Volume 1 Issue 5 December 2009
Christmas is just a few days away and I know I am excited I already known a couple of the presents Santa will be bringing me – they being a great CD that is available from the Grand Lodge of Ireland website with lots and lots of old records on, (will help me with all the spare time I have (lol) and a subscription to the imageFX magazine. So I will have loads to read in the New Year. Talking of the New Year already it is shaping up to be a busy one. Already I have an invitation to an Installation in January and am part of a team who are organising a 2 day Symposium in London in May not forgetting of course that I have agreed to do a talk on Art in Freemasonry for a Canadian Research Lodge (no I don’t get to fly over it is via the internet). Now time for the advert: As always I am in constant need of contributions to the newsletter and leave it up to you to define Art (I wouldn’t be so presumptuous). I am also very happy to let you all know the Masonic Art Exchange webpage http://masonicae.com continues to grow and I am also looking for contributions to the site as well. Finally, thank you all for taking the time to support this project and am going to ask you to take careful consideration of the donate button on the webpage a donation as little as €2 each could make this project continue to run and expand. I look forward to hearing from many of you soon.
This months contents: Cover image: ‘St Nick prepares for Lodge’
Merry Christmas Introduction to Volume 1 Issue 5 Page 3: Goodwill to all Men. Page 4: What Masons do for Christmas.
Yours Fraternally David Naughton-Shires Ormonde Lodge #201 (IC) MAE President & Founder
Page 5: You’ll have to work this one out yourself’ Page 7: The Art Of The Knight templars:Part2. Page 13: King Solomon Reigns. th
Page 15: 18 Century Masonic Ephemra. Page 24: Twas the Night before Christmas. Page 26: The Masonic rebellion in Liverpool. Page 28: The Genesis Of freemasonry, a review. Page 30: A few Historical facts about Santa. Page 33: A Masonic Christmas Story. Page 34: Crown of Serpents, a review. Page 36: The Art Of Josepull. Page 43: Recommendations and end note.
________________________________ The opinions expressed in this newsletter represent those of the individual authors and, unless clearly labelled as such, do not represent the opinions or policies of The Masonic Art Exchange, any Masonic Lodge, Grand Lodge or recognized Masonic body.
[editors note] The following piece appeared anonymously in the December 1948 issue of ‘The Masonic Record’ published by The Masonic Record Ltd in London (owned, edited and published by the member of the craft). I think this still holds well today 61 years later.
There must have been moments in the lives of most of us, when the blows of adversity have brought us perilously low. When we, in the throes of despondency have piled fault upon fault, and by misconstructing the motives of our friends, have added to their discomfiture and to our own misery. When with the fury of a shorn Samson, we clutched the pillars and pulled them earthward, and peered through the dust of their fall with sightless eyes; having destroyed the labour of years. That theses troubles have been very real to ourselves, goes without saying. That they were recognized by those around us, in the mystery of their grace. In a flash we know our friends. They bought that something which we despaired of; a warm understanding and a helping hand. This strange emotion of sympathy which attracts like a magnetic current, and shapes the filings of understanding to it’s field on the clean surface of honest regard; has been present all the time; yet we have not perceived it. These friends have also had their troubles, but have overcome them by facing up to their difficulties; and they are stronger for it. How else could they have understood our difficulties, and brought their sympathies to bear with such tenderness. That sympathy is a great part of man’s make up, is shown by how readily he dips into his resources to help the distressed. The appeal to his purse might be incessant, but his response is ready. Until recent times most of our hospitals and charitable institutions, have been kept going by this warm regard for others, and success of these establishments has been ample proof of this strong current of kindness. The merit that lies in this sympathy for individuals can break the bitterness of many hard lives, even through it only expresses itself in kind actions, kind words, or merely a kind manner. Have you ever helped a blind man over a busy road? How did you feel when it had all finished? You walked along with a buoyant step. You smiled to a stranger, and he smiled to you. Have you ever found a lost child, and suddenly became an Uncle? You wiped the poor mite’s nose, and dried its tears. Bought it something nice to eat, delighted to make it laugh; and when it was retrieved by a harassed parent, you were reluctant to be parted from the little angel. When you got home you told your wife all about it. You were pleased with yourself and very kind. Well! If all this pleasure can come from such simple things, why not practice them in earnest? Why not go out and look for something good to do? You need not look far. If your illusions of Christmas should have come a little threadbare; if the stuffing is starting to show through the reindeers hide, and the tinkle of the sleigh bells has given way to the abhorrent crash of the cash register, there is still room to remember what Christmas once was to us. As we a Brotherhood of men, obligated to assist each other, within our limits, why not try to do something for some poor and distressed Freemason? Give him a happy time. Take him into your heart and home for a few happy hours, and protect him from the wet and cold. Spread some of the happiness you have to spare, spread it thickly, and watch it expand in the happiness of others. The season is not too long, nor the effort too costly, and the reward can never be measured. For this is Christmas time, and the season of
“Peace on Earth, Goodwill to all Men.”
My friend nodded with wonder and prodded more. "As in Shrine hospitals? What more, what more!" "Our York Rite Eye Foundation helps many to see, And our Scottish Rite gives to many, speech."
Kevin Noel Olson is the accomplished Author of many children's fantasy and retro adventure fiction books he is the Worshipful Master of Butte Lodge #22 A.F. & A.M. â€“ Montana, and a member of Mullen Pass Historic Lodge #1862 and 32nd Scottish-Valley of Butte York Rite. He is also an active member of The Masonic Society He has written many pieces of poetry some of which he has kindly said we can present in coming months. *** I feel this poem ties in quite well to the short article on the previous pagewhich was sourced from the 1948 Masonic record, Christmas is a time to take stock of what we are doing in our lives for others and to ensure we continue it through out the following year.
My friend sipped his steaming chocolate, "Is that all?" he chided. "What of it?" "Is that all?" Was it not enough? "Oh, we do all kinds of other...stuff." We walked past the lighted Christmas tree. "What do the Masons do for your community?" I cleared my throat. "We help pay for school, And we sometimes give out shoes." "You wonder," my friend to me turned, "Why I ask what makes your heart burn?" "What is it that Masons for you do, That gives such pride to such as you?" I look up at the Christmas lights, Each one ever burning bright. "What do Masons do you ponder? "For myself, I can but wonder." "We do these things," I meekly mumbled. They make me proud, yet I am humbled." You see the lights upon the tree? They alone offer no beauty." "Each represents a boy who walks, A man who sees, a girl who talks. A student makes himself better. Even becomes a man of letters." "All together, Masons do great work. We learn our duty to man, not to shirk. Those lights are people like me and you, That is what the Masons do." "We improve ourselves and thus the world, When we stand together a light's unfurled. Not just this season but daily too, On Christmas this is what Masons do."
We are always looking for submissions if you have any poetry youâ€™d like to submit send it to us at email@example.com
What Masons Do For Christmas
My friend and I strode the Christmas Stroll December, "What do Masons do for Christmas?" aloud he wondered. We saw a child walking along with his feet in braces. "That child for instance, we help in many such cases."
n issue three of the newsletter I briefly introduced us to a monk name Matthew Paris and shared some of his art work which had been ‘put down on paper’ within years of the dissolution of the Knights Templar.
shoulders who carried his age well as can be seen in this image which has to be one of the most instantly recognisable images of him, this 19th century picture is an image that has been used over and over again and over the years
In this issue I am going to concentrate on the depictions of one Knight in particular that being Jacques de Molay, he has appeared in many images and has looked quite different in most of them over the years. One of the most controversial images which is reputed in the book The Second Messiah: Templars, the Turin Shroud, and the Great Secret of Freemasonry to depict the Grand Master of the Templars is the Turin Shroud. The shroud, depending on what you believe dates from the time of Christ over 2000 years ago or from as recently as the 16th century either way this piece of cloth with its striking image is connected in some way with the Knight Templars perhaps more than any other ‘relic’. In issue three I shared a crude image of the Grand Master Jacques de Molay being burnt at the stake on a small island in the Seine and this seems to the main recurring image to be seen across the years. But this of course depicted the end of his life. Molay was born in around 1249 in the county of Burgundy, France. He was probably from a family of minor nobles and along with Hugh De Paynes is the most famous or well known Templars to have lived. He was the final official Grand Master of the Knights Templar from about 1292 until their dissolution in 1312.
