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New Column!

Estimation

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Fall/Winter 2016 • Vol. 7, No. 3

Materials • Technology • Trends

EXPRESS BEAUTY AND INTEREST WITH

NATURAL STONE p16

Seismic Reinforcement in LA p6

Onsite Masonry Production p22

Saving an Historic School p32


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volume 7 | number 3

Fall/Winter2016 |contents

f e at u r e s 6

Technology / Retrofitting & Reinforcement

6

Saving A Building And A Forgotten Work Of Art

In 2012, the City of Los Angeles and the Getty Conservation Institute funded a plan to restore a forgotten mural on the historic Italian Hall Building. As part of the restoration, the mural wall needed to be strengthened to reduce the likelihood of damage to the historical monument during earthquakes that often occur in the Los Angeles area. By Chukwuma G. Ekwueme, PhD, PE, SE, LEED AP

16

Materials / Natural Stone

Express Beauty And Interest With Natural Stone

22

Natural stone can add unique texture and elegance to a room, building, or outdoor space that can’t be achieved with other materials. Incorporating natural stone into interior or exterior settings can give both residential and commercial spaces a little something special. Whether you’re designing a residential space or a grand foyer in a public building, using natural stone is a guaranteed way to make a statement. By Kleber & Associates

22

Design Trends / Green Building

Onsite Masonry Production from Diverted Excavation

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Watershed Materials is exploring a solution to a problem that real estate developers often face—excavation that has to be moved off a construction site to make way for new buildings. Rather than haul off the excavation spoils and then import thousands of CMUs for use at a pilot project, the developers and Watershed Materials are repurposing native excavation material to create the structural masonry blocks used in the development. By David Easton Materials • Technolog y • Trends


www.masonr ydesignmagazine.com LIONHEART PUBLISHING, INC. 506 Roswell Street, Suite 220, Marietta, GA 30060 Tel: 770.431.0867 Fax: 770.432.6969 E-mail: lpi@lionhrtpub.com www.masonrydesignmagazine.com Publisher John Llewellyn llewellyn@lionhrtpub.com Editor Cory Sekine-Pettite cory@lionhrtpub.com Art Director Alan Brubaker albrubaker@lionhrtpub.com Online Projects Manager Patton McGinley patton@lionhrtpub.com

On the cover: Rough and sleek work together with this textured wall of Chop Face limestone and the smoothness of the steel, glass, and teak stairs at this art gallery. Our cover feature on natural stone examines the versatility of stone for use in both commercial and residential projects.

16

Photo courtesy of Kleber & Associates.

32 Design Trends / Green Building

Iredale Mineral Cosmetics International Headquarters

Croxton Collaborative Architects recently completed the 21,000-square-foot international headquarters for Iredale Mineral Cosmetics in Great Barrington, Mass. Adding to the company’s smaller home base nearby, the new structure represents the rehabilitation of the abandoned 1886 William Cullen Bryant School building (and its early 1900s addition), a Massachusetts Cultural Resource, as a 21st century center of operations. By Randolph R. Croxton, FAIA, LEED AP

co l u mns & d epa r t me n t s 4 From the Editor 44 Supplies

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45 Index to Advertisers 46 Estimation

Assistant Online Projects Leslie Proctor Manager leslie@lionhrtpub.com Advertising Sales Marvin Diamond marvin@lionhrtpub.com Advertising Sales Aileen Kronke aileen@lionhrtpub.com Reprints & Subscriptions Kelly Millwood kelly@lionhrtpub.com

The editorial mission of Masonry Design is to educate and inform architects, engineers and specifiers about the vital role that masonry plays in the construction markets in the United States and Canada, as well as to promote masonry and masonry systems in building design (commercial, residential, institutional and educational), interior design and hardscaping applications. With each issue, readers will become better informed of the design trends, latest materials and newest technologies that will aid them in creating better masonry projects.

Masonry Design (ISSN 1941-0975) is published quarterly by Lionheart Publishing, Inc.

Subscription Rates – For a free subscription to Masonry Design and Masonry Design eNews, sign up at: www.masonrydesignmagazine.com Click on Subscribe

Copyright © 2016 by Lionheart Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. The copyright owner, however, does consent to a single copy of an article being made for personal use. Otherwise, except under circumstances within “fair use” as defined by copyright law, no part of this publication may be reproduced, displayed or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner, Lionheart Publishing, Inc. Send e-mail permission requests to cory@lionhrtpub.com.

Disclaimer – The statements and opinions in the articles of this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Lionheart Publishing, Inc. or the editorial staff of Masonry Design or any sponsoring organization. The appearance of advertisements in this magazine is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised.

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from the editor

Minis & Marble

Cory Sekine-Pettite, editor To make comments or suggestions, send e-mail to cory@lionhrtpub.com.

For most working Americans, free time is a precious commodity these days. I would wager that most of you don’t know a single soul who works a “standard” 9-to-5 and then spends the weekends doing whatever he or she pleases, never checking their smartphone for that all-too-important email. I certainly don’t know anyone like that, and I don’t fit the description either. However, when I do find myself with a free Saturday or Sunday, I often spend them with a small group of fellow auto enthusiasts. Specifically, we all own Mini Coopers, and we enjoy driving the twisty roads of the North Georgia Mountains. If you’re not having a good time with these folks, then you’re not driving fast enough. I only bring this up in the pages of this magazine because during one recent trip, I found myself asking my wife/co-pilot to quickly look up some information on a building as we drove past. You see, even while navigating sharp turns and undulating hills, and trying to keep up with my car club friends, my job is never far from my mind. The structure in question—Tate Elementary School in Tate, Ga.—I would come to learn was constructed in 1927 and is built entirely of Georgia “Cherokee White” marble. The school was made possible by Georgia Marble Company president, Colonel Sam Tate. The column-flanked, two-story structure truly is a site to behold. In fact, in 2005, Tate Elementary, along with the Georgia Marble

