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South Works Chicago


Content About

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Introduction

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Site

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Projects

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1. Roland Reemaa: Obama Presidential Archive and Library

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2. Vaidotas Vaiciulis: The Temple of All Religions

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3. G1: South Works Urban Catalyst

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A Narine Gyulkhasyan: The Creative Incubator

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B Marija Mateljan: The Playful Learning Environment

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C Hrvoje Smidihen: The Performance Center

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TU Delft Faculty of Architecture

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Complex Project Graduation Studio

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South Works Chicago 2013 / 2014

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students: Roland Reemaa

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Vaidotas Vaiciulis

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Narine Gyulkhasyan

G1

Marija Mateljan

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Hrvoje Smidihen

G1

tutors: Mitesh Dixit

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Kees Kaan

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RR

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VV

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G1


Introduction The continued decline of the United State’s Midwest regions, specifically the last decade, has not escaped Chicago. In this day of “Rapid Urbanization” and Mega Cities, Chicago seems to have missed the memo. Of the 15 largest cities in the United States in 2010, Chicago was the only city to see its population decrease. While New York and L.A.’s populations reached record highs in 2010, Chicago’s population drops to a low not seen since 1910. In fact, in countries such as India and China, Chicago would not be not legally defined as a city. The question is not whether Chicago belongs to the highly appreciated jet set of global cities: Chicago is a global city. It has the appropriate combination of human resources, manufacturing businesses and world institutions. However, Chicago’s lacks critical attributes associated with a true global city: a critical center of a significant industry. Finance in New York, entertainment in Los Angeles, government in Washington, and so on. Perhaps this lack of definition, could very well serve to be its most strategic element. For a city of this size its main vision is to become an “alpha” city, a true global player, one could wringly assume hat the overall image of the region and the involved cities, hold Chicago back from its true potential. However, the strategic organization of the region, via transportation and mobility, as well as its strong cultural definition, could provide Chicago the resources and ability to develop a Global Appeal. Therefore, the development of Chicago and its ability to unify the Midwest into a cohesive and functional region, will further define it as the ‘heart of the heat, and allow it to compete with New York and LA. The Lakeside site, will be explored, as the site with an ambition to help Chicago achieve its Global ambitions.

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South Works

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Originally the site of U.S. Steel’s South Works,

lakefront. The most important attempt however,

was first opened in 1882 as the North Chicago

was made in 2010, designed by Skidmore Ow-

Railway Mill Company. Since then the site went

ings & Merrill LLP (SOM). The masterplan in-

through several name changes before becom-

cludes a mix of proposed uses, including over

ing the U.S. Steel South Works. The neighbor-

15,000 residential units and more than 15mil-

hood around the factory, South Chicago, was

lion sq.feet of retail, restaurants, commercial,

filled with immigrants of all types who came to

institutional and research and development

the area for the well-paying jobs at the mill. In

facilities. The site is nearly 2.8 sq. kilometers

the 1970s The South Works began a long period

and is surrounded by 79th Street on the north

of downsizing, before its final closure on 1992.

and the Calumet River of the south. It extends

Since then the site has been inactive. Several

to Burley Street and Green Bay Avenue on the

proposals have been introduced, but the basic

west and Lake Michigan on the east. It is lo-

idea remains, a mixture of industrial, commer-

cated 15 miles south of the Loop and 10 from

cial and residential with new parkland along the

west from the Midway International Airport.


Research was conducted on the Large, Medium and Small scale. Hard and Soft data were collected covering various topics such as Demographics, Infrastructure, Mobility, Environment, Politics, Culture, Economy, History, Landscape, Architecture and Urbanism in the city of Chicago.

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CULTURE AND SOCIE TY Architectu re Performing Arts Visual Arts Film and Mu sic Music Nightlife Sports Food and Dri nks Religion Immigration A Chicagoan

POLITICS Governme nt Structure Public Saf ety Public Hea lth Education

URE D CULT IC AN POLIT ction u Introd ution it Const tion p Corru e in state Timel ate vs. Up st Down up s n ic Gro io m n o U t Econ roup Larges Minority G t er Larges Landown n t o Larges l Comparis ra Cultu l Money ca re Musi Cultu e at st Down

HY GRAP DEMO ction u Introd Scale GDP tion la Popu sity l Diver Racia ges Chan on ti Educa y m Econo s GDP tatistic cial S Finan D RE AN U T C STRU ITY INFRA AL MOBIL N IO REG Rail Road Water Air NT ONME ENVIR ction u Introd ape sc Land al Gener Prairie Forest s River Lakes ion ct Produ n o Polluti e ities Climat Opportun y Energ

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ECONOMY The Chicag o School Key Indust ries Working in Chicago The State of Chicago Housing Architectu re of Social Tension INFRASTR UCTURE City Growth 185 Road System 0 - Present Rail Networ k Aviation Water Sys tem Lakefront Parks and Public Pla Social Infr ce astructure Neighbour hood Study Future Cha llanges ĽſĽ ŮÅÈÊÉ


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DEM OGR Popu APHICS la Popu tion migra la tio South tion in Sou n -C South hicago ne th-Chicago -Chica ig go ho hborhood useh CULT old st area URE ructur Walkt AND SO e CIO hrough Loca s in th LOGY l pe e area Leisur rceptio n Family e and activ Belie models ities fs Touris m Identit Amer y ic Globa an dream l Gang Perceptio n C Transp ulture ort re lated crime POLI TICS Politic al Segre system gatio n and integr ECON ation OM Overv Y iew Real es Vaca tate nt Forecl property Public osure -priva te inve stmen HISTO ts RY Histo ri Evolut cal timelin e Indust ion of the neighb Indust rial histor or hood y rial he ritage LAND SC Soil an APE Prese alysis nt stat Topo e gr Invent aphy or Suppl y of park y s Water systems fr Calum on analys is et rive r anal ysis ARCH ITEC TURE Size AN co Land mparision D URBAN us ISM Public e and ho us Featur amanities ing typo lo Worke es of the inventory gy ex Zoningrks cottag isting bloc e ks Block regulatio ns Propo density an d sed pl an by height stud SOM y INFR AST South RUCTURE Route Worksin w ithin s Acess and trav the ci el ty ne ab twork Public ility to th time Stree transporta e site t Water corridors tion and ga transp teway ort s

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M Book

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Studio Excursion Students visited Chicago 5th to 12th October 2013 where they collected additional information about the site, the city and the people.

CHICAGO

Saturday 05 October • Everyone arrives in Chicago • Everyone Meet at Art Institute @ 17.00 • Free Evening

Sunday 06 October • Explore Hyde Park & U Chicago, 1100 – 1600 • Afternoon Studio Drinks

Monday 07 October • Morning: site visit & meeting • Discussion McCaffrery & SOM, 0900 – 12.00 • Lunch with Development Team, 12.00 – 13.00 • Afternoon workshop with SOM Team & McCaffrery Team • Brian Lee Lecture at Santé Fe Building • Evening – M. Dixit lecture at Santé Fe Building, 18.00 • Diner with SOM Team & Teachers 14


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Tuesday 08 October • Explore Northside and/or work on Project • Afternoon lectures from Political Science Professors, 1530 – 1730

Wednesday 09 October • IIT Day – 0900 – 1700 @ Crown Hall 0845 • C. Koolhaas & M. Dixit at Art Institute 09.00 – 12.30 • TU Delft Diner & Part – Perez Restaurant in Pilsen

Thursday 10 October • Boat Tour • Frank Lloyd Wright – Oak Park

Friday 11 October • Architectural Tour • Site-seeing • Delft Studio Farewell drinks - TBD

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“...a city that was to live by night after the wilderness had passed. A city that was to forge out of steel and blood-red neon its own peculiar wilderness.� Nelson Algren, Chicago: City on the Make

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The Site Chicago is a city of modern skyscrapers. However, it would be regular American city if not a rapid steel industry in 19’th century. During the second half of the nineteenth century, Chicago became one of the world’s leading centers of steel production. For much of the twentieth century, tens of thousands of area residents (mainly in South Chicago) worked to turn iron ore into steel and transform steel into a variety of products. Due to the rise of international competition in 1970’s the U.S. steel industry faced a sudden decline. Therefore steel mills have been shut down and laid off thousands of workers.

Context

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“Since 1875 mill after mill located in here making the Calumet region one of the largest steel making centres in the world. Wave after wave of immigrants poured in to work steel. As the industry developed the workers built their neighbourhoods representing every major ethnic and racial group to settle in America. Shipping, grain, heavy industry, rail lines and refineries - South East Chicago became like a “WRAPPED IN STEEL - The Story of the Neighborhoods of South Chicago“(1984), Youtube

U.S. Steel Mill


People working in steel industry

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Steel production in Chicago has been main industry for decades


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“South Works” - steel mill in South Chicago neighborhood

Sudden decline of steel production in 1970’s

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18 km

2.4 km2 Former US Steel mill site is 18 km from the Loop

“Lakeside Chicago Project” proposed by SOM

South Chicago neighborhood also contains the

has some future visions. SOM architects pro-

most attractive vacant site in Chicago facing

posed a new masterplan, called “Lakeside Chica-

Michigan Lake. The area of 2,4 km2 , the former

go Project”. The local community disagrees with

“South Works” site, which is considered to have a

the plans proposed by McCaffery group. They are

huge potential to become an alternative place to

afraid that such development might lead to gentri-

the Loop, Chicago’s downtown. The site already

fication due to the rise of property taxes.

