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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

١٢١


‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬     K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬???‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Low‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ High‫א‬‫א‬  K10 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KDemultiplexerMultiplexer 




‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬  ٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  

 W‫א‬  

-١-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(Discrete)‫א‬

  .(Continuous)‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Continuous) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J ١F‫א‬ ‫א‬E١J ١F‫א‬K(Discrete)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬E٢ 

 



‫א‬ Time

 KWE١J ١F‫א‬ 

-٢-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 





‫א‬ Time

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

t7

t8

t9

t10

t11

t12

t13

 KWE٢J ١F‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٣J ١F‫א‬ 

-٣-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



(ºC )

‫א‬‫ א‬

40

35

30

‫א‬

25

Time 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11

12

13 14 15 16

17 18

19 20 21 22

23 00

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ١F‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Sampling‫א‬ K١ KE٤J ١F‫א‬  (ºC )

‫א‬‫ א‬

40

35

30

‫א‬

25

Time 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11

12

13 14 15 16

17 18

19 20 21 22

23 00

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٤J ١F‫א‬ -٤-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WQuantization‫א‬ K٢ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEncoding‫א‬ K٣

KE٥J ١F‫א‬‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬  (ºC )

‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬





40



‫א‬



10111010

35

30

‫א‬

25

Time 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11

12

13 14 15 16

17 18

19 20 21 22

23 00

 KWE٥J ١F‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬256‫א‬‫א‬  K8‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

-٥-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Integrated Circuits‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(ADC) Analog to ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KDigital Converters

‫א‬ADC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  .(DAC) Digital to Analog Converters‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KLow‫א‬High‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

''ON''،‫א‬

 K''OFF''

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬  K10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

0‫א‬High‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KLow‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ High‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 10‫א‬‫א‬

High‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .Low‫א‬‫א‬ .Low‫א‬K‫א‬

 KE٦J ١F LowHigh‫א‬‫א‬  -٦-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬

VH ( max ) HIGH Binary VH( min )



1



  VL( max ) LOW Binary

0

VL( min )

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٦J ١F‫א‬ 

Low‫א‬VH(Max)VH(Min)‫א‬High‫א‬

،VH(Max)VH(Min)‫א‬VL(Max)VL(Min)  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،10

Low5V2VHighTTL‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٧J ١F‫א‬‫א‬0.8V0V 

TTL

‫א‬

‫א‬

VH ( max )

5V HIGH Binary

VH( min )

1 2V





  VL( max )

0.8 V LOW Binary

0

VL( min )

0V

 KTTL‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧J ١F‫א‬ -٧-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬1High3.2V‫א‬‫א‬

0.8VK0Low0.6V

 K2V                       

-٨-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬LowHigh‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KLowHigh0HighLow1‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KLow‫א‬High‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ١F‫א‬ 

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

HIGH

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

HIGH

LOW

‫א‬

LOW





 



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨J ١F‫א‬ 

،(High)‫א‬‫א‬

 K(Low)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KAperiodicPeriodic

 KPeriod‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬T‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬E١٠J ١F‫א‬E٩J ١F‫א‬  -٩-


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



0

1

0

T1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

T2

1

0

Tn-1

0

Tn

‫א‬‫ א‬‫ א‬

T1=T2 =...Tn-1=Tn=T = Period

 ‫א‬

Frequency = f =1/T

1

 KWE٩J ١F‫א‬ 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(frequency)f‫א‬  K(Hz) Hertz‫א‬

f=

1 T

 WT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬f‫א‬‫א‬

 T = 1  f

 0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

‫א‬

0

1





1

1

0

1

1

0

1





 K‫א‬WE١٠J ١F‫א‬       - ١٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  WOscilloscope‫א‬ J ١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ADC  K‫א‬‫א‬ E١٢J ١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١١J ١F‫א‬ 

- ١٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٢J ١F‫א‬  

WLogic Analyzer ‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬E١٣J ١F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،

‫א‬ J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Timing Diagram ‫א‬‫א‬ J   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   - ١٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



State Table ‫א‬J 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Hexadecimal‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Octal‫א‬Binary

 .ASCII‫א‬BCD‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣J ١F‫א‬ 

 Logic Probe , Logic Pulser ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٤J ١F‫א‬ 

- ١٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 K‫א‬WE١٤J ١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E١٥J ١F‫א‬‫א‬،LogicPulser‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

 KLogic Probe‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥J ١F‫א‬ - ١٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 KShorts‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

  :DC Power Supply ‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KAC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K+5VCMOS‫א‬TTL‫א‬  K‫א‬E١٦J ١F‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE١٦J ١F‫א‬  

:Function Generator E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬E١٧J ١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ١٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧J ١F‫א‬  

(DDM) Digital multi meter ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،AC‫א‬DC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨J ١F‫א‬ 

- ١٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨J ١F‫א‬  - ١٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ ‫؟‬‫א‬ K٢

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ ‫؟‬10ms K٤ ‫ ؟‬1MHz‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬100111010101 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٦

    

‫א‬‫؟‬1010101010101010 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٧ ‫؟‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨

 

‫؟‬‫א‬ K٩ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠ ‫؟‬Logic Analyzer‫א‬‫א‬ K١١ ‫؟‬Logic Probe‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٣ - ١٩ -

   


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١ K‫ א‬K٢ KBCD K٣

K ASCII K٤

 W‫א‬‫א‬  ٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬   

 W‫א‬‫א‬   K١

 ASCII K٢

  W‫א‬ 

- ٢٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Binary System‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Hexadecimal System‫א‬‫א‬Octal System‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 J W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 Decimal System‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢ ‫א‬ 9،8{7{6{5{4{3{2{1، 0 Digits??‫א‬‫א‬ K10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬10 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     - ٢١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK 

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK 

103

102

101

1000

100

10

 ‫א‬‫א‬

10 0

1

 

10 −1 1 10

 

10 −2 1 100

10 −3 1 1000

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 ‫א‬

 E١J ٢F   W١

 ‫؟‬632‫א‬

 W‫א‬

(102 × 6) + (101 × 2) + (100 × 3) =

(100 × 6) + (10 × 2) + (1 × 3) =

  600 + 20 + 3 = 623 20‫א‬‫א‬2 ‫א‬،‫א‬ 3 ‫א‬3

 K 600‫א‬6‫א‬    W٢

 ‫ ؟‬2574‫א‬

 W‫א‬ 

(103 × 2) + (102 × 5) + (101 × 7) + (100 × 4) =

2000 + 500 + 70 + 4 =

= 2574

 

 W٣

 ‫ ؟‬0.25‫א‬ - ٢٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



  W‫א‬ 

(10−2 × 5) + (10−1 × 2) = 1 1 ( × 5) + ( × 2) = 100 10

 

0.05 + 0.2 = 0.25

 

 W٤

 ‫ ؟‬47.25‫א‬

 W‫א‬ 

(10−2 × 8) + (10 −1 × 3) + (101 × 4) + (100 × 7) =  ( 1 × 8) + ( 1 × 3) + (10 × 4) + (1 × 7) = 100 10

 

0.08 + 0.3 + 40 + 7 = 47.38

Binary System‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢ 2K2‫א‬‫א‬ 1 ، 0‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KKKKKKKKKK  KKKKKKKKKK

25

24

32

16

23

8

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

21

 4   ‫א‬‫א‬

2

22

20

1

 

2−1 1 2

 

2 −2 1 4

 

2−3 1 8

KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 ‫א‬

 E٢J ٢F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KKKKKKKKK 13،12{11{1093{2{1، 0   K‫א‬KKKKKKKKK 103،102{101{100٩٩ - ٢٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K1‫א‬  ‫א‬1 ،0

 ‫א‬11 ، 10

 ‫א‬111 ، 110 ،101 ، 100  1111 ………….. ، 1010 ،1001 ،1000 

 W‫א‬‫א‬15 0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 E٣J ٢F  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٢٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W١

‫؟‬101‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 W101 

(2 2 × 1) + (21 × 0) + (2 0 × 1) = 

(4 × 1) + (2 × 0) + (1 × 1) = 

4 + 0 +1 = 5

 W٢

‫؟‬11011‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 W11011 16

 1

  2 4  23 8

×

× 1

2 2  21  20 

4

0

1

2

×

‫א‬‫א‬

×

×

1

1

=27

   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ٢

1 ،0 ‫א‬‫א‬ K١

2‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

KBit ‫א‬2 ‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬ K٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 - ٢٥ -

(100) 2 , (1101) 2 

(101)10 , (257)10 


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 Hexadecimal System ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٢  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F  K10,11,12,13,14,15‫א‬A,B,C,D,E,F ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣J ٢

16‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١

16 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢   KKKKKKKKKK

16 2

161

KKKKKKKKKK

256

16

 ‫א‬‫א‬

16 0

1

161 1 16

KKKKKKKKKK

161 1 256

KKKKKKKKKK

 ‫א‬

 E٤J ٢F   W 

( F 5)16 , (47)16 , (1A3)16 

 W١

 ‫א‬ (10 B) ‫א‬   W‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ 11B101

(16 2 × 1) + (161 × 0) + (16 0 × 11) = 

(256 × 1) + (16 × 0) + (1× 11) = 

 

(10 B)

 

256 + 16 + 11 = 267

∴ (267)10 = (10 B )16

- ٢٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W٢  ‫א‬ (10)16 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 

(161 × 1) + (16 0 × 0) = 

 

(16 × 1) + (1× 0) = 

(10)16

16 + 0 = 16

∴ (16)10 = (10)16

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬150‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

 ‫א‬‫א‬ 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 E٥J ٢F - ٢٧ -

‫א‬‫א‬ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٢ K2    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2‫א‬‫א‬ 2‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬0‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W١

 ‫א‬6‫א‬

 W‫א‬ 

   

6 ÷ 2 = 

3 ÷ 2 = 

1÷ 2 =

‫א‬

‫א‬

LSB‫א‬

3

0

 

1

1

0

1

∴ (110) 2 = (6)10

 MSB‫א‬ 

 W٢

 ‫א‬19‫א‬

 W‫א‬ 

  

‫א‬

LSB‫א‬

19 ÷ 2 = 

9

1

9 ÷ 2 = 

4

1

2

0

1

0

0

1

4÷2 = 2÷2= 1÷ 2 =

‫א‬

∴ (10011) 2 = (19)10 

- ٢٨ -

 MSB‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (10011) 2

(2 4 × 1) + (2 3 × 0) + (2 2 × 0) + (21 × 1) + (2 0 × 1) = 

(16 × 1) + (8 × 0) + (4 × 0) + (2 × 1) + (1× 1) = 

16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 5

= (19)10 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٢  2 4 = 16 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ K١ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

 W١  ‫א‬ (110101) 2 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

(0011  0101) 2

(3)10  (5)10 

(35)16

∴ (35)16 = (110101) 2 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

  W٢

 ‫א‬ (1101011) 2 ‫א‬ - ٢٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬ 

 

 ‫א‬

(0110  1011) 2

(6)10  (11)10 

(6)16  ( B)16 

∴ (6 B )16 = (1101011) 2 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 

 W٣  ‫א‬ (1011100000) 2 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

(2)10  (14)10  (0)10 

 ‫א‬

(0010  1110  0000) 2

(2)16  ( E )16  (0)16 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

∴ (2 EO)16 = (1011100000) 2 

 

   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٢  E٥J ٢F، 

 W١

 ‫א‬2B5‫א‬  W‫א‬

2  B  5 

0010  1011  0101 

∴ (1010110101) 2 = (2 B5)16 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬   

- ٣٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W٢

 ‫א‬CO3‫א‬  W‫א‬

C  O  3 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

1100  0000  0011 

∴ (110000000011) 2 = (CO3)16 

 

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٢ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

BCD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬90 ‫א‬‫א‬

 BCD‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 BCD

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 E٦J ٢F 

‫א‬،110011  3‫א‬   

 00010101  15

- ٣١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ BCD  W‫א‬    ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 BCD

23 85 251

00100011 10000101 001001010001 E٧J ٢F

10111 1010101 11111011  

 ASCII‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٢  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E  F ASCII‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K7‫א‬

 KASCII‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   HEX DEC CHR CTRL

HEX DEC CHR

HEX DEC CHR

HEX DEC CHR

00

0

NUL

^@

20

32

SP

40

64

@

60

96

`

01

1

SOH

^A

21

33

!

41

65

A

61

97

a

02

2

STX

^B

22

34

"

42

66

B

62

98

b

03

3

ETX

^C

23

35

#

43

67

C

63

99

c

04

4

EOT

^D

24

36

$

44

68

D

64

100

d

05

5

ENQ

^E

25

37

%

45

69

E

65

101

e

06

6

ACK

^F

26

38

&

46

70

F

66

102

f

07

7

BEL

^G

27

39

'

47

71

G

67

103

g

08

8

BS

^H

28

40

(

48

72

H

68

104

h

09

9

HT

^I

29

41

)

49

73

I

69

105

i

0A

10

LF

^J

2A

42

*

4A

74

J

6A

106

j

- ٣٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



0B

11

VT

^K

2B

43

+

4B

75

K

6B

107

k

0C

12

FF

^L

2C

44

,

4C

76

L

6C

108

l

0D

13

CR

^M

2D

45

4D

77

M

6D

109

m

0E

14

SO

^N

2E

46

.

4E

78

N

6E

100

n

0F

15

SI

^O

2F

47

/

4F

79

O

6F

111

o

10

16

DLE

^P

30

48

0

50

80

P

70

112

p

11

17

DC1

^Q

31

49

1

51

81

Q

71

113

q

12

18

DC2

^R

32

50

2

52

82

R

72

114

r

13

19

DC3

^S

33

51

3

53

83

S

73

115

s

14

20

DC4

^T

34

52

4

54

84

T

74

116

t

15

21

NAK

^U

35

53

5

55

85

U

75

117

u

16

22

SYN

^V

36

54

6

56

86

V

76

118

v

17

23

ETB

^W

37

55

7

57

87

W

77

119

w

18

24

CAN

^X

38

56

8

58

88

X

78

120

x

19

25

EM

^Y

39

57

9

59

89

Y

79

121

y

1A

26

SUB

^Z

3A

58

:

5A

90

Z

7A

122

z

1B

27

ESC

3B

59

;

5B

91

[

7B

123

{

1C

28

FS

3C

60

<

5C

92

\

7C

124

|

1D

29

GS

3D

61

=

5D

93

]

7D

125

}

1E

30

RS

3E

62

>

5E

94

^

7E

126

~

1F

31

US

3F

63

?

5F

95

_

7F

127 DEL    

- ٣٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬

Y‫א‬‫א‬ K١

Y= 3.104 + 6.103 + 7.101 + 9.100 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ 11011 110011 101010 11110000

J  J   J   J  

 W11110001‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠٣

239J 

141J  241J  124J  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٠٤  25  31 89 254

J J J J

      

 W249‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠٥ 11000111 10011111 11001100 11111001

J J J J

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠٦ - ٣٤ -

      


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



11111000.11 J  11111111.111 J  10000001. 101 J   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠٧ 310

J 

9570

J  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠٨  25.75  255.9875 0.97

J  J   J  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠٩  80 255 9432 4039

J J J J 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠١٠  80 9C2 FFFF 4500

J J J J

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠١١ 25 9D` ABCD A9B8 

J J J J 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠١٢ - ٣٥ -

      

             


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



1011101 11111111 1010101010 110000111100

J J J J

 KBCD‫א‬‫א‬٠١٣  12 45 99 125 255 24

J J J J J J

               

‫א‬‫א‬BCD‫א‬‫א‬  ٠١٤ 1001 10011001 100110011 11001

J J J J

      

ASCII‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠١٥  2 31 255 3425

J J J J

      

W‫א‬ASCII‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠١٦

0110110 J  0111110 J  0111111 J  

 ASCII‫א‬‫א‬٠١٧

50 Print AB= ''35'' - ٣٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٣


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣

K‫א‬ K٤

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥   W‫א‬‫א‬  ٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  K   W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

- ٣٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 Logic Gates‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

،LowHigh‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KEOFFF‫א‬‫א‬EONF‫א‬‫א‬

0‫א‬ONHigh1K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KOFFLow 

'Gate AND' ??‫א‬١J ٣  K AND‫א‬‫א‬  E١J ٣F‫א‬??‫א‬AND‫א‬ 

B ‫ﻣﻔﺘ ﺎح‬

A ‫ﻣﻔﺘ ﺎح‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬

‫ﻣﺼ ﺒﺎح‬

‫ﺟﻬ ﺪ‬

 E١J ٣F 

 KA , B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬A , B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Truth Table ‫א‬   

- ٣٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



  ‫א‬  A OFF  OFF  ON ON

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 B OFF  ON  OFF ON

OFF  OFF  OFF ON

E١J ٣F 

‫א‬1High ON ‫א‬ AND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K1‫א‬‫א‬ON‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬AND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٣F‫א‬  

A B

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬ ‫א‬AND

Y=AB Y=A AND B E٢J ٣F

 ‫א‬  A 0 0 1 1

‫א‬  B 0 1  0 1

Y 0 0 0 1

 E٢J ٣F 

'Gate OR'??‫א‬٢J ٣

‫א‬، OR??‫א‬E٣J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬(OFF) A , B ‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ٣٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