Jacques de Molay and Geoffrey de Charney burned at the stake, March 18, 1314 / Chronicle of France or St. Denis – 14th century
He is often seen as a strong man with a beard and broad
This image of Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Templars, is from a nineteenth-century colour lithograph by Chevauchet.
So popular is this particular image it has been used as the basis of a teddy bear character on the teddynation.com web site where it can ‘downloaded’ as a wallpaper for the teddy bear fan. It seem that whilst searching for images of Jacques de Molay he has tended to always be portrayed in the later years of his life this could be down to the fact that it was during these years he held the
Although depicted as a young strong man in this image it is not position he did. In the black and white image[ from the book ‘Jacques de Molay: by V. Thomassin’ a French publication in 1922 on the previous page] Jacques de Molay is seen quite a few years younger than the images above but he still seems to be lacking in a full head of hair. One of the arguably most striking images of the Grand Master I have found is of him many years before he is Grand Master as he is welcomed into the Order. The painting is of ‘The Inauguration of Jacques de Molay into the Order of Knights Templar in 1295’ (oil on canvas) by Granet, Francois-Marius. The image shows Molay knelt before the cross and touching a book which I think we are safe to say is the bible. This picture does not portray Molay as the aged man as seen in other images but as a young strong warrior about to start his life in the service of his God. Around the room are other Templars in their mantles and directly behind him is stood a man bearing his (Molay’s) soon to be own mantle of a Knight Templar. In a gallery behind them an audience looks on as a scribe makes note of this occasion in his book. The light from archway casts an eerie atmosphere over the proceedings.
always the case as can be seen with this less than flatering engraving from a 19th century book. It seems the artist has been influenced by descriptions of Cyrano de Bergerac. As I have said in the previous piece this is not meant to be an in depth history of the Knights templar but a springboard to discovery for you to go out and discover the wonderful art (admittedly some of which is quite brutal) connected to the Knights Templar for history I could recommend no better than to pick up the several books by Stephen Dafoe on the subject and immerse yourself in the world of the mediaeval warrior knights. Jacques de Molay is most recognizable as he is being burnt at the stake in Paris but just before that I want to share a couple of those brutal images I mentioned before which show the interrogation of the man at the hand of the church at the time an interrogation almost guaranteed to make a man admit to nearly anything.
befall him before too long. In this picture as in many which depict Molay at many stages in his life he seems to show no fear of the impending danger, pain and death he is about to face.
The story is well know that Molay was sentenced to death for his ‘crimes’ and the following images show that penalty being carried out.
19th century print. Reproduction in "An illustrated history of the Knights Templar", James Wasserman
The above picture shows Molay being ‘questioned’ before a group of clergy by having the palms of his hands ‘traced’ by hot metal rods by men dressed in black robes and hoods. [A larger version of this image is on a page of its own at the end of this article]
Anonymous Lithograph of the execution of Jacques de Molay, on an island in the Seine, Paris. "This reproduction appears in the history of the Freemasons" of H. Mackey, edited in 1900, re-released in 1989
Fleury-François RICHARD (1777-1852) : Jacques de Molay, grand Maître des Templiers (1806)
Commissioned by Empress Josephine in 1806 this painting has appeared in collections of Malmaison, with other works by the same artist. 1314, Jacques de Molay will be led to the stake and receives the last chance of the confessor of King Philippe Bel to confess crimes he committed. The image show a bright airy throne room in which King Phillipe gestures at an upright Molay who show no sign of the terrible torture which was to
Whereas one of the previous images show Phillipe sat on his horse ‘up close and personal’ to the execution of the Knights this engraving below has what one would presume to be Phillipe who could watch the ‘entertainment’ without the need to leave his palace which was just across the seine from the place of execution the Island of the Jews.
This image show King Phillipe astride his mount as the flames of the fire engulf the two Templars. Alternatively the next image show Molay by himself on a high stake as the fire is fanned.
In the background of this image we see the towers of Notre Dame as Molay stretches a hand out to the crowd that surrounds the stake and to the bottom right we see the fire being started. Most disturbing is the young child who sits on it’s parents knee ready to watch the death of the two men. The picture on the next page [Jules Edouard Alboise du Pujol, Auguste Maquet Les Prisons de l'Europe, Paris, Administration de librairie, 1845] show Molay holding a cross to his breast whilst pointing to the sky behind him his companion contemplates the future as he gazes upon his crucifix. Is this the point where Molay curses the King. I like to think so and am happy to see his composure as the smoke of the fire begins to bellow below him.
The End…. For now
Paper Delivered to the AMMLA (European Masonic Museums & Libraries) Conference Bayreuth Germany 10th July 2009
Introduction Through Masonic artefacts the whole spectrum of the history of Freemasonry is opened up to us. A brief visit to any Masonic museum will transport us through centuries of our craft. Here I would like to consider just a few examples of early 18th Century Masonic ephemera, a subject that is as wide as it is deep. Ephemera is defined as any paper item printed with a view of its being discarded after use. Dr John Johnson, the greatest collector of Ephemera whose total collection of over 1 million items, is now house in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, stated before 1956: ‘It is difficult to define (ephemera) except by saying that it is everything which would normally go into a wastepaper basket after use, everything printed which is not actually a book’.
The derivation of the word is from the Greek ephemeros, which translates as lasting only a day. In modern Greek the word for a newspaper is ephemeris. Masonic ephemera may conveniently be classified under four main headings: A. Information (leaflets to newspapers) B. Instruction (summonses to invitations) C. Advertisements (cigar labels to watch papers) D. Collectables (book plates to playing cards) The emphasis in this paper is mostly on the first of these headings.
Leaflets, handbills, pamphlets and posters Under this heading come all the items classically associated with printed ephemera. Each of these subjects has its own distinguishing features but they are all characterised by a number of common factors:
unbound sheets (except the pamphlet which is defined as a glued or stitched leaflet) various sizes, single sheet printed on one or two sides side distributed free of charge distributed by hand or displayed intended to inform the general public
They are all a valuable and important reflection of contemporary views and tastes as well as activities. They often give an insight into aspects of our society not to be found elsewhere.
Among the earliest printed evidence of the antagonism towards our fraternity is a single small leaflet, 100mm by 165mm, of which only one copy is extant. This leaflet is a good example of the importance of an ephemeral item to the study of the development of Freemasonry in its early days. The leaflet is headed To All Godly People, in the Citie of London and dated 1698, nearly two decades before the formation of the premier Grand Lodge. It is set in the Roman typeface popular during the period and prior to the much more pleasant typeface invented by William Caslon some two decades later. The text, which has been frequently published, states: Having thought it needful to warn you/ of the Mischiefs and Evils practiced/ in the Sight of GOD by those called/ Freed Masons, I say take Care lest their Cer-/ emonies and secret Swearings take hold of/ you; and be weary that none cause you to err/ from Godliness. For this Devlish sect of/Men are Meeters in secret which swear against/ all without their Following. They are the/Anti Christ which was to come leading/ Men from Fear of GOD. For how should/ Men meet in secret Places and with secret/Signs taking Care that none observe them to/ do the Work of GOD; are not these the Ways/ of Evil-doers? Knowing how that GOD observeth pri-/ villy them that sit in Darkness they shall be/ smitten and the Secrets of their Hearts layed/ bare. Mingle not among this corrupt People/ lest you be found so at the World’s Conflag-/ration. Three lines outside the body of the text, at the base, state: Set forth as a Warning to this Christian Generation by/M Winter, and Printed by R Sare at Gray’s/ Inngate, in Holborn./ 1698. Very little is known about the circumstances under which the pamphlet was issued. In the leaflet, Freemasonry is condemned for the antireligious standing of its membership. Bro Knoop and G P Jones in their article in AQC 55 (1942) titled ‘An Anti-Masonic leaflet of 1698’ give a prime example of how much consequential information can be obtained from the content of this apparently simple ephemeral item. They speculated and concluded that Winter, the author, about
whom no information is available, was pious, probably a chiliast, condemning Masons as crypto-Romanists; and that these denunciations in the leaflet in 1698 may have been based on fact, although there was no reason for the Masons to be accused of popery. The content of the leaflet confirms that Freemasonry was considered an evil institution because of its secret signs and meeting places. The most interesting conclusion reached by Knoop and Jones is that the statement that the Masons were antichrist implies that they were anti-Trinitarian. Therefore Freemasonry may well have adopted a deistic attitude towards religion long before Anderson’s constitutions of 1723. The only known extant copy of the leaflet was discovered by Bro Albert Frost of Sheffield and donated by him to the United Grand Lodge of England Library in 1943. This leaflet, as would be the case for similar broadsheets of this period, would have been printed in small quantities, printing costs being minimal at the time. It would have been handed out to passers-by by street hawkers and ‘mercury women’, whose function was to sell and hand out both official government announcements as well as unofficial notices, news sheets and other leaflets. As early as the 1690s hawkers were distributing newspapers in the streets of London. The famous London Gazette, which first appeared as The Oxford Gazette in 1665, was then published twice a week. In between publishing days, the official vendors of the newspaper filled their time by selling or distributing all sorts of other printed material. Copies of the printed sheet, handed out on street corners, would also be pinned on the walls of clubs, work places and coffee houses and left on tables, to be picked up by customers. They were soon discarded and lost forever just days or weeks after publication. The 1698 leaflet described stands out as an exceptional rarity. There are no other early leaflets which have survived, which so blatantly attack Freemasonry. We have to look at exposures, also printed as one or two sided broadsheets, to appreciate the continued antagonism towards our fraternity.