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Phase 1 has been completely changed after the crisis in 2008

Parking occupies a large territory of Phase 1

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Site Features

South Chicago Neighborhood

Lake Shore Drive big capacity road

Water Canal Ore Walls

Slag Landfill

Calumet River

Lake Michigan

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Water Canal

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Ore walls

Inside Ore walls


Site Mapping Typology

Industrial Leftovers

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South Chicago Neighborhood

S_CULTURE & SOCIETY

More then 74% of the neghborhood is Afro-American CRIMe RePORT (AuguST 2013)

In the middle of 20’th century South Chicago neighborhood has been considered one of the most successful neighborhoods in Chicago. This was due to the largest steel plant “South Works”, which provided jobs for more than 11,000 people. Until the crisis in 1970’s the neighborhood hosted vartious cultures and has been considered an attractive place to work and live in. However, the sudden decline of steel production did “South Works” to be shut down. Since then the neighborhood faced many social, economic and consequently spatial ssues: big unemployment lever, food desert, bad connectivity with the rest of ChiSouth Chicago neighborhood has one of the highest crime rates in Chicago

cago, crime, segregation, etc.

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The median income in South Chicago neighbor-

The neighborhood occupies an area of 8.65 km2 and has a population of 31,000

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Suburban Environment In the specific suburban environment of the South Chicago neighborhood there is a problem of low density which creates an inert living condition characterized by a lack of programmatic and spatial diversity. The projects are also tackling the issue of the complex socio-cultural framework of the United States, especially the low educational level, lack of employment and the demographic homogeneity of the South Chicago neighborhood.

Problems: a. Suburban Condition b. Infrastructure c. Lack of Amenities d. Illiteracy e. Idleness f. Crime g. Food Desert h. Education i. Poor Housing j. Unemployment k. Waste l. Health

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high crime rates

food desert

lack of amenities

low education

unemployment

poor housing

suburban condition

infrastructure


White 3 %

Hispanic 22 % 46.5 % 35.3 Y

Afro-american 75 % 54.5 % 36.4 Y CHICAGO POP: 2.714.856 AREA: 606.1 km2 DENS: 4.447 p/km2

SOUTH CHICAGO POP: 31.198 AREA: 4,57 km2 DENS: 3.600 p/km2

SOUTHWORKS POP: ---AREA: 2.8 km2

Chicago South Chicago Southworks 32


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Workers Cottage

living room

storage at the back

bedrooms

parlor

kitchen

pediment

garage/storage back

small distance between houses gabels facing the street


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Roland Reemaa

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Vaidotas Vaiciulis

Projects Five student projects will be presented. The first two projects are individual projects each dealing with one specific topic. Vaidotas Vauciulis and Roland Reemaa developed their projects within a larger masterplan framework with seven other students. The last three projects are a result of a group project of Narinne Gyulkhasyan, Marija Mateljan and Hrvoje Smidihen (G1), who worked closely together throughout the year, developed an urban strategy together and later reinforced that strategy by zooming-in and developing three catalyst buildings.

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Narine Gyulkhasyan

G1

Marija Mateljan

G1

Hrvoje Smidihen

G1


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South Works Urban Catalyst G1 / N.Gyulkhasyan, M.Mateljan, H.Smidihen


“Trying to establish or anticipate an end result in advance no longer works. After five years, a master plan is very often outdated by political and economic reality.” Urhahn Urban Design, Spontaneous City, (Amsterdam: BIS Publishers, 2012)

1950

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New York

8 7 6 5 4

Los Angeles

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“Chicago’s population drops to a low not seen since 1910.” US Census

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? How to develop a sustainable (adaptable) and productive strategy in an area experiencing rapid decline and recession, without resorting to traditional, and perhaps antiquated techniques of Masterplannig?


South Works Urban Catalyst by G1 / N.Gyulkhasyan, M.Mateljan, H.Šmidihen

Since 1980, the number of megacities, cities with a population of at least 10 million people, exploded from 4 to 21. In this day of “Rapid Urbanization” and “Mega Cities”, Chicago has seemed to have missed the memo: per the 2010 US Census, Chicago was the only ‘major’ United States city to see its population decrease. The continued decline of Chicago, specifically the last decade, has undermined and essentially eliminated the growth and resurgence Chicago experienced in the mid 90’s. THE AIM The aim is to develop a strategy which can initiate growth, and provide a dignified and liveable environment for its inhabitant. Most importantly, it should create a framework for reasonable and sustainable growth which in turn can provide hope in areas which simply have none…

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Megacities contain: 6% of earth’s surface 55% of population 75% of economic activity 80% scientific research 85% of pollution 80% crime and violence


A serie of SOM Masterplans shows how the same design technique for rapid urbanization is applied both in Asia (experiencing growth) as well as South Works (experiencing decline)

We believe that the Chicago South Works Site is the ideal case study to examine strategies for urban development in areas inflicted with the ‘typical’ syndromes of rapid decline... Conventional “Masterplan’ and Urban Design strategies, both academic & professional, tend to focus on strategies/techniques for rapid urbanization and transformation from cities to mega city. However, areas, which are experiencing the complete opposite, i.e. economic & population decline need a fundamental change in approach to urban development strategies…

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“...it will be the staging of uncertainty; it will no longer be concerned with the arrangement of more or less permanent objects but with the irrigation of territories with potential; it will no longer aim for stable configurations but for the creation of enabling fields that accommodate processes that refuse to be crystallized into definitive form; it will no longer be about meticulous definition, the imposition of limits, but about expanding notions, denying boundaries, not about separating and identifying entities, but about discovering unnameable hybrids...� Rem Koolhaas, What ever happened to Urbanism?

some general methods have been found which address contextual specificities of Chicago such as the rigid urban grid, the neighborhood segregation partly caused by large infrastructural lines and the overall programmatic and spatial genericness that can be found throughout the city.

tools

In search for new techniques of urban planning


BORDER

existing neighbourhoods are like introverted villages divided by large infrastructure

by dislocating public functions on the contact zones, neighborhoods become more extroverted contact zones as social generators

new condition creates gradient, linking, interaction

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OMA, La Villete


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GRID

the existing grid is a fixed system that encourages spontaneous activity

adding a new element into the existing system enables later re-use of the element if it proves successful existing context used as a role model for the project

successor afterwards used as role model for the predecessor 54

Zagreb Fair


1: tradition of fairground in Zagreb

2: fair moves across the River Sava

3: fair extended infrastructure across the river

4: experimental housing is being built

5: shopping pavilions are deployed in the city

6: self service consumption becomes practice

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TENSION

context is a never-ending repetition of building types and urban views

by adding “disruptions�, the catalyst becomes the tension between new elements complexity in relations and diversity

spontaneous growth

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MVRDV, DIY Urbanism


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“the biggest challenge for urban design in the 21st century is finding a balance between matters of common importance and creating freedom” Urhahn Urban Design, Spontaneous City, (Amsterdam: BIS Publishers, 2012)

gate the urban parameters of the city in three different scales. They have been compared and overlaid with the South Works site. Urban parameters such as physical and visual distances between iconic buildings, programmatic linearity and the density of public program have been analyzed in order to inform the urban strategy for the South Works site. Additionally, the “ARSENAL” of insertion points was created as a result of studying verious projects (size, spatial requirements for each program, etc.)

references

Three Case Studies have been chosen to investi-


BORNEO SPORENBURG

amsterdam netherlands 1993-97 investor new deal architects west 8

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site area 25 ha built area 50 000m2 residences 7.500 jobs 500 residence units 2.500 workspaces 300 Retail Office Public Amenities Working:Living=1:12 SOUTHWORKS SOM 224 ha / 31 000 people SOUTH CHICAGO 570 ha / 32 000

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HAFEN CITY

hamburg germany 2000 investor Hafen City GmbH architects KCPA

227 ha

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1540m 64

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site area 165 ha built area 2 000 000 m2

residences 15 000 jobs 60 000

165 ha

residence units 5.800 workspaces 45.000 Elbphilharmonie Pavilion Kesselhaus Info Center Primary School Spiegel Headquarters Elb PhilharmoniC Hall HafenCity University Cruise Center Science Center Intelligent Quarter working : living = 4 : 1 SOUTHWORKS SOM 224 ha / 31 000 people SOUTH CHICAGO 570 ha / 32 000

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EUROMÉDITERRANÉE

marseille france 1995 - 2013 investor City of Marseille

1540m

2450m

295 ha

227 ha

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area 295 ha built surface 3 600 000 m2 added built area 100 000 m2 existing population 20 000 added jobs 10 000 residences 15 000 2 000 000 m2 4000 new housing units 6000 renovated housing units 500 000 m2 working space 100 000 m2 public facilities 100 000 m2 retail space 200 000 m2 public spaces working:living= 1:1 SOUTHWORKS SOM 224 ha / 31 000 people SOUTH CHICAGO 570 ha / 32 000

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Yushi Uehara, Village in the city, from Hunch magazine, The Berlage Institute 2007 ,pp. 64-66