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Company and Tate Historic District, was placed on the State of Georgia, Department of Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division’s National Register of Historic Places. For the unaware, Georgia has long been a source for quarried marble. It’s not all Italian, you know! In fact, many historic structures in our nation’s capital feature Georgia marble, including the Lincoln Memorial and the U.S. Capitol building. The state is rightfully quite proud of its marble heritage. There’s even an annual Georgia Marble Festival that has been held every fall for nearly 40 years. Oddly, I might not have discovered any of this had it not been for a free Saturday where I went for a long drive in my Mini, but wound up researching marble. wMD

highlights coming in

January/February ‘17 • Restoration & Rehab • Connectors, Anchors & Fasteners • Air & Vapor Barriers

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Materials • Technolog y • Trends


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TECHNOLOGY | Retrofitting & Reinforcement

SAVING A

BUILDING And A Forgotten Work Of Art

RESTORING LA’S ITALIAN HALL BUILDING AND ITS ICONIC MURAL By Chukwuma G. Ekwueme, PhD, PE, SE, LEED AP, Principal at Thornton Tomasetti 6 |

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THE ITALIAN HALL BUILDING THAT SERVES AS THE ITALIAN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF LOS ANGELES was constructed between 1907-1908. The ground floor of the two-story unreinforced brick masonry building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was home to several shops. The second floor hosted numerous banquets, weddings, meetings, and concerts. Located on historic Olvera Street, the building is part of the El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historic Monument, a historic district that is the oldest section of Los Angeles. In 1932, the noted Mexican artist David Alfaro Siqueiros was commissioned to paint a mural on the building’s exterior second-floor wall. Expecting an image that celebrated the beauty and romance of Latin America, civic leaders were shocked by Siqueiros’ massive 180 by 80w w w.masonr ydesignmaga zine.com

[ABOVE]

Close up of the restored Siqueiros mural. Photo: The Getty Conservation Institute

[INSET]

Roberto Berdecio, a close associate of Siqueiros during the 1930s, stands in front of América Tropical. © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/SOMAAP, Mexico City. Photo: The Getty Research Institute

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TECHNOLOGY | Retrofitting & Reinforcement

[BELOW]

Front of the Italian Hall Building. Photo: Michael Ty Billings, Thornton Tomasetti, Inc.

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foot, politically-charged painting (América Tropical) that included a peasant tied to a cross and an eagle—representing American imperialism— hovering over him. The mural was soon whitewashed and Siqueiros was deported from the United States when his visa expired. Decades later, as the whitewash began to fall off and the painting began to reappear, efforts to restore the iconic mural began. In 2012, the City of Los Angeles and the Getty Conservation Institute funded a plan to restore the mural. As part of the restoration, the wall needed to be strengthened to reduce the likelihood of damage to the historical monument during earthquakes that often occur in the Los Angeles area. As with buildings of its era, The Italian Hall was constructed with unreinforced brick masonry walls and wood-framed floors and roof. Such buildings are highly susceptible to damage and collapse during large earthquakes. The building already had been strengthened in accordance with the local ordinance for seismic retrofit of unreinforced masonry buildings. This type of strengthening primarily involves life safety protection by providing positive anchorage of the unreinforced walls to the roof and floor diaphragms to prevent collapse during large earthquakes. While this improves overall seismic performance, it is based on a philosophy that a building will be severely

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


[ABOVE]

Rear of Italian Hall Building. Photo: Chukwuma G. Ekwueme, Thornton Tomasetti, Inc.

damaged but remain standing to allow occupants to exit safely after a major earthquake. Such performance would destroy the mural and render the conservation efforts useless. In addition, the previous strengthening does not consider the building during smaller earthquakes, which could lead to cracks that are large enough to damage the mural. As a result, further strengthening of the wall was recommended to reduce likelihood of damage to the mural during earthquakes. Design Criteria The strengthening of the mural wall was based on a performance-based design approach using the criteria outlined in a technical standard published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)—Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, ASCE 41-06. With a performance-based framework, structures are designed w w w.masonr ydesignmaga zine.com

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TECHNOLOGY | Retrofitting & Reinforcement

[BELOW]

Close up of restored Siqueiros mural. Photo: Michael Ty Billings, Thornton Tomasetti, Inc.

[OPPOSITE PAGE TOP]

Figure 1. Target Performance Level for Italian Hall Mural Wall

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to achieve specific performance levels when subjected to earthquake shaking due to selected hazard levels. New (or seismically rehabilitated) buildings typically are designed to achieve “life safety ” performance during the Design Earthquake, which has an approximate return period of 475 years. The strengthening of the mural wall was designed to achieve “immediate occupancy ” performance during the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE), which has an approximate return period of 2,475 years. This means that the performance level for the mural wall is more stringent and the earthquake ground motion being considered is more severe. Figure 1 illustrates the target performance level for the

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


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TECHNOLOGY | Retrofitting & Reinforcement mural wall in comparison to the target performance level typically used for the design of new buildings. When a building achieves life safety performance, damage is expected to be moderate with no out-of-plane wall failures, but with some permanent drift. Extensive cracking is expected in unreinforced masonry and noticeable in-plane offsets and minor out-of-plane offsets likely will occur at the mortar joints. For immediate occupancy performance, damage to the building is expected to be light and masonry walls are expected to receive minor cracking with no observable offsets at the mortar joints. [BELOW]

Exterior of Italian Hall Building with sunshades to protect the mural from sunlight. Photo: Brooks + Scarpa Architects

[OPPOSITE PAGE]

Arial view of Italian Hall Building showing the mural. Photo: The Getty Conservation Institute

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Design Approach The strengthening of the mural wall was achieved by increasing the stiffness and strength of the walls in out-of-plane and in-plane directions. This would decrease the deformation of the walls during earthquakes and reduce damage since the size of cracks that will occur is directly related to the amount of wall deformation. In the out-of-plane direction, damage likely will occur in the form of horizontal cracks along the continuous bed joints on the wall exterior. Increased out-of-plane stiffness will be achieved by attaching steel tube

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


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TECHNOLOGY | Retrofitting & Reinforcement

[TOP]

Strengthening of the mural wall with steel tubes and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. Photo: Michael Ty Billings, Thornton Tomasetti, Inc.