Single Sheet Exposures The Library and Museum of Freemasonry in London houses the rich collection of ephemera which originally belonged to that extraordinary Masonic collector Alexander Mayrick Broadley (1847-1916). He was initiated in Bridport in 1869. A registered barrister, he spent much of his Masonic life in Tunis and Malta. Active in most of the orders beyond the craft, Broadley was appointed Deputy District Grand Master for Malta in April 1879 and Provincial Grand Master for the Mark Province of Tunis and Malta in September 1879. He wrote extensively and compiled a truly superlative Masonic collection of printed items. In 1917 Wallace Heaton purchased Broadley’s collection at
a sale where no other dealers appear to have been present. The whole of the Heaton collection was subsequently purchased from him and donated to the United Grand Lodge of England in 1939. It is housed in a total of nine volumes. One section is devoted to Anderson’s late Constitutions which are interspersed with various prints and portraits. The next three volumes are almost purely ephemera. It contains, among a multitude of ephemeral treasures, a unique single sheet 190mm x 300mm in size, attacking Freemasonry by exposing its supposed secrets. It is the earliest known Irish exposure dated 1725 and entitled The Whole Institutions of Free-Masons Opened. It is printed on both sides. It was published by William Wilmot who has been identified as a Dublin printer and who flourished between 1724 and 1727. The importance of this single sheet document, inter alia, is the disclosure of the early use of words and signs for the third degree - without evidence, however, that three separate ceremonies were in practice. The document also mentions, for the first time in print, the word Jehovah. Again, however, without detail of any ritual working related to the word. It gives us a minute insight into anti-Masonry during the periods concerned. Had more leaflets survived we may have learnt more of such attitudes. A total of nine manuscripts dated between 1696 and 1750 are listed and discussed by Knoop, Jones, and Hamer in their The Early Masonic Catechisms, published by Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1975. The greater significance of printed versions, however, lies in the intent of publishers to reach a much wider circulation of the broadsheet. Our own Grand Lodge minutes allow us a view of the mode of distribution of such leaflets. The minutes for the 28 August 1730 Quarterly Communication refer to Dr Desaguliers’ concern over ‘a printed paper lately published and dispersed about Town’. The reference is to the very rare ‘Mystery of Free-Masonry’. William James Hughan, the renown Masonic scholar, reported in 1909 that there were then only two known examples of the original broadsheet still in existence. One was purchased by General Lawrence of Boston USA from Spencer & Co who offered it for sale in their 1875 Book Catalogue. A second copy was in the private library of T Francis of Havant. This ephemera sheet would have been distributed in coffee shops, taverns and sold in pamphletshops in the centre of the city. Consequent to the printing of the leaflet a series of letters appeared in The Daily Journal starting with the edition of Saturday 15 August, in which a letter referring to the activities of the fraternity and signed ‘F.G.’ concludes with a full version of the exposure. There is, incidentally, a second letter by ‘F.G.’ (not ‘C.G.’, as quoted in some sources) requesting a re-print of his letter and exposure which appeared with identical text in the next
issue No 2999 on Tuesday August 18. This was followed by a letter by a reader with the initials ‘J.B.’, published on Saturday August 22 (No 3004) quoting in detail the obligation taken by the candidate. An error in the numeration of the paper repeats No 2999 for two consecutive issues, omitting No. 3000 from the sequence. The extent of the interest in these exposures is reflected in the widespread re-publication of the letter and attachment. In addition to several newspapers in England, the letter and exposure were also published in full in the 8 December 1730 edition of Benjamin Franklin’s own Philadelphia Gazette. It may be worth noting that Dr Franklin had not yet joined the fraternity at the time. This widespread circulation and apparent popularity of the catechisms disclosing Masonic ritual may not necessarily have been induced by the curiosity of the general public. There is the distinct possibility that these leaflets, just as Prichard’s well documented Masonry Dissected and other exposures, may have been popularised by Freemasons themselves purchasing the literature in order to use them as aidésmemoir. It may even be suggested that the repeated publication of Masonry Dissected in umpteen editions (as well as Richard Carlisle’s various Manuals published after the union) were intended specifically for Freemasons as the potential customers. There were other attacks, not necessarily exposures, printed, published and distributed without now a trace of their existence except in reports. The Universal Spectator or Weekly Journal dated Saturday 20 May 1732 includes on its first page an unsigned letter addressed to the Editor, Henry Stonecastle of Northumberland, quoting a declaration made by the Mayor of Canterbury against the Freemasons. The letter gives us an insight into the mode of publication of such declarations. The Mayor, having heard of Freemasons’ meetings being held in the Red Lion tavern: ....thought it fit per se, and per alium, to proclaim in the public Streets such an Arret against that innocent and useful Society....and the rather (sic), as it was thought absolutely necessary to be publish’d several Market Days, by his Lordship’s Deputy, the Cryer.
lie more of these priceless fascinating documents, waiting to be discovered. Douglas Knoop, G P Jones and Douglas Hamer in their ‘Early Masonic Pamphlets’ published by QC in 1978 listed and carefully analysed pamphlets and booklets which include criticism of Freemasonry and exposures of the ritual. These publications were meant to be permanent. It is the single page broadsheets, printed and intended to be discarded, that are ephemeral and not included in the above listing.
Periodicals, newspapers et al The various forms of what we have come to call printed media have two factors in common: the conveyance of news and their ephemeral nature. The Roman Acta Diurna, established by Julius Caesar in 60 BC, is the earliest record we have of a ‘newspaper’. The act established the issue of a regular bulletin made available in the Forum and discarded on a daily basis, being replaced by a new updated version. In the Middle Ages, town criers fulfilled the function of newsmen and in the 16th century handbills, pamphlets and broadsheets were used to communicate news. At the same time ballads and often insidious or controversial leaflets were also distributed. As already mentioned, these, the true predecessors of the modern newspaper, were often sold at fairs and in shops. They were also distributed in coffee houses, pamphlet-shops and in the streets by ‘hawkers’. The overall image of Freemasonry and its early history, from before its days as an organised society, is well reflected in press reports. The first mention of Freemasonry in a newspaper can be found in the No 26 issue of The Tatler for Tuesday June 7 to Thursday June 9 1709. The anonymous letter dated June 6 is addressed to Isaac Bickerstaff, pseudonym for Richard Steele, who established The Tatler on 12 April 1709, abruptly ceasing publication in January of 1711. It refers to the ongoing correspondence in the paper. The relevant text reads:
The anti-Masonic text of the proclamation itself, within the content of the whole defensive letter, has been reproduced in Notes and Queries in AQC 33 (1920) on page 186. The interest, for purposes of this paper, lies in the fact that there appear to be no surviving copies of the proclamation itself.