B ‫ﻣﻔﺘ ﺎح‬ A ‫ﻣﻔﺘ ﺎح‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬

‫ﻣﺼ ﺒﺎح‬

‫ﺟﻬ ﺪ‬

 E٣J ٣F 

 A , B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  A OFF  OFF  ON ON

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 B OFF  ON  OFF ON E٣J ٣F

OFF ON ON ON 

‫א‬ OR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٣F‫א‬

A

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

B

‫א‬OR

Y=A+B Y=A OR B E٤J ٣F

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 A 0 0

 B 0 1

Y 0 ١

1

 0

١

1

1

1

 E٤J ٣F - ٤٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



NOT ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٣  E٥J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬NOT‫א‬

R ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬

‫ﻣﺼ ﺒﺎح‬

‫ﺟﻬ ﺪ‬

A ‫ﻣﻔﺘ ﺎح‬

 E٥J ٣F  

،‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEA‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

A  OFF  ON

 ‫א‬ ON OFF E٥J ٣F

 K‫א‬NOT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٣F‫א‬       - ٤١ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



A

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬ ‫א‬OR Y=A

E٦J ٣F

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 A 0 1

Y 1 0

 E٦J ٣F 

 W١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬AND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

A B C

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬  

2‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬  A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

8 = 2 3 = ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 

- ٤٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬OR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

A C B

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬ 

  ‫א‬  A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

 W‫א‬

8 = 2 3 = ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 

NAND Gate ''''‫א‬٤J ٣ NAND ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ٣F‫א‬ ، AND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬���      - ٤٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



A

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

B  ‫א‬NAND Y = A.B

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 A 0

 B 0

Y ١

0

1

١

1

 0

١

1

1

E٧J ٣F

٠

 E٧J ٣F 

NOR Gate ''''‫א‬٥J ٣ NAND ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٣F‫א‬ ، OR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬NOR 

A B

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 A 0

 B 0

‫א‬NOR

Y ١

0

1

٠

Y = A+ B

1

 0

٠

1

1

E٨J ٣F

٠

 E٨J ٣F 

Exclusive OR Gate (XOR)‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬"1" ‫א‬‫א‬

XOR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٣F‫א‬ ،"0" ‫א‬‫א‬"1"  K‫א‬   - ٤٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 

A B

Y ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬ 

XOR‫א‬ Y = A⊕ B

E٩J ٣F

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 A 0 0

 B 0 1

Y 0 ١

1

 0

١

1

1

٠

 E٩J ٣F  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬XOR‫א‬‫א‬

A B

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

Y 

 E١٠J ٣F    Exclusive NOR Gate (XNOR)‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٣ ‫א‬‫א‬"1" ‫א‬ XOR‫א‬XNOR‫א‬ E١٠J ٣F‫א‬ ،"0" ‫א‬‫א‬ "1"‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬XNOR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ٤٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



  

A B

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

Y

 ‫א‬  A 0 0 1 1

XNOR‫א‬ Y = A⊕ B

E١١J ٣F

‫א‬  B 0 1  0 1

Y 1 0 0 1

 E٩J ٣F 

- ٤٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫ ؟‬C، B،A‫א‬‫א‬AND‫א‬High‫א‬ K١ ‫ ؟‬C، B،A‫א‬‫א‬OR‫א‬High‫א‬ K٢

 

W‫א‬NOT‫א‬Y‫א‬ K٣ A=10101110110111

W B،A‫א‬AND‫א‬Y‫א‬ K٤

A=101011111011

B=111110000010

W B،A‫א‬NAND‫א‬‫א‬ K٥

A=1010101010

B=1010101010

‫؟‬Y‫א‬ C، B،A‫א‬‫א‬XOR‫א‬‫ א‬K٦  

،AND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ B،A‫א‬XOR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧ ‫؟‬NOTOR

W C، B،A‫א‬‫א‬XNOR‫א‬Y‫א‬‫א‬ K٨

A=10111011

,

B=10001000

,

C=01110111 

- ٤٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K١ K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣   W‫א‬‫א‬  K٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  K   W‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

- ٤٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 Combinational Logic ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W١J ٤ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   WAdder ‫א‬٢J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W

0+1=0 0+1=1 1+0=1  1+1=10

Half Adder‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ٤

(Sum)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬(Carry) ‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

A 

B

HA

S C0

 E١J ٤F 

- ٤٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬ A 0 0 1 1

   

B C0 0  0 1  0 0  0 1  1 E١J ٤F

   

S 0 1 1 0 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(C0)‫א‬(S)‫א‬ 

S = AB + A B = A ⊕ B

Co = AB 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

A

S

B

C0  E١J ٤F 

Full Adder‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Ci)‫א‬

- ٥٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

A B Ci

FA

S C0

 E٢J ٤F

  ‫א‬

A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

   

B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

Ci 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E٢J ٤F

   

C0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

   

S 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   

S = A ⊕ B ⊕ Ci 

Co = AB + ( A + B)Ci

  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥١ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



A B S

Ci

C0

 E٢J ٤F

 

 WOR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ M

A

S

B

HS

D

A

B0

B

HS

Bi

D

D

B0

B0

 E٢J ٤F

 Subtractor ‫א‬٣J ٤

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  - ٥٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



HalfSubtractor ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣J ٤

(Difference)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬(Borrow)‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺮوح ﻣﻨ ﻪ‬

M

‫اﻟﻤﻄﺮوح‬

S

HS

D

‫اﻟﻔ ﺮق‬

B0 ‫اﻹﺳ ﺘﻌﺎرة‬

 E٣J ٤F

 

 ‫א‬ M 0 0 1 1

   

S D 0  0 1  1 0  1 1  0 E٣J ٤F

   

B0 0 1 0 0

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(B0)‫א‬،(D)‫א‬ 

 

D = M S ⊕ M S = M ⊕ S 

Bo = M S 

 

- ٥٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬ M

D

S

B0

 E٣J ٤F 

FullSubtractor ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ M S Bi

FS

D B0

 E٤J ٤F 

 ‫א‬ M 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

   

S 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

Bi 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E٤J ٤F - ٥٤ -

   

D 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

   

B0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

D = M ⊕ S ⊕ Bi 

Bo = Bi + ( M ⊕ S ) MS 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ M S D

Bi

B0

 E٤J ٤F  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ M

A

S

B

HS

D

A

B0

B

HS

Bi

D

D

B0

B0

 E٤J ٤F - ٥٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



Digital Comparator ‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٤

??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (A>B , A<B , A=B) ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

A

‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرن اﻟ ﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬

B

Comp

A=B A<B A>B

X Y Z

 E٥J ٤F

   ‫א‬

A

B

0 0 1 1

 0  1  0 1

X  A=B  1 0 0 1 E٥J ٤F

Y A<B  0  1  0 0

Z  A>B  0  0  1 0 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

X = AB + AB = A ⊕ B 

Y = AB 

Z = A B 

- ٥٦ -

 


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A

X

Y

z

B

 E٥J ٤F 

Digital Codes ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٤

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Binary Coded ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(0

Decimal  9)( B C D 8421 )  K(8421)

- ٥٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  B C

 ‫א‬‫א‬

D

‫א‬

 (8421) 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 E٦J ٤F

 W١

BCD32.84‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬ 

  BCD

3

2

 ٠

8

4

0011

0010

 ٠

1000

0100   W٢

 BCD 01110001.00001000‫א‬  W‫א‬ BCD  

0111

0001

 ٠

0000

1000

7

1

 ٠

0

8

- ٥٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



Encoder ‫א‬١J ٥J ٤

‫א‬(n)‫א‬‫א‬(2n) ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫اﻟ ﺪﺧﻞ‬

2

n

n

2 xn

n

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

Encoder

 E٦J ٤F 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EBCD‫א‬F ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

Ds 8

Cs 4

Bs 2

As 1

‫اﻟ ﺪﺧﻞ‬ D9 D8 D7 D6 D5

D4 D3 D2 D1

Encoder ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻔﺮ‬

D0

 E٦J ٤F

- ٥٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BCD‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

D0

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

D7

D8

D9

D

C

B

A

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 E٧J ٤F

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1  0 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

        

‫א‬‫א‬(9)(0)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K( D9 )( D0 )،‫א‬‫א‬ 

??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٠ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



Y D9

D

D8

D7 D6 D5 D4

C

B

D3 D2

A

D1 D0

 E٦J ٤F

 

Decoder ‫א‬٢J ٥J ٤ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(2n)‫א‬‫א‬(n)   - ٦١ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



n

‫اﻟ ﺪﺧﻞ‬

nx2

n

2

Decoder

n

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

 E٧J ٤F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬BCD‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻴﻨ ﺎت اﻟﺨ ﺮج اﻟﻌﺸ ﺮي‬ D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

{

A

‫اﻟ ﺪﺧﻞ‬ (BCD ‫)ﺸﻔﺭﺓ‬

B

C D

Decoder ‫ﻣﺤﻠ ﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺸ ﻔﺮة‬

 E٧J ٤F  

- ٦٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

D

C

B

A

D9

D8

D8

D6

D5

D4

D3

D2

D1

D0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E٨J ٤F

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 

،‫א‬‫א‬ W?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬NOT??AND??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(A,B)Decoder  K(3)(0)

