Stigler was a principle leader at the Chicago School of Economics and winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1982. He is most well known for developing the Economic Theory of Regulation University of Chicago, his research also included the history of economic thought. These contributions are described in his article titled “The Economics of Information.” His article “Information in the Labor

Milton Friedman received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1976. After teaching at economics profession. He is notable for his contributions to consumption analysis, monetary history advocate opposing activist Keynesian government policies. In the 1960’s, he promoted “monetarism,” an alternative macroeconomic policy. During his term as an economic advisor to President Ronald Reagan, he promoted the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. During this time, he eliminated US conscription and founded The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice.


M_ECONOMY

Robert Fogel was the Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of American Institutions of Business. In 1993, along with Douglass North, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic cliometrics, which has to do with the use of quantitative methods in history. Born in NYC, he received his education at Cornell University, Columbia University, and Johns Hopkins University. Fogel is responsible for Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History Time on the Cross

new home economics. In 1992, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2007. Currently, he serves as a Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson to research topics traditionally considered part of sociology. These include crime, family organization, racial discrimination, and drug addiction. He argued that many types of human behavior can be rationalized and utility maximizing. He has also made many notable contributions to the study of human capital, and is credited with developing the “rotten kid theorem.”

Robert Lucas is a proefessor at the University of Chicago and received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Papers in Economic rankings. Lucas challenged the foundations of macroeconomic theory, which was formerly dominated by a Keynesian economics approach. Through this, he developed the “Lucas critique” of economic policymaking, which resulted in the development of New Keynesian economics. He is also notable for his contributions to rational expectations, development of the Lucas-Uzawa model as a theory of supply, development of the “Lucas paradox,” and his contributions to behavioral economics, and the law of one price.

Richard Posner is currently a judge on the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago and senior lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. He was appointed to the US Court of Appeals authoring almost 40 books covering topics such as economics and jurisprudence, and including The Economics of Justice, The Problems of Jurisprudence, Economic Analysis of Law, Sex and Reason, The Crisis of Capitalist Democracy, and Pragmatism and Democracy.. According to The Journal of Legal Studies, he is the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century. Born in New York City, he was educated at Yale College and Harvard Law School. He taught at Stanford Law School before Chicago.

Eugene Fama is best known for his theoretical and empirical contributions to portfolio theory and asset pricing. Currently, he is the Robert R. McCormick Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Fama’a notable publications include his PHD Adjustment of Stock Prices to New Information” in the 1969 edition of the International Economic Recently, he published a series of controversial papers that contradict the Capital Asset Pricing Model.


M_ECONOMY

INDUSTRIAL HISTORY

1833

1895

The nation

The City of Chicago was incorporated as a United States

and race was held in Chicago. O 12 vehicle were displ but the sho marked the of Chicago auto indus

extinguished Indian land claims in the state of Illinois, thereby eliminating the fur trade

1820

1830

1840

1860

1862

1895

Chicago replaces Cincinnati, OH as the nation’s meat packing capital. The City became known as “porkopolis.”

Schwinn is founded in Chicago, quickly becoming the domina American bicycle manufactu

1870

1770’s - 1833

1850’s - 1860’s

Before incorporation as a US town, the Chicago settlement’s economy was driven by the success of the fur trade.

The beef and pork industries took over Chicago’s economy, growing into the like Gustavus Swift and Phillip Armour, helped the City became the largest producer of meat products in the world. contributed to Chicago’s success because a far reaching transportation system had been built to facilitate the movement of goods and supplies to advantage over other cities - the use of ice to extend the months of operation.

1880

1890

1900

1895 - 197


M_ECONOMY

Present Today, Chicago enjoys one of the world’s largest and most region employs nearly 4 million workers, and is home to over 400 corporate headquarters headquarters.

n’s

The key industries that drive Chicago’s modern economy

n Only es layed, ow e start o’s stry.

services, manufacturing, biotechnology, information technology, health, and transportation and distribution.

1895 - 1949 Although automobile manufacturing in Chicago was never as dominant as in Detroit, it drove Chicago-based company was closed in 1949. Between 1896 and 1918, the auto industry was at its height, assisted by a far-reaching transportation system. During this time, Chicago was home to 28 manufacturers,

s n

ant

By WWI, the automobile industry in Chicago had already begun to decline. By 1949, the end of the industry’s heyday was marked by the closure of the Torpedo factory after producing

urers.

1910 1930 1920

1940

1960

1970

70’s The bicycle industry in Chicago grew from the point when Schwinn born mechanical engineer, Ignaz Schwinn. In 1992, the company company’s product was no longer able to compete with Japanese and European manufacturer’s. Between the 1960’s and 1972, bicycle manufacturing reached an all-time high, with bike sales doubling over a period of two years beginning in 1970.

1980

1990

2000

2010


M_ECONOMY

CHICAGO ECONOMIC DRIVERS

Chicago Gross Regional Product 2011 (total: 510.2 billion)

0.05% 8.39%

0.20%

3.11%

1.28%

2.61%

12.65%

2.64% 0.95% 6.96%

7.22% 1.58% 3.47% 5.70%

2.71%

3.33% 9.78%

3.41%

10.43% 13.50%

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting

Mining

Utilities

Construction

Manufacturing

Wholesale Trade

Retail Trade

Transportation & Warehousing

Information

Finance & Insurance

Real Estate & Rental & Leasing

Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services

Mgmt. of Companies & Enterprises

Admin. & Support & Waste Mgmt. & Remediation Services

Educational Services

Health Care & Social Assistance

Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation

Accommodation & Food Services

Other Services (except Public Administration)

Public Administration


M_ECONOMY

dominated by service industry.

Composition of Chicago Regional Product Tourism Health Care & Social Assistance Admin. & Support Services Headquarters Professional Services Real Estate Financial services Information & Media Transportation & Warehousing Retail & Consumer services Nondurable Manufacturing Durable Manufacturing Construction Utilities

0% 2010

5% 1980

10%

15%

20%

Organization Chart COMPREHENSIVE ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT2012


M_ECONOMY

REAL ESTATE & RENTAL & LEASING

MANUFACTURING

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

FINANCE & INSURANCE

PROFESSIONAL & TECHNICAL SVCS.

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry


M_ECONOMY

WHOLESALE TRADE

HEALTH CARE & SOCIAL ASSISTANCE

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

RETAIL TRADE

ADMIN. & SUPPORT & REMEDIATION

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry


M_ECONOMY

INFORMATION

TRANSPORTATION & WAREHOUSING

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

ACCOMMODATION & FOOD SERVICES

OTHER SERVICES

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top Industries by Jobs of each Community area

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry

Top1 Industry Top2 Industry Top3 Industry


M_ECONOMY

AVAILABLE INDUSTRY AREA

AVAILABLE OFFICE AREA

COLLEGE & UNIVERSITY

AVAILABLE RETAIL AREA


60

M_ECONOMY

INDUSTRY CORRIDOR

Areas zoned for commercial and industrial use.


M_ECONOMY

PLANNED MANUFACTURING DISTRICT

Zoned to retain areas with high concentrations of existing industry that are experiencing land use pressure for non industrial development

61


62

M_ECONOMY

ART & ENTERTAINMENT


M_ECONOMY

TAX INCREMENT FINANCING

Tax Increment Financing (TIF) is a special funding tool used by the City of Chicago to promote public and private investment across the city. Funds are used to build and repair roads and infrastructure, clean polluted land and put vacant properties back to productive use, usually in conjunction with private development projects.

63


64

M_ECONOMY

NEW MARKETS TAX CREDITS

The New Markets Tax Credits program is a federal initiative that generates employment and other investment in businesses or real estate projects in qualifying areas.


M_ECONOMY

ENTERPRISE ZONE

Businesses located within Chicago’s six enterprise zones are eligible for State of Illinois tax incenbusinesses and businesses relocating to an Enterprise Zone can lower operating expenses and


66

M_ECONOMY

SPECIAL SERVICE AREA

merce and business/industrial groups operating within designated areas. SSA-funded projects initiatives.


M_ECONOMY

PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION BELOW POVERTY LINE

0-20% 20%-40% 40%-60%

MEAN TRAVEL TIME TO WORK

20-30MIN 30-40MIN

Source: Zipatlas

BURDEN RATIO

0-0.1 0.3-0.4 0.1-0.2 0.2-0.3

INDIVIDUALS USE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

0-1000

67


68

M_ECONOMY

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK

COST OF BUSINESS-MEDIAN WAGE IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRY


M_ECONOMY

COMMUTE

Time leaving home to work

Travel time to work

69


70

M_ECONOMY

HOUSING: LIVING IN THE MIDWESTERN MEGA CITY


M_ECONOMY

“Federal Housing Chicago Source: chicagonow.com

71


72

M_ECONOMY

COST OF LIVING

110-120 120-130

130-140


M_ECONOMY

COST OF LIVING

Annual cost of living 2012

73


74

M_ECONOMY

AFFORDABLE CHICAGO: RENTAL HOUSING

TEMPORARY INCENTIVE PROGRAMS This category includes funding from certain temporary federal and state housing and redevelopment incentive programs such as President Obama’s “Making Home Reinvestment Act, as well as City incentive programs such as foreclosure prevention outreach programs.

IMPROVEMENT AND PRESERVATION OF HOMES Funds are committed annually to assist individuals with This is done through a variety of targeted incentive areas.

SUPPORT OF HOME OWNERSHIP

additional 4%city 11% city

The HED is committed to assisting low-income households in attaining the goal of home ownership. This is achieved through the construction of new homes, acquisition and rehabilitation of existing deteriorated or individuals with home purchase or rehabilitation.

federal fundEach year, the department commits funds to the development of new and renovation of its existing development loans, rental subsidies, and a variety of property stabilization programs.

NEIGHBORHOOD STABILIZATION PROGRAM Funding for this program is received from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and is then dispersed through the City to developers to provide purchase and redevelopment assistance for sale or rental units, establish land banks, demolish properties when required, and other redevelopment activities.

2013


M_ECONOMY


76

M_ECONOMY

THE CHICAGO HOUSING AUTHORITY (CHA) WHAT IS CHA? agency, and is overseen by a Board of Commissioners. They own and operate more than 9,400 apartments in also responsible for administration of more than 36,900 Housing Choice Vouchers. CHA is participating in the nationwide Plan for Transformation, which will include rehabilitation and renovation of its entire stock of public housing. In addition to housing, many of the CHA’s buildings are associated with supportive services such as substance abuse rehabilitation, health, child care, education, and youth services.

CHA Family Housing: Turnbull Park Homes

BRIEF HISTORY The Chicago Housing Authority was formed in 1937 to manage federal housing projects built under President Franklin Roosevelt’s Public Works Administration. Many of the original housing was built as part of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs. During WWII, CHA housing was built for war-industry workers, and was constructed near industrial centers. After the War, these were used to house war veterans.

CHA Senior Housing: The Kenmore

engaged in racial discrimination by building solely in areas with high concentrations of poor minorities. The resulting receivership was lifted in 2010.

HOW DOES CHA WORK? In the beginning, rents from public housing funded maintenance and operation costs. By the 1970’s the

CHA Scattered Sites: North Central Humboldt Park

decreased, so Congress decreed that the CHA could rent to only low and very low income residents and limited the and a subsidy program was not introduced until the 1980’s.

HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM The HCV Program allows low-income tenants to rent in the private market. The program is federally funded by the US Dept. of Housing and HUD, allowing CHA to pay a part of the tenant’s rent directly to the owner.

CHA Mixed Income: Archer Courts


M_ECONOMY

77


78

M_ECONOMY

CHICAGO’S RENTAL HOUSING

above $2,000 per month

$1,000 to $1,499 per month below $1,000 per month


M_ECONOMY

30.1 to 40% of rental demand met less than 30% of rental demand met

79


M_ECONOMY

RENT VS. OWN?

Ratio

25

15 Ratio

10

5

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

0 1986

Median home price to median rent

20

CITYWIDE RATIO OF MEDIAN HOME PRICE TO MEDIAN RENT In response to the economic boom of the early 2000’s, home prices rose quickly and rents decreased. Home prices fell sharply in the second half of the decade, and rents increased. renter occupied

1,400,000

owner occupied

1,200,000

rental rate

1,000,000

42%

800,000

41%

Renter Occupied House

Number of households

80

600,000

40%

400,000

39%

200,000

38%

0 2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Owner Occupied House

37%

With the economic boom and ease of mortgages, rental demand declined between 2000 and 2007. The percent of renters fell with the economy, but has returned to pre-crisis levels.


M_ECONOMY

81

net change owner HHS net change renter HHS net change total HHS Austin

Loop & Surrounding -20000

-10000

0

10000

20000

30000

40000


82

M_ECONOMY

ARCHITECTURE OF SOCIAL TENSION


M_ECONOMY

“I say to the power structure in Chicago that the same problems that existed and still exist in Watts, exist in Chicago today, and if something isn’t done in a hurry, we can see a darkened night of social disruption.” --Martin Luther King Jr., 1966

“Madison Street Riot Source: chicagomag.com

83


84

M_ECONOMY

“THE NIGHT CHICAGO BURNED” THE CHICAGO RIOTS, 1968 FRIDAY, APRIL 5, 1968

Following the tragedy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination, thousands of angry young protesters took and things had quieted by Saturday, but Mayor Daley called for federal reinforcement. 12,000 army troopers and 6,000 national guard were called in to maintain peace on Chicago’s streets. Residents of the west side lived in fear and prayer, while those further away could do nothing but watch the

The death of a great leader certainly sparked a fury, but the sense of unrest and distrust had long since been brewing in

INFRASTRUCTURE: the sheer physical destruction of much looters were boarded up shortly after and have remained that way since. DEMOGRAPHICS: the riots caused a demographic shift in neighborhoods, the sheer panic they caused only reinforced and sped up the white migration of residents and businesses to the suburbs. POLITICAL: Mayor Daley’s harsh response to the riots served to strengthen the West’s anti-machine political movement, these was elected without machine backing in 1963. THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION RIOTS:


M_ECONOMY

Shaken by April’s violence, Mayor Daley wanted to be certain the Democratic National Convention would not be a repeat of the spring riots. Leading up to the August riots, Daley’s administration adopted an almost tolerant policy in their treatment of the black community, even naming a street after Martin Luther King. The actual convention, however, was guarded by an “army” security. The repeated display of force, of course, ended in disaster. The result, established in the general public opinion that Mayor Daley was nothing more than a common tyrant, and the nation began to focus on the issue of Police brutality. The Police violence at these riots was not aimed solely at the black community - innocent passersby and reporters fell victim as well. As a result, this protest served as a catalyst for anti-Machine activity in the liberal lakefront wards, forever

AUGUST 1968


86

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

“No city in America relies on its infrastructure more than Chicago.” - Rahm Emmanuel, mayor http://www.sustainable-chicago.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/cta-metra-hwy_2.jpg

INFRASTRUCTURE

87


88

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Population: 29.963 The built-up area of the young city (green) extended only a third of the way to the city limits. The Illinois & Michigan Canal, opened in 1848, connected the city to Downstate Illinois and the Mississippi Valley. The first railroad reached the city the same year.

Population: 109.206 A dozen railroad lines now reached the city, and settlement reached west and north of the Chicago River. The first horsecar line opened in 1859, along State Street from Randolph to Roosevelt.

By 1900, Chicago had become the world’s fifth-largest city.

Population: 1,099,850 The city's territory more than doubled as surrounding towns agreed to annexation in 1889. Other settled areas, such as Evanston, Oak Park, and Maywood, remained independent of the city. New cable car lines reached further out from the Loop than the old horsecars could.

Population: 1,698,575 The first elevated line opened in 1892 and was quickly followed by others reaching far out into the neighborhoods. Both the L lines and new electric streetcar lines spurred development in outlying areas. The new Sanitary and Ship Canal replaced the Illinois & Michigan Canal.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

The great Chicago fire left 100,000 people homeless and caused millions of dollars in damage.

Population: 298.977 City limits have been extended, and development extended in fingerlike patterns out along the half-dozen horsecar lines. The city became a manufacturing center as well as the center of Western agricultural trade.

Population: 2,185,283 Extensions to the elevated lines reached into developing areas and even beyond the city limits. As the city grew and annexed adjacent towns, problems arose with duplicate street names and a confusing numbering system based on the Chicago River. On June 22, 1908, the city council adopted a system proposed by Edward P. Brennan; amended June 21, 1909. The changes were effective September 1, 1909 for most of the city. Addresses in Chicago and some suburbs are numbered outward from baselines at State Street, which runs north and south, and Madison Street, which runs east and west.

Population: 503.185 Post-Fire resettlement led to development of outlying neighborhoods and the first commuter suburbs, which appear like beads strung along the radiating railroad lines.

Population: 2,701,705 The L was extended to Wilmette and Berwyn. The North Shore Channel was dug to provide fresh water to flush the stagnant North Branch of the Chicago River.