...But my Reason for troubling you at this present is, to put a Stop, if it may be, to an insinuating, increasing Set of People, who sticking to the Letter of your Treatise, and not to the Spirit of it, do assume the Name of Pretty fellows; nay, and even get new Names, as you very well hint. Some of them I have heard calling to one another....by the Names of, Betty, Nelly, and so forth. You see them accost each other with effeminate Airs: They have their Signs and Tokens like Free-Masons: They rail at Womankind;......
The economic aspects of setting and printing such leaflets suggests just a small number being produced. This explains, to some extent, their rarity. We still cannot escape the intriguing possibility, however, that hidden somewhere, most likely in collections totally unrelated to Freemasonry,
It should be noted that these ‘letters’ are often essays written by, and expressing the views of, the publisher. Two further mentions of Freemasonry appeared in issues 73 and 166 of The Tatler, 24-27 September 1709 and 29 April-2 May 1710 respectively. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729), the publisher
of The Tatler was Dublin born dramatist and politician, knighted in 1717. His named portrait is centrally placed on the engraved Lists of Lodges in the print entitled Les Free-Masons published in the 1735 edition of Bernard Picart’s Cérémonies et costumes religieuses de tous les peuple du monde. There is no explanation as to why Sir Richard Steele appears on the print, especially as there is no evidence of his ever having become a Freemason. The only viable reasoning is that in 1735 Steele was already dead and the use of portraits of dead personalities was exceedingly cheap where living dignitaries demanded high, even exorbitant, fees to have themselves represented on prints of this kind. Not long after this the Premier Grand Lodge was formed, in June 1717 and soon the use of the press for announcements became increasingly frequent, including details of the admission of personalities into the Society of Free-Masons. Anderson’s ‘minutes’ published in the 1738 edition of the Constitutions record on page 114 the irregular election that took place in June 1722. There is little doubt that Anderson used these same news reports as his source of reference for the events that took place in the decades preceding the publication of the second Constitutions. Hints of antagonism towards the craft which appeared in the press gradually turned into blatant attacks. The first printed exposure of Masonic ritual appeared in No 4712 of The Flying Post or Post Master on April 11-13 1723, within weeks of the publication of Anderson’s Constitutions. The exposure was attached to an anonymous letter addressed To the Author of the Flying Post and is now referred to as A Mason’s Examination. It gives us the earliest insight into Masonic ritual practised at the time. At this stage I need to recount a personal and fortunate experience regarding early newspapers. In November 1999 I purchased a copy of The Post Boy, number 5373 dated Thursday December 26 to Saturday December 28 1723 from a dealer in the Channel Islands. Halfway through the second column and ending nearly at the end of the next, on the reverse of the newspaper was a letter, obviously Masonic in content, addressed to the Author of the Post Boy signed Yours &c A.B. The catechism was clearly intended to look like an exposure of Masonic ritual to a non-Mason. (We can define an exposure as a spurious and unauthorised disclosure of Masonic ritual). The author of the letter in my copy of the Post Boy actually referred to the earlier issue of The Flying Post in April of the same year, referred to above. As I began to search through various publications, newspaper libraries and started contacting colleagues, I realised that the text of the catechism was unknown and this issue number 5373 of the newspaper must have been
exceedingly, possibly a lone surviving copy. With my friend and colleague Brent Morris, whose speciality, inter alia, is deciphering and interpreting literary texts, we began to analyse the importance of the newspaper I had purchased. We soon found a reference to our newspaper. Until now, the edition of the Post Boy I had in hand was thought to be only the figment of the imagination of the author of The Free-Masons Accusation and Defence of 1726. This anonymous anti-Masonic publication comprised six letters between father and son, three supposedly written by the father attacking the Craft and three feeble responses by the son. In the first of these letters, the father makes an extended reference to the ‘examination’ of the masons published in The Post Boy. The relevant statement begins as follows: I remember, when I was last in Town, there was a Specimen of their (the freemasons’) Examination published in the Post Boy; but so industrious were the Masons to suppress it that in a Week’s time not one of the Papers was to be found; where-ever they saw ‘em they made away with them.
The author continues at length on the methods used by the masons to do away with all available copies of the newspaper. He states I cannot charge my Mind with the Date of the Paper and urges his son to obtain a copy by any Means. He continues, stating that the masons were angered by the publication although they pretended not to give it any importance and that they ‘presently put out a sham Discovery to invalidate the other’. He ends this part of his letter by stating that: ‘a friend and Mason let me understand that this was a genuine Discovery.’ The thought that the Masons had actually succeeded in obtaining and destroying all available copies of the newspaper was astounding. Yet, it looked as that was exactly what may have happened. Masonic scholars to date have searched and have been unable to trace a copy of the issue of The Post Boy referred to in The FreeMasons Accusation and Defence. There have been an abundance of published theories, including those by Knoop, Jones & Hamer in their Early Masonic Pamphlets, as to what the author may have been referring to. All end by effectively presuming that the allusion to the existence of an additional exposure was fictitious. Not so! The conclusions that Brent reached, inter alia, show that The Post Boy catechism is a well-written mixture of repetitions of neutral questions from other catechisms, logical extensions of these questions, and subtly different answers that disagree with other published exposures and manuscript catechisms.
For example, the first two questions and answers are:
Q. Are you one of us? A. I’ll stand Tryal. Q. How will you be try’d? A. By Question and Answer This is similar to Samuel Prichard’s Masonry Dissected first published in London in 1730 Q. Are you a Mason? A. I am; try me, prove me, disprove me if you can. Another example is found in the thirty-fourth and thirtyfifth questions, which show the sort of subtle revisions to what was generally accepted as Mason’s secrets. Q. What is the Apprentice’s Word? A. Babel. Q. What is the Fellow Craft’s Word? A. Jerusalem. All of the early catechisms are in agreement that the Masons had two secret words from the Bible: Boaz and Jachin. The Post Boy gives biblical B and J words, just different ones from the rest of the catechisms. The Post Boy catechism is almost certainly a ‘sham’, a misleading publication, appearing as a disclosure, intended to lead readers at the time away from the real secrets of the Craft. The first record of any masonic journal is Der Freimaurer, published in Leipzig, Germany in 1738. There appears to have been no other Masonic newspapers or journals in the British Isles until the publication of The Sentimental and Masonic Magazine, in Dublin from July 1792 to August 1795. Masonic ‘newspapers’, in the sense of daily information provided for Masons, was an unknown concept. The weekly and monthly Masonic periodicals, with just two exceptions, were only popularised in the 19th century.
Papal Bulls The subject of Papal Bulls, which remains the greatest manifestation of the controversial concept of Papal infallibility, has been extensively covered in Masonic literature including the pages of AQC, the transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge. They are the most overt display of
the Church’s hostility to Freemasonry. Here, I would like to consider the ephemeral aspects of Papal Bulls, copies of which were nailed or otherwise fastened to church doors across Europe during the course of the eighteenth century. This was the method of communicating officially and with authority the word of the Holy See to the faithful across the nations. The Papal Bull was at the top of the list in order of importance of communications emanating from the Vatican. Lesser matters were communicated by briefs, regulations and edicts, inter alia. The Bull was initially hand-written in Latin on vellum parchment in elaborate calligraphy using convoluted terminology. The folding and formal sealing of the document involved a painstaking ceremony at the end of which the Papal seal was applied to a metal ingot, the Bullæ. The Papal Bull was then authenticated. The Bull, often accompanied by a translation to facilitate its understanding, was then printed in Rome and distributed to all the local dioceses. The publication entailed a formal ceremony in which the Bishop officially proclaimed the Bull which was frequently read at church services. Thereafter, the printed version was appended to the door of the church. The evidence for this procedure can be found on many of the documents themselves. The first Papal Bull relevant to Freemasonry was the well documented In Eminenti issued by Pope Clement XII on 28 April 1738. It was given in Rome at the Basilica of St Mary the Great. The very last line of the printed document states: ‘...Publicata fuit ad valvas Basilicae Principis Apostolorum ac aliis locis solitis consuetis, &c.’
which translates as: Published on the doors of St Peter’s and other usual places. The second Bull of Benedict XIV in 1751, Providas, is even more detailed in the requirements of its dissemination. The last paragraph, following the signature and seal, freely translated, states inter alia: ...the above mentioned Constitution was affixed and published on the doors of the Lateran Basilica and of the Chief of the Apostles, etc etc; and in other customary and usual places by me, Franciscus Bartolotti, Apost. Pursuivant.