- ٦٣ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



A

\

\

yo = A . B

B

\

y1 = A . B

\

y2 = A . B

yo = A . B

 E٧J ٤F   

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ A 0 0 1 1

B  0  1  0 1

‫א‬ 

 Y1 1  0 0 1 0  0 0 0 E٩J ٤F Y0

 Y2  0  0  1 0

 Y3  0  0  0 1 

- ٦٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



Multiplexer

‫א‬٦J ٤

‫א‬IC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(AND,OR,NOT)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 (2 × 1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Do F B1 S

 E٨J ٤F

 

:4-TO-1 Multiplexer‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل‬

0 1

4x1

2 3 S1

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺝ‬

MUX

S0

‫ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬

 E٨J ٤F  - ٦٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



(4 × 1)‫א‬‫א‬ S1 0 0 1 1

    E١٠J

S0 0 1 0 1 ٤F 

    

Y I0 I1 I2 I3

(4 × 1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I0

I1 Y I2

I3

I1 I0

 E٨J ٤F  Demultiplexer

‫א‬٧J ٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ٦٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 :1-TO-2 Demultiplexer‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ E

1-TO-2

D0

DEMUX

D1

S

 E٩J ٤F   ‫א‬ S1 0 1

D0  D1  E  0  0  E E١١J ٤F 

‫א‬Logic 0S‫א‬‫א‬

 KD1‫א‬‫א‬Logic 1S‫א‬KD0‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E

D0

S

D1  E٩J ٤F - ٦٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 :1-TO-4Demultiplexer‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ D0

1-TO-4

E

D1

DEMUX

D2 D3

S1

S0

 E١٠J ٤F

      ‫א‬

S1

S0

0 0 1 1

 0  1  0 1

D0

D

E  0 0 E 0  0 0 0 E٩J ٤F

1

 D2  0  0  E 0

 D3  0  0  0 E  

- ٦٨ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  E D0

D1

D2

D3

S1

S0

 E١٠J ٤F

    

- ٦٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫؟‬

Half adder‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ ‫ ؟‬Full adder‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

A=1 , B=1 Cin=0W‫א‬‫א‬CoutS‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ A=1001 , B=1000

WHigh‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

‫א‬ ‫א‬

Decoder ‫א‬ K٥

 

‫ ؟‬A3، A2، A1،A0‫א‬A3A2A1A0=1110

‫א‬7 Segments‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦

‫؟‬1001W7 SegmentsBCD‫א‬

‫؟‬Multiplexer ‫א‬ K٧ ‫؟‬ Demultiplexer ‫א‬ K٨ A =1 ،B =1 ، Cin=1W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩ ‫א‬‫א‬،7 SegmentsBCD K١٠ 

A0 = 10111101

 W‫א‬‫א‬7 Segments

- ٧٠ -

   


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



    

A1 = 10110101 A2 = 11110000 A3 = 00110011 

 D3، D2، D1،D0‫א‬Multiplexer ‫א‬  ٠١١

1، D1=0 ،D2=0،D3=1‫א‬‫א‬S1S0

 D0=  ‫؟‬S1=1S0=0 

‫א‬Multiplexer‫א‬  ٠١٢  ‫ ؟‬64 

128Multiplexer‫א‬‫א‬٠١٣  ‫؟‬S6S5S4S3S2S1S0 = 1000111W‫א‬ 

32‫א‬٠١٤  ‫؟‬S4S3S2S1S0 = 01101‫א‬

- ٧١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

٥


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K T، JK، D،RS‫א‬ K١ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ K‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬  ٪٨٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  

- ٧٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 Flip-Flops ‫א‬

 W١J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Sequential Circuits ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Flip-‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Flops 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)٢J ٥  EClock pulseF‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ إﻋﺎدة وﺿﻊ‬R ‫ وﺿﻊ‬S

Q

Flip-Flop

Q

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج اﻟﻌ ﺎدي‬ \

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج اﻟﻤﺘﻤ ﻢ‬

 E١J ٥F 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (NAND  NOR) ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KNOR‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Reset) R

(set) S

1

Q

2

Q

 E١J ٥F - ٧٣ -

\


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬(0)‫א‬‫א‬(NOR ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K(0)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 KNOR‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

 

S

R

Q

Q

1

 0

1

 0

0

 0

1

 0

0

 1

0

 1

0

0

0

1

‫א‬

 1

 1

 0

 0



E١J ٥F

   ‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

( Q )‫א‬ER=0F(1)‫א‬(S)‫א‬ K١

(1)‫א‬‫א‬(Q)‫א‬(0)‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬(Set- State)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(R) (0)‫א‬(S)‫א‬ K٢

 (0)  ( Q ) ‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬(Q)‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،(1)‫א‬‫א‬(0)‫א‬‫א‬

 K(0)‫א‬‫א‬R,S‫א‬‫א‬No Change 

(0)‫א‬(S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠٣

 ( Q ) (0)‫א‬‫א‬(Q)‫א‬‫א‬ER=1F - ٧٤ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬(Clear- State ) ‫א‬‫א‬،(1)���‫א‬‫א‬

 KReset 

(0)‫א‬‫א‬(S) (0)‫א‬(R)‫א‬٠٤  K‫א‬‫א‬، ( Q ) (Q)‫א‬

 

، (Q, Q )  (1)‫א‬(R,S)٠٥  K‫א‬??‫א‬ 

 KNAND‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ S

R

1

Q

2

Q

\

 E١J ٥F 

- ٧٥ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 KNAND‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)‫א‬

 

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

S

R

Q

Q

0

 0

1

 1

0

 1

1

 0

1

 0

0

 1

1

1

0

1

      

E٢J ٥F    Flip- Flops Triggering ‫א‬٣J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EClock‫א‬F

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣J ٥  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W K١

(1)(1)‫א‬(0)‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬(0)

1 

0  E٢J ٥F  - ٧٦ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 W٠٢

(0)(0)‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬(1)

1 

0  E٢J ٥F   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٣J ٥ 

 W‫א‬٠١  CK

 E٣J ٥F   W‫א‬٠٢ 

CK

 E٣J ٥F 

Synchronous (R-S) Flip-Flop ‫א‬‫( א‬R-S) ٤J ٥ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫( א‬R-S)

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (R-S)K - ٧٧ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



(S,R,CK)‫א‬(R-S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K (Q,

S ‫ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬

Q

CK

Q

R

Q )

\

 E٤J ٥F  KNAND‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫(א‬R-S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

S

Q

CK

Q

R

\

 E٤J ٥F 

 KNAND‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫(א‬R-S)‫א‬   ‫א‬ CK

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

S

R

Q

Q

0

 1

0

 1

 

0

 0

0

 1

 

1

 0

1

 0

 

1

1

1

1

E ٣J ٥F - ٧٨ -




‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



J-K Flip-Flop(J-K) ٥J ٥ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،J-K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ( Q ) ‫א‬‫א‬(Q)‫א‬‫א‬(J,K,CK)‫א‬

،‫א‬‫(א‬R-S)‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KToggle‫א‬(J=K=1) J

Q

CK 

Q

K

\

 E٥J ٥F  

 WNAND‫א‬‫א‬(J-K) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

Q

CK

Q

\

K

 E٥J ٥F 

- ٧٩ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 WNAND‫א‬‫א‬(J-K) ‫א‬ ‫א‬ CK

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

Q

Q

S

R

0

 0

0

 1

0

 1

 

1

 0

1

 0

 

1

1

 ‫א‬

No Change

‫א‬‫א‬

Toggle E ٤J ٥F

  D Flip-Flop(D) ٦J ٥ ،(D)‫א‬،(D)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(Delay) ‫א‬(CK)‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧ ﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻀ ﺔ اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬

D

Q

CK

Q

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

\

 E٦J ٥F 

(D)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ CK

D

Q

 0

 0

 1

 1

 1

 0

E٥J ٥F

- ٨٠ -

Q


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



(R)‫א‬(NOT)‫א‬(R-S)‫א‬(D)‫א‬

 W‫א‬

D

ٍS

CK ٍR

Q Q

\

 E٦J ٥F 

(K)‫א‬(NOT)‫א‬(J-K)‫א‬(D)‫א‬  W‫א‬ D

ٍJ

CK 

ٍK

Q Q

\

 E٦J ٥F

D‫א‬‫א‬J-KR-SD‫א‬‫א‬

 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 

 T Flip-Flop(T) ٧J ٥

،(T)‫א‬،(T)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 .(CK)‫א‬‫א‬

ٍT ‫ﻧﺒﻀ ﺔ اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬

CK  E٧J ٥F - ٨١ -

Q Q

\

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬(J,K)‫א‬(J-K)(T)

 W‫א‬(T)