[INSET]

Figure 2. Schematic Design for Strengthening of Italian Hall Mural Wall

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strong-backs to the interior surface of the mural wall at a spacing of about four feet on center. The steel tubes will be connected to the wall with anchor bolts installed in epoxy and transfer loads to the rest of the building by spanning between the roof and second f l o o r. T h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g will reduce the out-of-plane deflection of the wall to about one-fifth of the current expected displacement. Simplified estimates indicate that the maximum crack size that can occur in the mural wall will be reduced from about 1/16-inch to about 1/80inch. To reduce the number of holes that need to be drilled in the mural wall to install the steel tubes (and to minimize the possibility of damage to the mural), testing was performed to justify the use of higher bolt capacities than values stated in the City of Los Angeles Research Reports. The best performance will be achieved if the anchor bolts are installed deeply enough to engage the exterior wythe of the masonry. However, it is acceptable to stop the bolts short of the exterior wythe if it is found that drilling to this depth has the potential to damage the mural. No strong backs are required at the first floor of the south wall since horizontal cracking at the level below will not propagate to the second floor and damage the mural. In the in-plane direction, possible damage will be in the form of diagonal, “stair stepped” cracks that occur due to large in-plane shear stresses. The in-plane shear strength of the wall will be increased by applying fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) to the interior surface of the wall. FRP is a composite material that consists of high-strength carbon or glass fibers that are embedded in an epoxy and adhered to the wall. The FRP will be applied prior to the installation of the tubes and will help form a bedding surface for the tube-to-wall connection. Holes for the epoxied anchor bolts can be drilled through the FRP. Since diagonal shear cracks have the potential to propagate from the first floor, the FRP will be applied to both the first and second floor of the south wall. Figure 2 shows a schematic illustration of the mural wall-strengthening scheme. wMD Materials • Technolog y • Trends


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MATERIALS | Natural Stone

EXPRESS BEAUTY AND INTEREST WITH

NATURAL STONE

Article courtesy of Kleber & Associates, a national PR firm that specializes in the home and building industries. 16 |

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MATERIALS | NATURAL STONE

[BELOW]

Lakewood Cemetery Garden and Mausoleum in Minneapolis, Minn., displays a rough textured exterior of split-faced granite. [INSET - OPPOSITE PAGE]

A grey steel canopy frames the catwalk entry that includes a Portuguese limestone walk and a Texas limestone wall.

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NATURAL STONE CAN ADD UNIQUE TEXTURE AND ELEGANCE TO A ROOM, BUILDING, OR OUTDOOR SPACE that can’t be achieved with other materials. Incorporating natural stone into interior or exterior settings can give both residential and commercial spaces a little something special. Whether you’re designing a residential space or a grand foyer in a public building, using natural stone is a guaranteed way to make a statement. Brittney Fischbeck, designer at Abodwell in Laguna Beach, Calif., said she couldn’t recall a time in 20 years when natural stone wasn’t used in her projects in some capacity. Fischbeck says among the things she loves about natural stone are the many finishes that can be achieved, such as antiqued, honed, brushed, and bush-hammered. Depending on the finish, results can enhance the stone’s color and texture or polish it, resulting in a nice consistency of material with several different looks within the same space. Additionally, the durability of natural stone makes it a sustainable material that you don’t have to replace every few years. “I never want the spaces I design to look dated,” Fischbeck said. “Natural stone is a classic building material that has wonderful versatility, allowing you to create an experience or evoke a feeling, with a few simple tweaks. That versatility adds interest and texture to the design—whether warm, cool, sleek, sumptuous, earthy, ethereal, strong, lively, whimsical, traditional, or contemporary—the sky is the limit.”. Joan Soranno, design principal at HGA Architects and Engineers with more than 30 years of experience in the industry, explains that textural variety and flexibility in natural stone makes it a preferred material. There are many different ways to manipulate texture with stone that simply can’t be done with other materials, she said.

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


tt When HGA designed Lakewood Cemetery Garden and Mausoleum in Minneapolis, Minn., Soranno said they wanted a very rough textured exterior, and they found what they were looking for in split-faced granite. “It’s very rough. There’s a textural quality and it incorporates shade and shadow into the façade that makes it truly beautiful,” Soranno said. “That’s the interesting thing about natural stone in that it can be very rough and very jagged or highly smooth and polished.” When incorporating natural stone in a design, Soranno says it’s important to make sure that a timeline and budget have been set for the project. With the many different types of natural stone available in the marketplace, finding the perfect one takes some

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“IT’S VERY ROUGH. THERE’S A TEXTURAL QUALITY AND IT INCORPORATES SHADE AND SHADOW INTO THE FAÇADE THAT MAKES IT TRULY BEAUTIFUL.” —Joan Soranno

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MATERIALS | NATURAL STONE

[BELOW]

Rough and sleek work together with this textured wall of Chop Face limestone and the smoothness of the steel, glass, and teak stairs.