89


90

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Population: 3,376,438 A decade of frantic growth resulted in thousands of new bungalows encircling the city. Elevated extensions to Dempster (Niles Center, now Skokie) and 22nd & Mannheim (Westchester) were expected to serve new developments, but the Depression ended the city's homebuilding boom. New landfill areas created more lakefront parkland, some of which was used for the 1933-34 Century of Progress Exposition. The Cal-Sag Channel opened, connecting Lake Calumet port facilities to the Sanitary & Ship Canal.

Population: 3,369,359 The expressway network (shown in rose) radiating from the Loop was finished. Skokie Swift service brought rapid transit back to Skokie in 1964, and two new lines were constructed in expressway medians: the extension to Jefferson Park and the Dan Ryan line to 95th Street. New port facilities at Lake Calumet followed completion of the St. Lawrence Seawayin 1959.

Population: 3,396,808 The Depression hit Chicago hard, ending the city's building boom. The city changed little from 1930. Lake Shore Drive became the city's first express highway.

Suburban growth in the early 1970s spread to Schaumburg and Oak Brook, but then development slowed as a nationwide recession and declines in Midwest manufacturing hit Chicago. CTA suffered from a series of financial crises and service cutbacks. The planned Crosstown Expressway was cancelled as public attention turned to energy and environmental concerns.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Population: 3,620,962 The State Street subway opened in 1943. After the Chicago Transit Authority took over rapid transit operations in 1947, service to Niles Center was ended. A postwar building boom filled in the city and the first ring of suburbs with new houses, and increasing auto ownership meant the development of areas far from public transit lines.

Rapid transit service reached O'Hare, and money from the cancelled Crosstown Expressway paid for a new line to Midway Airport (opened 1993). A building boom filled the Loop with new office towers, and former industrial areas near the Loop were redeveloped with apartments and townhouses.

Population: 3,550,404 CTA closed several rapid transit branch lines during the 1950s, including the Stockyards, Kenwood, Humboldt Park, and Normal Park lines. The Garfield Park line was cut back to Desplaines Avenue and relocated to the median of the new Congress (now Eisenhower) Expressway. New development was most pronounced in the Morton Grove, Skokie, Niles, and Des Plaines areas, areas served by the new Edens Expressway or near the new O'Hare International Airport. The full tollway network and Calumet Skyway opened in 1958.

source:http://tigger.uic.edu/depts/ahaa/imagebase/chimaps/mcclendon. html

91


92

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

ROAD SYSTEM

AN INVENTORY OF CURRENT SYSTEM AND ITS HISTORIC DEVE


ELOPMENT

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

93


94

Sketch of John McKinzies house. He was among the first settlers in chicago.

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: ROAD TIMELINE

Chicagoa straighten diagonal i but they w way they a convenien carried ov auto age w expressw Chicago

1600

1700

KE VIEW CYCLING CLUB, 1895

1880

1810

1890

2010

1900

1910

1920

There are 12.000 automobiles in Chicago Chicago counts 1,900 miles of hard road.

Systematic planning for public roads in Chicago begins. The Chicago Plan Commission was created to implement the plan of Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett, which put heavy emphasis on avenues and thoroughfares. Only the extention of Ogden Ave was constructed though.

There are 350.000 automobiles and 18.000 trucks in Chicago.

1930

Automobile registrations increase at a rate of 32,000 vehicles a year.

A public road program for Chicago’s suburbs and rural areas is begun by the state.

Due to the increase of cars, the city spends almost $500 million to widen and resurface the streets.

Gasoline tax is introduced.

2020

Mayor Rahm Emmanuel announces the Building A New Chicago initiative, a $7.2 billion dollar investment in Chicago’s infrastructure covering roads, waterways, railways and subsoil infrastructure.

source:http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1209.html

1820

PLAN OF CHICAGO CAMPAIGN (HIGHWAYS), 1960

CONSTRUCTION OF CONGRESS PARKWAY, 1951

Gradually the pressure on the state to build hard roads increased as a result of lobbying by recreational bicyclists, farmers who needed to move crops to market, and, eventually, motorists.

2000

1800

CHICAGO’S ROADS ARE IN BAD CONDITION...

1940

Constru which t the sub ways. T

The Illinois to


ans try to n the indian trails, were kept the are for nce and later ver into the with the way system. is founded.

During two glacial eras, much of what is now Chicago had been under water. This flatness creates Chicago’s biggest problem before the Civil War - mud. Primitive trenches dug in the streets proved to be futile to address the drainage of the water. The problem was not statisfactory solved until 1852 by raising the city level.

1830

1840

First attempts to build hard-surfaced roads with a wood-block paving system are made. Before, all road surface was bare.

1950 The Interstate Highway Act shifted 90 percent of the cost of freeways to the federal government and enabled the city and county to continue their ambitious road building.

1860

1870

1880

STREET RAISING ON LAKE STREET, 1855

1970

1980

The Stevenson Expressway is completed.

The Kennedy Expressway is completed.

oll highway authority is established.

A parkway along the lakeshore to reach Hyde Park is completed, it would later become Lake Shore Drive.

1850

1960

uction on a $1.1 billion highway system, took 18 years to complete, begins with burban Edens and Calumet ExpressThey cost about $1.6 million per mile.

The Board of Public Works, the first agency in Illinois with a professional staff to build roads, is created in Chicago.

City level raised to solve the drainage problem.

TRI-STATE TOLL PLAZA, 1964

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Chicago’s first two ‘superhighways’, the Edens and Eisenhower, are completed before the passage of the Interstate Highway Act of 1956.

1990

Public opposition to expressway construction forced the city and state to cancel plans to build a crosstown freeway on the West Side. The Camulet Skyway, the only toll road in the city, is opened.

The culmination of the road-building art in Chicago was the Dan Ryan Expressway—a 14-lane road with a two-mile-long bridge over the South Branch of the Chicago River. It cost $282.7 million, or $25.7 million per mile to build.

2100

... MAJOR REPAIR WORK CONTINUES...

... FOR THE NEXT DECADE.

2000 The Chicago metropolitan area now has 54,600 miles of streets and roads, including 2,500 miles of expressways, 17,300 miles of highways and arterial streets, and 34,800 miles of local streets. Almost 80 percent of all commuting is done by automobile. Public opposition to expressway construction forced the state to abandon a proposal for a freeway in the Fox River Valley 30 miles west of the Loop.


96

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Note: map from 1901 showing the trails. source: moundbuilder.blogspot.nl

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: GRID ORIGIN pre 1785

Before settler presence, the Chicago area was inhabited by native Americans. Their trails criss-crossed the area, avoiding obstacles. Many of them still remain, being carried over into the present day expressway system. European settlers tried to straighten the trails, but stagecoaches found it more expedient to use the beaches along the lake than rutted trails inland.

1901

1785

1830

debt. It was right after the revolutionary war and congress did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the U.S. They decided to raise money through the sale of land in the unmapped midwest territories. In order to smoothen sales, they devided the entire land into a grid of townships, each six miles square, each containing 36 lots.

1906 - Burnham’s Plan

18

The Illinois and Michigan canals Once w posed. The commissioners of th other nals ordered Surveyor James sect Th to lay out a town in preparation for map the n tion. Thompson’s plan exactly exten fo the Land ordnance of 1785. He boun the town with straight streets 1832 unifo feet wide with alleys 16 feet wide lifelob each block. Chicago was thus foun

19

Edward P. Brennan, 1926

Large-scale annexations of 1889 complicated matters further throughout the city. In 1901, Edward P. Brennan proposed a solution, recommending State and Madison as the baseline for a city-wide street numbering system, the system still in use today. In 1908, after years of alterations and improvements, the Chicago City Council adopted the plan, and enforced it beginning September 1, 1909.

Daniel Hudson Burnham was an American architect, urbanist and a pioneer in skyscraper architecture. Next to his Chicago-Plan he was famous for being the most important architect of the World’s Columbian Exposition, the designer of the Flat Iron Building in NY and Union station in DC. The Chicago Plan took foothold in 1906 and was published in 1909. It contained an entire reshaping of the

city. There were proposals for wide Thed nal boulevards which had to conne Loop most important locations in theCoun city one another. His vision also to conti parks within walking distance ance for Chicagoan and a new harbor.year ‘Par the Prairie’, he dubbed his plans. namI end, only a few elements werebrok rea throu Chicago urban thinking.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY source: http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/ source background: http://i.imgur.com/eHYe6fV.jpg?1

834

1861

1880

were pro-basic groundwork was laid, e this hese car surveyors followed, platting new hompson tions to the same pattern. This 1834 the by sale John Stephen Wright combined newly platted areas, showing the grid ollowed nding beyond Thompson’s original endaries. laid outWright arrived in Chicago in 66 2ormly and became a prominent citizen and bisecting ong resident. nded.

developed areas of Cook County outside Chicago in 1861. Sections that had been laid down by government surveyors and sold as single parcels subsequently had been divided into smaller lots for purchase. The boundaries of many of these smaller, subdevided holdings followed the familiar rectangular grid pattern, rather than rivers or other natural boundaries.

In spite of the 1830 grid, navigating was not simple. The house and street numbering system was inconsistent and became more so as Chicago annexed adjacent towns. In 1880 the City Council took steps with an ordinance that adjusted house numbers south of Twelfth Street to match the numbered streets on the south side, but the measure neglected the central and northern portions of the city.

911

1926

1937

diagolegislation of 1901 exempted the ect p, the but after its initial success, the yncil with amended the ordinance in 1910 tained that area, with a compliinclude eevery date of April 1, 1911. The following risBrennan on rs, eliminated duplicate street mes In the and ensured that the names of alized. streets would remain the same ken-link ughout the city.

In 1926, the Chicago Regional Planning Association published a study of Highways in the Region of Chicago, conclud-

ade. After the second major renaming initiative in 1936, the proceedings of the Chicago City Council for April 1937, noted, “There are now only 1363 street names in Chicago for 3624 miles of streets. There are now fewer street names in Chicago than in any other city in the country of even one-half the area of Chicago.”

to build wider roads and more of them.” A sketch map included in the booklet showed “paved highways” and “suggested pavement.” Instead of a grid, the overall pattern is one of spokes of a wheel.

97


98

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: GRID ORIGIN

TOWNSHIPS The federal government surveyed the Chicago area, as part of the Northwest Territory, into townships ordinarily of 36 square miles These survey townships eventually became political entities: as a result of a new state politan area organized townships, which became responsible for basic governmental functions such as roads and taxes. In the mid-nineteenth century, the townships ringing and Hyde Park—incorporated in order to provide more services to their increasingly suburban constituents. However, incorporated townships proved too unwieldy and most were annexed into Chicago in 1889. Townships continue to provide basic services in many suburban areas.

source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cook_County,_Illinois

RIVER BREAKS THE GRID The lines created by the surveyor James Thompson’s chain, though rigid, could not . In some place nature breaks through. The Chicago River, one topography, and existence of Chicago, cuts irregularly through the rectilinear grid of the surveyors. The river divided the city into three districts: of public works, police, and assessors all consisted of representatives selected from each of these divisions. Beginning with the ward system established in that charter, and periodically redrawn in following decades, the river continued to serve as one of the major boundaries between representative legislative districts in the city. The y-shape on today’s city seal memorializes the original three districts. source: http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

The rectangular grid of roads and city streets, so common to the Middle West and the region’s considerations.

99


100

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: ROAD SYSTEM

1. existing pattern of Indian trails...

3. In 1830 structures are built within the framework...

township grid overlay...

Madison

State

6. In the 60’s the highways are constructed, some following old Indian trails.

4. Chicago grows along railand tramways. Subsequent annexation over time...

naming system to solve annexation problems is enforced...

GRID SYSTEM The Chicago grid system consists of a network of Primary roads, Secondary roads and streets. City blocks are framed by Primary roads (one mile by

Schematic representation of key events in the shaping of the Chicago grid.

by Secondary roads. Each of these smaller blocks holds 16 units of building blocks. Primary Road (Nx800)

Uneven numbers

92nd St. (9200S) 92nd Place 93rd St. (9300S) 94th St. (9400S)

Numbered streets occur south of the origin, so

1/8 Mile, a ‘hundred’

is 7,8 miles south of the origin. Then, you’d have

1/2 Mile, 400 addresses

0.5 Mile, 400 addresses

1 Mile, 800 addresses

Uneven numbers

Secondary Road (Nx400)

Say you wanted to go to 918 East 63 rd Street. Since streets occur every building block (100 ad-

State street and you have arrived at your destination.

Even numbers

Even numbers

The origin of the grid lies at the crossing of Madison and State street. From this origin, every road and street receives a code: the address number followed by a letter. Every mile of road contains 800 addresses, therefore the number of Primary roads is a multiple of 800 and that of Secondary roads a multiple of 400. The Letter, N,E,S or W, refers to the position of the road in respect to the Only East/West origin. Roads and streets in Chicago are named streets are rather than numbered, with exception of thenumbered street south to the origin, starting from address no. 4700.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CHICAGO ROAD SYSTEM Expressways U.S. Routes Primary Road Secondary Road Cross Roads (Connectors)

N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10

101


102

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: ROAD SYSTEM North Ave, 25-30 mph (40-50kmh)

1:500

PRIMARY ROAD

Four-lane roads, also ca thoroughfares. Primary arte for urban motorized travel.

Augusta Ave, 25-30 mph (40-50kmh)

1:500

SECONDARY ROAD

Two-lane roads. Secondary teries for urban motorized tra

Parked cars

lanes.

Milwaukee Ave, 15-25 mph (25-40kmh)

1:500

CROSS ROAD

Also called Connectors. Patt are derived historic city expa ture along railroads and tr

Parked cars

based on old Indian trails. 1:500

Interstate 90, 65 mph (105kmh)

Emergency lane

EXPRESSWAY

American equivalent of the h way. Can have over ten la Meant to support inters travel.

Emergency lane

Illinois 50, 25-30 mph (40-50kmh)

1:500

US ROUTE

National network of highw Parked car

Maplewood Ave, 10-20 mph (16-32kmh)

road types. Interstate trave the US Routes is mostly ta over by the Expressways. 1:500

NEIGHBORHOOD STREET

Two-lane treets dividing building blocks of 100 addre another. Broad sidewalks greenery are common in street type. Franklin street, 5-10 mph (8-16kmh)

1:500

DOWNTOWN SERVICE ALL

Small alley designed to rel the Primary downtown road parked cars and waste col tion.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CONGESTION

alled eries Can

9 AM

y aravel.

12 PM 0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

1:800.000

0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

1:800.000

Chicago’s congestion is among the nation’s highest. Without new approaches, it will only increase due to the projected growth of its rent revenues are not keeping up with maintenance and operation costs. Underinvestment and deferred maintenance have strained Chicago’s transportation system, leaving it with aging infrastructure that is deteriorating in some places.

terns andiram-

6 PM

highanes. state

ways

10 PM 0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

1:800.000

0 1 2 012

Congestion in the roads of Chicago:

Congestion is a major problem ble its communities are, shaping decisions as where people live and work. After decades of underinvesting in public transportation and developing land that doesn’t support transit, too many residents lack options for getting around. The consequences include limited personal choices, more cars tying up the roads of Chicago, more pollution, and continued dependence on foreign oil.

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

1:800.000

Low

Slow zones cost Chicagoans 11,000 hours in lost time every day, $61 million in lost productivity every year and an annual exessive fuel consumption of 127 million gallons.

el on aken

4000 3000 2000

OTHER

CARPOOLED

1000 max

90

60

40

WALKED 30

lieve ds of llec-

DROVE A CAR ALONE

20

LEY

5000

10

with this

PEOPLE PER EACH 1 MINUTE PERIOD

the ess-

MODE OF TRANSPORTATION IN CHICAGO

6000

T

TRAVEL TIME TO WORK [MINUTES]

http://www.city-data.com/city/Chicago-Illinois.html

BUS

BICYCLE RAILROAD SUBWAY OR ELEVATED

103


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: ROAD SYSTEM Commercial zones

0 1 2 012

Racial map

0 1 2

5 Miles 5

012

10 Kilometers

5 Miles 5

Congestion seems to concentrate in the north side of Chicago, with a focus in the central area. The land use map shows that this part of the city is largely a commercial zone. Since the congestion is at a peak during rush hours, it is probable that this part of the city holds most of the jobs. There are a lot of people living on the north side as well, mostly whites. The avarage commuter in Chicago spends

13.500 13.000 12.500 9000

Population

8500 8000 4500

commuters

4000

Freeway lane miles

3500

2011

2010

2009

2008

3000 2007

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

the central loop live in northern Chicago as well. People from the west and south are more likely to take railway transport.

Arterial streets lane miles

14.000

2006

012

minutes at 9 am in the morning from the Loop. As can be seen, a large part of the northern side is included in this area. This makes it highly possible (since congestion is

14.500

YEAR

0 1 2

10 Kilometers

North Chicago is a destination zone.