“What has been theorized by philosophers such as Deleuze, Virilio and Habermas: The idea of freedom within restrictions, the magnitude of chaos within control, that’s is what we have found in Village in the City. It is a project that extracts the cores and structures of dynamism and then examines how the dynamism evolves and tries to implement itself in a limited suburban condition to create an active area allowing rapid transformation. “

ture and with the emphasis on linearity of Chicago urban tissue, the program is strategically inserted with an intention to create relative tensions generating further urban growth. INSERTION POINTS are strategically placed, First insertion points are each well defined, while, further growth is unpredictable but controlled. SPINES evolve bacause insertion points generate fluid program [non-monofunctional] sharing facilities between them. Placing the program which does not conventionally go together next to each other creates tension as a potential for generation of new urban conditions, as opposed to conventional planning which avoids tension. Between the insertion points, along the spines LINEAR CLUSTERS emerge which generate furher growth in-between them.

concept

With the sustainable use of the existing infrastruc-


Concept

1. Lake Shore

2. Linearity

5. Insertion Points

6. Spines

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3. Branching

4. Program

7. Growth

8. Linear Clusters


Linear Clusters

Marke

Linearity specificity of the chicago grid (context) + Clusters economically feasible model of development

Private Manufacturing Workshops Shopping Mall

Vocational Cente

Cultural Center Day Care Center

Food Packagin

Distribution Cente Recyc Logistics Fish market Harbour Warehouses

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IT Research Center Energy Station

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High-Tech Manufacturing

Church

Data Center

Fashion Factory Furniture Factory

Science Center

Data Storage

Creative Incubator Co-working spaces Recreation+ Restaurants Center Performance Center

Reuse Factory

er cling Center

Night Clubs

eadquarters Convention center

Short Stay Housing Hotel

“It is a scenario for a society in the near future, but not forcedly visionary. (...) Not too utopian, not too dystopian, full of contradictions and inconsequence. It is just like we imagine the future to be. It is selective and random.� Urhahn Urban Design, Spontaneous City (Amsterdam: BIS Publishers, 2012)


COMERCE

1: manufacture mall crafts stores crafts production exhibition space : IT ore IT store technical service show room rket hall market restaurant exhibition space

PRODUCTION 1: reuse factory reuse factory outlet store exhibition space ctory IT factory outlet store exhibition space

packaging factory outlet store training polygon

LEISURE

1: performance centre theatre/music hall acting/music school props/ factory 2: visual art centre exhibition space workshops gallery 3: sport centre sport hall sport school sport equipment store 74


“...it is so tempting to make plans in which overlap occurs for its own sake. But overlap alone does not give structure. It can also give chaos... To have structure, you must have the right overlap, and this is for us almost certainly different from the old overlap which we observe in historic cities. As the relationships between functions change, so the systems which need to overlap in order to Christopher Alexander, City is not a tree

Program is divided in three categories which overlap, creating hybrids. Comerce is related to the existing Commercial Street, the backbone of the South Chicago neighborhood. Production creates opportunity for direct employment while Leisure improves the life quality of the people from the surrounding area. This programmatic choice covers the secondary, terciary and quarterly economic sectors providing diversity of employment while requiring diverse working skills and educational level as well as attracting various investments and people from wider Chicago area and beyond.

program

receive these, relationships must also change...�


production

leisure

secondary sector

tertiray sector

manufacturing sportswear manufacturing sport gear testing/production of new materials (i.e. D30)

production of movies / plays / concerts producing elements for the stage design / costumes manufacturing music instruments smaller music studios (to rent) advertisments (making posters/commercials)

theatre / cinema / concert hall festivals theme parks (western/sci-fi) auditions

waste sorting (local + city) recycling laboratories waste treatment veterinary laboratories

bird observatory zoo eco-park

simple manufacturing assembly gardening (recreational, but growing something that can be sold)

spa / wellness facilities therapeutic gardens swimming pools (therapeutic baths)

beehive farm agricultural production (fruit and veggies) other food production packaging catering services

farmers market food festivals cooking workshop events

producing medicines / drugs producing cosmetics hardcore toxic chemicals’ disposal testing laboratories

science workshops for kids / youth testing new products park of science

production of elements (i.e. solar panels) production energy algae factory powerplant

green energy expo DIY experimental tryouts

manufacturing smaller household objects producing furniture producing typical house units / parts of units material distribution center

household fair (lifestyle trends) eurocity theme park alternative US theme park DIY experimental tryouts gardening festival

production of hardware assembly of elements production of software storage for servers manufacturing vehicle pieces production of trams making electric cars toy factory 76

smaller sport playgrounds international sport events artificial rafting polygons (‘exotic’) exhibition of new materials / sport summits

IT expo

car-motorcycle ground racing polygon car exhibition / shopping industrial park


learning quarterly sector

vocational school for manufacturing sport stuff studying new materials school for physical education vocational schools for judges / coaches schools for training different sports school of acting / film music school school for PR & management art / graphic design school training for stunts cultural center

PROGRAM sport

art

school of ecology center for environmental aweareness researching recycling technologies veterinary institute

ecology

vocational school for physiotherapy school of psychiatry / medicine social care services rehabilitation center distribution point for addicts

health

vocational school (packaging / catering) gardening school culinary school food-related research (GMO etc.) learning about eating healthy vocational school for assembly line school for chemistry / pharmacy / medicine research center vocational school (assembly line) school of energetics research of new technologies vocational school to learn the craft (i.e. woodwork) vocational school for assembly line school for product design learning how to improve your house/garden

food

chemicals energy household infustry

vocational school (production / assembly) IT info center (local + city) school of IT for kids / youth research center

IT tech

vocational school for manufacturing school for mechanical engineering school for industrial design green transportation tech. research center driving school

hard industry


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AMENITIES

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Specific amenities in the close proximity to the site.

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Arsenal An “arsenal� of insertion points was created as a result of studying verious projects, their size, spatial requirements for each program, etc.

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Proposal offers flexible and adaptive urban growth by inserting specifically selected catalysts and extending existing urban logic.

level of the neighborhood, integrating the existing community within the new development, and on the global level, establishing the interaction between the site and the city center. Project also tends to address the low educational level and the demographic homogeneity of the South Chicago neighborhood as well as deal with the reduced quality of life which comes as a result of an overall lack of programmatic and spatial diversity.

proposal

Project operates simultaneously on the local


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The Spine

planned production spine

education recreation

performance existing water canal

production

existing ore walls

planned leisure spine

beginning of leisure spine

connecting inviting

production spine

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combination

a. pedestian b. car parking c. back alley

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The Playful Learning Environment South Works Urban Catalyst G1 / Marija Mateljan


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WHY PLAYFUL LEARNING? The project is focused on the subject of playful learning through hands-on and body-on activities which is in contrast with the existing condition of passive learning focused on academic pursuits. The idea was that revealing talents at early age might encourage children to pursue vocational schools, craftsmanship and other creative professions, as an alternative to pursuing university degree which is not affordable to everyone, especially in the United States. The building operates on multiple levels, as an attraction point for the city of Chicago and as an education catalyst for the surrounding neighborhoods. The starting point was that the idea of children’s museum should be reinterpreted. Positioned in an area surrounded by low educated communities interactive learning could make a greater impact on the overall education.

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“Play promotes healthy development of parent-child bonds, establishing social, emotional and cognitive developmental milestones that help them relate to others, manage stress, and learn resiliency.” (Ginsburg, Clinical Report, doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2697)

“Self-motivation, rather than external motivation, is at the heart of creativity, responsibility, healthy behavior, and lasting change.”

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U.S. EDUCATION SYSTEM Facts: Knowledge is static and complete. Children are experts in consuming knowledge (passive learning). School is mainly focused on academic pursuits. Children lack motivation. Knowledge is expensive which leads to many kids dropout school.

“Public health officials link insufficient playtime to a rise in childhood obesity.� (NY Times: Taking Play Seriously, by R. Marantz Henig, February 17, 2008)

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“U.S. students falling behind other countries in science and math, combined with the ever-more-intense competition to get kids into college, make parents rush to sign up their children for piano lessons and test-prep courses instead of just leaving them to improvise on their own; playtime versus résumé building.” (NY Times: Taking Play Seriously, by R. Marantz Henig, February 17, 2008)


SOUTH CHICAGO FAMILY PROFILE

3 family types

75 % afro-american 22 % hispanic 3 % white

2.8 average household size

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MAIN IDEA

CHANGE through P L A Y ! learning through PLAY < > PLAY through learning recreation through PLAY < > PLAY through recreation

target population kids (5-14) and parents (25+)

aim to make a fundamental change in awareness since early age and through raising parental awareness

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ALTERNATIVE LEARNING MODELS Instead, learning should be: Driven by intrinsic motivation. Focused on play - based on interactive creativity. Technology - enhanced learning environment. Promoting individualism and curiosity within the‘discovery model’. Active learning through ‘hands-on’ and ‘body-on’ physical activities. Focused n academic, practical and artistic pursuits. Discovering talents from early age. Encouraging individualism. Providing freedom of movement on innovative playgrounds.

“kids who enrolled in play-oriented preschools are more socially adjusted later in life than are kids who attended play-free preschools where they were constantly instructed by teachers.” (Scientific American Mind:The Serious Need for Play by Melinda Wenner,January 28, 2009)

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The idea of children’s museum should be reinterpreted. Positioned in an area surrounded by low educated communities interactive learning could make a greater impact on the overall education.