T

J

Q

CK

‫ﻧﺒﻀ ﺔ اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬

Q

K

\

 E٧J ٥F  

(T)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ CK

T

Q(t + 1)

‫א‬

 0

Q(t )

No Change

 1

Q(t )

Toggle

E٦J ٥F  

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(0)‫א‬‫א‬(T)‫א‬٠١  KNo Change‫א‬‫א‬ Q(t + 1) 

‫א‬‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬(T)‫א‬٠٢ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Q(t + 1)

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Toggle  

 

- ٨٢ -


‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫؟‬SR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ ‫؟‬J=1 , K=1 : J-K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ ‫א‬J=1 , K=1J-K‫א‬ K٤

 

‫؟‬100KHz‫א‬

SRQ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

S=10010111010

R=01001000101 

‫א‬K=0 , J=1J-K‫א‬ K٦ ‫؟‬10KHz‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬T=1T‫א‬ K٧ ‫؟‬500KHz

- ٨٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٦


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢��



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢

K‫א‬ K٣ K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٦   W‫א‬‫א‬  K٪٨٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K 

 W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



Counters ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W١J ٦ ،‫א‬Counter‫א‬‫א‬

 (J-K)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(T)

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ K١

K(Down) (UP)‫ א‬K٢

K(Asynchronous)‫א‬‫א‬(Synchronous)‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣

  AsynchronousCounters ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Up - Counters ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W(J-K)‫א‬(4)‫א‬

J 

 (4)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K,J ‫א‬،J,K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E 30F  K(1)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K(Q2,Q1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬(Q1)‫א‬ 

- ٨٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



LSB Q1

MSB Q2

‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

1 J

CK 

K

J

Q1

CK

\ Q1

K

Q2 \

Q2

 E١J ٦F 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (4)‫א‬‫א‬

CLK NO.  0  1 2  3  4 5 6 7

O/P  Q2

Q1

0 0 1  1 0 0 1 1

0 1 0  1 0 1 0 1

E١J ٦F

- ٨٦ -

‫א‬ ‫א‬  0  1 2  3  0  1 2  3 


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Q1)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(2)‫א‬‫א‬(Q2)‫א‬‫א‬

 K(4)

 E١J ٦F 

 W١

‫א‬‫א‬J-K‫א‬(16)‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E150F‫א‬(16)‫א‬

m=4 ،‫א‬(m)(2m=16) ‫א‬

 KJ-K‫א‬K(24=16)‫א‬

1

J

CK

‫ﻧﺒﻀ ﺔ اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬ 1

K

Q1

1

J

CK 1

K

Q2

1

J

CK 1

K

Q3

1

J

CK 1

K

Q4 D

C B ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج‬

A

 E١J ٦F  

 (16)‫א‬‫א‬  - ٨٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  0  1 2  3  4 5 6 7

 ‫א‬‫א‬

8 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

2 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

١٢١



‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬

1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

8 9 10 11  12 13  14 15

 ‫א‬‫א‬

8 D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

2 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

 E٢J ٦F 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E١J ٦F W(n)‫א‬‫ א‬J  

 W (2 m ≥ n) ‫א‬(n)‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ :n‫א‬Wm - ٨٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬E50F(6)‫א‬ (8)‫א‬(6)  (2 m ) (n) (23 > 6)

 KJ-KE7 0 F(8)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬NAND‫א‬A,B,C 

‫א‬‫א‬C,B‫א‬NDAD‫א‬W(6)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،CLR ‫א‬ K‫א‬NAND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(110)‫א‬(000) 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1

1 J

CK K

CLR

Q1

1 J

Q2

CK K

CLR

J

CK K

Q3

C

B

A

CLR

 E١J ٦F 

 W

‫א‬‫א‬،NAND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KAND‫א‬ 

- ٨٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



Decimal Counter ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،E10010000FE90F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،NAND‫א‬J-K‫א‬‫א‬

(D =1,B =1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬CLR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(NAND)‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬

1

J

CK

‫اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬ 1

Q1

1

CK 1

K

J

1

Q2

J

Q3

CK 1

K

1

CK 1

K

J

Q4

K

D C B A ‫اﻟﺨ ﺮج اﻟﺜﻨ ﺎﺋﻲ‬

 E٢J ٦F   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ CLK NO.  0  1 2  3  4 5

O/P  ‫א‬‫א‬ D 0 0 0 0 0 0

C 0 0 0 0 1 1

B 0 0 1 1 0 0

- ٩٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬ A 0 1 0 1 0 1

 0  1 2  3  4 5


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

6 7 8 9 10

0 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 0 0

١٢١



‫א‬



1 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0

E٣J ٦F

6 7 8 9  0

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٢J ٦F  

‫א‬‫א‬(Decoder) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(Seven Segments)‫א‬

CK

‫ﻋﺸﺮي‬

A B C D ‫ﻋ ﺪاد‬

a b c d e f g

A B C D

‫ﻣﺴ ﻔﺮ ﺷ ﻔﺮة‬

 E٢J ٦F - ٩١ -

a f

g

e

b c

d ‫ﺷﺎﺷ ﺔ اﻟﻌ ﺮض‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(0)‫א‬‫א‬ 

CLK NO.  0  1 2  3  4 5 6 7 8 9

 ‫א‬‫א‬ D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

 ‫א‬ A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

a 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

b 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

d 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

e 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1

f 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

g 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

 E٤J ٦F 

 Down-Counters ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 WJ-K‫א‬(4)‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(4)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬J,KJ-K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E03F ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ (Q1 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬Q2,Q1‫א‬

- ٩٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1



‫א‬



1 J

CK 

١٢١

K

J

Q1

Q2

CK

\ Q1

Q2 Q1

\

Q2

K

 E٣J ٦F  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(4)  K‫א‬ 

O/P CLK NO.  0  1 2  3  4

 ‫א‬‫א‬ Q2

Q1

1 1 0 0 1

1 0 1  0 1

E٥J ٦F

- ٩٣ -

‫א‬ ‫א‬     

3 2 1 0 3 


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (Q1 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K (Q1 ) ‫א‬‫א‬

 E٣J ٦F WJ-K‫א‬(8)‫א‬ J  

‫א‬‫א‬E07F(8)‫א‬

 KJ-K(23=8) W‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1

1 J

CK K

Q1 \ Q1

1 J

CK K

Q2 \ Q2

J

CK K

Q3

Q3 Q2 Q1

\

Q3

 E٤J ٦F 

- ٩٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

O/P CLK NO.  0  1 2  3  4  5 6  7 8 9

 ‫א‬‫א‬ Q1

Q2

Q3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

1 0 1  0 1 0 1  0 1 0

E٦J ٦F

‫א‬ ‫א‬ 7 6  5  4  3 2 1 0 7 6 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٤J ٦F - ٩٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 Synchronous Counters‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٦ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬CK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KParallel Counters

 K(8)‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

(J-K)E70F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

1

J

Q1

J

Q2

J

CK

CK

CK

K

K

K

‫اﻷول‬

‫اﻟﻘ ﻼب‬

‫اﻟﻘ ﻼب اﻟﺜ ﺎﻧﻲ‬

‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟ ﺚ‬

Q3

C

B

A

‫اﻟﻘ ﻼب‬

‫اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬

 E٥J ٦F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

(No Change)(Toggle)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

AND‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

(1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(A , B) K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 E٥J ٦F 

 W‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ O/P

‫א‬

CLK NO.

C

B

A

‫א‬

 0  1 2  3  4  5 6  7 8

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

0 1 2  3  4 5 6 7  0

E٧J ٦F

 (8)‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

(8)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬CK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ (Q1 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1

J

Q1

J

CK K

١٢١



‫א‬



Q2

J

CK \

K

Q1

Q3

C

B

A

CK \

K

Q2

\

Q3

‫اﻟ ﺘﺰاﻣﻦ‬

 E٦J ٦F  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٦J ٦F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

O/P

‫א‬

CLK NO.