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research. Stone experts can help with proper detailing to maximize a stone’s use and its longevity. Fischbeck advises working with an importer or supplier that is well versed in natural stone, and hiring a quality fabricator and installer. Of course, natural stone is used for more than just aesthetics. In addition to enhancing the look, natural stone also can add to a space’s functionality. “Stone is just as versatile when used for functional purposes, and can make the design really sing,” Fischbeck said. “Structural columns, retaining walls, pier caps, sills, hearths, and mantles are all wonderful areas to use stone as a statement and to convey strength and stability.” Soranno agrees, pointing out that many of the most well known buildings throughout the centuries are made with natural stone. That’s because stone is heavy, permanent, and low-maintenance. “People tend to think it’s a special building because natural stone is such a beautiful, permanent material that adds a sense of beauty, dignity, graciousness, and adds value,” she said. As a place of burial, the Lakewood Cemetery Garden and Mausoleum, with its natural stone exterior and interior, needs to last forever. Soranno says that although it will require some maintenance over time, the building still will be intact hundreds of years from now. That sense of permanence can’t be attributed to many other materials. For more information about natural stone and a list of professionals in the industry, visit www.usenaturalstone.com. wMD Article courtesy of Kleber & Associates, a national PR firm that specializes in the home and building industries. More information is available at www. kleberandassociates.com.

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING

ONSITE MASONRY

PRODUCTION

FROM DIVERTED EXCAVATION

Explorations in hyper-local adaptive materials reuse for real estate development By David Easton, co-founder and president of Watershed Materials WATERSHED MATERIALS IS TEAMING UP WITH WESTLAKE URBAN AND ALPHA GROUP TO EXPLORE A SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM THAT REAL ESTATE DEVELOPERS OFTEN FACE— excavation that has to be moved off a construction site to make way for new buildings. Rather than haul off the excavation spoils and then import thousands of concrete masonry units (CMUs) for use at the project, the developers and Watershed Materials are working together to repurpose native excavation material right at the job site to create the structural masonry blocks used in the development. Truckloads of offhaul and truckloads of imported building materials could be eliminated by using the excavation to make the structural block, adaptively reusing waste to produce onsite building materials.

[RIGHT] The Kirkham Project pedestrian entry, stairs, and retaining wall along Kirkham Street provides an opportunity for installation of Watershed Materials’ blocks as both structural and decorative applications.

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING

[BELOW - INSET] Sample structural masonry block produced by Watershed Materials from soil samples taken at the Kirkham Heights Apartments in the Inner Sunset neighborhood of San Francisco. The block achieved a final compressive strength of 2,905 psi and a density of 131 pounds per cubic foot averaged over three specimens. The appearance comes from Watershed Materials’ ultra high compression technology combined with the native site material—a medium dense reddish-brown sand with angular gravel and rock fragments. Blocks such as these are proposed to be produced onsite at the Kirhkam Project redevelopment, made from repurposed excavation and used throughout the development site as structural and decorative masonry elements. [BELOW] Watershed Materials’ high compression masonry block machine produces low cement alternatives to traditional concrete masonry units (CMUs) from unwashed aggregates diverted from quarries or from onsite excavation material diverted from real estate development projects. The machine is shown here at Watershed Materials’ pilot block factory and research lab in Napa, Calif.

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The companies are testing the feasibility of the novel adaptive reuse strategy at the Kirkham Project, an urban infill redevelopment of the Kirkham Heights Apartments in the Inner Sunset neighborhood of San Francisco. Watershed Materials, a sustainable building materials startup funded by the National Science Foundation, develops technology for the production of structural masonry using high compression, low cement technology and locally sourced, unwashed aggregates. The company has a pilot factory in Napa, Calif., where it produces masonry blocks using aggregate sourced from local quarries. Watershed Materials has created a small, portable block production machine, a sort of pop-up facility, that can be located on construction sites to produce masonry block from the excavation spoils—much in the same way it produces block from unwashed quarry aggregate. The Watershed Materials system applies very high pressure to aggregate mixtures, mimicking the natural geological process known as lithification that creates stone from loose sedimentary material. What takes nature many millennia to accomplish is duplicated in seconds in Watershed Materials’ high compression masonry production equipment. The company has a long history of using onsite aggregate for building structural walls using a construction method known as Rammed Earth. There’s absolutely nothing new about building masonry structures from local materials. Some of the oldest and best-known architecture in the world has been constructed from stone

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


Westlake Urban’s proposed development includes realigning 5th Avenue to create a new neighborhood of up to 445 housing units.

and clay sourced directly on site. What is new and absolutely groundbreaking is that with upgraded technology and improved material science, a construction waste product developers normally pay to dispose of can now become an asset and provides environmental benefits as well. The Kirkham Project proved an ideal opportunity to explore the feasibility of this novel approach. Nestled against the Mount Sutro Open Space Reserve in the Inner Sunset, the existing topography of the site requires excavation to create a new neighborhood that complies with the City of San Francisco’s Better Streets Program and will accommodate increased housing density, community open spaces, and improved accessibility. Westlake Urban’s proposed development includes realigning 5th Avenue to create a new neighborhood of up to 445 housing units. The project also will include community plazas, gardens, and stairways to view overlooks of the Pacific Ocean and Golden Gate Bridge. The project addresses the city ’s dire need for additional housing near a major employer (UCSF) and public transit, but some neighbors have expressed concerns about the construction truck traffic related to the new development. The Kirkham Project’s Development Manager, Naomi Porat of Alpha Group, connected with Watershed Materials and coordinated an in-depth feasibility analysis to determine the environmental, economic, and community advantages of onsite block fabrication as a means to reduce off-haul. She commented, “Many of our developments require trucks to haul the excess excavated material to offsite locations. As a long-time entrepreneur in the green building and prefab industries, I was on a mission to find a sustainable solution for The Kirkham Project when I met David Easton of Watershed Materials. “I suggested the idea of an onsite pop-up plant as a possible solution,” Porat continued. “The concept resonated with David Easton as a way to bring this innovative technology to construction sites. Our preliminary feasibility analysis at The Kirkham Project was extremely promising and we are now engaged in further analyses to prove the concept and confirm that the methods and technology will work for the project.” The feasibility analysis involves the following steps: 1. Soil Testing: excavate 1’ - 5’ deep boring depth for Watershed Materials to test in its Napa lab then produce sample blocks and a report summarizing mix designs, compressive strength, and density. The Kirkham Project site’s excavation proved ideal for producing masonry units using this high-compression manufacturing process. Sample blocks were produced with a compressive strength of 2,905 psi, significantly greater than conventional CMU blocks. w w w.masonr ydesignmaga zine.com

[ABOVE] The Kirkham Project is a proposed redevelopment of Westlake Urban’s property located in the Inner Sunset neighborhood of San Francisco and abutting UCSF Medical Center and the Mount Sutro Open Space Reserve.