The legality of this mode of publication, by posting the printed document onto church doors and ‘other usual
places’, is further stressed in contemporary ephemeral documents issued by various civic authorities. Using just one example, consider the Italian Proclamation in Rome dated 14 January 1739, repeating the Vatican’s prohibitions on Freemasonry and ending with the statement: ‘...the present proclamation, when affixed in the usual places in Rome, do oblige and bind Rome and its District...in the same manner as if they had been personally notified to each of them....’
The importance and power of the Papal Bulls are underlined by the fact that they were considered worthy of forgery, examples of which are exceedingly rare. The genuine, printed Papal Bulls were effectively circulated as billposters to be discarded in due course, which explains their rarity.
Masonic education We are less concerned today with the type of Masonic education that was so important to the Brethren of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Preston, Brown, Finch, Hutchinson and Claret, among others, saw the importance of education as their primary concern with Masonic development. Notwithstanding personalities, financial gain and conflicts of interest, these were teachers in the true sense of the word. They identified themselves as such and without impropriety advertised themselves whilst soliciting ‘business’. The solicitation came by way of publicity leaflets and pamphlets, often tacitly supported by Grand Lodge. These ephemeral price-lists ‘selling’ Masonic degrees and offering other facilities often give us an insight unavailable from other sources. They divulge the business acumen of Preston; they remind us of the troubles of Finch which led to his offers of a range of degrees in manuscript. Such blatant commercialisation is difficult to imagine today. William Preston, best known for his Illustrations of Masonry and his influence on our modern ritual, was the first to publish prospecti for Masonic courses and leaflets promoting and advertising his activities. His 1774 ‘Book of Courses’ was advertised by way of a small leaflet headed FREE-MASONRY. It was intended for distribution to Brethren through the various Lodges. The quasi-official standing Preston enjoyed as a scholar is reflected in the Quarterly Communication of Grand Lodge of February 1775 where his Lectures are publicised as being held every Tuesday at the Mitre Tavern in Fleet Street. This may not be too surprising when Preston’s close association with Grand Lodge is considered. He was involved with the project for building Freemasons’ Hall, he had effectively become printer to Grand Lodge and in 1775 he was informally appointed Deputy Grand Secretary. The advertisement is poorly printed in small sized standard
Roman lettering, with only capitals used for emphasis, the long ‘s’ still current. Since the printing was almost certainly undertaken by Preston himself, this being his trade, one may have expected more sophisticated lay-out and typography, by using perhaps an engraving for decoration or occasional italic or bold lettering and differing sized print. The standard monotonous text, on one side only of the single sheet, begins: Brother Preston, desirous to remove the present difficulty of gaining Instructions in Masonry..... proposes to teach Masonry on its genuine and original principles, on the following reasonable terms:
FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE THIRD DEGREE
s. 5 5 10
d. 0 6 6
The remainder of the text effectively consists of an apologia: that the expense is ‘trifling’ and that such low costs show that ‘interest is not his object’; that the subscription paid will be returned to any subscriber who is not ‘Master of either the first or second degree’ within twelve lessons. The use of the word ‘Master’ in association with first and second degrees has caused comment. The terms were not in use as ordinary Masonic nomenclature. Could Preston’s salesmanship extend to implied deception? May his wording ‘Master of the first...degree’ be deliberate, intended to encourage new initiates still inexperienced in the language of the craft? Bro Colin Dyer in his extensive and standard book William Preston and His Work, gives us minute details of the man’s character and achievements. There is no evidence to indicate whether Preston’s lectures were a success or not. The part that the advertising leaflets played in his career, however, is self evident.
Theatrical posters From the early 1700s fraternal organisations, including the Freemasons, attended and supported the arts. In 1723 The Theatre Royal in Drury Lane staged Love In A Forest with a dedication by the author, Charles Johnson, himself a Freemason, to the Worshipful Society of Freemasons. This has been described in detail in Fred Pick’s article ‘Freemasonry and the Stage’ published in the Manchester Lodge of Research, Transactions No. 29 in 1939. In 1728 we have the first of several instances of the direct involvement of Grand Lodge in support of the theatre. Lord Kingston, at the Quarterly Communication on 27 December of that year, following his installation as Grand Master, announced his intention to attend the Old Play House, hoping and expecting Brethren to accompany him. In August 1730 a Masonic play proper, The Generous Freemason was staged in London, billed as a musical
and a tragi-comi-farcical
It cannot be easy for us, on the threshold of the 21st century, readily to identify with the overall ambience of Freemasonry in the 1700s. Our charitable aims are manifest in our activities. A combination of posters, newspaper advertisements and announcements combine to provide us visually with information not found in contemporary literature. Attitudes towards the craft changed during the last decades of the 18th century and the change is reflected in plays and reports of the period. One of the most successful Masonic plays of the 18th century was the Harlequin Free-Mason (which, I discovered during the AMMLA Conference, has been translated into French and staged in that language) with music by Bro Charles Disdain (1745-1814). It was said to have been first produced by Thomas Harris, as a sequel to a non-Masonic play, and performed at the Covent Garden Theatre on 29 December 1780. The play ended with an impressive procession depicting the history of Freemasonry. This was publicised in posters with the following words: To conclude with a procession of the principal GrandMasters, from the creation to the present century, dressed in the habits of their respective ages and countries.
The one page leaflet, 240mm x 160mm, was distributed by the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, advertising a performance of The Man of the World to which is added the Masonic pantomime: Harlequin Free-Mason. The text proudly announces that this is to be the fifty first time that the Harlequin Free-Mason is being performed. Several of these early leaflets are extant and all are printed in Roman type. They are crowded with text and detail. Only the size of the type-face differs. The words Harlequin Free-Mason are in the largest type, centrally placed to emphasise the Masonic aspect of the performance. The printer has attempted to achieve an artistic effect on the very simple black and white posters by a wide separation of words and letters, particularly in the listing of the named actors. Letterpress in the 1780s was still very limited in its application. The advent of display typeface was not to become popular until a few years later. This early period, in modern printing terms, needed facilities
that were cheap and print that was easy to produce. The speed with which some posters were printed is reflected in the misplaced overlay of one colour over the other, or the frequent misspelling of words or names. The temporary and ephemeral nature of these sheets of printed paper is reflected in the lack of attention or importance given to the printing processes. They were to be discarded and could hardly be considered works of art, so that care or pride in production was minimal. If there was a decorative element it was frequently a design from the existing stock of the printer. Only occasionally were new emblems, such as Masonic ones, produced for an event. A curious manifestation of this use of decorative cartouches from existing stock is the appearance of Masonic emblems on otherwise non-Masonic posters and other printed items; an indiscriminate choice by the printer, who, in finding no suitable devices in his stock associated with the subject of the poster or card, uses existing designs, which happen to be Masonic, to decorate the printed item, irrespective of its content.
Instruction To consider briefly the subject of Instruction, as the second category of Ephemera, we can look at summonses, invitations and tickets. A summons is formally defined as an authoritative call to attend or do something. The success of the Premier Grand Lodge as a governing body may well be attributable, to some extent at least, to the adoption of the concept of being ‘summoned’ - that special peremptory demand for one’s presence at a meeting or assembly, emanating from a higher authority. The concept is imbedded in antiquity. It was respected and practised by the many trades guilds of medieval times. The Cooke manuscript, reliably dated 1420 or before, states, under the heading ‘Assembly’, starting with line 902, that ‘...the Master and the Fellows before warned be come to such Congregation...’. These early rules and regulations for operative Masons, which we refer to as ancient charges and of which the Cooke manuscript is amongst the earliest, are the ones that appear on the opening pages of our present Book of Constitutions.