C

B

A

‫א‬

 0  1 2  3  4  5 6  7 8

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7

E٨J ٦F - ٩٨ -

     


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬ Shift Registers K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J ٦F،10‫א‬D‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٧ 1 1

 

D

CLK

‫א‬

C

Q

0 0

1

‫א‬

 

D

CLK

Q

0

C

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬



 E٧J ٦F‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

KEE٨J ٦F‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J 

  ‫א‬





Data In

Data Out

 E٨J ٦F‫א‬ 

KEE٩J ٦F‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   - ٩٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Data In

  ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬

  ‫א‬



Data Out

 E٩J ٦F‫א‬ 

KEE١٠J ٦F‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J      ‫א‬



Data In

  ‫א‬



Data Out

 E١٠J ٦F‫א‬ 

KEE١١J ٦F‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   

- ١٠٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬



  ‫א‬

Data In

‫א‬

  ‫א‬

Data Out

١٢١



 E١١J ٦F‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

Serial in / Serial out Shift Registers ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 .Clock‫א‬

 ‫א‬D4‫א‬E١٢J ٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬4 

‫א‬

‫א‬

 D

Q0

D

Q1

D

Q2

D

Serial In



Q3 Serial Out

C

C

C

C

CLK

‫א‬



 E١٢J ٦F‫א‬ - ١٠١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



1011‫א‬E١٣J ٦F‫א‬

 K(Clk4 Clk3،Clk2،Clk1) Clock  4‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 D

0

0

D

D

0

D

Serial In

0 Serial Out

C

C

C

C

CLK

‫א‬

1

1st bit

D

1

0

D

0

D

0 Q3

C

C

C

C

D

CLK1

‫ א‬ 1

2nd bit

D

1

1

D

0

D

0 Q3

C

C

C

C

D

CLK2

 ‫א‬

 0

3rd bit

D

0

1

D

1

D

0 Q3

C

C

C

C

D

CLK3

 ‫א‬

 1

4th bit

D

C

1

0

D

D

C

C

1

D

1 Q3

C

CLK4

‫א‬‫א‬



 E١٣J ٦F‫א‬  - ١٠٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬1011‫א‬‫א‬E١٤J ٦F‫א‬

 K(Clk8 Clk7،Clk6،Clk5) Clock 4‫א‬ 

‫א‬

 0

D

1

0

D

D

1

D

1

Serial In C

C

C

C

CLK

‫א‬

0

D

0

D

0

D

1 Q3

C

C

C

C

‫א‬

1

D



CLK5

0

D

0

D

1

D

0 Q3

C

C

C

C

‫א‬

0

D



CLK6

0

D

0

D

0

D

1 Q3

C

C

C

C

 ‫א‬

0

D



CLK7

0

D

C

 ‫א‬

0

0

D

C

D

C

0

D

0 Q3

C



CLK8

 E١٤J ٦F‫א‬ 

- ١٠٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

Serial in / Parallel out Shift Registers  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

،Q0D‫א‬‫א‬E١٥J ٦F‫א‬

 K Q7، Q6، Q5، Q4، Q3، Q2،Q1 

  ‫א‬

 D

D

D

C

C

D

D

D

D

D

Data Input

C

C

C

C

C

C

CLK

Q0

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Data Outputs

  ‫א‬



 E١٥J ٦F‫א‬

- ١٠٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

in / Serial out Shift Registers  Parallel  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،Load‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

D0‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٦F‫א‬

 KQ3‫א‬D3D2،D1، 

D0

‫א‬‫א‬

  

Parallel Inputs

D1

‫א‬‫א‬

D2

D3

Shift/Load

G4

G1

G5

G2

G6

G3

Serial Output

D

C

Q0

D

Q1

C

D

C

Q2

D

Q3

C

  ‫א‬

CLK

‫א‬

  

 E١٦J ٦F‫א‬

- ١٠٥ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤

in / Parallel out Shift Registers  Parallel   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Load‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، D4، D3، D2، D1،D0)‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٦F‫א‬ .( ، Q6، Q5، Q4، Q3، Q2، Q1،Q0)‫א‬ ( D7، D6،D5

 Q7 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

Parallel Data Inputs

D0

D

C

  ‫א‬

D1

D2

D3

D4

D

D

D

D

C

C

C

‫א‬

D5

D6

D

C

D7

D

C

D

C

C

CLK

Q0

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Paralle l Data Outputs

  ‫א‬



 E١٧J ٦F‫א‬

- ١٠٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥ Shift Registers  Bidirectional 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨J ٦F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬High‫א‬ Right / Left ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬Low‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ G4، G3، G2،G1 ‫א‬‫א‬ 1 = Right / Left  ‫א‬ Clock‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 G8، G7، G6،G5 ‫א‬‫א‬ 0 = Right / Left 

‫א‬Clock‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬ 

Right/Left

Serial Data in

  ‫ א‬‫א‬

G1

G5

G2

G6

G3

G7

G4

G8

  ���

D

C

D

C

Q1

D

C

Q2

D

Q3

C

Q0

CLK

  E١٨J ٦F‫א‬       

- ١٠٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬،K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 Word‫א‬KNibble KByte‫א‬  K‫א‬

 K10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٩J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ١٠٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



1 1

2

2 3 4 5 6

3

1 2 3

4

4

5 6

5 6

7 8

7

7

9

8 1

2

3

4

8x8

5

6

7

10 11

8



58 59

12

60

13 14 15

61 62 63

16

64 16 x 4



64 x 1



 E١٩J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K64Nibble 16 8‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(8k× 8)‫א‬، 8 ‫א‬1024(1k× 8)  K 8‫א‬8192

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬81928k10241k  213 = 8192

 K2

210 = 2024    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠J ٦F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠J ٦F  - ١١٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



1

1

2 3 4 5 6

2 3 4 5 6

7

7

8

8 1

2

3 :

6  ‫א‬

4

5

‫א‬ 

6

7

8

 ‫א‬ 4 ‫ א‬: 

‫א‬

‫א‬

( )

3 ‫א‬

(  )

;;;

 E٢٠J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K8

‫א‬E٢٠J ٦F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K64‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠J ٦F‫א‬8   ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Write‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Read

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 KData Bus‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E٢١J ٦F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



Address Decoder Memory Address Bus

  ‫א‬

Data Bus

‫א‬‫ א‬



  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬



 

Read

Write

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 E٢١J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬8

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KAddress Bus‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬65536‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4294967296‫א‬16‫א‬  .32‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢J ٦F‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Decoder ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ - ١١٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



  ‫א‬





Data Register

Address Register 011

10110101

1

Address 0 Decoder 1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

2

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

Data Bus

4

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

5

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

  ‫א‬

6

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

7

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

Address Bus

  ‫א‬



2



3

‫א‬

Write 3

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



  ‫א‬   ‫א‬

 

‫א‬



 

‫א‬‫א‬



1

  ‫א‬



2



3

011

  ‫א‬

 E٢٢J ٦F‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣J ٦F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ١١٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



  ‫א‬





Data Register

Address Register 110

11010101

1 Address Bus

  ‫א‬



Address 0 Decoder 1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

2

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

4

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

5

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

6

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

7

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

 ��� ‫א‬

 3

Data Bus

2 Read 6

  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬



 ‫ א‬

  ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  



‫א‬‫ א‬

1

‫א‬‫א‬





2



  ‫א‬



3

110

 E٢٣J ٦F‫א‬   

RAMROM W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

(Random Access Memories)RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ١١٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 

(Read Only Memories) ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ROM‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ROM‫א‬

(Programmable PROM ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ROM)  (Erasable PROM) EPROM ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

(Static RAM) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(Dynamic RAM)DRAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬SRAM

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬SRAM‫א‬

‫א‬،DRAM‫א‬‫א‬  KFreshing‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬Synchronous SRAM‫א‬‫א‬SRAM‫א‬SRAM‫א‬ 

. Asynchronous SRAM‫א‬‫א‬SRAM  WDRAM

(Fast Page Mode DRAM) FPM DRAM  ،(Extended Data Out DRAM)EDO RAM

 ،(Burst Extended Data Out DRAM)BEDO RAM . (Synchronous DRAM) SD RAM

 KRAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤J ٦F‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



RAM

SRAM

ASRAM

DRAM

SB SRAM

FPM DRAM

EDO DRAM

BEDO DRAM

SDRAM

 E٢٤J ٦F‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

Kn8‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥J ٦F‫א‬

Row Select ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،8‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Data I/O

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬  0

‫א‬

‫א‬

1

‫א‬

‫א‬

2

‫א‬

‫א‬

3

‫א‬

‫א‬

4

‫א‬

‫א‬

n

‫א‬

‫א‬

Data Input Output Buffers

 

‫א‬

  ‫א‬ Data I/O

Bit 7

Data I/O

Data I/O

Data I/O

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4

Data I/O Data I/O Bit 3

Bit 2

Data I/O Bit 1

Data I/O Bit 0

 E٢٥J ٦F‫א‬ 

 K64k ×8‫א‬E٢٦J ٦F‫א‬

- ١١٧ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A 13 A 14 A 15



 

CS

١٢١



‫א‬



RAM 64k x 8 I/O1 I/O2

(I)

  ‫א‬

‫א‬

(O)

  ‫א‬



I/O3 I/O4 I/O5 I/O6 I/O7 I/O8 Chip select Write

WE

Read

OE

Output enable

 E٢٦J ٦F‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬65536 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ O1 O2 O3 O4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KO5 O6 O7O8

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 KI1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7I8‫א‬ 

 ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ROM  K‫א‬Bios‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

- ١١٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ROM Mask ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

(Programmable ROM)PROM ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

(Erasable PROM) EPROM ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

(UV EPROM)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

(Electrically  EEPROM  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J EPROM)