NORTH OF CHICAGO

PEOPLE/MILES X 1000

104

A much employed strategy of the government to solve the congestion problem is to build new roads and widen existing ones. The graph to the left shows that this has been rather unseccessfull. While the rate of population and commuters stayed about the same, over a thousand miles of arterial street lane miles and lane miles were constructed. This resulted in two hours of saved time per Chicagoan travelling in peak

hours per year (not that means that all the road building saved minutes less spent in agen. 2 uur tijdswinst dag. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna

source:http://dc.streetsblog.org/2013/02/06/gary-toth-tti-congestionscores-prove-road-expansion-isnt-the-answer/


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CONGESTION OUTLOOK TYPICAL WORKDAY 9AM <10mph 10-20mph 20+ mph

N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10


106

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: ROAD SYSTEM

N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10

CTA BUS LINES


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CHICAGO BIKE TRAILS Bike Routes (no markings) Bike Lanes Marked Shared Lanes Buffer Protected Bike Lanes Barrier Protected Bike Lanes

N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10

EXISTING BIKE LANES

107


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: ROAD SYSTEM 100%

1700

90%

2010

2009

2008

2007

YEAR

2006

1200

SAN JOSE INDIANAPOLIS LOS ANGELES

60% 50%

NEW YORK

40%

PHOENIX

30% 2.%

1300

70%

1.5%

1400

SAN DIEGO

1.0%

1500

CHICAGO

80%

.5%

1600

PHILADELPHIA

0

PERCENT INCREASE IN BICYCLING [2005-2010]

1800

2005

BICYCLE CRASHES

108

BICYCLISTS AS A PERCENTAGE OF ALL COMMUTERS

FATAL AND SERIOUS INJURY CRASHES 2005-2010 0-6 7-12 13-23 24-35 36-74

BIKE CRASHES

0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

SCALE 1:250 000

Bike crashes are very common in Chicago. There are relative few bike trails which are not always protected from cars. Therefore accidents, from dooring to lethal crashes, occur most frequent in the

most busiest areas. The northern side of chicago, as sho accidents happen in this part of the city.


own be-

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

SPOKE ROUTE Thousands of people commute to Downtown Chicago on a daily basis by bike. Some of these commuters come from the edges of the City as well as the suburbs. Designated commuting routes to the Loop make it safer and more convenient for employees to bike to and from work. Spoke Routes are

direct routes in and out of the Loop that provide a safe, continuous bikeway and connect all areas of Chicago with the downtown. The primary goal of the Spoke Route network is to increase bicycle commuting citywide.

NEIGHBORHOOD ROUTE Chicago has thousands of miles of residential streets. Most of these streets have low

source: http://www.chicagobikes.org/public/SFC.php

speeds; therefore, these streets are ideal for encouraging more active uses. Neighborhood Bike Routes are quiet, mostly residential streets that connect to local destinations,

such as neighborhood retail, parks schools, and transit. Most of these streets are already “low stress� bike routes. The amount of new infrastructure required may vary route to route with some requiring few changes and others requiring considerably more.

109


110

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

RAIL NETWORK A STUDY INTO HOW CHICAGO GREW ALONGSIDE ITS COMPLEX NETWORK OF FREIGHT AND PASSANGER RAIL NETWORK


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

111


112

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: RAIL TIMELINE

1600

1700

THE CITY BEGINS TO BUILD ELEVATED TRAIN LINES.

1800

STREET CARS ON MADISON STREET

UNION STATION

1890

Lake street line Chicago's street railwaysgets electified

began converting from cable cars to streetcars

Chicago gets its first cable car line on State Street, from Madison to 21st.

1900

Creation of The Loop

South Side Elevated, first ‘L’ train line opens in 1892 The Northwestern

Elevated Railroad opens.

The Metropolitan West Side “L” opened

2010

LAST REMAINING INTERURBAN LINE

THE LOOP IN

1910

1920

1930 1940

19

1943: S 1943: State Street sub R (now Red line)(now opens City's largest street railway, the Chicago Railways Company operating on thewas broken Ground was b Ground North and West Sides, filed in 1938 for twoin 1938 for two for bankruptcy subway lines to subway lines t be Chicago Transit built: one unde built: one under Authority State Street an State Street and The four "L" companies created underi another under another 1945Stre merged as the Chicago Dearborn Dearborn Street.

The different Chicago transit companies are joined as one company, which has about 3,500 streetcars and more than 1,100 miles of track.

Rapid Transit in 1924.

The Lake Street "L" opens in 1892

2000

18

Rail service peaks in the 1930s: Chicago has the largest public transportation system in the world.

Chicago City Railway cable car system operated along the principal commercial streets (1882-1906)

1880

1810 1820

The Union Station opens In 1926 the railroad com In 1926 the railroad completed of much of electrification ofelectrification much of its freight and passenger and passenger service in the service in Chicago area. Chicago area.

2020

FROM THE MILLENIUM PARK VIEW FROM THEVIEW MILLENIUM PARK


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

The first railroad in Chicago was the Galena & Chicago Union, which was chartered in 1836 to build tracks to the lead mines at Galena in northwestern Illinois.

The Illinois Central (IC) is the first recipient of a federal land grant 1850s. Construction of route from Chicago to Cairo.

The Rock Island Railroad reaches Chicago: it is the first rail link between the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes. Connection to St. Louis

Chicago saw its first train in 1848.

96 trains come and go every day.

Omnibuses first appeared in Chicago to haul travelers between the new railroad stations and hotels.

820 1830

1840

1850

Chicago had one of the largest street railway systems in the world before it was replaced by buses in the 1950s.

940 1950

mpleted f its freight n the

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad expanded to Chicago

1870

1880

AMTRAK AND METRA RAILYARD, UNION STATION

1960

1970

to abandonment of two of Chicago's most significant electric interurbans by 1963: the Chicago, Aurora & Elgin; and the Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee, both products of the “interurban madness” of the early twentieth century.

Consolidation of remaining intercity services under Amtrak in 1971

1980

1990

1983: O’Hare extension created (now Blue line) Commuter railroad system (Metra), and the suburban bus network (Pace) are created

Financial difficulties forced creation in 1974 of the Regional Transportation Authority to finance service in the six-county region.

2000 Booz-Allen & Hamilton Service Restructuring Proposal for CTA

Five "L" stations were closed (California/Lake, Laramie [Douglas], Grand/Milwaukee, Wentworth, and Harvard) “L” Green line rehabilitation

2100

MILLENIUM STATION

Charles J. Van Depoele demonstrated an electric streetcar system in 1883 at the Chicago Exposition of Railway

Financial struggles of CTA; station closures, cost raising and decreased ridership

Fully 37 long-distance 1969: Dan Ryan railroad lines, Line (now Red State bway Street subway operated by 21 line) opens Red line) opens s independent railroad companies Auto competition led

broken o oto be er ynd is 1951: Dearborn subway (now rin eet. Blue line) opens

The first railroad linking east and west coasts is finished

1860

NORTH SHORE AND MILWAUKEE RAILROAD ELECTRIC INTERURBAN TRAIN IN 1950s

N 1924

Connection to South West (Los Angeles)

CTA BROWN LINE GOING THROUGH THE DOWNTOWN

Millenium station opens

113


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: RAIL RAIL IN THE CITY STRUCTURE

Rail infrastructure area comparsion

The Loop

4 sq km

Rail with adjecent infrasturcture occupies 10.5 % of Chicago area

23 sq km

Freeway O’Hare airport

29 sq km

Rail + yards

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

62 sq km sq km

ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANSPORTATION Composition of Chicago Gross regional product [%]

SIGNIFICANCE IN USA SCALE

Per cent of U.S rail traffic going through chicago

20% 15% 10%

33%

5%

85%

Transportation of goods accounts for 13% of Chciago GRP. It is 5% less than in 1980.

utilities

construction

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Retail

Transportation

financial services

information /media

real estate

professional service

headquaters

healthcare

2010 1980

administration

0

Tourism

114

PASSANGER 6 out of 7 largest pasangers lines converges in Chicago

FREIGHT 1/4 of all rail traffic converges in Cicago daily

sources: http://www.aapa-ports.org/files/SeminarPresentations/05_OpsIT_Allen_Chuck.pdf http://www.createprogram.org/ http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/eab/pubs/chicago_ash/chic_ash.shtm

CHICAGO RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE • 16,000 acres,

CHICAGO: THE NATION’S TRANSPORTATION HUB • World’s 3rd busiest intermodal hub.

• 2,800 route-miles of track • 12 commuter rail routes • 1,100 viaducts and bridges Daily Activity:

• Chicago’s rail network is a key part of national, regional and local economy. • Over the next 20 years, freight rail volume in Chicago will increase 80%. • If rail capacity is not addressed, Chicago will lose $2 billion in production over the next two decades.

• 20,000 truck moves through intermodal gates

OPPORTUNITY: CONNECTIVITY CAN BENEFIT THE CITY IN TERMS OF TOURISM, TRADE, WAREHOUSINF THREAT: IF CITY DOESNT INVEST IN THE INFRASRTUCTURE IT IS GOING TO LOSE MONEY


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

P(1

(18

) 55 (18

NW

& StP CM

NW C&

C&

54

873

)

)

CM

StP

&P(1

872

1848 - 1855

)

1848 - 1855 1856 - 1875

C&NW Chicago & North Western Railway CRI&P Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad ("The Rock Island")

CB&Q (18 50) C&NW (18 48)

IC

Illinois Central Railroad (1851)

NYC

New York Central System (1853)

64)

Q(18

CB&

P

Pi

tts

NY CD

etr oit

I&

10

N

52

)

)

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5 1

2

4

10

e

C&NW (1904)

Lin Soo 2) (188 1848 - 1875

1848 - 1895

1876 - 1895

>1896

CGW (18 87

)

IC (1

888

)

W (1 aba 88 sh 3)

F &S AT 83) (18

N

N

Km 1

2

4

10 4

10

Km

NK

0

P(

ie

2

Er

Miles 0 0.5 1

G (1 TW 88 0)

)

3 88

(1

Monon (1882)

0

6)

CR

4

8)

)

86

2

85

O

(1

Miles 0 0.5 1

(1

& GM

52

L&

)

857

O(1

18

852

10

rg h

d(

IC (1

(1

4

P

2

an

P

1

ev el

PR

Km 0

(18

85

2)

N

Cl

bu

C&EI (1871)

NY C

PR

1

2

4

10

Miles

18

82

0 0.5 1

)

2

4

10

(1

86

6)


116

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: RAIL

Rail by function puprose/company Freight

F

Using Typology Passanger: CTA ‘L’ train Maps as a First Step to a Passanger: Metra suburbnan train Transportation Master Plan Passanger: Amtrak intercity train The maps in Figure 11 demonstrate how this typology system would inform a master planning process. The map on the left shows the building form and function, as extrapolated from land use and zoning data. It clearly illustrates the pattern of development in the city - along the waterfront, along transit lines, and in neighborhood nodes. The map on the right shows the street network, coded by the typologies above. Technical documentation can be found in Appendix A.

C B an

N

Pre Da

Sa

CHICAGO HAS A VERY EXTENSIVE RAILS SYSTEM ALL THE CONNECTIONS DIVERGE IN ‘THE LOOP’ IN THE DOWNTOWN AREA 0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

SCALE 1:250 000


B

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

A B

A

C

C

THE LOOP: ZOOM

W Madison Street

W Madison Street

W Madison Street

Elevated structure

S State Street

S State Street

S State Street

Scale 1:10000

Underground lines

Underground pedestrian system

117


118

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

FREIGHT

FREIGHT RAILS ARE CONCENTRATED IN THE SOUTH OF CHICAGO FREIGHT INFRASTRUCTURE OCUPIES BIG AMONUT OF SPACE ALONG THE RAILWAY

Freight intensity trains per day

1-3 4-6 Using Typology Maps 7-12 as a First Step to a 13-24 Transportation Master 25-36 Plan 37- 60 The maps in Figure 11 demonstrate > 60 how this typology system would inform a master planning process. The map on the left shows the building form and function, as extrapolated from land use and zoning data. It clearly illustrates the pattern of development in the city - along the waterfront, along transit lines, and in neighborhood nodes. The map on the right shows the street network, coded by the typologies above. Technical documentation can be found in Appendix A.

F

CD Bu an

N

Pre Dat

Sa

SCALE 1:500 000 0 1 2

5

10 Kilometers

Intermodal freight yards highlighted


400 300 200

FREIGHT TRANSPORT BY MEAN BY YEAR

2040

100 2002

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

Domestic Air Freight

500

2020

Waterborne Freight

600

2010

MILLIONS OF TONES

Intercity Truck

1991

1990

BILION TON-MILES

700

Class I Rail

YEAR

FREIGHT BY WEIGHT ILLINOIS FORECAST

There is the tendency of growth in rail freight

Freight tonnage is expected to grow by 70% for trains by 2030

sources: http://www.aapa-ports.org/files/SeminarPresentations/05_OpsIT_Allen_Chuck.pdf http://www.createprogram.org/ http://na.fs.fed.us/fhp/eab/pubs/chicago_ash/chic_ash.shtm

LOCATON OF FREIGHT ICS RELATED TO LOCATION OF INDUSTRY

LOCATION OF VACANT BUILDING OVERLAPS WITH CONCENTRATION OF FREIGHT RAILS AND YARDS

OPPORTUNITY: FREIGHT HUBS CAN BECOME PLACES

THREAT FREIGHT HUBS MAY CREATE UNFAVOURABLE HOUSING YEAR CONDITIONS AND BE OBSTACLE IN THE MOVEMENT IN THE CITY

FIGURE 11

Red Line

AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS

340.000 20.000.000 340.000 19.500.000 320.000 19.000.000 310.000 18.500.000 300.000 18.000.000 290.000 17.500.000 280.000 17.000.000 270.000 16.500.000 260.000 16.000.000 MIDWAY 250.000 15.500.000 240.000 15.000.000 PER CENT OF U.S RAIL TRAFFIC GOING THROUGH CHICAGO CDOT Blu

eL

ine

Brown Line

KE NN ED Y

EX PW

Y

Green Line

Blue Line

E ST

N VE

Red Line

ng

Ora

Mixed-Use

Downtown

Y RYAN EXPW DAN

Green Line

Commercial Center

Green Line

ine

eL

Residential

C H

Institutional or Campus

IC

A G O

SK YW AY

Industrial CTA Rail Lines

2

Y PW EX

4 Miles

RD

1

O PF

0

Prepared by Active Transportation Alliance, December 2012 Data Sources: Active Transportation Alliance, CDOT, and IDOT

B IS H O

N

I-57

Expressways

Sample Citywide Typology Maps CO M P L E T E ST R E E TS C H I C AG O

63

2012

2009 2010 2011

2006 2007 2008

YEAR

Park

2003 2004 2005

WY

2000 2001 2002

EXP

2012

SO N

2009 2010 2011

YEAR

Pink Line

2006 2007 2008

Building Form and Function Typologies

MIDWAY

WY ENHOWER X I-290/EIS

2003 2004 2005

2000 2001 2002

Figure 11 demonstrate ology system would inform nning process. The map hows the building form and extrapolated from land use data. It clearly illustrates the evelopment in the city - along nt, along transit lines, and in od nodes. The map on the right reet network, coded by the bove. Technical documentation d in Appendix A.

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

PASSENGER VOLUME

ypology Maps st Step to a ortation Master

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

119


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

INTERCITY RAIL Intercity lines Amtrak

Chicago Union Station Amtrak Lines

der buil pire Em watha Hia

hief st C r thwe Zephy u o S ornia e f ic v r Cali e is S Illino Texas Eagle

Ca p

ito

l li

m

ite

d

City of

Illinois Service New O rleans

Illinois Service

Michigan Services Lake Shore Limited Cardinal

120

INFLUX OF PEOPLE FROM INTERCITY TRAIN IS CONCENTRATED IN THE LOOP (UNION STATION)

0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

SCALE 1:250 000


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

MOST POPULAR AMTRAK DESTINATIONS

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 There has been 85% increase 800 ridership since 2006. ILLINOIS AMTRAKin TOTAL RIDERSHIP 600 400 200 20000 1800 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1600 YEAR 1400 1200 1000 There has been 85% Newincrease York 10 800 in ridership since 2006. 9 600 8 Bigges passanger to 400 7 200 population ratio for the cities 60 Washington with short 2007 2008 2009connected 2010 2011 5 2006Philadelphia corridors. YEAR 4 Chicago 3 2 Los Angeles 1 Houston New York 10 0 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 POPULATION Bigges IN MILLION passanger to 7 population ratio for the cities 6 Washington connected with short 5 Philadelphia corridors. 4 Chicago 3 2 Los Angeles 1 Houston 0

MILION PASSANGERS

PASSENGERS (X1000) MILION PASSANGERS

PASSENGERS (X1000)

ILLINOIS AMTRAK TOTAL RIDERSHIP

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1. New York, NY 2. Washington, DC 3. Philadelphia, PA 4. Chicago, IL MOST POPULAR AMTRAK DESTINATIONS 5. Los Angeles, CA 1. New York, NY 2. Washington, DC 3. Philadelphia, PA 4. Chicago, IL

Spokane

Chicago - Millwaukee 133.77 km

89%

Chicago - Millwaukee 133.77 km

Chicago - Detroit Chicago - St. Louis 452 km 475 km

Fargo

Milwaukee Detroit

Denver

Albany

Cleveland Kansas

San Francisco

Chicago - Detroit Chicago - St. Louis 452 km 475 km

12% AIR/RAIL SHARE ON SELECTED CORRIDOR ROUTES 29%

Minneapolis

Los Angeles

29%

89%

Portland

Salt lake city

12%

5. Los Angeles, CA

AIR/RAIL SHARE ON SELECTED CORRIDOR ROUTES

POPULATION IN MILLION

Seattle

St. Louis

Boston New York

Cincinnati

Washington DC Memphis

Albuquerque Dallas

Chicago’s roads, runways and rails New have been the roots of Orleans its strength and their leg-up against the competition. But the age of Chicago’s infrastructure is no longer a leg-up, it’s holding them back.