Elias Ashmole, the first recorded initiate in England, on 16 October 1646, has a second entry in his diary for 10 March 1682 which reads: I recd: a Summons to appr: at a Lodge to be held the next day. at Masons Hall, London. The concept is again referred to by James Anderson in his first Constitutions of 1723. Item III of The Charges of a Free-Mason is headed ‘Of Lodges’ and states that ‘...In ancient Times, no Master or Fellow could be absent from it (the Lodge), especially when warn’d to appear at it, without incurring a severe Censure...’. The summons seems to have played a central part in the daily activities of every Mason from time immemorial. In Anderson’s second Constitutions of 1738 on page 109 of Part III of his History of Masonry in Britain..., he states that the Lodges in London, having found themselves neglected, decided to join forces. Four of them accordingly met and formed themselves into a Grand Lodge on St John the Baptist’s Day in 1717. The Assembly and Feast was held on that day and before Dinner the oldest Master Mason Mr Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, was elected Grand Master who ‘commanded the Masters and Wardens of Lodges to meet the Grand Officers every Quarter in Communication at the place that he should appoint in his summons sent by the Tyler’. This is the first mention we have of a summons in its present context. Tickets, which were issued for the Annual Feast for Election of the new Grand Master, can be differentiated from summonses, which were sent by the Grand Master to Lodges demanding the attendance of the Brethren at the Quarterly Communication. The majority of summonses to attend Grand Lodge were, however, plain and simple and in stark contrast to the wonderfully elaborate engraving on the invitation tickets to the Annual Assemblies. In early examples, as with summonses, much of the text on the invitation was printed and only the details of time and place were inserted in manuscript. The Broadley collection has a cropped example, printed in blue on off-white paper, approximately 180mm x 170mm, where the Grand Master’s name Morton has been inserted by hand above the printed title. The remainder of the text, the manuscript section italicised, continues: ‘You are desired to meet your Brethren of free and
accepted Masons at Haberdashers Hall on the 27th April  at 12 o'clock at noon to choose a Grand Master and other general officers and to dine.’
All the Festival tickets were numbered, this one being No 124. The numerals are always in manuscript. The standard fee of 10 shillings and sixpence or half a guinea is also printed on the ticket and remained a set and constant fee well into the 19th century. The standard statement NB. No Brother to be admitted unclothed or armed, printed outside the highly decorative frame, also appears on all the tickets up to the end of the century. The copper-plate engraver’s name is on the invitation as: Sturt sculp. He chose a wide range of Masonic emblems to build a decorative frame around the wording. Among the trowels, compasses and squares is also an armillary sphere, significant in the early representations of symbols important to the fraternity. Similarly numbered invitation tickets for each year have the Stewards referred to by their lay titles. It is only in 1795 that we have an invitation giving the title Brother to the Stewards. The heading on this ticket is now His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales Grand Master. There is only a single bright red wax seal, that of the Premier Grand Lodge. The standard fee of 10 guineas applies as does the statement that no brother is to be admitted unclothed or armed. This, however, is augmented by the stark bold words at the bottom of the summons: No French Wines. This can be seen as a rare patriotic and political statement, expressing prevalent sentiments following the declaration of war on Britain by the French Republic in February 1793. The text is enclosed by a delicately decorative frame headed by the Prince of Wales’ feathers. Using also one example for the third category of ephemera, namely advertising, we can look William Cole, namesake and successor to Benjamin Cole as printer to Grand Lodge. He appears to have taken sufficient pride in his own achievements to justify advertising himself by placing his name prominently on printed summonses as the engraver and printer of the list of Masons' lodges giving his address at No. 109 Newgate Street, London. He also used his skill for his own benefit by producing the most attractive trade card to publicise his activities. William Cole distributed to his potential clients an engraved sheet worthy of recognition as a work of art in its own right. The elaborate calligraphic text, in italic and various type styles, is framed off centre on
the 175mm x 215mm trade card. The background can be moderately described as magnificent. It embodies heraldic devices, banners, globes, young cherubs clothed in 18th century attire at work in the various trades described on the trade card, emblems and other general decor, showing an engraver at his very best. Only a modest representation of the square, compasses and the level give a hint of a Masonic association. The text reads: William Cole Engraver Copper Plate Printer & Stationer/opposite Warwick Lane/Newgate Street/London Neatly engraves and Prints, Drafts, Notes, Circulars, Letters, Shop Bills, & Cards, Bills of Parcels, Visiting Cards &c which are executed at the shortest notice on the most equitable terms
While we may learn much about William Cole through his trade card, it is still the exquisite design of the background engraving that is most charming and of most significance. Freemasons were often associated closely with the nobility and gentry of the period. The use of copper-plate engravings by members of the fraternity reflected an element of the elegance and prestige of contemporary society. The square and compasses, plumb rule, globes and maul are objects which appear repeatedly on a range of trade cards which are otherwise unconnected with Freemasonry. A further example of early advertising ephemera is to be found in the widespread identification of Freemasonry as a popular social activity. This led many manufacturers to create products aimed at the fraternity. Music sheets, beer, wine, tobacco and even match box labels appeared with Masonic brand names on them. Prior to 1800 the quality of the printing on cigar labels, for instance, could not match the beauty and colour of the later chromo-lithography. Smoking and drinking, however, were popular activities and tobacco manufacturers and vintners capitalised on their popularity.
The earliest example we have of the commercialisation of a Masonic brand is to be found in the tobacco trade. As ships sailed from Scotland and England to America to return with Virginia tobacco, manufacturers printed a range of packaging designs. A number of quaint small sized labels about 55mm x 65mm all show Masons in their aprons. Stainerâ€™s Best Virginia has an engraved depiction, no doubt inspired by Benjamin Coleâ€™s frontispieces to the List of Lodges. An architect, the square in his left hand, is pointing with his right to the plans for the building whilst two Masons in their aprons observe and listen. Masonic tools are dispersed in the foreground and buildings in the background. The tobacco brand is inscribed on a rolled sheet supported by a pipe. Cigar smoking was seen as an expensive and luxurious activity and later packaging reflected the fact with high quality, often gold embossed, printing, even though many of the most fanciful and expensive looking labels belonged to the lowest quality cigars. Ephemera, early ephemera in particular, gives us insights not available from other sources and as collectors of guardians of artefacts, we will often find that the greatest satisfaction in collecting is to be derived, not from the object itself, but from the knowledge that we have been able to gain through it.