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING

“Our preliminary feasibility analysis at The Kirkham Project was extremely promising and we are now engaged in further analyses to prove the concept.” —Naomi Porat

[BELOW] The Kirkham Project development team is evaluating the feasibility of using Watershed Materials’ blocks for the structural elements of sub-grade parking structures below these residential buildings.

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2. Identification of Site Elements for Block Utilization: The development team identified the site elements that could incorporate masonry blocks as the primary building material, including landscape pavers, pedestrian pavers, retaining walls, foundation, and garages. 3. Take-Offs & Total Block Estimate: The architect, engineer, and landscape architect prepared rough take-offs of the elements for block material. The development’s contractor is providing detailed square footage estimates for Watershed Materials to determine the total block utilization potential at the site. 4. Cost Estimates & Business Case: The final step in the feasibility analysis is to estimate the total cost of purchasing and installing the blocks as an alternative to conventional building materials for each of these estimates. In addition, the cost of setting up the pop-up facility and producing on site is incorporated into the total

Materials • Technolog y • Trends


DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING cost of the project, and compared to the cost of off-hauling and trucking new materials to the site.

[BELOW - INSET] David Easton of Watershed Materials and Gaye Quinn of Westlake Urban at Watershed Materials’ lab in Napa, Calif., discussing the viability of making structural masonry units from repurposed excavation from the Kirkham Project in San Francisco. [BELOW] The Kirkham Project Community Plaza, a one-quarter acre accessible open space in the center of the development, provides excellent opportunities for installation of Watershed Materials’ blocks as pavers and landscaping features.

The Kirkham Project development team, in collaboration with Watershed Materials, summarized the compelling advantages and potential challenges of the onsite fabrication facility and block integration in the project: • Reduces off-haul. Kirkham Heights is an infill redevelopment project in an existing neighborhood. Producing block onsite allows for a reduction in the number of truckloads of off-haul needed to remove excavation. Reducing off-haul reduces costs, reduces diesel emissions, and importantly reduces impact on the neighborhood. • Aesthetic, indigenous sustainability. Watershed Blocks are a beautiful building material that helps to tell the story of more sustainable development practices. • Reuse of site material provides an excellent demonstration of an important and cost-effective innovation in the real estate industry.

[OPPOSITE PAGE] Watershed Materials’ high compression masonry block machine imparts 500,000 pounds of compressive force to produce low cement alternatives to traditional concrete masonry units (CMUs). The process is similar to the way nature produces rock from loose sedimentary materials under intense geologic pressure. Watershed Materials reproduces this effect in seconds rather than millenia.

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“Real estate developers like us are always looking for creative, sustainable solutions to problems we face as we develop our properties.” —Gaye Quinn

• Noise. The pop-up block machine is no louder than the excavation machinery or typical construction equipment and it is only on the site for a limited period of time. Gaye Quinn of Westlake Urban succinctly summarizes the advantages of this approach: “Real estate developers like us are always looking for creative, sustainable solutions to problems we face as we develop our properties. David Easton and his team at Watershed Materials created both a product and a process that solves a number of problems for us. First, it creates a product that is both useful and beautiful. And equally important, it reduces the environmental impacts of truck traffic that would be required to take the material off site. We were thrilled to see that the excavation at our Kirkham Project in the Inner Sunset in San Francisco create absolutely gorgeous, structurally strong, building blocks that can be created onsite, and we are optimistic about the possibility of incorporating the blocks in our proposed project. We would have been happy simply to use the material in places where it would be unseen as a utilitarian material, but after seeing the sample blocks, we are pushing our designers to find as many ways as possible to put them on display.” wMD w w w.masonr ydesignmaga zine.com

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POLYMER MODIFIED ADHERED VENEER MORTAR

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WITH OVER 300 PSI SHEAR BOND STRENGTH, SPEC MIX ® POLYMER MODIFIED ADHERED VENEER MORTAR (PMAVM) IS THE ULTIMATE PRODUCT FOR INSTALLING BOTH MANUFACTURED AND NATURAL MASONRY VENEER UNITS. THIS MORTAR MIX DESIGN IS CUSTOM FORMULATED WITH MASON SAND AND HIGH PERFORMANCE POLYMERS FOR SUPERIOR ADHESION, WORKABILITY, AND DURABILITY. PROJECT DESIGNERS SPECIFY PMAVM FOR ITS PREBLENDED QUALITY CONTROL AND HIGH BOND STRENGTH THAT ELIMINATES “POP-OFFS”…MASONS DEMAND PMAVM FOR ITS CONSISTENCY AND QUICK-STICK PROPERTIES THAT INCREASE DAILY PRODUCTION. THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE!

WWW.SPECMIX.COM © 2016 SPEC MIX, INC.


DIVISION 4


IREDALE MINERAL COSMETICS

INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS

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A beloved historic school is reimagined with LEED Gold aspirations.