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THE BUILDING Playful Learning Environment is a programmatic combination of learning and recreation which addresses low educational level in South Chicago and provides technology and equipment not currently avalilable in the existing Chicago schools. Children are given the opportunity to experiment and reveal their talents from the early age. Learning and Recreation are intertwined through PLAY which is the main leitmotif of the project.

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Elementary Schools: a. public b. charter c. private

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How to utilize an existing landscape element as a generator of urban development? How to incorporate the existing water canal into the building design in order to create an attraction point ?

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Swimming Pool Entrance - passing over bridge

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Swimming Pool openning to the Canal


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PROGRAM Each volume has a unique atmosphere and is focused on a different phase of learning process (showoff, net-work, cave, lab, hill and jungle).

CAFE

SHOWOFF

NET-WORK

CAVE

view theatre

transformer presentation show what you made / learned

encounters fun socialization

physical activity

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private concentration introspective process group work communication


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LAB

HILL

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JUNGLE RESTAURANT

view park

experiment crafts hand-on and body-on work

climbing

physical activity

greenhouse cultivation food health

POOL

physical activity


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ALTERNATIVES Project has a couple of alternatives. In the first phase only the swimming pool and a single truss could be built. In that case swimming pool is an attraction point inviting people to cross the canal and the truss enables crossing. If, with time, the number of people visiting the South Work site increases truss can grow into the playground surface - a leisure platform, complementing the existing recreational program and accommodating public events.

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The Performance Center South Works Urban Catalyst G1 / Hrvoje Smidihen


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INTRODUCTION

South Works Performance Center is one of the three projects designed as a first phase of urban development of the former U.S. Steel’s site South Works in South Chicago. The projects are part of a larger urban strategy that was developed to initiate spontaneous urban growth in the neighborhood of South Chicago which is experiencing rapid decline and recession. By being placed literally in the old canal, SW performance center is using specificity of the site as well as the old industrial heritage to create surreal environment that can easily host different types of performances. In the exterior the building is just an enigmatic steel cube floating above water, while the interior reveals every aspect of the performance process. The theaters placed underwater are designed as a free, chaotic space intended for spontaneous performance without divisions between spectators and performers, while the steel cube hosting supporting facilities is designed in more pragmatic way.


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eliminate elitism and segregation

presence of iconic building

multi-form theatre proscenium, thrust, traverse, arena, studi and flat floor

interaction v

balconies are presence of social stratification

theatre is a place intended front and back of house>many different faces

the experience of visiting an event

im un

I frimly believe betwee

reate a space of creative collaboration streets are themselves showcase showcase in which people are exposed to each other

radical separation between production and consumptio

stage is a factory

the proliferation of front-of-house and back-of-house spaces threatens to strangle the auditorium itself

pla

theatre used to be hermetic container

braking dow important separation on public and production 136

between stag between aud


io,

The opera remains a last refuge of bourgeois culture

THEORY

paradox of theatres

the space where the event is consummated is overwhelmed by the accommodation in which the spectacle is produced

vs observation

people tend to look other people

d for creation of the virtual

the classical model is still repeated exhaustively even though it no longer corresponds to the contemporary cultural and social trends.

mportant division - between factory and auditorium nnecessary separation - between auditorium and foyer

e in a search for a fusion en ‘art’ and life.

on

participation of spectator

performance is energy

between performers and spectators

ace in which people can explore and broaden their creative horizons, push the limits of their creativity

wn the barriers

ge and auditorium ditorium and foyer

I’m starting this theatre so that new energies can get intertwined and young people can fortify the walls of this fortress of art with their creativity and vitality.’ Rade Šerbeđija


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wardrobe

scne dock

dressing rooms toilets/showers

STAGE

production office

administration

rehearsal room

AUDITORIUM

control

toilets

catering

ENTRANCE function rooms

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ticket sale


FUNCTIONAL SCHEME FRONT OF THE HOUSE 31%

HOUSE 21%

BACK OF THE HOUSE 22%

TECHNICAL SUPPORT 26 %

adm

inis

trat

ion bac

k st

12m

age

8m

pro sce nium fram stag e st spa e a ce s g tag e e

12m

12m 8m

35m

12m

20m

12m

sma

larg

ll au

e au

18m

8m

ran

30m

35m

ent 20m

uc

od

pr n

tio 14m

dito rium rium

dito

24m 20m

e ag

st 8m

r ne hi

ac

m

20m

24m

ce

y 16m

y lit bi y ta ilit ap xib ad fle al ce rm an fo m in for r pe


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HISTORY OF THEATRE AND STAGE


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ARENA

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THEATRON

PROSCENIU


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THRUST

SPACE STAGE

STAGE TYPOLOGIES


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Mary Miss Perimeters/Pavilions/Decoys


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CONCEPT

cube

auditoriums

canal

cores


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URBAN STRATEGY


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EXTERIOR

abstract and scaleless facade


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INTERIOR

chaotic performance space


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GAZE

auditorium = stage spectators = performers object = subject


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Obama Presidential Archive and Library by Roland Reemaa


First two projects are developed within a framework of a masterplan consisting of clusters, which

allows

to

have

decentralized

authority

and evolve partnerships with multiple interests.

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Obama Presidential Archive and Library by Roland Reemaa

South Works Temple of all Religions by Vaidotas Vaiciulis


Obama Presidential Archive and Library Undetermined Interiors Presidential archive and library is an odd but an unique building type in the USA that presidents establish after they leave their office. The complex program of archives, offices, research rooms, local library and exhibition halls calls for a flexible but nevertheless specific spaces. The proposal is a concrete structure which deviates for rooms in various scales. The structure becomes the organizer for the loose interior elements that bring together materials and users. The project was carried on scales of research, theory, masterplanning, architectural, structural design and interior materiality, largely focusing on the interiority of public spaces and the programmatic reconfiguration. The total graduation project was carried in two semesters as MSc3 urban planning (South Works) and MSc4 building design (Presidential Library)

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Project Obama Presidential Archive & Library

Critique to masterplanning 1

The current Lakeside development has severally been haulted for not finding profitable solutions for its first stage.

2

4

3

1

5

1

1

Changing the development Instead of rigid masterplanning the proposal is to open the total area for simultaneous but different interests. Through programmatic rehearsing the site could test its full potentials.

1

2

3

4

5

New proposal South-Works is based on strong narratives about intent and future. By introducing a local agent, we coordinate local interests with external investors and the possible spatial scenarios.

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SOUTH

WORKS


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Create opportunities for local community Developer

Proposal

SOUTH

WORKS

Negotiator between local initiatives, landowner and developers

Contribute to the local infrastructure/energy grid

a

growing

e

permanent investment

b

f

seeding

temporary investment

c

heritage

g intensification

d

landscape

h infrastructure

The stage-A proposal consists of seven separate projects with their own logic of growth and contributions which coulde be possible scenarios. The urban realm does not come into being through spatial limitations but through policies that govern a sustainable growth.

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Landowner and local initiatives


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Phase I Presidential Park stretched into the neighborhood for formal institutions and informal local activities.

Presidential park as basic infrastructure

Presidential institutions and initiatives

Phase II Private investments with public endowments into the neighborhood in jobs/welfare/amaneties.

Public park and amaneties

Private investors Hotels, restaurants, offices, entertainment

The Stage-B seeks the potentials to mix the formal with informal. While the prestigious presidential park invites investors, their contributions are asked to be built bearing in mind the local needs.

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Situation plan N

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Site plan 1:2000 N

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Situation model 1:500

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Ground floor plan 1:500

Ground floor plan snippet 1:200


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Essays Obama Presidential Archive & Library

American Landscape by Charles Sheeler, 1930 The Museum of Modern Art, New York

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Why 30 Feet Matter Essay of Obama Presidential Library When visiting Southworks site the memory of what used to be there is immediately apparent. The silence of the vast emptyness evokes imagination of trucks and ships, ore and smoke, thousands of people making steel - a product so embedded in American culture and Chicago especially. While the Loop grew into height with elevators and steel skeletons, the suburbs crawled into distance with highways and railroads. Industry was the source of the american landscape - so finely painted and titled by Charles Sheeler in 1930. The Southworks facility produced steel that built some of Chicago’s most iconic and important buildings. It is no wonder Mies van der Rohe found its way in Chicago to fully exploit and fine tune his interests in new materials and summed it up by saying “we are dependant on the spirit of our time.” The plentiful labour and demanding clients were a ground for reducing construction time, industrial mass production, repetable details, symmetrical plans and infinite grids - elements that made his architecture in his time. Nevertheless the everlasting frontier of the grid expansion has finished. The grounds of america are settled, cities have come together and the countrysides lie inbetween. United States is not to be seen as an infinite field of yet undiscovered possibilities but as clustered urban conditions that are even shrinking inherently. Chicago had it’s grand moments and grand spaces were built. The Crown Hall could be considered as one of the best monuments of it’s time: an empty container which dimensions do not really matter for it’s existance. In fact Mies did reduce it’s size simply by removing few rows of grid, these 30 feet did not really matter. Now the Southworks site is empty. Steel is produced in China. Chicago is dealing with sparse shady neighborhoods. Space is not an everexpanding abundance but a delicate topic in details of environment and social welfare. By no means the best days are over, but different moments and spaces are to come and made. 30 feet matter today. President Obama is working hard on rebuilding the respect for American production. Unlike previous presidents, he took a great care to obtain only american made products for his Oval office refurbishment in 2010. Crafts and customization, emerging technology and new ways of producing is his spirit of time. He, as the most important person in the country, represents the moral of complexity and subtility. For Obama there is no mass of infinitely repeatable pieces or a single gesture that solves problems. For many it may seem to be a character too soft for a country like United States of America. Nevertheless this attitude makes him an outstanding figure in the course of American presidents to set trends for coming ages. His White House blog is updated with students visiting his office, master chef brewing a beer, a beekeeper taking honey, coupled with serious news of bringing back troops from Afganistan, operations on economy and healthcare and inspiring shouts to support the ethics of American citizenship, promoting peace, justice, and dignity. President Obama is not a man with different faces, he is one person with moods and feelings, fun and business, friends and enemies. He takes time to consider and expresses the nuances of small things that have an effect on the big picture.