121

San Antonio

Rahm Emanuel, mayor of Chicago

Chicago’s roads, runways and rails have been the roots of its strength and their leg-up against the competition. But the age of Chicago’s infrastructure is no longer a leg-up, it’s holding them back.

Rahm Emanuel, mayor of Chicago

m p st D sa b lo lo w ne ne


122

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

COMMUTING HOW FAR CAN YOU TRAVEL IN 20 MINUTES?

SOUTH SIDE OF CHICAGO IS SIGNIFICANTLY WORSE CONNECTED THAN OTHER PARTS OF THE CITY


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

COMMUTING STATISTICS

Biking1.5% Taxi 1.5% Work at home 4.3% Walking 6.3%

Per cent commuters by mean of transport

Carpool 9% Pace 5.5% Metra 12.9%

Car, drive alone 49.9 %

CTA rail 33.3%

Public transport 27.6 %

CTA bus 48.3%

Car is the most popular mode of transportation among commuters.

The widespread mode of public transport is CTA bus, accounting for almost half of all the riders

100

20

50

10

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

0

0

2011

30

2010

150

2009

40

2008

50

200

2007

250

2006

60

2005

70

300

[%]

350

2001

RIDERS [IN MILIONS]

COMMUTING TRENDS

YEAR

Bus ridership decreased, while subway ridership increased

Trends in transportation relatively stable with car use slowly but succesively decreasing in favour of public transport.

123


124

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CTA ELEVATED RAIL

ZOOM Scale 1:50 000 Line Endpoint

0 1 2

Stop

012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

SCALE 1:250 000


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Using Typology Maps as a First Step to a Transportation Master Plan

Blu

eL

ine

Brown Line KE NN ED Y

EX PW Y

Green Line

Blue Line

CDOT Building Form and Function Typologies

ENHOWE I-290/EIS

R XWY

Pink Line

E ST

N VE

SO N

W EXP

Y

ine

eL

Residential

ng

Ora

Mixed-Use

Downtown

Y RYAN EXPW DAN

Green Line

Commercial Center

Green Line

Park Red Line

The maps in Figure 11 demonstrate how this typology system would inform a master planning process. The map on the left shows the building form and function, as extrapolated from land use and zoning data. It clearly illustrates the pattern of development in the city - along the waterfront, along transit lines, and in neighborhood nodes. The map on the right shows the street network, coded by the typologies above. Technical documentation can be found in Appendix A.

Red Line

FIGURE 11

C H

Institutional or Campus

IC

A G O

SK YW AY

Industrial CTA Rail Lines

2

4 Miles

RD

1

O PF

0

B IS H O

Prepared by Active Transportation Alliance, December 2012 Data Sources: Active Transportation Alliance, CDOT, and IDOT

Y PW EX

N

I-57

Expressways

Sample Citywide Typology Maps

GREAT DEAL OF CITIZENS HAS NO ACCES TO SUBWAY, ESPECIALLY SOUTH PART

MOST BUSY STOPS OVERLAP WIT THE LOCATION OF SERVICES IN THE CITY

CO M P L E T E ST R E E TS C H I C AG O

SCALE 1:500 000

SCALE 1:500 000

0 1 2

0 1 2

5

10 Kilometers

Average daily ridership per line

5

10 Kilometers

Average daily boarding per stop


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

ACCESIBILITY

FREIGHT TRANSPORT BY MEAN BY YEAR

Boroughs with acces to CTA train There is the tendency of growth in rail“L” freight highlighted

service covers 70% of boroughs

area of the walking distance covers 25% of chicago

400 300 200

SCALE 1:500 000 0 1 2

5

2040

100 2020

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

10 Kilometers

1997

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

5

1996

Domestic Air Freight

500

2010

Waterborne Freight

600

2002

Intercity Truck

SCALE 1:500 000 0 1 2

700

Class I Rail

MILLIONS OF TONES

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 1995

BILION TON-MILES

126

YEAR

10 Kilometers

FREIGHT BY WEIGHT ILLINOIS FORECAST

Walking distance

from the stop Freight tonnage is expected to grow by 70% for trains by 2030

80% of Chicagoans live in the borough connected to CTA

10% of Chicagoans lives within the walking distance from the stop

SCALE 1 0 1 2

Walkin from the


FREIGHT TRANSPORT BY MEAN YEARsuburban Boroughs with acces to BY Metra highlighted distance Walking

train

There the tendency of growth in rail freight from is the stop

500 400 300 200

0 1 2

5

Kilometers

2040

100

SCALE 1:500 000 SCALE 1:500 000 0 1 2 5 10

2020

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

Kilometers

10 Kilometers

1997

1996

1994

1993

1992

5

Domestic Air Freight

600

2010

Waterborne Freight

1991

1990

MILLIONS OF TONES

Intercity Truck

SCALE 1:500 000 SCALE 1:500 000 10 0 1 2 5 0 1 2

700

Class I Rail

2002

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

1995

BILION TON-MILES

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

YEAR

10 Kilometers

FREIGHT BY WEIGHT ILLINOIS FORECAST

Boroughs with acces to CTA “L” train

Walking highlighted

distance

from the stop Freight tonnage is expected to grow by

70% for trains by 2030

service crosses 40% of boroughs

area of the walking distance covers 3% of Chicago

30% of Chicagoans live in the borough connected by Metra train

2% of Chicagoans lives within the walking distance from the stop

127


128

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

METRO SUBURBAN RAIL MD-N

to Fox Lake

UP-NW

UP-N

to Kenosha

to Harvard

Line Endpoint Stop

NCS

to Antioch

MD-W

to Big Timber Road

D

D A BC

A B

UP-W to Elburn

C

BNSF to Aurora

HC

to Joliet

SWS

to Manhattan

ME

to Chicgo South station & Univrsity Park

RI

to Joliet

0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

10 Kilometers

SCALE 1:250 000


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

SCALE 1:500 000

SCALE 1:500 000

0 1 2

0 1 2

5

10 Kilometers

Line

Average daily ridership per line

SOUTH PART IS WELL COVERED WITH METRA TRAIN, UNLIKE WITH CTA ELEVATED TRAIN

Downtown Stations A-D

A: Chicago Ogilvie Transporation Center Union Pacific North (UP-N) Union Pacific West (UP-W) Union Pacific Northwest (UP-NW) B: Chicago Union Station North Central Service (NCS) Milwaukee District North (MD-N) Milwaukee District West (MD-W) BNSF Railway (BNSF) Heritage Corridor (HC) SouthWest Service (SWS) + Amtrak trains C: Chicago La Salle Street station Rock Island District (RI) D: Chicago Millenium station Metra Electric (ME) + South Shore Line

5

10 Kilometers

Average daily boarding per stop

129


130

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: AIR TIMELINE

Do

Wright Brother’s First Sustained Flight

op

Wright brothers carry out the first sustained flight with a powered, controlled aircraft. North Carolina, USA

Charles Lindbergh went on the first Trans Atlantic flight from New York to Paris.

M

Mu ren the Wo

1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930 1940

Mayor William H. Thompson dedicated the Municipal Airport to the city of Chicago.

Initial growth of Municipal Airport, Chic Initial growth of Munic


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

131

THE RISE AND FALL OF CHICAGO AIRPORTS O’Hare International Airport, 1962

SARS and Iraq War impact airline operations negatively

ouglas aircraft assembly plant at Orchard Field renamed as Chicago-O'Hare International Airport starts passanger perations. 176902 passangers in first year.

Midway reached the 5 million passanger mark. The busiest airport in the world.

Municipal Airport is unicipal Airport is renamed named Midway after Midway after the battle e battle of Midway in of Midway in World War II World War II

1940

1950

Deregulation opens market for smaller airlines and discounted fares.

All scheduled Midway Airport operations were transferred to O'Hare. O’Hare was now the world’s busiest airport with 10 million passangers per year.

O’Hare South Cargo Facility was completed. O’Hare was now nation’s largest mid continent freight origin/destination market.

Midway Airlines declare bankrupcy. Midway Airport ceases to operate.

City invests 10 million in Midway Airport. Airlines return.

1960

1970

1980

Oil Crisis pushed airlines back to O’Hare. Midway was shut down.

cago cipal Airport, Chicago 8 Lane expressway opens between O’Hare and downtown.

Economic Crisis breaks out. Airlines reduce operations.

Midway re-appears on aviation scene serving

1990

Chicago announces 2 Billion $ O’Hare Development Plan. CTA Blue Line extended to O’Hare International Airport.

O’Hare becomes first and only airport with dual hub (United and American Airlines)

O’Hare served 37.6 million passangers in 1973 exceeding the second busiest airport by 12 million.

2010

Fedral Inspection Service opened at Midway. Allows the return of International flights after 40 years.

City of Chicago re-establishes Midway by connecting it with CTA orange line.

O’Hare International

Chicago Airports

2000

Takeoffs and Landings at Chicago Airports.

Midway


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

60$

300.000

2012

2009 2010 2011

2006 2007 2008

2003 2004 2005

2000 2001 2002

2012

2009 2010 2011

2006 2007 2008

YEAR

290.000 280.000 270.000 340.000 260.000 340.000 250.000 320.000 240.000 310.000

270.000

YEAR

260.000

2012

290.000 280.000

2012

300.000

MIDWAY

2009 2010 2011

2012

2009 2010 2011

2006 2007 2008

310.000

MIDWAY

250.000

2000 2001 2002

240.000

2012

YEAR

2009 2010 2011

70$

2000 2001 2002

80$

2003 2004 2005

MIDWAY

15.500.000 100$ 15.000.000 90$

320.000

2009 2010 2011

16.000.000

2006 2007 2008

16.500.000

YEAR

2003 2004 2005

17.500.000 17.000.000

2000 2001 2002

18.000.000

MIDWAY

340.000

2006 2007 2008

16.500.000 20.000.000 16.000.000 19.500.000 15.500.000 19.000.000 15.000.000 18.500.000

O’HARE

YEAR

2006 2007 2008

17.500.000 17.000.000

YEAR

2003 2004 2005

2012

2009 2010 2011

YEAR

918,000 902,000 887,000 871,000 856,000 840,000 340.000 825,000

2003 2004 2005

18.000.000

2006 2007 2008

18.500.000

2003 2004 2005

19.000.000

2000 2001 2002

19.500.000

933,000

O’HARE

2003 2004 2005

O’HARE

918,000 902,000 887,000 871,000 995,000 856,000 980,000 840,000 964,000 825,000 949,000

2000 2001 2002

2012

2009 2010 2011

YEAR

2006 2007 2008

71.000.000 70.000.000 69.000.000 68.000.000 67.000.000 66.000.000 20.000.000 65.000.000

2003 2004 2005

72.000.000

O’HARE

995,000 980,000 964,000 949,000 933,000

2000 2001 2002

71.000.000 70.000.000 69.000.000 68.000.000 76.000.000 67.000.000 75.000.000 66.000.000 74.000.000 65.000.000 73.000.000

AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS

76.000.000 75.000.000 74.000.000 73.000.000 72.000.000

2000 2001 2002

PASSENGER VOLUME PASSENGER VOLUME

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: AIR

PASSENGER VOLUME PASSENGER VOLUME OIL PRICE PER BARREL OIL PRICE PER BARREL IN USD, INFFLATION INCORRECTED USD, INFFLATION CORRECTED

50$

1986 1987 1988

1989 1990 1991

1992

1993 1994 1995

1996 1997 1998

1999 2000 2001

2002 2003 2004

2005

2006 2007 2008

2009 2010 2011

2012

1986 1987 1988

1989 1990 1991

1992

1993 1994 1995

1996 1997 1998

1999 2000 2001

2002 2003 2004

2005

2006 2007 2008

2009 2010 2011

2012

40$

1983 1984 1985

50$

1983 1984 1985

60$

1980 1981 1982

40$ 100$ 30$ 90$ 20$ 80$ 10$ 70$

1980 1981 1982

132

YEAR

30$ 20$ 10$

YEAR


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CTA Me Train tr Pub a Tax lic Bus i Coa ch

$2,2 $4,7 5 $1,7 5 $35 5 $24

rain AT CT xi Ta ach Co

Central

C Pu TA T Ta blic rain xi Bu s

$2 $1 ,25 $3 ,75 5

,25 $2 5 $3 4 $2 0 1 2 012

5 Miles 5

18.000 16.000

2012 2011 2010

14.000

2006

2008

2007

2009

12.000 10.000 8000 6000 4000 2000

2004

2003

2005

80

75

70

65

60

CORRELATION BETWEEN AIR TRAFFIC O’HARE AND WHOLE ECONOMY

REVENUE PASSENGERS [MILLIONS]

8000 6000 4000 2000

VALUE ADDED TO ECONOMY PRODUCED BY O’HARE [2012]

CATALYTIC: 3998M

10.000

TOTAL: 14.099M

12.000

CATALYTIC 36 362 INDUCED: 2410M

14.000

INDIRECT: 2213M

16.000

DIRECT: 5479M

EMPLOYMENT PRODUCED BY THE AIRPORT

MILLIONS USD

GDP [BILLIONS USD]

SCALE 1:250 000

10 Kilometers

DIRECT 52 786

131.2 THOUSAND JOBS

INDUCED 20 130

INDIRECT 20 130

133


134

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER TIMELINE


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY


136

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER

REVERSE river to IM


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Early Chicago sewage systems discharged directly into Lake Michigan or into the lake. The city’s water supply also came from the lake, through water intake cribs located leading to typhoid fever, cholera and dysentery.

r

MPROVE

water quality

137


138

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE; WATER Chicago water system in history The subcontinental divide seperated the Des Plaines River and Chicago water system. The Chicago River and Calumet River ran into the Michigan Lake.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Chicago water system at present After the Illinois and Michigan Canal, Sanitary and Ship Canal and the Calwater system was done. And the water directions of Chicago River and Camulet River changed, thereby improving the quality of lake water by without pouring the waste water into the lake.

Chicago water system 1900 The Chicago Sanitay and ship canal were completed in 1900 and were the only shipping link between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River system. It also carried Chicago’s treated sewage into the Des Plaines River.

Chicago water system 1910 The North Shore Canal was completed in 1910 in order North Branch of the Chicago River down the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal.

Chicago water system 1922 The Calumet-Saganashkee Channel was used more as a conduit for wastewater from southern Cook County, including the Chicago-area Deep Tunnel Project, into the Illinois Waterway.

139


140

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER

In one trip, a 1,000-foot-long Great Lakes self-unloader carries the equicalent of seven 100-car unit trains


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

Inland Waterborne Route On the Illinois Waterway and the Port of Chicago

141


142

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

143


144

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER

20% of the world’s fresh water is on deposit in the Great Lakes

on deposit in the Great Lakes


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

"Historically blessed with ample fresh water, the region can no longer

----Water 2050: Northeastern Illinois Water Supply/Demand Plan


146

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER

Water Main Pipes Water Plant

Water

Lake Michigan

Water Path in Chicago Sewer/ Waste Water Pipes

Mexican Gulf

Water Plants

Mississippi River

Cannals in

The domestic and industrial water use by Chicago comes from the Michigan Lake, after purifying, it goes through the main pipes and then reaches the consumers by the secondary pipes designed underneath and alongside the city grid system.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

147


148

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER When there is too much stormwater, the combined lease untreated waste and stormwater into the Chicago River.

treatment plant waterways river/lake

treatment plant

waterways river/lake Combined tunnel system in Chicago hat combines both wastewater and stormwater and moves them away from people toward treatment plants.

The seage water and stormwater tunnel have been seperated, so the swage water won’t go into Chicago treatment River directly.

plant

waterways river/lake

treatment plant

waterways river/lake Seperated tunnel system in north Chicago suburbs into Chicago River to harm the health and habitat of the river, in some suburbs in north Chicago, the tunnel system is divided into two parts for swage water and stormwater.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

"The combined system is large enough to easily handle the city and suburban wastewater that needs to be treated. In fact, the volume of wastewater is so small compared to the stormwater, it is not even considered in designing the size of our sewer system. When there is too much stormwater, the and release untreated waste and stormwater into the Chicago River."

149


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER

waterways river/lake

treatment plant waterways river/lake

Reserviors

The

Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (more commonly known as the Deep

ter and sewage into temporary holding reservoirs.