 KROM‫א‬E٢٧J ٦F‫א‬ ROM

Mask ROM

PROM

EPROM

UV EPROM

EEPROM

 E٢٧J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬PROM‫א‬

 K

 KMOS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EPROM‫א‬ - ١١٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬UV EPROM‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬EEPROM‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ROM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ROM‫א‬‫א‬ 

،‫א‬ROM‫א‬

 K0 1

 KMOSROM‫א‬E٢٨J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬

+V DD

1 ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬



+V DD

0 ‫א‬



‫א‬

 E٢٨J ٦F‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬Gate‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬High‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،1‫א‬ON  K0‫א‬OFF

- ١٢٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬2 ROM

 2‫א‬‫א‬

 En‫א‬‫א‬F2ZEn‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Gate‫א‬

 .0‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬5VON‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬0VOFF1‫א‬‫א‬

 K0 

1612816ROM‫א‬E٢٩J ٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K8‫א‬ 

- ١٢١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 E٢٩J ٦F‫א‬   - ١٢٢ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 

 Memory Expansion ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬65536(64k× 4)‫א‬E٣٠J ٦F‫א‬ 4‫א‬‫א‬8 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 65536 x 8

Address Bus Address Bus 16 bits

  ‫א‬

RAM1

  ‫א‬

Data Bus

  

4 bits

‫א‬

Control Bus

‫א‬

RAM1

16 bits

65536 x 4



4 bits

  

  

Control Bus

‫א‬



Data Bus

  ‫א‬

Address Bus 16 bits

  ‫א‬

RAM2

16 bits

Data Bus 4 bits

‫א‬

Control Bus

‫א‬

8 bits

RAM2

65536 x 4

  



4 bits   

  

‫א‬





‫א‬





 E٣٠J ٦F‫א‬

‫א‬ 16‫א‬K‫א‬E٣١J ٦F‫א‬

 216=65536

- ١٢٣ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬4 ‫א‬‫א‬  16‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K4

RAM1

RAM2 64k x 4

‫א‬

I/O )0 I/O )1 I/O )2 I/O )3 I/O )4 I/O )5 I/O )6 I/O )7



Enable

( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

Data Bus

64k x 4

  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬

Address Bus



A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15



E

Enable

Control Bus

 E٣١J ٦F‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KE٣٢J ٦F 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬

 RAM

  ‫א‬ Address Bus

RAM1

21 bits

2M x 8

  ‫א‬

Address Bus

RAM1 2M x 8

21 bits

22 bits

Data Bus

  

4M x 8



8 bits

‫א‬

Control Bus

‫א‬

EN

  

  

8 bits

Control Bus

‫א‬



Data Bus 8 bits

  ‫א‬

RAM2

21 bits

2M x 8

  ‫א‬

RAM2 2M x 8

21 bits

Data Bus

  

8 bits

‫א‬

Control Bus

‫א‬



Address Bus

8 bits   

EN

  

‫א‬



‫א‬







 E٣٢J ٦F‫א‬ 

4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K2‫א‬

21‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (221=2.097152)  . (222=4194304) 22

ENF0‫א‬2‫א‬2‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ENF1‫א‬2ELow‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KELow   

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ 

‫؟‬Modulus‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ ‫؟‬5‫א‬ K٣ ‫؟‬18‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤ ‫؟‬BCD‫א‬‫א‬ K٥ ‫؟‬10‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦ ‫ ؟‬23،‫א‬‫א‬ K٧

    

‫ ؟‬13،‫א‬‫א‬ J ٨ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٩

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠ (J-K)‫א‬(8)‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬(T)‫א‬(6)‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬ Shift Registers ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥

‫؟‬3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬11001010

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬11001010‫א‬‫א‬ K٦ ‫؟‬4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬11001010‫א‬ K٧ ‫א‬،4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨

     

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫؟‬‫א‬8 ‫א‬512‫א‬‫א‬ K١

‫؟‬32‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ ‫؟‬ ‫א‬256‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤ ‫؟‬24‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٥ 428‫א‬‫א‬ K٦

   

‫؟‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧ ‫א‬‫א‬16‫א‬‫א‬ K٨

 

‫؟‬‫א‬ 4‫א‬

 ‫؟‬32K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬64K‫א‬ K٩

- ١٢٨ -

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٧


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬‫א‬ K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KIBM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬٨٠٨٦ ‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬،ALU

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٪٨٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬  K٣  W‫א‬‫א‬  K

 W‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٩ -

o


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



W‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ ،(Arithmetic and Logic Unit) ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KControl Unit‫א‬Registers Unit‫א‬ALU  W‫א‬ ‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬

‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺠﻼت‬

Control Unit

Registers Unit

‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﺤﺴﺎب و اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ALU

  W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KXORORANDNOT

 W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ - ١٣٠ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬

‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ إﺷﺎرات اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬

  W‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  I/O‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

K  ‫א‬٣٢٢٠١٦٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٤‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬٦٠٥٣٦‫א‬١٦‫א‬  K٤{٢٩٥{٠٠٠{٠٠٠‫א‬٣٢‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  M=2n  ‫א‬‫א‬M  K‫א‬n - ١٣١ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ٦٤‫א‬K٢١٦Z٦٥٥٣٦‫א‬١٦‫א‬‫א‬

 K٢٦٤Z١٨٤٤٦٧٤٤٠٧٣٧٠٩٥٥١٦١٦

 W‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬٦٤٣٢١٦٨‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

KE١٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬Assembly

language‫א‬(Low level languages)‫א‬

 KKKK‫א‬ ‫א‬C(High level languages)‫א‬

‫א‬،mnemonics‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬���‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ،

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KAssembler‫א‬ 

Assembly Language ‫اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬

‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬

 

Assembler ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻊ‬

Machine Language

‫ﻟﻐﺔ اﻵﻟﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ - ١٣٢ -

    


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  K(Compiler)(Interpreter)

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬ (RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K(Input/Output Devices)‫א‬‫א‬ROM)  K

‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬

‫اﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻔﺎرة‬

‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﺬاآﺮة و‬ ‫اﻷﻗﺮاص‬

‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺰﻳﺔ‬ CPU

‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻹدﺧﺎل‬

‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻹﺧﺮاج‬

RAM, ROM, Disk

‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟ ﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬

‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ إﺷﺎرات اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CPU‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 CPU‫א‬‫א‬  WCPU،K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬CPU،‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ROM RAM‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬KBIOSROM‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬RAM

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ٨٠٨٦‫א‬   ١٦K  ‫א‬CPU،١٦٨٠٨٦‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KEKKK،٨٠٤٨٦،٨٠٣٨٦،٨٠٢٨٦F٨٠C٨٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EBIUFBus

Interface unit‫א‬

 KEEUFExecution Unit  :٨٠٨٦‫א‬‫א‬  ٢F١٦‫א‬‫א‬،Data

:٨٠٨٦‫א‬

Bus‫א‬١٦

١٠٤٨٥٧٦٢٢٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬٢٠

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F٨E

‫א‬١٦KE٨F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ إﻧﺘﻞ‬ ٨٠٨٦

‫ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬٢٠ ‫ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬١٦

‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ (‫ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬٢٢٠) ‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬

‫ﻧﺎﻗﻞ إﺷﺎرات اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ 

:‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١

K‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

K‫א‬ K٣

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

:‫א‬  ٨٠٨٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EBIUFBus

Interface Unit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (EU) Executive unit

 ‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  :‫א‬‫א‬  ٨٠٨٦ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬

‫وﺣﺪة ﻣﻮاﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬

EU

BIU

‫• ﺟﻠﺐ اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت‬ ‫• ﻗﺮاءة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت‬ ‫• آﺘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬

‫• ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻷواﻣﺮ‬

‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EEUF‫א‬‫א‬ EBIUF‫א‬‫א‬ BIU،‫א‬EEUF‫א‬EI/OF ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KEprefetchingF‫א‬  ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٠EIQF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EEUF‫א‬‫א‬

Kpipeliningoverlapping‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



lAA       ‫א‬   ١‫ א‬ ١‫א‬  ‫ א‬ ٢‫ א‬ ٢‫ א‬ ٣‫א‬  ‫ א‬ ٣‫א‬ 

 

EU

‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬



 ١‫ א‬ ٢‫א‬

 ٣‫א‬

‫ اﻟﺠﻠﺐ‬    ‫א‬  BIU

١‫א‬

٢‫א‬

‫א‬

٣‫א‬

‫א‬

٤‫א‬

‫وﻗﺖ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬

 

  

:٨٠٨٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K٨٠٨٦‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KBIU EU ‫א‬‫א‬ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬

BIU

C-bus

‫وﺣﺪة ﻣﻮاﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬

Σ

6 5 4 3 2 1

B-bus ES CS SS DS IP

‫ﻃﺎﺑﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ A-bus

EU

‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬

AH BH CH DH

AL BL CL DL

‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ و اﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬