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The intention of this project is to embrace the complexity of what president Obama is standing for as the foremost person of the United States of America. Presidential library as a building type is not a place for retrospective worship but a synergical facility of various institutions at their core performance. As a mixture of archive, research center, museum spaces, public library and community center it’s program not only involves synergy and tension but also produces it outwards to South-Chicago. It is a vision of a building that truly creates natural human moments through its culture and interaction of various users. The Obama Presidential Library is positioned almost as a fallen stone onto an empty plot. It is surrounded by the very condition of the current site’s remains of industrial landscape. The presidential library is not highlighted by a well-kept podium of trimmed lawn. Instead pathways and minimal landscape interventions across gravel, slag and weedbeds retain the history and roughness of the place. Informality and the opportunity to work out the site with the locals is part of the project itself, not a precondition. Although a compact building, no single image captures it’s presence. The buildings existance is distinctively solid but ambiguous. A concrete shell with an undefined orientation bends and turns subtly inwards and outwards, revealing variously shaped openings of facades, materials in detail and unexpected elevations. Behind these walls, functions for private and public, spaces for intimacy and collective are embedded. The interiority of this public building is not considered in terms of bigness or emptyness grasped by a defined perspective through the building. Although still one flowing interior space inbetween the private functions, it is the structural elements of walls and columns that define spatial characters within that monospace. It is important that not all of these characters are predefined for programmatic actions, instead they create preconditions for ideas yet to come. Just as the Crown Hall by Mies van der Rohe is a total monospace with its pros and cons as an infinite void, the Obama Presidential Library is a field of various characters with boundaries that make the facility perform. Spaces such as auditoriums and exhibition halls span for 180 feet whereas corners and dead-ends for research and library rooms cover intimate private spaces of 30 feet. Because 30 feet matters.

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Ground plan of Crown Hall in IIT Campus, Chicago, by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 1956

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View of Savannah, 1734
Savannah is considered America’s first planned city. The engraving shows
the frontier of city expanding towards the land yet to discover.


Program Research Obama Presidential Archive & Library

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“Why taxpayers should be asked to support museums if they disregard historical objecticity?� - Larry Hackman In 2001, Larry Hackman, now the former curator for the Truman library in Missouri critically conducted a redesign for its exhibition update. For the most apolitical possibility he emplyed the design office Chermayeff and Geismer as external curators to freely search and propose a neutral look-back to Trumans presidential years. It has become a succesful as an exhibition but also a successful engine for historians and scholars for discussions and further researches.

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G.W. Bush at his exhibition opening in his presidential library, of paintings are done by himself.

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The museums and exhibits often vainglorious The exhibits outdate quickly The complex is built very large The museum spaces often inflexible Archives are often hidden, “put away�, separated from public routes Rarely include local public events, offer community services

Archive is the symbolic key for the building Archive reveals new information over time Brings scholarly researchers and creates discussions about history Foundation brings various facilities and invites new initiatives Strongly part of the American civic culture

The presidential library is a very unique type of building with its pros and cons and a very opportunistic building to redesign for the ideas that Obama stands for. The questions that arises by introducing such a powerful institution to the poor neighborhood is their organizational relationship. How can a top-down institution co-operate with a local root-level?

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Prior to Roosevelt’s Presidency, built in 1940 Hyde Park, New York, the final disposition of Presidential papers was left to chance. Although a valued part of the nation’s heritage, the papers of chief executives were private property which they took with them upon leaving office. Some were sold or destroyed and thus either scattered or lost to the nation forever. Others remained with families, but inaccessible to scholars for long periods of

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The latest library was finished in 2013 in Dallas Textas for G.W.Bush. It has become an matter of honour for presi-

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Donor examples for Clinton library

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 10-25mln $ Site is announced

The Coca-Cola Company 5-10mln $ Private non-profit organization to coordinate the library is created. Barack Obama initiated this officially in January 2014.

-3

Funds and supporters are looked for. Money can come from almost anybody, any company, person or country.

Founding period

Library is constructed with private and non-federal funds

0

Years after president leaves his office Lobby period for the site. Currently three institutino or developers have bid their place. South-Works proposal sohuld happen at this very moment.

University of Chicago

SOUTH

WORKS South Works proposal

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National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) takes over the responsibility, meaning that the privately funded building is handed over for taxpayers to maintain. In 2012, 13 official presidential libraries cost taxpayers $75 million to operate.

3

Opening period

4

Maturity period

Usually built big and for very specific usage, the lack of public use and the lack of money to update the exhibits have turned the libraries gradually into retrospectives states and with vainglorious atmospheres.

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National Archives and Records Administration Office of Presidential Libraries

Architecture and Design Standards for Presidential Libraries Revised May 2008

Optional areas: Permament exhibit gallery Temporary exhibit gallery Exhibit production rooms Orientation theater Auditorium Gift shop Presidential Suite Foundation offices

Because of the buildings high specificity for it’s functions there exists a document called Architecture and Design Standards for Presidential Libraries. In this document, in a very detailed manner, all of the primary and optional functions, sizes, light necessities and certain equipment are determined [See appendix 1 for a reworked summary for this project]