-

MWRD completed the 109 miles of tunnels in 2006, which store up to 2.3 billion gallons of water before the water is routed to a wastewater treatment plant and then released into waterways. McCook reservoirs, supposed to hold a combined 17.9 billion gallons of water, are not set for completion until 2019 and 2029 respectively.


under construction

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY


LAKEFRONT: PARKS AND PUBLIC PLACES ALONG THE MAN MADE SHOREL

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

LINE OF CHICAGO “I foresee a time, not very distant, when Chicago will need for its fast increasing population a park or parks in each division (referring to the south, west and north sides of the city). Of these parks I have a vision. They are all improved and connected with a wide avenue extending to and along the Lake shore on the north and south, and so surrounding the city with a magnificent chain of parks and parkways that have not their equal in the World.� -----John S. Wright

City of Boulevards and Parks


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

MAN MADE CHICAGO SHORELINE

Lincoln Park 1900 - 1950

1914 - 1916 1870 - 1920

Navy Pier

1923 - 1929 Grant Park

1920 - 1927 Northerly Island

Burnham Park

South Works Site

N

Man Made Shoreline of Chicago

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5 1

2

4

10


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

LAKEFRONT PARKS

LINCOLN PARK

GRANT PARK

BURNHAM PARK

WASHINGTON PARK

JACKSON PARK

RAINBOW BEACH PARK

CALUMET PARK

N

Parks along the Michigan Lake Shoreline

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5 1

2

4

10


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

EARLY HISTORY

1803: ESTABLISHMENT OF FORT DEARBORN

FORT DEARBORN Source: en.wikipedia.org

U.S. Army Engineers beginning in 1833 straightened and deepened the mouth of the Chicago River, allowing it to serve as the harbor during the city's early history (Andreas 1884, Larson 1979). CHICAGO SHORELINE 1830

PRESENT SHORELINE

Sources: Andreas 1884, U.S. Geological Survey 1997a

Chicago's lakefront is an achievement in coastal geo-engineering, landscape design, and urban aesthetics. This worldclass urban shoreline is unique, diverse, and, most notably, entirely man-made.

Source: Field Trip Guidebook for the American Shore & Beach Preservation Association 2008 National Conference, Michael J. Chrzastowski 2008

Two characteristics of the lake bottom off Chicago are favorable for constructing new land. First, the gradual slope reduces the volume of fill needed to create land. Second, the thick sequence of glacial till provides a firm foundation for holding timbers or steel sheetpile driven into it.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

CHICAGO RIVER HARBOUR

CHICAGO RIVER AND CHICAGO HARBOUR

Historical shoreline changes and bathymetry in the vicinity of the Chicago River mouth and Chicago Harbor. Source: Field Trip Guidebook for the American Shore & Beach Preservation Association 2008 National Conference, Michael J. Chrzastowski 2008


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

JACKSON PARK AND THE WORLD’S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION JACKSON PARK AND 1893 WORLD COLUMBIAN EXPO

Jackson Park

A HISTORIC EVENT In 1893, nearly one in every five people in the United States made the journey to Chicago to attend the World's Columbian Exposition.

Source: Reardon 2008

Source: Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection at the Library of Congress. Prints & Photographs Division

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Source: NOAA 2006. Rand McNally & Co. 1893

Jackson Park today as compared to during the World’s Fair 1893

The Palace of Fine Arts was the only fireproof building of the exposition and is the only building that still stands. It houses the Museum of Science and Indusrty and is the biggest science museum in the western hemisphere

Burnham and Bennett describe in Plan of Chicago how the planning and design for the 1893 World's Fair Columbian Exposition provided a foundation for the Plan. Lagoons, islands, shoreline configurations, waterway vistas, and shoreline aesthetics were all important in the design for the Exposition grounds, and these similarly became important design elements in the proposed lakefront.


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

SOUTHSHORE LAKE PROTECTION: LATE 1890s SOUTH LAKESHORE PROTECTION: Late 1890’s By the late 1890s, prior to any filling for parkland along the south lakeshore, an extensive groin field was in place to provide shore protection for the Illinois Central Railroad. The lack of littoral sediment prevented the desired sand entrapment. The erosion threat persisted.

Groins built for erosion defense of Illinois Central Rail Road right - of - way

ENLARGEMENT

Source: U.S. Geological Survey 1902 (surveyed in 1889. 1897, and 1899)


160

M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

PLAN OF CHICAGO 1909: Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett PLAN OF CHICAGO 1909: Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett

Points of Comparision 1. Belmont Harbour 2. South Lagoon (Lincoln Park) 3. Navy Pier 4. Grant Park 5. Northerly Island/ Burnham Harbour 6. Burnham Park 7. Washington Park / Midway Plaisance / Jackson Park 8. South Shore Cultural Center

A common belief is that much of today's Chicago lakefront is the result of the Burnham Plan. In reality, similarities are limited. However, Plan of Chicago influenced all subsequent lakefront park development with its unprecedented proposal of a regional, contiguous lakefront park system in public ownership. Most important, the Plan proposed using lakefill to make new land and a new shoreline that included promontories, bays, islands, and lagoons.

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Source: South Park Commissioners 1923

Comparison of the Plan of Chicago design for the Chicago, Evanston, and Wilmette lakeshore and this lakeshore today. Of all the islands proposed in the Plan, only Northerly Island (5) was built.


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BUILDING BURNHAM 1920 -1930 BUILDING THE BURNHAMPARK: PARK: 1920-1930

Source: Chicago Park District 1944

The typical revetment design used in the 1920s construction of Burnham Park consisted of a rockfilled timber crib capped with dolomite quarry blocks.

Source: U.S. Geological Survey 1926

This 1926 topographic map captures the Burnham Park construction in progress. The rockfilled timber cribs built in open water are readily seen where the backfilling has not yet occurred. This map shows the general trend of work progressing from north to south. However, filling along the far northern and far southern ends of the park occurred first.

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PLANS FOR A BARRIER - LAGOON LAKESHORE PLANS FOR A BARRIER - LAGOON LAKESHORE

Modified Plan by South Park Commissioners

A’ A

B’ B

C’

C

Plan of Chicago drawing for Islands

Source: Plan of Chicago 1909. Plate L

Source: South Park Commissioners 1923

The idea of creating islands and lagoons along the south lakeshore dates to the late 1890s in Daniel Bumham's earliest drawings and is present in the 1909 Plan of Chicago. However, subsequent to the publication of the Plan, the South Park Commissioners modified the Burnham and Bennett concept by designing a wider lagoon and introducing inlets between a series of islands. Five islands were proposed, and these were originally designated by number, progressing from north to south. Work began on Island 1 during the late 1920s. World War II was a factor in halting work on Islands 2 through 5. Evidence remains of the intention to build these islands. Elongate depressions exist along the lake bottom aligned along what would have been the axis of the lagoon. The depressions were formed by the excavation of lake-bottom sand and clay to provide deeper water along the lagoon and to gain material for the lakefilling of Burnham Park. Source: Field Trip Guidebook for the American Shore & Beach Preservation Association 2008 National Conference, Michael J. Chrzastowski 2008

Three dredged troughs along the south lakeshore would have been along the axis of a lagoon if the planned islands


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GRANT PARK GRANT PARK Evolution of Grant Park 1830

LATE 1890s

South Park Comissioneer’s Plan for the development of Grant Park as incorporated by Daniel Burnham in The Plan of Chicago 1909.

Source: Plan ol Chicago 1909. Plate L

During the 1850s, to provide shore protection for Michigan Avenue, the city allowed the Illinois Central Railroad to extend northward by building tracks on trestles a short distance offshore and building an adjacent breakwater. The gap between Michigan Avenue and the railroad tracks was later filled with debris from the 1871 Chicago Fire (Chrzastowski 1991). This filled land became known as Lake Park. Subsequent filling to the east of the tracks included material from boring the city's water tunnels and excavation to build the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and helped create the land for Grant Park, named after Civil War general and U.S. President, Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885). 1926

PRESENT DAY

Source: Andreas 1884; U.S. Geological Survey 1902. 1926

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LINCOLN PARK

Lincoln Park dominates the north lakeshore, covering 1,208 acres and extending nearly 5.5 miles northward from North Avenue. The park had its origins during the late 1800s as a small park called Cemetery Park. As land was created by lakefilling, the park grew northward and reached its present northward extent in the 1950s. Lakefilling and shoreline design by the Lincoln Park Commissioners were already under way along Lincoln Park by the publication of Plan of Chicago in 1909. Belmont Harbor, Diversey Harbor, and the South Lagoon are Lincoln Park features that correspond to designs in Plan of Chicago.

Source: Chicago Park District

N

Source: U.S. Geological Survey 1902, 1932, 1997a

The mapped comparisons show the northward expansion of Lincloln Park with time. After the initial development of the park along the natural lakeshore in the late 1800s, nearly all subsequent park expansion was accomplished by lake filling. Montrose, Belmont, and Diversey Harbors were each formed by using lake fill to semi-enclose water areas.

Source: Plan of Chicago 1909. Plate L

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SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE OF CHICAGO

AN EXERCISE INTO MAPPING THE SOFT INFRASTRUCTU


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URE

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Fs0Ldiz844k/UZAXHqp_QsI/AAAAAAAAGEY/6EkmHy8VXo0/s1600/IMG_6829.JPG

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HARD INFRASTRUCTURE: RAIL

CTA ‘L’ TRAIN CTA ‘L’ train Stops End stops

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METRA SUBURBAN TRAIN METRA SUBURBAN TRAIN Stops

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE LAND USE

RELIGION LAND USE CHICAGO Church Park Mosque Residential Synagogue Mix use

Commercial center Downtown Institutional or Campus Industrial CTA Lines Expressways

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source: http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/future_projects_and concepts/news/2013/mar/complete_streetsdesignguidelines.html/


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POPULATION DENSITY

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE BUILDING VACANCIES


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FAST FOOD CHAINS

Fast Food Chains Burger King Mc Donald’s KFC

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE POLICE & MILITARY

POLICE AND MILITARY Police Station Police HQ Military Recruiting Office Police District Border

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SPORTS

SPORTS FACILITIES Gym Soul Exersice (Yoga etc.) Soccer Field Football Field Major Facility (Stadium etc.) Velodrome Public Outdoor Court (Basketball, baseball, tennis. Often mixed)

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE FIRE BRIGADE

FIRE STATIONS Fire Station

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NARCOTICS

NUMBER OF CRIME REPORTS INVOLVING NARCOTICS SINCE 2011. (POSSESSION, MANUFACTURING, SALE) 000 - 120 per unit 120 - 220 per unit 220 - 320 per unit 320 - 420 per unit 420 - 520 per unit 520 - 620 per unit 620 - 720 per unit 720 - 820 per unit 820 - 1000 per unit

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE RELIGION

RELIGION Church Mosque Synagogue

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HOMELESS SHELTERS

HOMELESS SHELTERS Men Women and Children Mixed

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE COLLEGES

source: google maps


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LIBRARIES

source: google maps

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE HOSPITALS

source: google maps


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BUS STOPS

BUS STOPS Bus Stops

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE

PARKING ZONES

PARKING ZONES 2$ per hour 4$ per hour 6.5$ per hour

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PARKING TYPE

PARKING Garages Private parking CTA Park& ride

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE

LIQUOR STORES

LIQUOR STORES Liquor stores

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SUPERMARKETS

Supermarkets Domnick’s Jewel-Osco Aldi

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE WALGREENS

Walgreen

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OFFICE SPACES

COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SIZE > 1 mln sq ft 100,000 - 1 mln sq ft 10,000 - 100,000 sq ft < 10,000 sq ft

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY

CHICAGO STEEL INDUSTRY existing

closed

Large integrated steel works Small integrated steel works Steelmaking Rolling mill Wire works Pipe/tube mill

North Chicago Rolling Mill 1858-1904

Union Steel 1863-1907

US Steel South Works 1881-1986

Youngstown Steel Iroquois Works 1890 - 1967

Wisconsin Steel 1876 - 1980

Republic Steel 1903 - present

Youngstown Steel/ LTV 1918 - present

Acme Steel 1907 - present

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Inland Steel 1902 - present


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NEIGHBORHOOD STUDY

cha

Logan Square

BUILDING FOOTPRINTS

Illinois Medical District

Gage Park

Logan Square

BUILDING CODE VIOLATION

Illinois Medical District

Gage Park


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

aracteristics, were selected on the basis of the maps on these pages.

Logan Square

CONSTRUCTION SPENDING

Illinois Medical District

Gage Park

Logan Square

DEMOLITIONS

Illinois Medical District

Gage Park

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NEIGHBORHOOD STUDY

N

26 53 W Armitage Ave

Logan Square

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About

Facts and Figures

The community area of Logan Square is, in general, bounded by the Metra/Milwaukee District North Line railroad on the west, the North Branch of the Chicago River on the east, Diversey Avenue, on the north, and Bloomingdale Avenue on the south. The area is characterized by the prominent historical boulevards, stately greystones and large bungalow-style homes.

Area 3.23 sq mi (8.73 km2) Demographics 2010[2]

Population (2010)

Avarage Commute Time: 37 minutes Total Crimes: 3.887/100k

District: West Side

Community: Logan Square


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Building Dates

History Originally developed by early settlers like Martin Kimbell (of Kimball Avenue fame) in the 1830s, forming the towns of "Jefferson" and "Maplewood," the community was annexed into the City of Chicago in 1889 and renamed Logan Square. Many of its early residents were English or Scandinavian origin, mostly Norwegians and Danes, along with both a significant Polish and Jewish population that followed.


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NEIGHBORHOODS

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Building Footprints Education Logan Square residents are served by Chicago Public Schools, which includes neighborhood and city-wide options for students. There are also a number of private parochial schools run by Roman Catholic congregations in the area. Culture Logan Square has a number of diverse cultural centers, such as the "Comfort Station at Logan Square"; the "I Am Logan Square" galleries and cultural venues; St. Hedwig's in Chicago, a strong cultural and civic institution for Chicago's Multiethnic Catholic Community); the Hairpin Arts Center, located in nearby Avondale; and Chicago's Polish Village.


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1:275 houses, front-to-front

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NEIGHBORHOODS

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N Talman Ave.

N Rockwell St.

W Cortland St.

N Washtenaw Ave.

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1:750 houses, back-to-back

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N. Rockwell St.

N. Tallman Ave.

N. Washtenaw Ave.

W. Cortland St.

W. Bloomingdale Ave.

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NEIGHBORHOODS

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About

Facts and Figures

Gage Park is one of Chicago's 77 community areas. Gage Park's population is largely working class, and its housing stock is mostly bungalows. For generations, the neighborhood was Eastern European and Irish Catholic. The neighborhood remains overwhelmingly Catholic with the addition of many Hispanic residents.

Area 2.24 sq mi (5.80 km2) Demographics 2010[2]

Population (2010)

Avarage Commute Time: 41 minutes

District: South Side

Community: Gage Park

Median Housing Value: $188,969


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

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Building Dates History The development of Gage Park began in 1873 when South Park Commissioner George W. Gage began working on a planned park at the intersection of Western Ave. and Garfield Boulevard. Upon Gage's death in 1875, the park was renamed Gage Park in his honor. The area developed slowly after Gage's passing, slowly adding more and more land and offering up more services to the local community. By 1919, Gage Park had added more land and the park now included ball fields, tennis courts, separate men's and women's gymnasiums, gardens, and a wading pool. A large field house and auditorium was later added in 1928, with a large mural by Tom Lea added in 1931.

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NEIGHBORHOODS

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Building Footprints

Education Chicago Public Schools operates district public schools. The United Neighborhood Organization operates the Rufino Tamayo School and the UNO Soccer Academy in Gage Park.


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1:275 houses, front-to-front

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NEIGHBORHOODS

1:900000 Gage Park

1:275 houses, back-to-back

S Richmond St

S Sacramento Ave

N

S Whipple St

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N. Rockwell St.

N. Tallman Ave.

N. Washtenaw Ave.

W. Cortland St.

W. Bloomingdale Ave.


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NEIGHBORHOODS

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1:900000 Medical District

0 0

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About

Facts and Figures

The Illinois Medical District (IMD) is a special-use zoning district just west of the central business district of Chicago, Illinois. It consists of 560 acres of medical research facilities, labs, a biotechnology business incubator, a raw development area, universities, and more than 40 health care related facilities. The IMD is the largest urban medical district in the United States.

Facts & Figures The IMD: - Consists of 560 acres - Houses 2,200 hospital beds - Has 20,000 employees - Receives 75,000 visitors daily - Is the nation’s largest urban medical district - Holds the nation’s largest college of medicine (UIC) - Is the State of Illinois’ largest biotechnology/medical complex - Is an economic engine for statewide biotechnology - Provides incubation for approximately 30 emerging technology-based companies

District: Near West

Community: Medical District


M_INFRASTRUCTURE & MOBILITY

South Ashland Ave.

South Paulina St.

W Polk St.

Taylor St.