OUR FIRM, CROXTON COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTS (CCA), A FOUNDER OF THE MODERN SUSTAINABILITY MOVEMENT, recently completed the 21,000-square-foot international headquarters for Iredale Mineral Cosmetics (IMC)—manufacturers of jane iredale—in Great Barrington, Mass. A replacement for the company’s smaller home base nearby, the new structure represents the rehabilitation of the abandoned 1889 William Cullen Bryant School building (and its early 1900s addition), a Massachusetts Cultural Resource, as a 21st century center of operations.

By Randolph R. Croxton, FAIA, LEED AP / President, Croxton Collaborative Architects Photos © Tim Hursley

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING The building, which preserves the historic context and original appearance of the school (vacant since its 2005 closing), was developed into a modern, humanistic workplace. The decision was made early on by president and founder of IMC, Jane Iredale, to restore the building under her ethos of preservation and environmental stewardship. Achieving sustainability goals beyond the objectives of its LEED Gold aspirations, the resulting project serves a central role in the revitalization of the town’s Special Business District, part of a fouracre downtown redevelopment plan. Design Principles This project represents an esteemed consumer company’s willingness to undertake leadership in environmental excellence while restoring a beloved historic structure within the community as its new headquarters. Divorced from an urban environment, yet inextricable to its town, the new IMC complex sets an example for Total square footage: the exceptional results possible 21,850 square feet when a client’s humanistic goals are aligned with its stated Scope: mission and the architect’s a gut renovation with 100% new mechanical, design principles. electrical, plumbing, and air conditioning. The revitalized building is Sustainability: a high-performance structure with daylight in every regularly on track to achieve LEED Gold and designed occupied space. Our firm went to meet ARCHITECTURE 2030 guidelines beyond the town’s stormwater (pathway to Net Carbon Zero). runoff and flooding concerns (the site is located less than 400 feet from the Housatonic

Project Data:

The building, which preserves the historic context and original appearance of the school (vacant since its 2005 closing), has developed into a modern, humanistic workplace. 34 |

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This building represents an esteemed consumer com pany’s willingness to undertake leadershi p in environmental excellence while restoring a beloved historic structure. w w w.masonr ydesignmaga zine.com

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING

The project achieved a 93 percent diversion of waste from landfills (LEED requires 52 percent).

There are ample work spaces

River) providing a comprehensive rain garden system integrated with a new stormwater detention tank. The project achieved a 93 percent diversion of waste from landfills (LEED requires 52 percent). The building itself will realize a 46 percent energy reduction over standard construction. A new main entrance was created on the north facade’s central bay, adjacent to the parking lot. Inside, we maximized space in the two-story stone and shingle building in several ways. By creating a circulation tower comprising an elevator and staircases as a freestanding element, all of the historic facades retain their strong presence. By claiming the building’s attic and basement as functional spaces, the revitalized facility’s useable area was increased from 12,000 to 21,000 square feet without expanding its historic perimeter walls. The structure’s roofline was extended, and dormers were added to the attic floor to enhance light infiltration. A new outdoor space cut into the roof serves as an extension of the light-filled conference room, the floor-to-ceiling windows of which provide a soaring view of East Mountain and the verdant Berkshire mountains beyond. inside. Interior walls were removed to create ample, airy workspaces. Unused chimneys on the first and second floors were opened, proffering exposed brick details and passageways. Original maple flooring remains on the first and second floors, with school desk bolt marks

Original maple floors remain on the first and second floors.

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING

A handsome 1889 exemplar of the Arts and Crafts movement in America, the Bryant School provided a starting point of distinction in creating the headquarters for IMC. 38 |

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still visible in some places, and acoustical ceiling tiles mitigate noise. New floors were installed on the third (attic) floor and on all of the building’s stairs. Etched art glass featuring interpretations of lavender appears throughout the building, a visceral symbol of the jane iredale brand. IMC has included a sprig of lavender (originally cut from Jane’s own garden) in its customers’ packages since its founding in 1994. IMC worked with esteemed architectural color designer Carl Black of Liberty Design Consultants in Hudson, N.Y., on the building’s interior and exterior colors and furnishings, which add to the complex’s artisanal design qualities. Addressing the Masonry: A handsome 1889 exemplar of the Arts and Crafts movement in America, the Bryant School provided a starting point of distinction in creating the headquarters for IMC. Originally an elementary school, the two-story, 10,000-square-foot building had been vacant for more than 10 years, but remained a familiar and beloved structure in downtown Great Barrington. Because it was both

Etched art glass is main interior feature.

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING The original building

a local historic landmark and listed as a Massachusetts Cultural Resource, we knew that preserving the signature feature—the ground floor exterior wall composed of boulders and split stone from the region—would be essential to the success of the project. Further challenges included the program of use by our client, which was almost double the usable area of the original school, as well as new seismic requirements from the State of Massachusetts that threatened the viability of reusing the unreinforced ground floor boulder wall. ADA deficiencies throughout the building, which was located on a steep cross-sloping site, topped off the list of issues, all of which seemed to point to major changes. Jane Iredale shared the humanistic design values and environmental/ sustainable approach we needed to embrace both the users of the building and the community at large. Little did we know that our objective of maximum preservation of the exterior envelope would of necessity incorporate two monumental brick chimneys that rise from basement level to top off the massive volume of the building’s roof. By the time we reached consensus on our conceptual approach to reuse, we knew that the contractor would need to have consummate skills in the areas of historic and contemporary stone, brick, marble, and pre-cast masonry workmanship.

The William Cullen Bryant School building was built in 1889, and was long abandoned before IMC stepped in.

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The building itself will realize a 46 percent energy reduction over standard construction.