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SANITARY 15

MEETING 15

MANAGER 15

OFFICE 20

SANITARY 30

WORKSPACE 25

LOUNGE 20

WORKSPACE 25

FILE ROOM 20

DAY CARE ROOM 60 RECEPTIONIST 25 ARTIFACT PROCESSING 150

SANITARY 90

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 15

COMPUTER ROOM 70 PAINT SHOP 55

CANTEEN 100 EDUCATION SPECIALIST 15 OPEN SPACE 120

CURATOR 15 SANITARY 15

SANITARY 60

CLASSROOM 70 STORAGE 20

SANITARY 30 SUPERVISORY ARCHIVIST 15

PRODUCTION STUDIO 200

MEETINGS SPACE 20

REGISTRAR'S O

DEPUTY DIRECTOR 25

OPEN OFFICE 100

LIBRARY 300

AUDITORIUM 300

LIBRARY

AUDITORIUM

CLEAN ROOM 200

POLYVALENT 300 RESTAURANT 400

EXHIBIT SUPPORT STA

DIRECTOR 35

KITCHEN 150

CANTEEN

ASE OFFICE

POLYVALENT

COMMUNITY

OPEN SPACE

DIRECTOR'S SUITE

MUSEUM SUPPORT

MUSEUM S

MUSEU

STAFF

PROGRAM

SANITARY 15

MEETING 15

MANAGER 15

OFFICE 20

SANITARY 30

WORKSPACE 25

LOUNGE 20

WORKSPACE 25

FILE ROOM 20

DAY CARE ROOM 60 RECEPTIONIST 25 ARTIFACT PROCESSING 150

SANITARY 90

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 15

COMPUTER ROOM 70 PAINT SHOP 55

CANTEEN 100 EDUCATION SPECIALIST 15 OPEN SPACE 120

CURATOR 15 SANITARY 15

SANITARY 60

CLASSROOM 70 STORAGE 20

SANITARY 30 SUPERVISORY ARCHIVIST 15

PRODUCTION STUDIO 200

MEETINGS SPACE 20

REGISTRAR'S O

DEPUTY DIRECTOR 25

OPEN OFFICE 100

LIBRARY 300

RESTAURANT 400

LIBRARY

AUDITORIUM

OPEN SPACE

DAYLIGHT: needed not permitted permitted

200

CLEAN ROOM 200

POLYVALENT 300

AUDITORIUM 300

CANTEEN

EXHIBIT SUPPORT STA

DIRECTOR 35

KITCHEN 150

ASE OFFICE

POLYVALENT

COMMUNITY

DIRECTOR'S SUITE

STAFF

MUSEUM SUPPORT

MUSEUM S

MUSEU


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SW

NONTEXTUAL ARCHIVIST 15

NONTEXTUAL RESEARCH 110

NONTEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

MUSEUM STORAGE 150

NARA STORAGE 100 SCIF STORAGE 100

TEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

ARTEFACT ARCHIVE 200

ARTEFACT STORAGE 600

CONTRACTOR OFFICES 100

NARA LOGISTICS 100 TREASURE HALL PERMANENT EXHIBIT 125

AV COLD STORAGE 100

AV STORAGE 200

CIRCULATION 1600 TEXTUAL RESEARCH 150

FACILITY MANAGER 30

NARA RECEIVING 100 SECURITY CENTER 30

FFICE 15

ARCHIVE OPEN OFFICE 150 PROCESSED TEXTUAL 200

TEXTUAL STORAGE 900 CONFERENCE 70

AFF OFFICE 100

CURATED TEMPORARY EXHIBIT 600

INDOOR DOCKING 150

STAFF LOUNGE 150

ORIENTATION 40

TECHNICAL 250

STAFF

MUSEUM SPACES

CURATED ARCHIVE

ARCHIVE STORAGE

ARCHIVE SUPPORT

CURATED ARCHIVE

UM

ARCHIVE STAFF

ARCHIVE RESEARCH

ARCHIVE

FACILITY

FACILITY

NONTEXTUAL ARCHIVIST 15

NONTEXTUAL RESEARCH 110

NONTEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

MUSEUM STORAGE 150

NARA STORAGE 100 SCIF STORAGE 100

TREASURE HALL PERMANENT EXHIBIT 125

TEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

ARTEFACT ARCHIVE 200

ARTEFACT STORAGE 600

CONTRACTOR OFFICES 100

NARA LOGISTICS 100 AV STORAGE 200

AV COLD STORAGE 100

CIRCULATION 1600 TEXTUAL RESEARCH 150

FACILITY MANAGER 30

NARA RECEIVING 100 SECURITY CENTER 30

FFICE 15

AFF OFFICE 100

STAFF

UM

ARCHIVE OPEN OFFICE 150 PROCESSED TEXTUAL 200

TEXTUAL STORAGE 900 CONFERENCE 70

CURATED TEMPORARY EXHIBIT 600

INDOOR DOCKING 150

STAFF LOUNGE 150

ORIENTATION 40

TECHNICAL 250

MUSEUM SPACES

CURATED ARCHIVE

CURATED ARCHIVE

ARCHIVE STORAGE

ARCHIVE SUPPORT

ARCHIVE

ARCHIVE STAFF

ARCHIVE RESEARCH

FACILITY

FACILITY

RR


SANITARY 15

MEETING 15

MANAGER 15

OFFICE 20

SANITARY 30

WORKSPACE 25

LOUNGE 20

WORKSPACE 25

FILE ROOM 20

DAY CARE ROOM 60 RECEPTIONIST 25 ARTIFACT PROCESSING 150

SANITARY 90

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 15

COMPUTER ROOM 70 PAINT SHOP 55

CANTEEN 100 EDUCATION SPECIALIST 15 OPEN SPACE 120

CURATOR 15 SANITARY 15

SANITARY 60

CLASSROOM 70 STORAGE 20

SANITARY 30 SUPERVISORY ARCHIVIST 15

PRODUCTION STUDIO 200

MEETINGS SPACE 20

REGISTRAR'S O

DEPUTY DIRECTOR 25

OPEN OFFICE 100

LIBRARY 300

AUDITORIUM 300

LIBRARY

CLEAN ROOM 200

KITCHEN 150

CANTEEN

AUDITORIUM

EXHIBIT SUPPORT STA

DIRECTOR 35

POLYVALENT 300 RESTAURANT 400

ASE OFFICE

POLYVALENT

COMMUNITY

OPEN SPACE

DIRECTOR'S SUITE

MUSEUM SUPPORT

MUSEUM S

MUSEU

STAFF

USER CIRCULATION: visitor - one time visitor local - daily user scholarly researcher - user period in weeks,months staff/archivist/curator - daily worker

SANITARY 15

OFFICE 20 MEETING 15 MANAGER 15

DAY CARE ROOM 60

SANITARY 30

WORKSPACE 25

WORKSPACE 25

ARTIFACT PROCESSING 150

COMPUTER ROOM 70 PAINT SHOP 55 LOUNGE 20

CANTEEN 100

CURATOR 15

PRODUCTION STUDIO 200

SANITARY 90 SANITARY 15 CLASSROOM 70 SANITARY 60 SANITARY 30

OPEN SPACE 120

SUPERVISORY ARCHIVIST 15

MEETINGS SPACE 20

REGISTRAR'S O CLEAN ROOM 200

FILE ROOM 20 EDUCATION SPECIALIST 15

RECEPTIONIST 25

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER 15

DEPUTY DIRECTOR 25 DIRECTOR 35 OPEN OFFICE 100

EXHIBIT SUPPORT STA LIBRARY 300

STORAGE 20

AUDITORIUM 300

POLYVALENT 300 RESTAURANT 400

DOMAIN

LIBRARY

AUDITORIUM

OPEN SPACE

CANTEEN

KITCHEN 150

ASE OFFICE

POLYVALENT

COMMUNITY

DIRECTOR'S SUITE

STAFF

CLUSTER PROGRAM - connection in their domain: connected - spaces that require to be aside (direct doorway) adjacent - spaces that require to be nearby (direct circulation) floating program - freely positionable independent space (undirect connection to support spaces)

202

MUSEUM SUPPORT

MUSEUM S

MUSEU


CP

SW

NONTEXTUAL ARCHIVIST 15

NONTEXTUAL RESEARCH 110

NONTEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

MUSEUM STORAGE 150

NARA STORAGE 100 SCIF STORAGE 100

TEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

ARTEFACT ARCHIVE 200

ARTEFACT STORAGE 600

CONTRACTOR OFFICES 100

NARA LOGISTICS 100 TREASURE HALL PERMANENT EXHIBIT 125

AV COLD STORAGE 100

AV STORAGE 200

CIRCULATION 1600 TEXTUAL RESEARCH 150

FACILITY MANAGER 30

NARA RECEIVING 100 SECURITY CENTER 30

FFICE 15

ARCHIVE OPEN OFFICE 150 PROCESSED TEXTUAL 200

TEXTUAL STORAGE 900 CONFERENCE 70

AFF OFFICE 100

CURATED TEMPORARY EXHIBIT 600

INDOOR DOCKING 150

STAFF LOUNGE 150

ORIENTATION 40

TECHNICAL 250

STAFF

MUSEUM SPACES

CURATED ARCHIVE

ARCHIVE STORAGE

ARCHIVE SUPPORT

CURATED ARCHIVE

UM

ARCHIVE STAFF

ARCHIVE RESEARCH

ARCHIVE

FACILITY

FACILITY

NONTEXTUAL ARCHIVIST 15

NONTEXTUAL RESEARCH 110

NONTEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

MUSEUM STORAGE 150

SCIF STORAGE 100

FACILITY MANAGER 30

TEXTUAL PROCESSING 60

ARTEFACT ARCHIVE 200

ARTEFACT STORAGE 600

NARA STORAGE 100 TEXTUAL RESEARCH 150

TREASURE HALL PERMANENT EXHIBIT 125

AV STORAGE 200

AV COLD STORAGE 100

CIRCULATION 1600 NARA LOGISTICS 100

CONTRACTOR OFFICES 100

NARA RECEIVING 100

SECURITY CENTER 30

FFICE 15

AFF OFFICE 100

STAFF

UM

ARCHIVE OPEN OFFICE 150 PROCESSED TEXTUAL 200

CONFERENCE 70

TEXTUAL STORAGE 900

INDOOR DOCKING 150

CURATED TEMPORARY EXHIBIT 600

ORIENTATION 40

STAFF LOUNGE 150

TECHNICAL 250

MUSEUM SPACES

CURATED ARCHIVE

CURATED ARCHIVE

ARCHIVE STORAGE

ARCHIVE SUPPORT

ARCHIVE

ARCHIVE STAFF

ARCHIVE RESEARCH

FACILITY

FACILITY

RR


$250,000,000

$165,000,000

$20,800,000

$43,000,000

10219 10684

4800 4130

W.BUSH 2013

CLINTON 2004

W.H.BUSH 1997

NIXON 1990

REAGAN 1988

CARTER 1986

FORD 1982

KENNEDY 1979

JOHNSHON 1971

HOOVER 1962

EISENHOWER 1959

TRUMAN 1957

ROOSEVELT 1941

2

Presidential library size m

W.BUSH 2013

CLINTON 2004

W.H.BUSH 1997

TRUMAN 1957

5935 6480 6320 6300 5700

KENNEDY 1979

$1,700,000

ROOSEVELT 1941

204

$376,000

Presidential library costs USD

20996

12510

14241

8688


CP

R. Reagans library in Simi Valley boasts with a full size Air Force One in his special Air Force One Pavilion with other transportation means

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RR


Jimmi Carter 1979

Gerald R. Ford 1979

Harry S. Truman 1979

Woodrow Wilson 1979

Franklin D. Roosevelt 1979

Rutherford Hayes 1979

Quincy Stone 1979

International Center for Jefferson Studies 1979

JFK Library 1979

Reagan Center 1998

Currently existing presidential libraries

206

Richard Nixon 1979

Herbert Hoover 1979

Ulysses S. Grant 1979

George Bush 1979

Clinton Center 2004

Dwight D. Eisenhower 1979

Calvin Coolidge 1979

Abraham Lincoln 1979

Lyndon Baines Johnson Library 1979

G.W.Bush Center 2013


CP

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

Museum of Presidential History

Presidential foundation and staff areas

The existing presidential libraries usually consist of archive spaces, exhibition spaces and office areas for the presidential foundation and the staff of the building.

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Archive

Electronic

Objects

Texts Campaign materials Photographs

E-mails Photos Movies Audio files

Personal belongings Awards Artefacts Gifts

804m3 documents

93m3 audiovisual + 80 terabytes information

745m3 artefacts

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

This is the current amount of information kept in the most modern presidential library of G.W.Bush in Dallas, Texas.

208


CP

For Clinton’s presidential library, it took 8 fully loaded C-5 cargo airplanes to transfer the materials to his library in Little Rock, Arkansas.