SP BP SI DI

Operands‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت‬ Flags ‫اﻷﻋﻼم‬

  :EBIUF‫א‬‫א‬  :‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ K١

K‫א‬ K٢

‫א‬ K٣

K‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

 ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Instruction Queue(IQ)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬٠  E٦F٨٠٨٦‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

pipelining‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬٨٠٨٦  Koverlapping - ١٣٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 :ESegment RegistersF‫א‬ ١١٦ECS,

DS, ES, SSF‫א‬‫א‬

 ٠‫א‬‫א‬E1MBytesF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨٠٨٦‫א‬،  ٠E٦٥٥٣٦F٦٤،segments

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(base

address)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CS (Code Segment)‫א‬  ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬DS (Data Segment)‫א‬

 ٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬SS (Stack Segment)‫א‬  ٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ES (Extra Segment)‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

FFFFFH 7FFFFH 70000H  5FFFFH 50000H  4489FH 348A0H  2FFFFH 20000H 

- ١٣٩ -

RAM‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬

 ٦٤  

 ‫א‬

 ٦٤  

 ‫א‬  ٦٤    ‫א‬  ٦٤ 


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



  

‫ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺴﺠﻞ‬.‫ﻋﻨﻮان اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ‬ (ES=7000H)

 ‫ﻋﻨﻮان اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺴﺠﻞ‬ (ES=5000H)

 

‫ﻋﻨﻮان اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺴﺠﻞ‬ (ES=348AH)

 

‫ﻋﻨﻮان اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺴﺠﻞ‬

(ES=2000H)

 ٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  :‫א‬‫א‬Instruction PointerEIPF‫א‬ Offset

F‫א‬‫א‬IP‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EAddress  KECSF‫א‬

‫א‬١٦،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٠‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬CS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬IP‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬CS

0

 H

 ‫א‬IP  Z

 ٢٠ - ١٤٠ -

0

0

 W‫א‬

0


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ IP‫א‬A00016CS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

IP‫א‬CS‫א‬‫א‬KA0B016  KAA0B016=A0B0016+A00016 

AFFFF

A0B0

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K  K

‫ آﻴﻠﻮ ﻳﺎﻳﺖ‬٦٤

AA0B0

+

 K  K A0000

 ‫א‬‫א‬

A0000

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W A03416=CS 0FF216=IP

 W‫א‬

A133216=0FF216+A034016

  K6B4D16‫א‬‫א‬CS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  EEUFExecution Unit ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ BIU‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ALUK‫א‬‫א‬

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KGeneral purposes‫א‬

EFlagsFK‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 EALUF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬XORORAND ‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٨١٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬

BL،AU،AH٨٨٨٠٨٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  KDL،DH،CL،CH،

AL‫א‬K٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Accumulator)

 K‫א‬‫א‬٨ DH،CH،BH،AH‫א‬‫א‬٨DL، CL،BL،AL ‫א‬KSI،DI،BP،SP١٦٤،‫א‬

‫א‬(Pointers)‫א‬(Index)‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬KEU‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ 

  ‫א‬‫א‬

AH BH CH DH

AL BL CL DL

Accumulator Base Count Data

SP BP SI

Stack Pointer Base pointer Source Index

DI

Destination Index

  WEFlagsF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٩‫א‬K‫א‬

 W‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

TF

DF

IF

OF

١٢١



‫א‬



SF

ZF

AF

PF

CF

carry parity Aux carry Zero Sign Overflow Interrupt Enable Direction Trap

         

SF

 ‫א‬CF ،‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKKK‫א‬SF‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 WAssembly Language Programming ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬���K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢‫א‬ K١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬٥‫א‬ K٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣ K

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٨٠٨٦‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬  EInstruction

SetF

 K١٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Operands‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬Opcode  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬IN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K111001002=E416WE  ٨FOpcode‫א‬IN‫א‬KAL ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬AL

 ،AL‫א‬٥‫א‬‫א‬ADD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K000001002=0416W ‫א‬‫א‬ADD‫א‬K AL‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K٥‫א‬ADD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٤ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬FAL‫א‬‫א‬OUT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K11100110=E616‫א‬OUT‫א‬K٣‫א‬E‫א‬  K٣‫א‬٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬A0000‫א‬KRAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 ‫א‬

IN‫א‬

 ٢‫א‬ ADD‫א‬

 ٥‫א‬ OUT‫א‬

 ٣‫א‬

 RAM

11100100

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  A0000

00000010

A0001

00000100

A0002

00000101

A0003

11100110

A0004

00000011

A0005

 W‫א‬‫א‬ 

 

 KAL‫א‬٢‫א‬

 KAL‫א‬٥  K٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

IN AL,02H

ADD AL,05H OUT 03H,AL

 W‫א‬‫א‬  

 ‫א‬

IN‫א‬

 ‫א‬  - ١٤٥ -

 ‫א‬

11100100(E416) 0000010(0216)


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

ADD

١٢١



‫א‬



‫א‬  ‫א‬

OUT‫א‬

 ‫א‬

00000100(0416) 00000101(0516) 11100110(E616) 00000011(0316)

   W‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 8086‫א‬IBM‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬TASMMASMAssembler‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬ KIN‫א‬ K١

KIN‫א‬ K٢

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

‫א‬‫א‬EI/OF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٤ KAL‫א‬

KADD‫א‬ K٥ KADD‫א‬ K٦

KAL‫א‬AL‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧ KOUT‫א‬ K٨

KOUT‫א‬ K٩ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠

AL‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EI/OF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١١ K

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٦ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 WInstruction Set‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ IN

‫א‬

 W‫א‬ K١

OUT MOV

‫א‬

PUSH

‫א‬

POP XCHG

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WMOV‫א‬W

 MOV Destination, Source KDestination‫א‬Source‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬

Immediate Addressing Mode‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KCL‫א‬48H‫א‬MOV CL, 48HW‫א‬ Register Addressing

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

CL‫א‬MOV BL, CLW‫א‬Mode

KBL‫א‬

Direct Addressing

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬MOV BL, [437AH]W‫א‬Mode ‫א‬KDS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H437AH‫א‬

 K2437AH‫א‬‫א‬DS=20000H ADD





INC DEC



CMP

 - ١٤٧ -

 W K٢


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



SUB

‫א‬

MUL

‫א‬

DIV

‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WADD‫א‬W ADD destination, source

78H‫א‬KADD BL, 06HWK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬08H08H MOV AL, 08H ADD 78H, AL

 KADD 78H, 08H‫א‬‫א‬W  W‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

NOT

AND OR XOR

‫א‬

‫א‬

SAR

‫א‬

‫א‬

SAL

- ١٤٨ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣  ‫؟‬RAM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K٤ ‫؟‬٣٢١٦���‫א‬‫א‬ K٥

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨٠٨٦‫א‬‫א‬ K٦

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬٨٠٨٦‫א‬ K٧ ‫؟‬OperandsOpcode K٨ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٩

CS: IP=4370:561E CS: IP=7A32:0028

CS‫א‬،70400HCode Segment‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠ ‫؟‬539CHIP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،MOVADD‫א‬‫א‬ K١١ C=A+B J   B=3*B+7 J   

 

- ١٤٩ -


 ‫א‬‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W K١

 K٢٠٠٢‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ K٢

 K٢٠٠١‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W K٣

 K١٩٩٩‫א‬‫א‬،ELGA‫א‬

4. Ytha, Yu, Charles Marut: Assembly Language Programming and Organization of the IBM PC, Mc Graw Hill, 1992, isbn 0-07-072692-2. 5. Douglas V. Hall: Microprocessors Interfacing, Programming and hardware, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, 1992, isbn 0-07025744-2. 6. Thomas L. Floyd: Digital Fundamentals, 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall International Editions, 1994, isbn 0-13-573478-9. 7. Roger L. Tokheim : Digital Electronics, 5th Edition, Mc Graw Hill, 1999.

- ١٤٩ -


 ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ‫א‬  ‫א‬

 

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK

 KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK  ١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  ٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬  ١٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ٢٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

٣١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKBCD

٣٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKASCII

 ٣٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

٣٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKAND??‫א‬

 ٣٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKOR??‫א‬ ٤١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

٤٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKNAND‫א‬

 ٤٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKXOR‫א‬

 ٤٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKXNOR‫א‬  ٤٧KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬ 


 ‫א‬

١٢١



‫א‬



 ٤٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٤٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬

 ٥٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬

 ٥٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKMultiplexer‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKDemultiplexer‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٧٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ٧٢KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

٧٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKRS‫א‬

 ٧٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKJK‫א‬

 ٨٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKD‫א‬

٨١KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKT‫א‬

 ٨٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬  ٨٤KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٨٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٩٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٠٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢٦KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٢٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  ١٣٠KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬  ١٣٥KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK٨٠٨٦‫א‬

 ١٤٣KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬  ١٤٨KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٤٩KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 


      

      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

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