S. Marshfield Ave.

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NEIGHBORHOODS

N

1:900000 Medical District

Building Dates

0 0

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Building Footprints

1:275 buildings, front-to-front

1/4 Mile 1/3 Kilometer

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NEIGHBORHOODS

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CULTURE


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GOOGLE SEARCH CHICAGO - ART

CHICAGO - PEOPLE

CHICAGO - SPORT


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CHICAGO - MUSIC

CHICAGO - ARCHITECTURE

CHICAGO - FOOD


216

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BEST KNOWN ARCHITECTURES OVERVIEW HOUSING

THEATER

FACTORY

CHURCH


M_CULTURE

SKYSCRAPER

John Hancock Center

The Rookery

860–880 North Lake Shore Drive

Marina City

(Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, with Pace Associates and

209 S. LaSalle St.

300 N. State St.

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ARCHITECTURE STYLES

C C

TIMELINE

1880s

1890s

Chicago School USE OF STEEL FRAME The use of the steel frame in commercial structures led to a distinct architectural aesthetic, using visible surrogate for concealed reticulated skeletal framing.

1900s

1910s

Eclectic Themes COMBINATION OF HISTORIC STYLES The combination, in a single historical styles

1920s

191

Art Deco Period

VERTICAL ACCEN WITH STEP BAC

Buildings tended to exhibit rate front facades that had , with steppe back details as the structu ascended upwards. The st often characterized by rich bold geometric shapes, an ornamentation.


M_CULTURE

CHICAGO HAVE A TRADITION TO IMPLANT NEW ARCHITECTURE STYLES IN SKYSCRAPERS.

940s 1930s

NTS CK

t elabod vertical, ed ure tyle is h colors, nd lavish

1960s

Second Chicago School AESTHETIC MINIMALISM Characterized by its focus on structure, aesthetic minimalism and its use of glass and steel. Structure is Paramount: Less is More.

1970s

1980s

1990s

Postmodern Movement DIVERSE AESTHETIC The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist style are replaced by diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound.

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NOTABLE ARCHITECTURE

LEGEND

N

Postmodern

Chicago School

Art Deco

Eclectic Themes

Second Chicago School Km

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M_CULTURE

Jay Pritzker Pavilion

THE EXISTING NOTABLE BUIDINGS

Chicago School

Eclectic Themes

University Club, 1904-1908 Monroe Building, 1910-1912 Grant Park Stadium, 1919-1926 Garrett Biblical Institute, 1919-1926 Chicago Tribune, 1922

Art Deco Second Chicago School Architectre list:

Postmodern

221


TIMELINE 800m Tallest skyscraper in the world Tallest skyscraper in Chicago 700m

600m

500m

400m

300m

200m

100m

Between 1959 and 1980, Wiscon1889, NorthLEADING 1954, Chicago At the beginning of STEEL SOUTH WORKS ILLINOIS EQUIPMENT DECLINE Chicago, South 1964, Interlake sin Steel South the 1880s, OPENED COMPANY INDUSTRYsurpassed UPGRADE Works, Union, and and Wisconsin . closed Works opened Pittsburgh, the Joliet—combined old leader, in became two Steel At the beginning of 1889, North Chisur1980, Wisconsin to form a huge new the 1880s, South Works opened

iron and steel of the first U.S. mills cago, South Works, passed Pittsburgh, 1964, Interlake and Steel closed. entity, the Union, and Joliet— theIllinois old leader, in manufacturing, Wisconsin Steel to install basic , Steel producing combined to form a Company iron and steel manubecame two of the oxygen which the one-quarter of huge new entity, the was facturing, producing furnaces, which world’s largest steel of thethe nation's Illinois Steel Comone-quarter install basic oxygen company. output. pany, which was the nation’s output. furnaces, which were faster and world’s largest steel were faster and cheaper than the company. cheaper than the older open-hearth older open-hearthequipment. equipment.

2010

2000

1990

1980

Sears Tower (Style: Second Chicago School)

1970

1960

1950

Chicago Board of Trade Building (Style: Art-Deco)

1940

1920

1910

1900

Home Insurance Building Wrigley Building (Styles: Chicago School) (Style: Eclectic)

1930

0m

1890

rgo ne

Architecture Styles— Development of Skyscrapers DEVELOPMENT OF SKYSCRAPERS

1880

wo

M_CULTURE

1870

222

SouthOUT Wor closed its BUSIN

doors in 199

South Work closed its d 1992.


M_CULTURE

Trks OF NESS

92.

ks doors in

ILLINOIS STEEL COMPANY

223


224

M_CULTURE

SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE

LEGEND Schools of Architevture

N

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M_CULTURE

S.R. Crown Hall on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus

Illinois Institute of Technology

School of the Art Institute of Chicago

University of Chicago

CURRENT ARCHITECTS Peter P. Beltemacchi Benjamin Riley Charles L. Owen Christopher P. Karidis Catherine Wetzel Marshall Brown Eva Kultermann

Hennie Reynders Douglas Pancoast Thomas Kong Benjamin Erskine Nicholson

Steven M. Wiesenthal


M_CULTURE

SOM’S INFLUENCE ON CHICAGO ARCHITECTS 1940

1939

226

1960

1970


0

M_CULTURE

1980

1990

2000

2010

227


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M_CULTURE

MIES INFLUENCE ON CHICAGO ARCHITECTS

1930

1940

1940

1950

1960 1960

19 1970 Vinci Kenney

George Edson Danforth, Architect (1949-1961) George Edson Danforth (1949-1961)

Brenner Danforth Rockwell

Brenner & Turck

A. James Speyer

(1970-1977) John Vinci (1970-1977) Lawrence C. Kenney (1970-

(1958-1961) Daniel Brenner (1958-1961) Dorothy Hill Turck (1958-1961)

(1961-1977) Daniel Brenner (1961-1977) George Edson Danforth (1961-1977) Harry Phillips Davis Rockwell (1961-1977) John Vinci (1961-1969)

John C. Lahey (1976-1

(1946-) A. James Speyer (1946-) William Edward Dunlap (1950-1951) Jasques Calmon Brownson (1947-1950)

Fujikawa, Contera (1938-1969) Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1938-1969) George Edson Danforth (1939-1944) Charles Booher Genther

Joseph Yusuru Fujikawa (1945-1969) A. James Speyer John Robert Weese (1946-1947) Myron Goldsmith (1946-1953) Reginald Malcomson (1947) Daniel Brenner (1947-1951) William Edward Dunlap (1948-1950) Bruno Paul Conterato (1948-1951, 1956-1969)

Gene Rudolph Summers (1950-1966) David Fix Yau Chun Wong (1950) David Nelson Haid (1951-1960) Jasques Calmon Brownson (1954-1959) Arthur S. Takeuchi Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer Rainer Schildnicht William M. Drake, Jr. George Schipporeit (1957-1960) John Carl Heinrich Harry Phillips Davis Rockwell (1957-1961) Peter Carter (1958-1969) John (Jack) Ronald Bowman (1958-1969)

Arthur George Salzman (1960-1969) Roy Hans Kruse (1961) Dirk Lohan (1962-1969) Phyllis Lambert (-1965) Jong Soung Kimm (-1969)

Phyllis Lambert (1965-1972) Phyllis Lambert (1965-1972) David Fix

David Haid & Associates (1962-) David Nelson Haid (1962-)

(1969-1982) Joseph Yusuru Fujikawa (19 Bruno Paul Conterato (1969 Dirk Lohan (1969-1982) Arthur George Salzman (19 Jong Soung Kimm (1969-19 John (Jack) Ronald Bowman Joseph M. Antunovich (197 Lawrence C. Weldon (1977 Gerald Lee Johnson Gilbert Gorski (1978-1982) Thomas R. Samuels (1979-1 Leonard E. Koroski (1979-1 Floyd D. Anderson (1979-19 John N. Birazzi (1980-1982)

John C. Hei

(1970-) John Carl Heinrich

Schipporeit & Heinrich (1965-1970) George Schipporeit (1965-1970) John Carl Heinrich (1965-1970)

George Sch

(1970-) George Schipporei

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe had a long lasting influence on Chica


M_CULTURE

970

1980

1990 1990

1980

1977)

(1995-) John Vinci (1995-) Philip D. Hamp (1995-)

Danforth Rockwell Carow

Carow Architects Plus

(1977-1986) George Edson Danforth (1977-1980) Harry Phillips Davis Rockwell (1977-1986) Jay R. Carow (1977-1986) Mark P. Sexton (1979-1980)

(1988-) Jay R. Carow (1988-)

Brian Strawn (2003-2007)

Strawn.Sierralta (2007-) Brian Strawn (2007-) Karla Sierralta (2007-)

Gorski & Associates

Fujikawa, Johnson & Associates

(1989-) Gilbert Gorski (1989-)

Saaema Alavi (1994-1996)

(1982-) Joseph Yusuru Fujikawa (1982-) Gerald Lee Johnson (1982-)

969-1982) 9-1982)

Yas/Fischel Partnership

YAS Architecture Lohan Anderson

(1990-2005) Stephen M. Yas (1990-2005) Jonathan L. Fischel (1990-2005)

(2005-) Stephen M. Yas (2005-)

Lohan Associates

969-1982) 972) n (1969-1982) 74-1982) 7-1982)

(1982-2002) Dirk Lohan (1982-2002) Floyd D. Anderson (1982-2002) Joseph M. Antunovich (1982-1989) John (Jack) Ronald Bowman (1982) Gilbert Gorski (1982-1989) Stephen M. Yas (1981-1987) Thomas R. Samuels (1982-1989) Lawrence C. Weldon (1982-2002) Arthur George Salzman (1982-1991) Leonard E. Koroski (1982-2002) John N. Birazzi (1982-1995) Kathleen Hess (1985) Richard Fencl (1985-1994) David L. Fleener (1987-2000) Michael C. Barnes (1987-2002) Thomas L. Shafer

1982) 1982) 982) )

inrich

h (1970-)

it

2010

Vinci|Hamp Architects (1978-1995) John Vinci (1978-1995) Philip D. Hamp (1980-1995)

ato, Lohan & Associates

hipporeit

2010

2000

Architects

-1977)

2000

229

William N. Boznos (2000-2002) Sarah Bader (1993-2000) Patrick Loughran (1994-2002) John Ronan James Zheng (1995-2002) Kevin Pierce (1996-1998)

Antunovich Associates

(2002-2004) Dirk Lohan (2002-2004) Floyd D. Anderson (2002-2004) Michael C. Barnes (2002-2004) Patrick Loughran (2002-2004) William N. Boznos (2002-2004) Lawrence C. Weldon (2002-2005) Leonard E. Koroski (2002-2005) James Zheng (2002-2004)

(1990-) Joseph M. Antunovich

Arthur Salzman (1991-) Arthur George Salzman (1991-)

David Fleener Architects (2000-) David L. Fleener (2000-) John Banks (2009-)

(2004-) Dirk Lohan (2004-) Floyd D. Anderson (2004-) Michael C. Barnes (2004-) William N. Boznos (2004-2010) James Zheng (2004-2005) Basil W.C. Souder

(2005-) Patrick Loughran (2004-) Joseph Dolinar Michael F. Kaufman Steven M. Nilles (1998-) James E. Prendergast (2005-) James Zheng (2005-) Lawrence C. Weldon (2005-) Leonard E. Koroski (2005-)

Schipporeit

Griskelis & Smith Architects

Griskelis Young Harrell Architects

George Schipporeit Craig M. Smith (1978-1983)

(1988-2000) Rimantas (Ray) Plovilas Griskelis (1988-2000) Craig M. Smith (1988-2000)

(2000-) Rimantas (Ray) Plovilas Griskelis (2000-2006) Laura Young (2000-) Chad Harrell (2000-)

(1983-) W. Stephen Saunders (1983-) Susan F. King (1989-1997)

ago's architects

Gregory Trzupek William Lampkin (1992-) Glenn D. Seerup (1996-2000)

Deborah Fox (2004)

William N. Boznos (2012-)

Mark Nichols (2012-)


M_CULTURE

PERFORMING ARTS HISTORY

TIMELINE

First public professional performance in Chicago, staged by mr. Bowers

pany, Chicago Grand Op-

LITTLE THEATRE MOVEMENT

Pavley & Oukrainsk ganized a Chicago S for dance, which be

IMP

Opera became base for dance companies, starting “The Little Theater” movement is invented by Mau-

The Chicago Opera House

Chicago McVickers

Theatre

brick building is build

for

The G build, wright

9 Crosby’s Opera is opened, which hosted touring opera

1 amount of theaters opened

The Little Theatre of

is

Rice’s Theatre is build on beThe woorden building burns

Auditorium

dancer Katherine ham organize an A American Ballet Com The C formed Improv Later

1900

1890

1880

1870

1860

1850

Chicago Grand Opera ended and Chicago Civic Opera is established

1840

1830

1820

First theatre company, the Chicago Theatre, is formed

1910

FIRST THEATRE COMPANY

1810

230

The Chicago Thea

5


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45

ky orSchool ecame -

Chicago Contemporary Dance Theatre is founded by Maggie Kast en Neville

41

44

41

PROVISATIONAL THEATRE

FIRST SLAM POETRY First Slam Poetry contest, a art form created by the Chicago resident and poet

EXPLOSION OF THEATRE Explosion of homegrown theater in Chicago. Young ensembles performing in back rooms, vacant storefronts, away from the mainstream commercial

DunAfrican mpany Compass Players is d and invented the visational Theater. called Second City

Steppenwolf Theatre Company is established, part waves. and moved to the

31city in 1980. They became

the most succesfull theatre company of Chicago

Broadway in Chicago is

atre is

7

The great depression putted an end to opera, but was reborn in Chicago with the Lyric Opera, by Carol Fox & Ardis Krainik

Harris Theater for Music and Dance is opened and shared by 12 companies

2020

2010

2000

1990

1980

1970

1960

Chicago Civic Opera moved into the Civic Op-

Chica-

Goodman Theatre is after the dead of playKenneth Goodman, to

1950

1940

1930

1920

25

231


232

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THEATRES

LEGEND Theatres N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10


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ALL MAJOR, COMMERCIAL THEATRES CAN BE FOUND NEAR THE CENTER AT THE NORTH SIDE. SMALLER THEATRES SPREAD OUT, BUT STILL MOST OF THEM ARE AT THE NORTH SIDE.

Bank of America Theatre

Cadillac Palace Theatre

Oriental Theatre

Broadway Playhouse

Auditorium Theatre

Second City

233


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VISUAL ARTS HISTORY TIMELINE

WORLD’S COLUMBIOAN EXPOSITION

EARLIEST ARTISTS Chicago’s earliest artists were painters and illustrators who created sentimental portraits, landscapes

Chicago Society of Arts

African A munities g achievemen

The World’s Columbian Exposition is organized

1910

1890

1880

1870

1860

1850

1840

1830

1900

Established Lorado Taft published “Th Artist move History of American Scul

Famous Art Colony at

1820

The amount of artists i creased to several hu

The Eagle’s Nest artists

examples

1810

234

Chicago Academy of Fine

THERE DON’T SEEM TO BE THAT MANY MOVEMENTS WERE CREATED IN CHICAGO, ALTHOUHG THE MANY ARTISTS

DuSo Bauhaus (later The Institute founded museum

Academy of Fine Arts renamed to the Art Institute


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AFRICAN AMERICAN ARTIST GREW

inun-

SOUTH SIDE COMMUNITY ARTS CENTRE The South Side Community Art Center was founded

American comgrew in artistic nt (1930’s First Chicago’s community

IMAGISTS MOVEMENT

BOOM IN ARTS EDUCATION under A. Siskind and H. Callahan, at the Institute

Hundreds of returning soldiers enrolled in art schools, causing a boom

The Hairy Who started a new art style, called Imagists, which emphasises on distortion, precise craftsmanship, garish colours, puns, and word play

2020

2010

2000

1990

1980

1970

1960

1950

1940

1930

1920

d European he to Chicago ved lp-

The Terra Museum opened

The formation of the National Endowment for the Arts enabled a explosive growth of arts institutions

Completion of a new building by the Museum of Con-

Sable Museum is of by M. Burroughs

The Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum estab-

celebrating black

The Museum of Contempo-

AFRICAN-AMERICANS STARTED TO BECOME SIGNIFICANT AS ARTISTS


236

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MUSEUMS

LEGEND Museums

N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10


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Shedd Aquarium

Art Institute of Chicago

Museum of Contemporary Art

Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum

The Field Museum of Natural HistoryChicago History Museum

Museum of Science and Industry

Chicago Children’s Museum

National Museum of Mexican Art

Spertus Museum

Museum of Broadcast Communications

Swedish American Museum Center

237


238

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FILMS OVERVIEW

DANCE FILMS SET IN CHICAGO SEEM TO HAVE A CONNECTION WITH TYPICAL CHICAGO ISSUES, LIKE:


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239


240

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FILMS & TELEVISION SHOWS OVERVIEW

MANY FILMS ARE SHOT IN CHICAGO, LOOKING AT SOME BIG TITLES, IT SEEMS TO BE SO BECAUSE OF THE HIGHRISE IN THE CITY


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Over 200 television shows are set in Chicago

THE TOPICS OF THE SERIES SEEM TO BE VERY GENERAL AND THEREFOR COULD BE ANYWHERE

241


242

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ACTORS OVERVIEW

Jim Belushi Played for Second City improv troupe

Steve Carell Played for Second City improv troupe

John Cusack Raised in Chicago

Mic Ra

Bernie Mac Raised in Chicago and performed in parks when young

John Malkovich Co-founder Steppenwolf companie

Joh Bill Murray Played for Second City improv troupe Per


chael Clarke Duncan aised in Chicago

hn C. Reilly rformed for Steppenwolf company

M_CULTURE

Tina Fey Played for Second City improv troupe

Harrison Ford Raised in Chicago

David Schwimmer Co-founder Chicago’s Lookingglass Theatre Company

Robin Williams Raised in Chicago

243


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FILM HISTORY

TH CHAPLIN DID NOT LIKE FA CHI CAGO DUE TO UNPREDICTA ITY WEATHER CONDITIONS AN LEFT AFTER ONE MONTH. AN DR

TIMELINE

1914-1916:

GLORIA SWANSON

CHARLIE CHAPLIN

Early 1900s:

1920s:

BOOM OF THE CHICAGO FILM

DECLINE OF THE CHICAGO FILM

MOVED WEST TO

1907-1918

ESSANAY STUDIOS

1940

1930

1920

1910

Hollyw

1900

244

ABSORBED BY WARNER B

LOCATED ON THE NORTH S STREET IN CHICAGO, THE OF THE LARGEST FILM CO WORLD BEFORE THE RISE


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HE AVOIDANCE OF LEGAL TROUBLE, AIRER WEATHER COMPARED TO UNPREDICTABILIABLE Y OF CHICAGO’S CLIMATE ND ND CHICAGO’S MONOTONE SET OF PLAINS ROVE THE FILM INDUSTRY TO THE WEST.