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Polysterene rigid insulation t=100mm Adhesive strip layer 5mm

450mm

American Oak timber frame 200x100mm Low ironed double glazing 8+8mm Metal clamp t=0.5mm Soft polyurethane foam insulation Window insulation kit with external sealant strip

Adhesive strip layer 5mm

450mm

212mm

Metal clamp t=0.5mm Window insulation kit with external sealant strip

Low ironed double glazing 8+8mm

Low ironed double glazing 8+8mm

Adhesive strip layer 5mm

212mm

Metal clamp t=0.5mm Window insulation kit with external sealant strip

860mm

Soft polyurethane foam insulation

860mm

100.00

100.00

Polysterene rigid insulation t=100mm Adhesive strip layer 5mm American Oak timber frame 200x100mm Metal clamp t=0.5mm Window insulation kit with external sealant strip

Polysterene rigid insulation t=100mm Adhesive strip layer 5mm Low ironed double glazing 8+8mm American Oak timber frame 200x100mm Metal clamp t=0.5mm Window insulation kit with external sealant strip

Low ironed double glazing 8+8mm

Prefab concrete panel glued t=20mm Prefab concrete panel glued t=20mm Prefab concrete panel glued t=20mm Side gravel

210

Prefab concrete panel glued t=20mm Metal corner Underfloor heated concrete slab Polished finishing, grit level 100


CP

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South Works Temple of all Religions by Vaidotas Vaiciulis


South Works Temple of all Religions by Vaidotas Vaiciulis

214


CP

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Religion in Chicago

Me standing next to the christian church While visiting Chicago I was amazed how many sacred buildings the city can have. Although about 69% of Chicagoans are Catholics, however there are many more religious communities: Jews, Baptists, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhist and many more. The research on the importance of religion in Chicago showed that the city has long been an interfaith center for multiple religious communities. The interfaith dialogue started in Chicago when the city played host to the first two Parliaments of the World’s Religions in 1893 and 1993.

Most of the Chicagoans are Catholics - 69% 216


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M_CULTURE

Chicago’s Places of worship

M_CULTURE

287

Chicago’s Places of worship

Chicago’s Catholic Churches

Chicago’s Baptist Churches

Chicago’s Episcopal Churches

Chicago’s ChirstianChurches Chicago’s Catholic Churches Chicago’s Lutheran Churches

Chicago’s Baptist Churches Chicago’s Eastern Orthodox Churches

Chicago’s Presbyterian Churches Chicago’s Episcopal Churches Chicago’s Methodist Churches Chicago’s ChirstianChurches Chicago’s Buddist Temple Chicago’s Muslim Masjid Churches Chicago’s Lutheran Chicago’s Jewish Congregations Chicago’s Eastern Orthodox Churches

Chicago’s Presbyterian Churches

Chicago’s Methodist Churches Diagram shows the amount of religious buildings in Chicago

Chicago’s Buddist Temple Chicago’s Muslim Masjid

287


Chicago is the center of diversity

IMMIGRATION

FOUNDATION

EXPANSION

The diversity of religious community is a result of long immigration The rapid immigration starting at 19’th century brought new cultures and therefore new religious communities. This is why Chicago is considered to be an interfaith center in the U.S. The religious communities used to give hope, shelter and food to the incomers and were centers of resistance against segregation. 218

According to the statistics, the importance of religion today is in serious decline. Nowadays Chicagoans are less religious and thus the sacred buildings become less and less used. Some sacred buildings are being closed due to their shrinking communities.


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CHANGE IN % OF CHRISTIANS BY STATE BETWEEN 1990 AND 2008

The number of christians decline every year in the whole u.s. in 2012 the number of catholics declined to 30 % from 33% in 1990

Most of the days these buildings stand empty

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Religion in South Chicago S_ARCHITECTURE+URBANISM

1

3

2

Christ Bible Church

6

Saint Michael’s School

7

National Shrine of St Jude

16

Lighthouse Baptist Church

21

God First God Always God

Saint Michael Catholic Church 8

Greater Rising Sun Missionary Baptist Church

St Paul Ame Church

11

4

12

Prayer Cloth Ministries

17

18

Cornerstone Church Of Chicago

Institute of Blessed Virgin

Church of Saint Bride

19

New Nazareth Baptist Church

23

New Hope Community Baptist Church

New Prospects

Immaculate Conception Church

36

15

41

20

St Jude Educational Institute

Gabaon Baptist Church

Holy Church

Spirit Saint Mary Magdalene Catholic Church 34

39

St George Roman Catholic Church

43

Our Lady of Peace Catholic

Church

35

44

48

South Shore Bible Baptist Church

40

Sacred Heart Catholic Ethiopian Orthodox Church Church

St Philip Neri Church South Shore United Methodist Church

St.Luke Missionary Baptist Church

Nation of Islam

30

Breath of Life Christian The Church of Living Haven of Rest MissionCenter Faith ary Baptist Church

New Eden Evangelical Baptist

47

Christian Fellowship MB Church

Sweet

38

42

46

25

Greater Mount Pleasant Missionary Baptist Church

Saint Margarets Episcopal Church

29

33

37

Free Salvation MB Church

Jehovah’s Witnesses

God Will Provide Ministries 32

The Calvary Baptist Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe Church

Calvary Baptist Church

24

St Bronislava’s Church

S_ARCHITECTURE+URBANISM

28

27

31

10

14

New Spiritual Light Missionary

Greater Metropolitan Church of Christ

22

Morning Star Bible Baptist Church

Pilgrim Baptist Church

13

26

5

9

245

49

Mt Pleasant Baptist Church

45

Nehemiah Urban Church Ministries

50

Apostolic Church of God

There are about 50 sacred buildings in South Chicago South Chicago neighborhood has a large amount of sacred buildings. For the neighborhood of 30,000 people such a density of religious centers is remarkable. There is one building for 600 people, including the believers and none believers. About 50% of these people would stand for “believers” category, however roughly 150 people would be considered to be real believers that attend occasionally to the religious services. Let’s presume that only 20 people from South Chicago attend to this sacred building every day. 20 people! This means that the sacred building is barely used throughout the day. Let’s make an assumption that only 1000 people use these 50 centers every day. 50 buildings, which share almost the same program: lobby, main hall, administration, WC, cloakroom, etc. One of the reason why these type of buildings are so inefficient is that community in South Chicago is strongly divided in separate groups and subgroups: Latina, Afro-American, Eastern Europeans, etc. In the end we have weak, ununited community. 220

“When big migration happened the chappel been the place where people came...so that they could get help, hope and home”. Methodist from South Chicago

247


CP

1/600 ?

+

?

-

1/300 -

+

+

+

MAMA

There is one sacred building for 600 people from South Chicago

1/150 +

About 300 people would consider themselves being believers

1/20

+

Roughly 150 people would attend the services ones in the week

That means only 20 people would visit this building every day

Lobby kitchen administration cloakroom wc...

1000

50 inefficient buildings with almost the same infrastructure

Each building has its own target group

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The Need for Interfaith Center

South Chicago neighborhood - a place for all cultures Until 1970’s South Chicago has been open for different cultures due to the many working places in steel production. The interfaith cluster will help the existing neighborhood to regain this pride. Such a cluster will encourage other multicultural groups to settle down in South Chicago. The diversity of different cultures will make the neighborhood an attractive place to invest and thus new working places will be established. Due to the strong united interfaith community South Chicago will become safe and a good place to live in. The interfaith center will attract visitors not only from the rest of Chicago, but also people globally. The center will have potential to become the most visited building in the world, similar to the Lotus interfaith temple, a most visited building worldwide located in New Delhi, India.

Diverse, stronger, united, proud and safe community

222


CP

Efficient interfaith center in South Chicago would bring pride and hope to the existing community

The center would make South Chicago to an attractive place for Chicagoans to work and live in

Most visited building in Chicago? Maybe worldwide?

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No doubt that such building would be known worldwide and would become a tourist attraction


224


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Interfaith cluster in South Chicago

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Interfaith Cluster in South Chicago

AWAY FROM TRAFFIC

POTENTIAL LANDMARK

PLACE

BIGGER

FOR

POTENTIAL LOCATION

CLOSE TO MICHIGAN LAKE AND CALUMET RIVER

POSSIBLE MOVEMENT PLACE FOR LANDMARK

Cluster’s location The interfaith cluster is located in the southern part of the site. The location is away from bigger roads, as well as it is a perfect place for a landmark - the area is surrounded by the Michigan Lake and Calumet River. After analyzing references of similar clusters the estimation of required program was made. The examples of possible cluster plans were drawn. Eventually the radial plan was chosen due to its monumentality and efficiency. The cluster contains an interfaith monument in the center of the cluster - the Temple of All Religions. All the buildings are facing it. The further you go from the center, the taller and more permanent buildings are. The interfaith temple is surrounded by the ring of pools and large open square, which face the radial camping-park. Further, there is a ring of workshops-retail. Finally, the cluster ends with two residential-commercial rings. Healtcare is placed on the water, away from the neighborhood. The outside rings contain roads for cars, whereas the rest of the area is used by cyclists and pedestrians. 226

The monument in the center of radial cluster


CP OFFICE

5 %

HEALTHCARE

10 %

RETAIL

CULTURE

10 %

15 %

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HEALTH CLINIC SOBER/RECOVERY HOUSES HALFWAY HOUSES SHELTERS

1 % 3 % 3 %

3 %

GALLERY SPORTS WORKSHOP SQUARE

0.5 % 1% 1.5 % 2 %

ECUMENICAL CENTER

10 %

MONASTARIES 10 %

CAMPING

20 %

RESIDENTIAL 60 %

HOUSING

30 %

The program bar of cluster

Healthcare Workshops Park-camping

Park

Square

Residential + retail + cultural

The site plan of interfaith cluster

The Temple of All Religions

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SOUTH BELIEVES WORKS

228


CP

Axo of Interfaith cluster with the temple in it’s core

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230

Origins of Religion

The early collage of the Temple of All Religions To design the Temple of All Religions the clear research what religion is, where it came from had to be done. The historical analysis showed that religions share the same truth and origin. Likely the first religion appeared when people have set the answers to their existential questions. Later these answers got interpreted by different cultures and therefore nowadays we have so many denominations sharing the same origin. The main goal for my graduation project was to preserve the identities of different religions. However, it is also important to unite them, because they all question the same truth.