Bibliography & Sources Beresiner, Yasha Aspects of Masonic Ephemera before 1813 AQC 111 (1998). Crawley, W J Chetwode, The Masonic Mss. in the Bodleian Library AQC 11 (1898). Crawley, W J Chetwode, The Old Charges and Papal Bulls AQC 24(1911). Dashwood,JR Newspaper advertisements (18th century) AQC 70 (1957); AQC 71 (1958).Dyer, Colin William Preston and His Work Middlesex 1987 Fenton, S J The Lodge Summons Dorset Masters Lodge Transactions Vol 19 (1928/9) Knoop, Douglas; Jones, G P & Hamer, Douglas The Early Masonic Catechisms, QC London 1975 Knoop, Douglas; Jones, G P & Hamer, Douglas Early Masonic Pamphlets, QC London 1978 Laroon, Marcellus; Shesgreen, Sean The Criers and Hawkers of London Aldershot 1990 Pedicord, H W White Gloves at Five: Fraternal Patronage of London Theatres in the 18th Century AQC 93 (1980) Robbins, Alfred F The Earliest Years of English Organised Freemasonry AQC 22 (1909) Tudor-Craig, Major Sir Algernon (Compiled and Arranged by) Catalogue of Contents of the Museum at Freemasons' Hall in the Possession of the United Grand Lodge of England 3 Volumes London 1938
n the 22nd of December 1823, probably written by Gage himself, a group of Masonic rebels met reflected the rebels’ grievances and at the Shakespeare Tavern in outlined their hope for an Williamson Square in Liverpool independent future, but it also in the north-west of England, to rereflected Gage’s egotistical establish the ‘Antient’ Grand Lodge, a personality, and set him up as a Grand Lodge that had officially merged ‘founding father’ of the re-launch of with the ‘Moderns’ ten years previously. ‘Antient’ Freemasonry. Ironically, The group of Freemasons, led by local many of the Liverpool based Masonic tailor Michael Alexander Gage, were rebels were originally from outside rebelling against the central control of Liverpool, such as Gage, who was London and what they saw as the born in Norfolk, John Robert Goepel, ‘tyranny’ of the Duke of Sussex, who had a Jeweller who originated from neglected their grievances concerning London, and James Broadhurst, a The Shakespeare Tavern, the ritualistic and administrative watchmaker from Great Sankey near Williams Square, Liverpool practices which had been imposed on Warrington. them. The rebellion in Liverpool was the culmination of discontent within the large Lancashire Province, which seemed to have been Many lodges at this time had suffered a decline due to the impact of simmering since the Union of the Antients and the Moderns in 1813. the Unlawful Societies Act and Combination Act of 1799, and the majority of Liverpool lodges, The rebellion was tainted with an some suffering more than others element of isolationism and from low attendance, bonded networking ‘cliques’ within the together. This led to some lodges; some of the outlying Freemasons joining other lodges, industrial towns – also in the such as when Broadhurst joined north west of England - such as the Ancient Union Lodge, a Wigan, Warrington and Ashtonmove, which ensured the in-Makerfield, had strong survival of the struggling lodge.2 business links to Liverpool, The decisive meeting at the mainly in relation to the cotton Castle Inn, North Liverpool, in and coal trade, and these towns the November of 1821, set the became the location for lodges scene for rebellion. A document which came under the sway of was drafted with 34 signatures, the rebels. Many of the including Gage and Broadhurst, Liverpool lodges, like other outlining the dissatisfaction felt lodges based in the neighbouring by the rebels. This move had industrial towns, were also followed the drafting of a letter, suffering from low membership, which had been addressed to the and threat of the closure of the Duke of Sussex personally almost lodges was apparent, and the two years previous. Gage and his dissatisfaction amongst the fellow rebels had given the Duke Masons certainly spread quickly, plenty of time to reply, but there gaining momentum. had been no response. The letter was extremely direct and revealed the anger felt by the rebels, Many of the Liverpool Masonic rebels, who were mainly a collective of complaining how certain ‘Modern’ practices where being enforced Liverpool and Wigan based tradesmen and merchants, eventually and how new rules concerning the Royal Arch conflicted with the returned to the United Grand Lodge renouncing their initial grievances ‘Ancient landmarks’. The other lodges included in the rebellion were and apologising. But a hardcore remained, and under the leadership Lodge No. 74 and Sincerity Lodge No. 486 (both based in Wigan), as of the tempestuous Michael Alexander Gage, the rebels created the well as a number of brethren from the Liverpool based Mariners groundbreaking Magna Charta of Freemasonry and formed the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England According to the Old Constitutions, which was later to become the Grand Lodge held at which put forward the theme of a new dawn in Masonry; free from what seen as the ‘despotic power’ of the United Grand Lodge. The Wigan.1 The Magna Charta of Masonic Freedom, the majority Grand Lodge first met in Wigan on the 1st of March, 1824, and with no mention of the Grand Lodge meeting in Liverpool again after 1825, it 1 The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England became known as The Wigan Grand Lodge. 2 According to the Old Constitutions, first met officially in Liverpool in See A List of the Members of the Ancient Union Lodge No. 203, 1792the July of 1823, which resulted in the declaration of the ‘Magna 1887, Harmonic Lodge No. 216, 1796-1836, & St. George's Lodge of Charta of Masonic Freedom’ which was read out in the Harmony No. 32, 1786-1836, C.D. Rom: 139 GRA/ANT/UNI, The aforementioned meeting in the Shakespeare Tavern the following Library and Museum of Freemasonry, UGLE, Great Queen Street, December. The ‘Magna Charta of Masonic Freedom’ was a document London.
Lodge No. 466 and the aforementioned Merchants Lodge. During this period, certain local lodges had their own slightly different practices, and hampered by the neglect of the Provincial Grand Master within the rebellious areas of Liverpool and Wigan, the rebels grew extremely sensitive to the transition of the Union regarding the ‘Antient’ and ‘Modern’ practices. In the letter to the Duke of Sussex, the rebels refer to an incident in Bath, were Petitions for Royal Arch Chapters were dismissed by the Grand Chapter because it was: ‘not desirable to make the Number of Chapters in any place equal to the Number of Lodges’.
brethren, having ‘violated the laws of the Craft’, were ostracized.4 Gage and his followers were now free to resurrect the ‘Antient’ Grand Lodge. The plan was certainly to go national and to spread the influence of the rebel Grand Lodge, and it was declared that the causes which led to the re-establishment of the ‘Antient’ Grand Lodge was to be advertised in four of the London Papers, a public declaration which would be guaranteed to reach the eyes of the leaders of the United Grand Lodge. Thus it came to pass that on that cold December day of 1823, the Liverpool Masonic rebels would not only be celebrating Christmas, but they would be celebrating a new beginning for themselves.
The rebels seized upon this example, indicating that they saw the Royal Arch as part of Craft Masonry, and the rejection of the Petitions was an abuse of power. The Duke of Sussex in not replying to the letter merely intensified the anger of the rebels and culminated in the decisive meeting in the November of 1821. The Duke seemed to have been dismissive of any disagreeable elements within Freemasonry and showed little sympathy. Such was the case with the outspoken Freemason Dr. George Oliver, whose removal from his Provincial office was engineered by the Duke after Oliver incurred his dislike.3 Broadhurst was the Worshipful Master of the Ancient Union Lodge in 1821, and along with a number of brethren including William Walker and Thomas Berry, he represented their lodge in the rebellion, adding their signatures to the Castle Inn document. Broadhurst, apart from being the senior member of his lodge, became vital in gaining support for the rebellion from the Ancient Union Lodge, and would have been secure in gaining an important role in the rebel Grand Lodge. Representatives from Broadhurst’s original lodge; the Merchants Lodge, included liquor merchant John Eltonhead, tailor Daniel Mackay, tanner John Manifold and excise man Samuel Money Blogg. The 34 brethren who signed the document were subsequently suspended by the United Grand Lodge, and Gage’s lodge, Lodge No.31, was erased. This action created further isolation for the suspended rebels as they were not allowed to visit any other lodges, ultimately providing greater bonding between them and giving them further cause to complain about the ‘tyranny’ of the United Grand Lodge. The dissent spread rapidly through Liverpool as certain lodges began to support their fellow brethren. The Liverpool based Sea Captain’s Lodge No. 140 threatened to separate itself from the United Grand Lodge if Lodge No. 31 was not re-instated, and by the middle of 1822, an increased number of 65 brethren from Liverpool and Wigan were recorded as being suspended. On the 5th of March, 1823, the United Grand Lodge finally expelled 26 brethren, stating that the rebels had:
Dr David Harrison has written many articles and papers on the history of Freemasonry for a number of magazines and journals. He has worked as a history lecturer for over ten years and researched the complex and hidden history of English Freemasonry for his Phd, which was published by Lewis Masonic and titled The Genesis of Freemasonry. He has written extensively on the Liverpool Masonic Rebellion and the Wigan Grand Lodge, with a number of articles on the subject appearing in Freemasonry Today.
‘been found guilty of various Acts of insubordination against the Authority of the Grand Lodge, and having been summoned to show cause why they should not therefore be expelled from the Craft; have not sent any sufficient apology for their late misconduct’. Their rebellious activities were described as an ‘insult’, and the
R.S.E. Sandbach, Priest and Freemason: The Life of George Oliver, (Northamptonshire: The Aquarian Press, 1988), p.99.
Beesley, The History of the Wigan Grand Lodge, pp.16-19.
The Genesis of Freemasonry By Dr David Harrison If you really wish to know the origins of Freemasonry then make space under the Christmas Tree for this beautifully researched book.
give you all the answers, you just need to think of the questions!