Chicago

O HOLLYWOOD

REVIVAL OF THE CHICAGO FILM

1986:

1989:

1987:

BROTHERS

SIDE ON ARGYLE FIRM GREW TO ONE OMPANIES IN THE E OF HOLLYWOOD.

1987:

2000

1990

1980

1970

1960

1950

wood


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MUSIC HISTORY 1920s :

TIMELINE

BLUES Chicago

GOSPEL

Louisiana

Alabama

Georgia

JAZZ

Mississippi

1940s:

EMERGENCE OF CHICAGO BLUES

GROWTHF CHICAGOCH B

Due to dramatic growth of African-American during the great migration and increased musical performance.

The

clubs

along Con ing Che community centers sign grants arriving num

Early 1920s :

Late 1940s: 1931:

Thomas A. Dorsey, “Father of Gospel Music,” combined his knowledge of blues and jazz music with religious lyrics and began promoting his gospel songs.

The music go farFirs b churches thanks Pilg to choir assembled in atartists Ebenezer and a Baptist growing Me cial interest in gospe sparked the growth o Chu groups in AfricanBap A churches.

Early 1920s :

1930s:

Bountiful club work and the possibility of making records in Chicago attracts Jazz musicians from New Orleans and the Mississippi Delta.

Led by the visceral ment of the city’s when mixed with an in awareness of the New jazz.

BIRTH OF GOSPEL

EMERGENCE OF CHICAGO JAZZ

GROWTH FOURISHIO GOSPEL GOSPE GO

FLOURISH JAZZ GROU

1940s:

Late 19th Century:

EMERGENC R&B / SO CHICAGOC

1916 :

THE SLAVE TRADE

THE GREAT MIGRATION

A combination ofChi jaz and blues, the term com “ coined in for usego’s as fensive marketingUni ter spr and

Chicago drew its African American population from the southern states and their increased numbers created a new demand for musical entertainment particularly on the South Side.

Not only brought with them their labor, but also brought a totally new and rich music culture, resulting in the creation of several music forms as jazz, blues and gospel music.

EM ROCK CH

Wh ular a ce roc the in th

1940

1930

1920

1910

POSITION AS TRANPORTATION HUB, BOUNTIFUL LIVE MUSIC CLUBS AND OPPORTUNITY OF MAKING RECORDS HAVE BEEN AN INFLUENTIAL INCUBATOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHICAGO’S MUSIC.

1900

246


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HFLOURISH OF OF BLUES HICAGO BLUES

1970s:

1984:

Closing of Blues joints due to political issue and new genre

The inauguration of this annual festival serves as “living history,” shaping both memories of and hopes for urban social life.

RECESSION AND CHICAGO BLUES RENAISSANCE FESTIVAL

gnsolidation Indiana of blues recordcontinued, with new labels ess, Vee-Jay, and Cobraall sning for and mi- producing large mbers of artists

but built new audience (tourist

HINFLUENTIAL OF OF EL L OSPEL CHOIRS

GOSPEL MUSIC FESTIVAL

beyond the of Deliverance, st Church big-selling Chicago grim Baptist Church, the g Church commeretropolitan Community of el music gospel urch and the Greater Salem American ptist Church.

Both traditional and contemporary gospel styles have been celebrated each summer

OF UPS

RECESSION AND JAZZ RENAISSANCE MUSIC FESTIVAL

1960s:

1979s:

l excitenightlife, ncreased w Orleans

Aware of the decline of Chicago’s jazz clubs, younger experimental musicians challenged the musical traditions and political frustrations of Chicago’s South Side.

On Labor Day weekend attracts tens of thousands of listeners each year to Grant Park

Early 1960s:

1970s:

R&B music started becoming known as soul music; it was also no longer exclusively made by African American artists. White musicians started composing R&B songs.

Contemporary R&B often focuses on pop beats rather than blues, gospel and jazz of previous generations, and developed into dance-oriented version of R&B called house.

Early 1990s:

Chicago club “The Warehouse” gave House music its name, where DJ Frankie Knuckles mixed old disco classics and new Eurobeat pop.

Labels DJ International Records and Trax Records distributed the songs outside of Chicago, leading to house’s popularity in other cities, including New York and London.

cultures, creating many more sub-genres: Detroit Techno, Acid House, Hip-House, Hard House, Funky House among others.

FLOURISH OF HOUSE

GROWTH OF SUBGENRES

Late 1960s:

Late 1990s:

The city’s fortunes as a key player in the rock world declined in the late 1960s. Chess and Vee-Jay failed to survive, while Paramount and Okeh

Punk rock derivatives “alternative” and “grunge” provided the tonic for rock revival.

2000

ROCK RENAISSANCE

1970

RECESSION

1960

1950

hen “rock ’n’ roll” gained poprity, Chicago had long been enter for Blues and R&B. As ck owed much to both styles, e city played an integral role he rock revolution.

1980s:

BIRTH OF CHICAGO HOUSE

HOUSE

MERGENCE OF K HICAGO ROCK

1977:

1990

zz, gospel, icago’s independent record “R&B” wasincluding Chicampanies, ssaMiracle, less of- Chess, Chance, rm. and Vee-Jay helped to ited read its popularity nationally d internationally.

EMERGENCE OF DEVELOPMENT SOUL MUSIC OF STYLE

1980

CE GROWTH OF OF OUL CHICAGO R&B R&B

The Warehouse circa 1977

247


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MUSIC MAPPING Relation between the genre and Chicago’s people and urban area

BLUES

1920s - 1940s:

EMERGENCE OF CHICAGO BLUES AND JAZZ DUE TO GROWTH OF MUSIC

The outdoor JAZZ well Street b

weekend ven

R&B /

Lake Street

Maxwell street market Indiana Avenue

Ebenezer Baptist Chu

THE SOUTH SIDE CHICAGO CLUBS ARE WHERE THE MUSIC TRANSFORMED ITSELF, DEVELOPED INTO A VARIED AND INCREASINGLY DIVERSE ARRAY OF MUSIC GENRE AND SUSTAINED ITS GREATEST POPULARITY.

1920s:

BIRTH OF GOSPEL MUSIC

GOSPEL

EMERG CHICAG Thomas A. Dorsey, father of gospel music.

Music clubs vs

1940s - 50s

1960s - 7

MUSIC CLUBS CATALYZE BLACK MUSIC, SERVING AS COMMUNITY CENTERS FOR MIGRANTS ARRIVING

CLUBS AN

RECORD ROCK Che

1940

late 1 COMPANI FLOURISH CHICAGO MUSICSVE A CATALYZE N was Ve MUSIC GEN

1930

1920

1910

As the community of artists and entrepreneurs grew,music clubs culture revised the geography of black Chicago. Blues clubs spread out as the city’s black population grew and the genre’s popularity rose, but most remained in or close to African American neighborhoods. By the 1990s, the blues had become widely fashionable, and while the historic pattern largely held, some clubs, especially those downtown and on the North Side, catered to largely non-African American audiences.

1900

248

1940


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S CLUBS

1984 - Today:

CHICAGO BLUES FESTIVAL

market on Maxbecame a regular nue.

Black population (by census tract) 0–10 percent 10–50 percent 50–90 percent 90–100 percent

Early 1960s:

/ SOUL

EMERGENCE OF SOUL MUSIC

GOSPEL MUSIC FESTIVAL

1979 - Today:

JAZZ MUSIC FESTIVAL The Warehouse

Chess records

Veejay records

urch

1977:

HOUSE

Grant park

Blues club

BIRTH OF HOUSE MUSIC

Chess records

DJ Frankie Knuckles, godfather of house music

GENCE OF GO ROCK

70s

1990s - 00s

1940s - 50s

1940s - 50s

2000

1970

1960

1950

0s - 50s

1990

DEVELOPED INTO ANNUAL FESTIVAL IN GRANT PARK ATTRACTING NEW AUDIENCE AND TOURIST INDUSTRY

1980

ND CHESS RECORDS D IES THE O’S EEJAY AND RECORDS NEW ee-Jay’s “For Your Precious Love,” a NRE

ess Records, the independent label founded in Chicago in the 1940s, played a critical part in Chicago Rock.

249


M_CULTURE

ARTS FESTIVALS OVERVIEW

PERFORMING ARTS

ALTH PER FOR

VISUAL ARTS

FILMS


HOUGH THERE MANY THEATRES, THE AMOUNT OF RFOMING ARTS FESTIVALS ARE MUCH LESS THAN R AVIASUAL ARTS EN FILM

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FESTIVALS

NEIGHBORHOOD FESTIVALS N

Km 0

1

2

4

10

Miles 0 0.5

1

2

4

10

CHICAGO HOSTED OVER 400 NEIGHBORHOOD STREET FESTIVALS, PARADES, FOOD TASTINGS AND MUSIC CONCERTS IN 2012.


D

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WITH A MAJOR EVENT EVERY WEEKEND, CHICAGO IS THE CAPITAL OF SUMMER MUSIC FESTIVALS. HUNDREDS OF ACTS GRACE THE OUTDOOR STAGES OF STREETS, PARKS AND BEACHES.

Lollapalooza, August 2-4, Grant park, Buzz bands

Pitchfork Music Festival, July 19-21, Union Park, indie rock and new bands

North Coast Music Festival, August 30 – September 1, Union Park, Hip-hop, jam bands and electronic music


M_CULTURE

FESTIVALS

Chicago World Music Festival, September 12 – 22, city-wide, m

W

Hideout Block Party, September 6 – 7, City streets, Indie and C r

Chicago Jazz Festival, August 29 – September 1, the Pritzker Pavillion, Jazz


multi-venue

Wicker Park Festival, July 27 - 28, Neighborhood Music, Merchandise and Food

Cultivate rock bands Festival, September 7,Lincoln Park, Food, farmers, chefs, artisans, thought leaders, and musicians

M_CULTURE


M_CULTURE

NIGHTCLUBS EARLY HISTORY TIMELINE 1907

SINCE 1907: GREEN MILL COCKTAIL LOUNG

mains the longest continuously operating nightclub in Chicago. Performe Anita O’Day appeared there in the early stages of their careers.

Late 19th Century:

RAPID GROWTH

1914

MOVED INTO OTHER AREAS

then again in conjunction with the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition.

AFRICAN AMERICAN ON THE SOUT

This infamous district, known as the Levee, was shut down in 1914 during Mayor Harrison’s reform administration, and nightlife establishments moved out into other areas of the city.

1930

est and most important nightclub in the African Amer

1920

1910

1900

THE NEAR SOUTH SIDE

1940

Chicago nightlife grew rapidly

1910s:

SOUTH SIDE LEVEE

The Levee, with its “sporting clubs” of all sorts, was the city’s most notorious vice district.

CLOSED 1914

THE LOOP

(ON RANDOLPH ST

1920s - 30s:

FAMOUS NIGHTCLUBS HOTELS IN THE LOOP

These included the Stevens Hotel’s Boulevard Roo Palmer House Hotel’s Empire Room, and the Sherman College Inn–Panther Room.

Stevens Hotel’s Boulevard Room

Palmer House Hotel’s


M_CULTURE

GE: longest continuously operating nightclub in Chicago

ers such

BLUES JAZZ

R&B 1980s:

“NEW WAVE” AND “PUNK” ACTS

THE SOUTH SIDE

(AT STATE STREET AND GARFIELD BOULEVARD)

P

TREET)

om, the n Hotel’s

s Empire Room

SINCE THE EARLY PART OF THE 1900’S, CHICAGO’S NIGHTCLUBS HAVE BEEN NOTORIOUS FOR ITS ALL-NIGHT PARTIES, LIVE MUSIC AND SMOKY CHICAGO BARS, HELPED ESTABLISH THE CITY AS A HUB FOR MUSICAL GENRES.

2000

1990

By 1980, with the changing of musical styles and a raise in the drinking age, the club was falling on hard times.

1970

1960

1950

rican community from the 1930s through the

1980

N NIGHCLUBS TH SIDE


M_CULTURE

SPORTS HISTORY

Sport development in Chicago

TIMELINE

Sport development in Chicago

- Unlike Europe, the most popular sports teams emanate from American school systems rather than sport clubs - Unlike Europe, the most popular sports teams

By the 1 Dwight as Cyrus and Phi athletic work an

emanate from American school systems rather than sport clubs

Until bered subcu and g ties li

City development

Illinois became a state 1818

- The most prestigious sports are football and baswhich is mirrored - The most prestigious sportsketball are football and bas- by the universityowned stadiums or arenas, the grants for the players, or the ketball which is mirrored by the universityowned above-mentioned salaries of the coaches.

stadiums or arenas, the grants for the players, or the above-mentioned salaries of the coaches.

The Club

1830

1820

1810

1800

1850

- The twoin biggest athletic spectacles in collegiate - The two biggest athletic spectacles collegiate sport revolve around football and basketball. sport revolve around football and basketball.

1830

1820

1810

1800

- Sports events are a major component of students' - Sports events are a major component of students' leisure l ives. Attendance at football or leisure l ives. Attendance at football or basketball games is a weeklybasketball focus for many games students is a weekly focus for many students and is a primary means of building community spirit. and is a primary means of building community spirit.

The Chicago Base Ball Club, founded in 1858

1840

Sport development

mid- high class people.

1860

- Sports in the 19s century was mainly played by mid- high class people. - Sports in the 19s century was mainly played by

Illinois became a state 1818

Chicago first train 1848

Chicago city 183

Chicago became a city 1837

Ame 1961

population in millions

population in millions

4000 thousand

0,1 30000 thousand

40 th


M_CULTURE

First Chicago marathon 1905

2010

The Bulls won their sixth NBA championship in eight years 1998

2000

1990

1980

Michael Jordan joined the Chicago Bulls 1984

Chicago Bulls founded 1966

1950

1920

1910

1900

Bears won the Super Bowl 1986

The Chicago Cubs reach the postseason for the first time since 1945

University of chicago formed the first boys and girls basketbal teams.

The Chicago White Sox baseball team was formed.

1890

1880

1870

1860

1850

1840

Chicago cardinals was founded, first professional footbal team

1970

Chicago Base Ball b, founded in 1858

The Chicago White Sox win their first World Series in 88

1960

The Chicago cubs won the World Series 1908

1940

Until about 1850, men outnumbered women, and a bachelor subculture encouraged drinking and gambling, as well as activities like billiards and horse races

1930

By the 1870s, leaders like evangelist Dwight Moody and businessmen such as Cyrus McCormick, George Pullman, and Philip Armour helped the YMCA use athletics to spread the gospel of hard work and sobriety

The first Cubs team was formed 1876.

Chicago Blackhawks win the Stanley Cup scoring 2 goals in 17 seconds to defeat the Boston Bruins 2013

2004: Millennium Park opens.

Great Chicago Fire 1871

Chicago first train 1848

o became a 37

000 housand

American civil war 1961-1965

30000 0,1 thousand

0,3

0,5

World first skyscaper 1885

Columbian Exposition, 27 million came to visit chicago 1893

The World's Fair of 1933 was held, 39 mln visitors

1958: The last streetcar ran in the city. At one time, Chicago had the largest streetcar system in the world.

With migrants from the hinterlands and European immigrants pouring in, the city doubled in population every decade to 1890

1.1

1,7

The first McDonald's franchise restaurant 1955

2,1

2,7

3,3

3,4

3,6

Harold Washington became the first AfricanAmerican Mayor 1983

2008: November 4, US President-elect Barack Obama makes his victory speech in Grant Park.