Christianity has this much of denominations 230


231

THE MAIN GOAL

TO PURSUE UNITY BETWEEN DIFFERENT RELIGIONS BY KEEPING THEIR OWN IDENTITIES

The aim of the graduation project

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Research on Sacred Buildings

Today it is hard to identify, which sacred building belongs to which religion Later the comprehensive research on classical and contemporary religious architecture was done. By using architectural literature and analyzing the most significant references it was possible to identify the differences and affinities between different sacred buildings. More, to enrich the understanding on this particular building typology, multiple religious buildings across the Netherlands were visited and ministers were interviewed. Although each building has its own specific features, elements, however they all follow the main principles based on different religion. During this research process the design proposals were developed. They were evolving through the sketches, program analyzes, modeling and collages. Finally, in order to avoid being too abstract clear arguments and statements were made, which helped to summarize the research and lead to the final design of this graduation project.

232

“There is nothing wrong to design religious buildings in modern way. However, you can’t cross the line outside the religion itself � From interview with imam


CP Gallery 896 m2 43 m

Fountain 24 m2

64 m

73

Pray room 2921 m2

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VV

Mihrab 108 m2

Minber (pulpit) 33 m2 Royal loge 361 m2

Courtyard 1347 m2

m

3m 11 65 m

Portico 1241 m2 0.5% Fountain + Minber 1.5% Mihrab 5% Royal loge

13% Gallery

18% Portico The mosque has also school (mandrasa), comb and hospital 19% Courtyard

TOTAL = 6931 m2 Main and secondary cupolas make the mosque spacious. Also the interior has no seats, only carpet

42% Pray room

Research of the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmed mosque) in Istanbul

SKYLIGHT IS IMPORTANT ELEMENT FOR CHRISTIAN CHURCHES

THE CHURCH FUNTIONS ONLY FEW TIMES IN A WEEK

ALTAR FOR PROTESTANT SERVICES ORGANS ARE USED DURING THE MASS

SEATS FOR PEOPLE. IN TOTAL 500 PLACES

Analysis of visited Protestant church


Buddha

Shiva

Ad orientem Jerusalem Mecca

The direction of major religions

Church

Synagogue

Mosque

Buddhist temple

The plans of sacred buildings are similar to the plans of theaters These are the findings that helped me later in design process: 1. Sacred buildings have their own directions. The buildings of Eastern religions (Buddhism, Hinduism) face the West, while the buildings of Western ones (Christianity, Islam, Judaism) face the East. 2. The arrangement of the plan and the symbolism are the main 234

factors that distinguish today’s religious buildings. Their typical plans contain the main stage (altar, mihrab, Buddha, etc.) and the auditorium. It is similar to the plans of theaters. 3. All sacred buildings contain main and extra program. The extra program is often used for public purposes: library, community rooms, canteen, exhibition hall, etc.


CP

rooms

library

rooms

lecture rooms

cloakroom

cloakroom reception cloakroom reception

activity rooms/exhibitions

activity rooms/exhibitions

lobby, corridors

plant room lecture rooms

office

kitchen

activity rooms. communal spaces cloakroom reception organ, administration choir

shull hall

church hall

altar

cloakroom reception cloakroom reception

activity rooms/exhibitions lobby, corridors

plant room lecture rooms

rooms rooms

shull hall

altar

lecture rooms

lecture rooms

library

lecture rooms worship hall

bath administration

bath administration

wc

worship hall wc pool entrance - terrace

entrance - terrace storage

mihrab Extra program bath

kitchen organ Bimah entrance

wc

mihrab

mihrab

Extra program

administration

wc

storages

lobby, corridors administration

worship hall

entrance - terrace

administration bath bath entrance entrance - terrace - terrace

wc church hall

cloakroom lobby, corridors

activity rooms. communal spaces wc

storage

pool storage

pool

rooms

storages activity rooms. communal spaces storages office lobby, corridors

shull hall

organ, administration choir

entrance - terrace

Main program

entrance

Bimah entrance Sacred organ buildings contain extra program

shull hall

entrance + garden

worship hall

library administration

wc cloakroom

library

kitchen

wc plant activity lobby, room rooms/exhibitions corridors wc altar church hall entrance + garden church hall

wc

kitchen

activity rooms. cloakroomcommunal receptionspaces organ, choir administration organ, administration choir

entrance + garden

bath administration

organ Bimah Main program

office

Extra program

entrance - terrace storage

administration

office

plant lobby, room corridors kitchen

pool entrance - terrace

storages lobby, corridors administration

cloakroom

lecture rooms

wc

worship hall wc

entrance

wc

kitchen lecture kitchen rooms

activity rooms/exhibitions

lecture rooms worship hall

bath administration

bath administration

mihrab

activity rooms. wc communal spaces

wc entrance + garden

lobby, corridors

mihrab

mihrab

kitchen organ Bimah entrance

shull hall organ, administration choir

Main program

library cloakroom

organ Bimah

wc plant activity lobby, room rooms/exhibitions corridors wc altar church hall entrance + garden altar

rooms

storages activity rooms. communal spaces storages lobby, office corridors

storage

pool storage

pool

kitchen

plant lobby, room corridors kitchen

church hall

lecture rooms

lecture rooms

office

organ, administration choir

entrance + garden

cloakroom

library

kitchen lecture kitchen rooms

organ Bimah

entrance

mihrabmihrab

altar

administration administration wc

shull hall

wc

administration

wc

worship worship hall hall library library

storages storages cloakroom cloakroom reception reception

pool pool

lobby, lobby, plant plantlecturelecture corridors corridorsroom roomrooms rooms rooms rooms

Baha’i temple

organ, organ, altar altarchoir choir wc

kitchenkitchen

wc

storagestorage library library cloakroom cloakroom

office office

mosque

kitchenkitchen

+

administration administration

lecturelecture rooms rooms

activityactivity rooms.rooms. communal communal spacesspaces

SW

entrance entrance + garden + garden

churchchurch hall hall

church

activityactivity rooms/exhibitions rooms/exhibitions lobby, lobby, corridors corridors

Public program

mega church

Hindu temple

organ organ Bimah Bimah entrance entrance

shull hall shull hall

wc

wc

synagogue

administration administration

Buddhist temple

The extra program could be shared between different religious groups

VV


Massing Studies CONFRONTING TWO SIDES

OPTION 1 “Facing each other”

HIERARCHY. NO COMMUNICATION

HIERARCHY. NO COMMUNICATION TOO AUTONOMOUS

OPTION 2 “Stacking”

OPTION 3 “Religious skyscraper”

OPTION 4 “All equal”

Different options

+ PUBLIC PROGRAM

“Religious skyscraper” + “All equal” After the research was done the massing studies were done. These experiments showed that is rather easy to confront different religions than unite them. The option 3 and 4 have to be explained, because it helped to make final design. The option of “Religious skyscraper” proposed the temples to be stacked and carved out from its simple volume. Its disadvantage is clear: strong hierarchy, no communication between religious clusters. Whereas the option 4 proposed to have 2 layers: public floor with public program and religious floor with temples placed on its pedestal. Although “All equal” was the most appealing due to its “in between” spaces around the clusters and equality, however it 236

missed the unifying element, which we is found in the option 3. By joining the third and the forth options the final conceptual diagram was found. The Temple of All Religions contains three different layers: monumental entrance (“Stairway to Heaven”), shared public floor (“Home”) and the floor with multiple religious clusters (“Heaven”). These clusters are also carved out from the simple volume. More, they are placed on the same level, which avoids hierarchy and makes them all equal. Between these clusters you find “in between” spaces, which encourages the visitor to explore the temple. All three floors are unified with the atrium.


CP

SW

United space Public program Monumental entrance The conceptual diagram

United space

“Heaven”

Public program

“Home”

Monumental entrance

“Stairway to heaven”

The temple has three layers joined with the atrium

VV


238


CP

The outside view to the Temple of All Religions

SW

VV


240


CP

Site plan

SW

VV


242


“In between” in the square

CP

SW

VV


244


CP

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The ground flooor can be used for bigger events

VV


246


CP

By using the escalator the visitor can see all three floors

SW

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248


At night the clusters become visible


250


CP

Small rooms are used by other smaller religious groups, including atheists and agnostics

SW

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252


CP

Exterior view in winter

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VV



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