The updated exterior

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BEFORE Bronze WinnerUniversity of Notre Dame’s Morris Inn

Preservation The key to the preservation of the exterior envelope was finding a way to accommodate a near doubling of usable space within the structure’s historic walls. To accomplish this, we opened up the underused basement to daylight along the entire south perimeter and upgraded the large volume attic level to full occupancy standards with additional roof dormers to achieve a fully daylit upper level. However, we ultimately needed a doubly loaded central corridor running east to west at each level—a layout enhancement made possible by “gateways” through the chimneys at each level. These six dramatic masonry tunnels provide a tangible expression of the signature chimneys visible on the downtown skyline within the interior of the building. w w w.masonr ydesignmaga zine.com

AFTER

1625 Miami St, South Bend IN 46613 * 888-698-8705 info@masonrycosmetics.com masonrycosmetics.com Fall/Winter 2016

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DESIGN TRENDS | GREEN BUILDING Further preservation objectives were met through areaways at the perimeter stone walls to drop the emergency generator, transformer, and extensive condensers out of sight. When pulling earth away along the south perimeter to introduce daylight and dropping grade on the north to shield equipment, we knew that we (and the contractor) would need to restore, repair, and/ or interpret uncovered conditions of the boulder wall.

Daylighting at the upper level is a direct offset of the energy required for electric lighting.

Sustainability An intertwined objective—the resourceful use of materials and the preservation of the embodied energy represented by the existing concrete, stone, and masonry—is both a preservation and a sustainability attribute of the project, not to mention the humanistic dimensions of a multigenerational asset being passed on to users and community. The opening up of the south perimeter at the lower level and the multiple dormers for full daylighting at the upper level are direct offsets of the energy for electric lighting and create a more resilient and safe occupancy in the event of power failure. The introduction of the new precast pavers forming the south groundlevel terrace that stretches the full length of the building combines with the newly exposed boulder wall to absorb and re-radiate heat in the spring and fall seasons of this cold climate. This creates extended seasonal use of this outdoor “room” adjoining the lunchroom/pantry area for employees. A line of deciduous trees provides shading for the terrace in the summer months. This passive use of the thermal properties of stone and masonry is the most fundamental of sustainable strategies. Clarity between the building’s original historic fabric and new construction is achieved by the carving of a local marble for the ADA compliant walkway to the new main entry on the north and using pre-cast terra-cotta colored units for the retaining walls for the new parking area on the north as well as south terraces. The freestanding elevator tower and stair are reached via a slender bridge that generates minimum impact to the original stone and wood. wMD

ABOUT CROXTON COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTS A founder of the modern sustainability movement, Croxton Collaborative Architects is now crafting the next generation of environmental design. Credited with establishing “the founding principles and practices of Green Architecture in America” by the U.S. Green Building Council, the firm is the recipient of the AIA National Honor Award for Design Excellence and two USGBC National Leadership Awards. Intellectual equity in sustainable design is the wellspring of the firm’s human-centered practice, leveraged to create places where we learn, work, and heal. CCA’s seminal work includes New York’s Natural Resources Defense Council Headquarters and National Audubon Society Headquarters, as well as the development of the 2004 World Trade Center Sustainable Design Guidelines for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey’s redevelopment of the site. 42 |

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Supplies | The Basics You can’t build brick or stone buildings, or produce gorgeous hardscapes without mortars, admixtures, sands, and sealants. Take a look at some of the latest products on the market, examining what sets them apart from the basic materials of the past.

Get Your Products Featured! The Jan/Feb 2017 Supplies section will feature air and vapor barriers. Send your product descriptions and images to Cory Sekine-Pettite at cory@lionhrtpub.com.

1

1 Mortar

http://solomoncolors.com

Since the mortar joint makes up about 20 percent of a brick structure’s surface area, coloring the mortar enhances the building’s appearance. Solomon Colors’ Mortar Colors are available in unique, pre-weighed and pre-measured amounts to assure accurate color consistency. The A, H, and X series offer 60 standard colors pre-measured for use in mortar and other mixes. Solomon has set the standard for decades as the most consistent and most frequently specified mortar colors in United States. The company’s consistent coloring and depth of color choices enhance the beauty and value of brick, stone, and colored concrete block. See all of Solomon’s mortar colors on Autodesk Seek.

2 Admixture

https://www.master-builders-solutions. basf.us/en-us/products/masterfiber

Admixtures play a vital role in the appearance, consistency, durability and performance of concrete and other building materials. There are a myriad of products on the market to aid in coloring, water use, weight, strengthening, and more. One example is the MasterFiber line of products from BASF, which is designed to help prevent concrete cracking in paving and other projects. The MasterFiber series is offered in four levels of reinforcement: • Level 1: Control of plastic shrinkage cracking— MasterFiber microsynthetic monofilament fibers • Level 2: Replacement of light gauge welded-wire reinforcement—MasterFiber microsynthetic fibrillated fibers • Level 3: Post-crack control and replacement of traditional shrinkage and temperature reinforcement—MasterFiber macrosynthetic fibers • Level 4: Partial or complete replacement of structural steel reinforcing bars—MasterFiber macrosynthetic fibers.

2

3

3 Paving Sand/Mortar www.specmix.com

SPEC MIX® Setting Bed Mortar is specifically engineered as a thick, solid mortar bed for constructing horizontal surfaces with natural and manufactured paving units. This dry, pre-blended mortar contains cementitious materials and dried aggregates that are mixed with a low water addition rate for a zero-slump dry pack base material. SPEC MIX Setting Bed Mortar can be used as a paving unit base for residential and 44 |

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commercial paving unit applications. It can be used for interior and exterior installations, allowing light and medium traffic. Each SPEC MIX manufacturer certifies that SPEC MIX masonry products are designed to meet applicable ASTM and ACI standards.