The 100-floor John Hancock Center was built 1969

3,5

3,3

3,0

2,8

2,8

2,7


260

M_CULTURE

SPORTS FACILITIES

BASEBALL

N

FOOTBALL

N

Km 1

2

4

Km

10

1

2

4

10

Miles 0.5

1

2

4

10

BASKETBALL

N

Miles 0.5

1

N

2

4

10

SPORTCLUBS

Km 1

2

4

Km

10

1

2

4

10

Miles 0.5

1

2

4

10

Miles 0.5

1

2

4

10


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N

HOCKEY

SOCCER

N

Km 1

2

4

Km

10

1

2

4

10

Miles 0.5

1

2

4

10

Miles 0.5

1

2

4

10

261


M_ CULTURE_SPORTS

262 M_CULTURE


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263


264

M_CULTURE

SPORTS ICON Ernie Banks

Club: Cub

Bobby Hull

Club Blackhawks

Dick Butkus

Club Bears

Frank Thomas

Club: White Sox

Michael Jordan

Club: Bulls

Mike Ditka

Club: Bears

Ron Santo

Club: Cubs


M_CULTURE

Sammy Sosa

Club: White Sox

Stan Mikita

Club: Blackhawks

Walter Payton

Club: Bears

Red Grange

Club: Bears

George Halas

Club: Bears

Scottie Pippen

Club: Bulls

Frank Chance

Club: Cubs


266

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STADIUMS

7

1 6

3 2

5

4

Stadiums no

Chicago M speedway


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Teams:

Capacity 41000

1 Wrigley field stadium

Teams:

Capacity 61000

2 Soldier field

Teams:

Capacity 20000

3 United center

Teams:

Capacity 40000

4 US Cellular Field

Teams:

Capacity 80000

5 Rockne stadium

Teams:

Capacity 17000

6 Hanson stadium Capacity 16000

7 Allstate Arena

ot on the map

Motor Stadium

Toyota Park Stadium

Sears center

House of Hope Arena

20000

11000

10000

Gately Stadium

UIC Pavilion Joseph J. Gentile Center 7000 7000

Lane Stadium

267


268

M_CULTURE

Sport statistics

Television networks pay millions for the rights to broadcast sporting events.

Football is the most successful in college history: 877 games and .741 winning percentage. Most popular sport at School

Basketball is the most popular and played sport.

Basketball is the most popular and played sport.


M_CULTURE

NUMBER OF KIDS WHO PLAY ON A TEAM BY AGE

PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WHO SAY SPORTS ARE A BIG PART OF WHO THEY ARE

STUDENTS WHO ARE INVOLVED IN AT LEAST ONE ORGANIZED SPORT

WHY STUDENTS QUIT TEAMSPORT

MEAN AGE AT ENTRY INTO TEAM SPORT

ORGANIZED TEAMSPORT PARTICIPATION PERCENTAGE OF ADOLESCENTS WHO PLAY EACH SPORT

269


270

M_CULTURE

Sport events Chicago Marathon_

O

W

-Pr est

-Th

ec

-Th lati the the tha an rea

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Olympic games

Why Chicago Failed To Win The Olympics?

rice tag for ‘16 Olympics timated at $4.7 billion

he games would also

conomic activity for Chicago

here has been much specuion as to why Chicago lost e Olympic bid so early in e process. some argued at overly restrictive passport nd visa policy was one such ason.

lame politics unusual.

nti-Americanism may have ontributed

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CHICAGO FOOD Local Food

Italian Food

Mexican Food

Polish Food

Indian Food

Chinese Food


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FOOD HISTORY TIMELINE

Chicago style hot dog World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

The name Chicago is from a kind of food. Indian calls wild onion “chicagoua“. Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837.

Between 1900 and 1910 roughly 170,000 Poles arrive, and their food becomes a landmark in Chicago’s culinary landscape.

Al’s No. 1 Italian Beef, 1938.

The Chicago-style de dish pizza was invente fran Pizzeria Uno, in Chicag ope 1943.

CHICAGO HAS ALWAYS BEEN A FOOD CITY. WITH INDUSTRY CAME IMMIGRANTS WHO BROUGHT THEIR CUI-T e SINES, MAKING CHICAGO A GREAT c ETHNIC FOOD CITY.


eep-

ed at nchise restaurant, go in ened in the suburb

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In late 1960s, Chicago’s Mexican population increases dramatically. Mexican foods and products change Chicago’s culinary tastes.

Early popcorn machines were invented in Chicago, Illinois, by Charles Cretors in 1885.

Chicago has become known for its ventures in molecular gastronomy. In 2008, Maxim awarded Chicago the title of “Tastiest City.”

D

Taste of Polonia is the largest ethnic festival in Chicago since 1979.

Taste of Chicago, annual food festival in Chicago since 1980, world largest food festival, July 4th, at Grant Park.

Sausage Fest since 2011

Chicago,


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FOOD HISTORY

Michelin 3 stars Michelln 2 stars Michelin 1 star

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DRINKS HISTORY TIMELINE

come to Chicago. Large numbers of German immigrants bring a knack for making sausages, bread, fections to the city.

Historically, plenty of beer has been brewed in Chicago with numerous breweries operating in the city. The number of brewing companies reached a peak in the 1880s and 1890s.

Schoenhofen powerhou built in 1902, the only has attained city landm status. most impres pre-Prohibition era brew structure

CHICAGO HAS NEVER BEEN KNOWN AS A CENTER FOR BREWING.WHILE DURING 1920-1934, CHICAGO BECAME A HAVEN FOR PROHIBITION DODGERS DURING THE TIME KNOWN AS THE “ROARING TWEN TIES“.


use, one mark ssive wery

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With the 1978 closing of the Peter Hand brewery, Chicago became devoid of largescale brewing until 1992.

1920-1934, Prohibition &

Many of Chicago’s most notorious gangsters, including Al Caponeand his enemy Bugs Moran, made millions of dollars through illegal alcohol sales.

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2012, Chicago Beer Festival

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RELIGION

Juda

The Bahá’í House of Worship Chicag

sians: T Organiz

CENTER OF DIVERSITY

Catholicism

Bud

Cook County’s a bit less Catholic than it used to be, but it’s still very Catholic.

Parish comparison: St. Mary of the Lake Parish in Chicago Volodymyr and Olha Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral, also in Chicago

Eastern Orthodoxy

Baptism at St. Ag Bohemia Catholi

Islam Ukrainian Orthodox came together to celebrate the Resurrection of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in Chicago, IL.

Russian Greek Spanish Serbian ……

100th Anniversary in East Chicago, Illinois.


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aism

go Maxwell Street has become the Midwest’s most popular klezmer band

Germans vs. RusThe Origins of Chicago’s zed Jewish Community

Sam celebrated his Bar Mitzvah at Temple Sholom in Chicago.

100 Buddha head sculptures will be placed in these 10 Chicago neighborhoods to spark conversations of peace and non-violence.

ddhism

gnes of ic Church.

Import Buddhists were also proportionately more likely to have come from Catholic, and especially Jewish backgrounds.

Is Chicago Jesus the real messiah?

Dalai Lama inspires former Mattawan man who is now a Buddhist lama in Chicago suburb of Cicero.

Salaam Restaurant One of the10 Chicago attractions tourists must see.

Farrakhan: Jesus Was a Black Muslim…

Gang Members Can Serve As Protectors

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RELIGION HISTORY TIMELINE OF NON CHRISTIAN


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RELIGIOUS FACILITIES

Chicago’s Catholic Churches

Chicago’s Baptist Churches

Chicago’s ChirstianChurches

Chicago’s Episcopal Churches


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Chicago’s Lutheran Churches

Chicago’s Eastern Orthodox Churches

Chicago’s Presbyterian Churches

Chicago’s Methodist Churches


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RELIGIOUS FACILITIES

Chicago’s Buddist Temple

Chicago’s ChirstianChurches

Chicago’s Muslim Masjid


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Chicago’s Places of worship

Chicago’s Catholic Churches Chicago’s Baptist Churches Chicago’s Episcopal Churches Chicago’s ChirstianChurches Chicago’s Lutheran Churches Chicago’s Eastern Orthodox Churches Chicago’s Presbyterian Churches Chicago’s Methodist Churches Chicago’s Buddist Temple Chicago’s Muslim Masjid Chicago’s Jewish Congregations

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WAVES OF IMMIGRATION TIMELINE

Poles

Lithuanians

Ukrainians

Polish

Little Italy’s bakery

Hungarians Salooon by Germans

Czechs

Germans

Slovaks

English

Greeks

Swedes

Italians

Dutch

Jews

Greek style in Chicago

Irish

First great wave: 1840s, Irish Catholics came to the city as a result of the Great Famine.

Population

In late 19th century, the railroads, stockyards and other heavy industry of the late 19th century attracted a variety of skilled workers from Europe, especially Germans, English, Swedes and Dutch.

rural A

From 1890 to 1914 migrations swe 1910-19 attracting especially unskilled workers African Eastern and Southern Europe, including P in the G Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Hungarians, SouthCze S Slovaks, Greeks, and Italians, and Jews throughout eastern Europe, mostly from it had th Russian Empire. housing.


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h Cathedral in Chicago

Americans

elled,tens of thousands of 940, from Americans came north Poles, Migration. The near Great echs,of the city became Side from m he the oldest, less expensive .

Mexican food in Chicago

Chicago’s Black Belt, 1941

Mexico

Indians

Cuba

Chinese

Chinatown in Chicago

Beginning in the 1940s, waves of Hispanic immigrants began to arrive. The largest numbers were from Mexico and Puerto Rico, as well as Cuba during Fidel Castro's rise. During the 1980s, Hispanic immigrants were more likely to be from Central and South America.

immigration laws, numerous Asian immigrants came; the largest proportion were well-educated Indians and Chinese, who generally settled directly in the suburbs.

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CHICA


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AGOAN


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CHICAGOAN PHOTOS OVERVIEW

LINCOLN SQUARE – LINCOLN STREET

EDISON PARK – OLIPHANT AND NORTHWEST HIGHWAY

BELMONT CRAGIN – HERMOSA

LAKEVIEW – BELMONT AND CLARK

HUMBOLDT PARK – DIVISION STREET

WICKER PARK

AUSTIN – LAKE AND CENTRAL

K-TOWN – MADISON AND PULASKI

COOK COUNTY/STROGER HOSPITAL

LITTLE VILLAGE – 26TH AND ALBANY

COOK COUNTY JAIL – 26TH AND CALIFORNIA

PILSEN – 18TH AND LOOMIS

ENGLEWOOD – 52ND AND EMERALD

TRINITY UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST


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EDGEWATER – ROGERS PARK

LITTLE SAIGON – ARGYLE AND KENMORE

UPTOWN – WILSON AND BROADWAY

LINCOLN PARK – STOCKTON AND WEBSTER

NORTH AVENUE BEACH

GOLD COAST – RUSH AND STATE

MAGNIFICENT MILE / WATER TOWER

CITY HALL – DOWNTOWN – RANDOLPH AND CLARK

LASALLE – LASALLE AND MADISON

CHINATOWN – 23RD AND WENTWORTH

HYDE PARK – UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

RAINBOW BEACH – 79TH AND LAKE MICHIGAN

ROSELAND – 113TH AND MICHIGAN

HEGEWISCH – 132ND AND BALTIMORE


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CHICAGOAN STEREOTYPE ? INTERNET QUOTE

Chicagoan’s are a mix between Nebraska farmers and New Yorkers. Very very friendly and hard working.

Chicagoans like thicker varieties with more ingredients in Pizza.

We accept anyone. We don’t care where your from.

What makes me proud of this city - well, for starters, the architecture. Also the museums. The news spends more time talking about sports than weather.

Whether you are a Bulls fan or not, many Chicagoans have kids who play basketball and they follow the games religiously.

Chicagoans LOVE hot dogs...no catsup however.

I think the main thing that how NICE most Chicagoans are.


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tend to have a chip on their shoulders at all times, being the 2nd city and all.

Chicagoan hate getting stuck behind a slow walker.

Do not talk on your phone or listen to music on full-blast while taking public transit. Chicagoan will hate you.

We have a corrupt government, I know that’s obviously a bad thing, but really, who doesn’t have a corrupt governemnt?

A lot of people get murdered in Chicago.

Chicagoans are more likely to explore every inch of Chicago proper

Chicagoans are knee deep involved in the city and their respective neighbhorhoods better.

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“TYPICAL” CHICAGOAN OVERVIEW

Andersonville Avg. income: $ 920 Avg. rent: $ 740 Avoids: Gold Coast, Wringleyville Would also live in: Logan square, Lakeview Shit they say: ‘‘I made the most amazing suistainable salade, check my instagram!’’

Bronzeville

Avondale

Avg. income: $ 1150 Avg. rent: $ 955

Avg. income: $ 1000 Avg. rent: $ 565

Avoids: Gold Coast, Wicker park

Avoids: Old Town, West loop, River North

Would also live in: Hyde Park Shit they say: ‘‘Don’t get me started on Emanuel’’

Would also live in: Pilsen, Logan Square Shit they say: ‘‘I am building a app....we need one percent of the market to be billionairs’

Bucktown

Boystown

Avg. income: $ 1480 Avg. rent: $ 1055

Avg. income: $ 1290 Avg. rent: $ 1035

Avoids: Gold Coast, Wicker park

Avoids: University Village

Would also live in: Wicker Park, Loncoln Park

Would also live in: Logan Square, Loncoln Park

Shit they say: ‘‘So in this Dabble class I took...’

Shit they say: ‘‘Are you serious not on the list for Southport’s Secret Supper yet?’’


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Gold Coast

Humboldt Park

Avg. income: $ 1760 Avg. rent: $ 740

Avg. income: $ 1050 Avg. rent: $ 700

Avoids: Logan Square, Avondale

Avoids: The Loop, Hyde Park, Lincoln Park

Would also live in: Old Town, West Loop Shit they say: ‘‘Is it just, or does it rain every time i have my BMW washed’’

Would also live in: Logan Square Shit they say: ‘‘I live in Logan Square’’

Lincoln Park

Hyde Park

Avg. income: $ 1430 Avg. rent: $ 1100

Avg. income: $ 1030 Avg. rent: $ 625

Avoids: Humboldt Park

Avoids: Lincoln Park, Wringleyville

Would also live in: Old Town, Lakeview, Wrigleyville

Would also live in: South Loop, Ukrainian Village, West Loop

Shit they say: ‘‘I found the cutest idea for using wine corks on Pinterst’’

Shit they say: ‘‘That’s all well and good in practice, but how would it work in theory?’’

Logan square Avg. income: $ 1030 Avg. rent: $ 625 Avoids: Lincoln Park, Wringleyville Would also live in: South Loop, Ukrainian Village, West Loop Shit they say: ‘‘That’s all well and good in practice, but how would it work in theory?’’

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“TYPICAL” CHICAGOAN OVERVIEW Old Town Avg. income: $ 2160 Avg. rent: $ 1265 Avoids: Pilson, Hyde Park, Avondale Would also live in: Gold Coast, River North Shit they say: ‘‘What do you mean, it doesn’t have a roof deck’

River North

Pilson

Avg. income: $ 2160 Avg. rent: $ 1265

Avg. income: $ 970 Avg. rent: $ 655

Avoids: Pilson, Hyde Park, Avondale

Avoids: Pilson, Hyde Park,

Would also live in: Gold Coast, River North

Would also live in: Logan Square, Ukrainian Village

Shit they say: ‘‘What do you mean, it doesn’t have a roof deck’

Shit they say: ‘‘Please don’t tell me throught Big Star was authentico autthentico.’’

Roscoe Village

The Loope

Avg. income: $ 1350 Avg. rent: $ 875

Avg. income: $ 1970 Avg. rent: $ 1460

Avoids: Humboldt Park, Hyde Park

Avoids: Pilson, Hyde Park, Boystown, Logan square

Would also live in: Logan Square, Ukrainian Village Shit they say: ‘‘Please don’t tell me throught Big Star was authentico autthentico.’’

Would also live in: Gold Coast Shit they say: ‘‘I have had better.’’


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Ukrainian Village Avg. income: $ 1160 Avg. rent: $ 915 Avoids: The loop, Wringleyville Would also live in: Bucktown, Wicker Park, Roscoe Village Shit they say: ‘‘Yah, I know Ira Glass, We play words with friends together.’’

University Village Avg. income: $ 1260 Avg. rent: $ 1430 Avoids: Andersonville, Humboldt Park Would also live in: Pilson West Loop Shit they say: ‘‘We will two vodka sodas with lime, STAT’’

Wicker Park

West Loop

Avg. income: $ 1510 Avg. rent: $ 945

Avg. income: $ 1570 Avg. rent: $ 1075

Avoids: Humboldt Park, South Loop

Avoids: Avondale, Logan Square

Would also live in: Ukrainian Village, Lakeview, River North

Would also live in: The Loop, River North

Shit they say: ‘‘Have you SEEN the new Walgreens?!’’

Shit they say: ‘‘Did you see my tweet yesterday? I saw Stephanie Izard at Girl en the Goat. Hashtag: no big.’’

Wringleyville Avg. income: $ 1300 Avg. rent: $ 990 Avoids: Pilson, Andersonville Would also live in: Lincoln Park, any appartment above sportbar Shit they say: ‘‘Hey! Bro Do you have shotski?’’

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