4

4 Sealant

http://blackdiamondcoatings.com

This past summer, Black Diamond Coatings introduced a new line of sealer products called AQUA-XTM. These new products meet the need for professional grade, natural appearance sealers and water repellents for concrete, pavers, stone and wood that are low VOC. These sealers have fast beading action, fast dry time, excellent coverage rates and are resistant to breakdown from harmful UV exposure. Within the product line, AQUA-X 11 is designed for many hardscape surfaces as a natural appearance sealer, and it is particularly useful on new concrete, while AQUA-X 33 is designed for stone and clay surfaces. wMD

advertiser’s index page#

company-phone-website

1 Amerimix

41

Masonry Cosmetics, Inc.

30-31

SPEC MIX, Inc.

888.313.0755 www.amerimix.com

888.698.8705 www.masonrycosmetics.com

888.773.2649 www.specmix.com

5

Castia Stone

15

Mortar Net Solutions

817.721.7700 www.castiastone.com

800.664.6638 www.mortarnet.com

21

Hohmann and Barnard, Inc.

C3

844.495.8211 www.EchelonMasonry.com

C2

Laticrete International, Inc.

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Pine Hall Brick Company, Inc.

800.334.8689 www.pinehallbrick.com

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What Is A Rains creen Wall?

p6 Summer 2016 • Vol. 7, No. 2

Material s • Technol ogy • Trends

MANUFACTU STONE VENEERRED S

Spring 2016 • Vol. 7, No. 1

Material s • Technol ogy • Trends

New technology = better performan ce

A CALMIN PRESENCEG

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BIM-M for Maso nry:

Advertising Contacts: Aileen Kronke (A-L) 888.303.5639, ext. 212 aileen@lionhrtpub.com

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FAITH IN MASO NRY: n Seminary renov ation project wins awar ds p26

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Estimation

From Roof to Foundation:

Consult an Expert When Selecting Appropriate Waterproofing System for Any Structure Severe weather can cause extensive damage to a structure’s roof, foundation, interior and more if not properly waterproofed. Waterproofing plays an extremely important role in protecting every aspect of construction. Knowing which waterproofing coverage to specify for a particular structure is more than just a science; it is an art form. Consulting with an experienced specialty contractor for the best waterproofing options available will ensure a quality job that will extend the life of any structure.

By Carter Pogue Western Specialty Contractors, Sales/Project Manager

Above-Grade Walls The exterior walls of a building can be a significant source of unwanted water leakage. It’s easy to forget how many openings are required in commercial buildings—from plumbing and irrigation connections to lighting, HVAC system elements, exhaust vents, air intakes, joints around windows and doors, and fire alarms, to name a few. There also are unplanned holes caused by aging brick joints that need re-pointing, vanishing sealants, damage from acid rain, and settling cracks. A structure’s first line of defense is above-grade waterproofing, which includes the use of caulks and sealants to seal the perimeters of windows and other openings. The amount of sealant needed on a new or existing structure depends on exposure and expansion/contraction problems that may be identified. Common sealants include elastomeric breathable wall coating systems, protective/decorative surface coatings, and clear water repellents. Concrete, Terrace Areas and Decks In the winter, freeze/thaw cycles can cause big problems with concrete structures. In fact, ice can occupy nine percent more volume than water. This expansion causes distress in the concrete, which can lead to fractures that will continue to grow exponentially as saturation of the material increases. A wide range of restoration, repair, and reinforcing services are offered by certified, specialty contractors who can repair cracks, spalls, rust spots, deterioration, pot-holes, and heaves in concrete and masonry. More often than not, concrete repairs are made before they become a more serious or costly issue, but there are measures that you can take to actually prevent future damage. Applying hot-applied or below-

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grade waterproofing to your buried structures, a urethane waterproof traffic coating to your parking decks, and protective acrylic coatings to your pedestrian areas and exterior facades will extend the life of the repair, protect adjacent areas that are currently in good condition, and significantly improve the aesthetics of the area treated. Roofs A commitment to good roof maintenance can prevent overflowing gutters, clogged downspouts, and excessive ponding, which can lead to costly damage. Decaying leaves, pine needles, and dirt run-off can all contribute to ponding water and clogged gutters and downspouts. In addition to the risk of water pouring into the tenant spaces should a breach in the roof occur, the freezing and thawing of ponding water can cause extensive roof damage. Applying waterproofing to a structure’s roof is important and requires a professional’s expertise to determine which option will work the best. Some available roofing systems include synthetic rubber materials, hot rubberized asphalt, and insulated roofing membrane systems. Below-Grade Systems A number of excellent below-grade exterior foundation waterproofing systems are available in the marketplace. These materials may be applied on the inside or outside of the wall or foundation and include the following: • Fluid-applied elastomeric membranes, mastics and coatings that form a tough, seamless membrane to withstand abuse and high levels of hydrostatic pressure. • Hot-applied rubberized asphalt for horizontal waterproofing in splitslab construction and insulated roof membrane assembly roofs. • Single-ply sheet systems such as rubberized asphalt sheets, EPDM synthetic rubber, PVC, CPE, CSPE, Butyl rubber, and Neoprene. • Bentonite clay panel and sheet systems that swell when they become saturated to block moisture from entering a building. wMD Materials • Technolog y • Trends


IDEAS IGNITE with the next generation of masonry The Museum at Prairiefire honors the region’s most prominent features — its prairie fire burns and rolling landscapes. Hear the vision behind the museum from its designers, and see how Echelon Masonry helped its creators achieve the seemingly impossible.

See the full story at EchelonMasonry.com/Inspiration

PRODUCTS USED

M A SON R Y PR ODUCTS F R OM

Artisan Masonry Veneers® Cordova Stone | Kansas Limestone | Dichroic Glass

© 2016 Oldcastle. Echelon is a registered trademark of Oldcastle. Oldcastle Architectural is a registered trademark of Oldcastle. All rights reserved. ECH16-037


Masonry design fallwinter2016