The Genesis of Freemasonry takes us on a journey of exploration through the early years of Freemasonry, Harrison carefully deconstructs a number of existing myths and cleverly shows where the roots of Freemasonry are firmly planted. The book carefully looks at where modern Freemasonry comes from and the developments before and after the formation of the first Grand Lodge in London; learn about those responsible for creating the first Grand Lodge in 1717 and their motivation. Considering the book was written from an Academic point it is remarkably easy to read and would suit all those interested in Freemasonry and its origins. A wonderfully detailed look at the development of modern Masonic Ritual, the Freemasons search for knowledge, the balance between the new sciences of The Royal Society and magic, alchemy and necromancy, all of this peppered with dashes of rebellion, politics, civil war and religion this book really does
What others have to say. “This book is a revealing but thoroughly enjoyable journey through the intricate history of English Freemasonry. Historian Dr David Harrison reconstructs the hidden history of the movement, tracing its roots through a mixture of mediaeval guild societies, alchemy and necromancy. He examines the earliest known Freemasons and their obsessions with Solomon’s Temple, alchemy and prophecy to the formation of the Grand Lodge in London, which in turn led to rebellions within the Craft throughout England, especially in York and with the formation of the ‘antients’. Harrison also analyses the role of French immigrant Dr Jean Theophilus Desaguliers in the development of English Freemasonry, focussing on his involvement with the formation of the mysterious modern Masonic ritual.” Lewis Masonic Web site You can order a copy of The Genesis of Freemasonry through the MAE web site http://masonic-ae.com/newsletters/v1i5.html
Rosslyn Chapel Tour (Half Day) Our most popular tour Rosslyn Tours offers you the convenience of a courtesy pick-up from your accommodation in luxury transport where we travel 7 miles south of Edinburgh to the 15th century medieval Rosslyn Chapel. You will receive a full guided tour with our local, friendly and knowledgeable tour guide who will enlighten you in the mysteries of the Knights Templar and the many secrets surrounding Rosslyn Chapel, as well as the historical facts. We give you the opportunity to browse the shop and relax in the tearoom for refreshments if desired. There is also a small trail through Rosslyn Glen leading to Rosslyn Castle where you can admire spectacular views of the rich wooded glen from the ruins of the castle (optional and weather permitting). The comfort of luxury transport back to your accommodation or city centre drop-off then awaits you.
Rosslyn Chapel Guided Tour ONLY (Half / Full Day) If you are making your own way to the chapel, our guide can arrange to meet you there for a full tour as per a half-day tour.
Rosslyn Chapel & Templar Tour (Full Day) This full day tour allows you to investigate Rosslyn Chapel in the morning as per the ½ day tour above. We will then move on to the village of Temple (Balantradoch) to visit an old ruined chapel and burial site where the Knights Templar based their headquarters in the 12th century. This tour is suited to those who want to investigate the Knights Templar beliefs further with a stop-off for lunch at the medieval 15th century Dalhousie Castle or the 5 star Melville Castle set in acres of woodlands. Seton Collegiate Church on the beautiful east coast of Edinburgh is also included in your full day tour from April - October.
Rosslyn Chapel & Borders Tour (Full Day) Visit Rosslyn Chapel in the morning followed by lunch, we then head South to the beautiful Borders town of Melrose to visit the 12th century abbey, where Robert the Bruce's heart is said to be buried. We then travel onto Abbotsford House the home of Sir Walter Scott, the 19th Century novelist, who was fascinated with Rosslyn Chapel. He wrote of the 20 barons that lie beneath Rosslyn Chapel referred to, in his work titled 'The Lay of the Last Minstrel'. Many believe Scott took the secrets of the Grail to his grave. We visit the house, grounds and the library which is filled with Masonic symbolism.
Rosslyn Chapel & Glen Full Day Tour (April-October) (Half / Full Day) Visitors requesting a longer stay in Roslin can opt for the morning Rosslyn Chapel ½ day tour then explore Rosslyn’s rich wooded glen in the afternoon with lunch nearby.
New Tour For 2008 - 'Rosslyn Chapel & Gilmerton Cove' Gilmerton Cove is a series of hand carved passageways and chambers that lie below ground to the south of Gilmerton crossroads. The entrance to the Cove is through a visitor centre adapted from a traditional mining cottage. This cottage houses imaginative audio and visual displays that depict the various theories behind the origins of Gilmerton Cove which, after extensive archaeological and historical research, still remain a mystery. These include theories that it was the unique work of an 18th century local blacksmith George Paterson, a drinking den for gentry, a refuge for persecuted Covenanters, a Knights Templar hideout and a smugglers lair. Decide for yourself what secrets this curious place still holds. As featured in ‘Cities of the Underworld’ and ‘Scotland’s Sin City’ DVD.
Our expert guide will advise on Roslin’s rich variety of woodlands and wildlife. You can explore the ruins of Roslin’s explosive past where the old gun power mill lies. For the more active – Wallace’s Cave is situated nearby where it’s said, William Wallace hid up to 70 men during the Battle of Roslin in 1303. Alternatively, enjoy the light trails that surround Roslin Glen Picnic Park and take a short stroll to admire the beautiful River Esk.
We can be contacted on 0131 440 3293. Alternatively, you can write to us at: Rosslyn Tours, 3B Station Road, Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9LP, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Further information and a video clip can be viewed at www.gilmertoncove.org.uk
[Editor]I have decided to move away slightly from the usual remit of the Masonic Art Exchange over the next few pages by presenting a short history and a few ‘facts’ about the jolly old elf we call ‘Father Christmas’ or ‘Santa Claus’. In the 4th century, Nicholas was the Bishop of Myra - now a part of Turkey. A very religious man he was canonised after his death and became the patron saint of many professions including sailors, merchants, archers, children, and students. He was also present at the at the First Ecumenical Council in Nicaea. It’s safe to guess that the real Nicholas was a kind and generous man. Old stories document his kindness. The two most popular are the story of three daughters and the story of three boys. In the story of three daughters, St. Nicholas anonymously gives three purses of gold to three poor daughters for dowries so they can marry and not be sold into prostitution. ( because of this he is the Patron saint of Pawnbrokers, the three gold balls hanging outside the shop said to represent the three sacks of gold, he is also the Patron saint of Prostitutes) Legend has it that Saint Nicholas became aware of a desperately poor parishioner having three daughters with no dowry to recommend them for marriage. The father had planned to sell them into prostitution to provide some means of support. By night, Saint Nicholas secretly brought purses of gold on three separate occasions to the man's home. These generous visitations allowed the three daughters to have sufficient means to avoid whoredom and later strike a marriage covenant. On the third visit to deliver the gift, Nicholas was caught in the act of generosity by the grateful Father. One version has him throwing one purse for three consecutive nights. Another has him throw the purses over a period of three years, each time the night before one of the daughters comes "of age". Invariably, the third time the father lies in wait, trying to discover the identity of their benefactor. In one version the father confronts the saint, only to have Saint Nicholas say it is not him he should thank, but God alone. In another version, Nicholas learns of the poor man's plan and drops the third bag down the chimney instead; a variant holds that the daughter had washed her stockings that evening and hung them over the embers to dry, and that the bag of gold fell into the stocking.
The story of three boys, tells how a terrible famine struck the island and a malicious butcher lured three little children into his house, where he slaughtered and butchered them, placing their remains in a barrel to cure, planning to sell them off as ham. Saint Nicholas, visiting the region to care for the hungry, not only saw through the butcher's horrific crime but also resurrected the three boys from the barrel by his prayers. (Another version of this story, possibly formed around the eleventh century, claims that the butcher's victims were instead three clerks who wished to stay the night). The man murdered them, and was advised by his wife to dispose of them by turning them into meat pies. The Saint saw through this and brought the men back to life. Tales of St. Nicholas’s kindness spread through Europe making him also the patron saint of children. Many Europeans began giving gifts to their children on December 6 every year. In Holland, St. Nicholas rode a donkey. On Christmas Eve children left clogs filled with straw in their chimneys and St. Nicholas replaced them with presents before the morning. St. Nicholas arrived in America in 1664 with the flourishing Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, which was taken over by British forces, who renamed it New York after the Duke of York. An active group of Dutch intellectuals, called the Knickerbockers, preserved their Dutch culture in New York for 200 years. In 1809 one of their members, Washington Irving, published a satirical version of Dutch traditions called The Knickerbocker’s History of New York. It contained several dozen references of Sinter Klaas (adopted from Sint Nikolass). Washington Irving’s book included a tale of how Sinter Klaas flew across the sky in a wagon and dropped presents down chimneys for good little boys and girls - not just on Christmas Eve but on any day he felt like it. Irving’s book created a new popularity for the Bishop in America - not in clerical robes but as a jolly fellow. The New Yorkers loved the image. The most popular contributor to the modern image of Santa was a professor of divinity in New York - Dr. Clement Clarke Moore. He was a friend of Washington Irving. In 1822 he sat down to write a Christmas poem heavily influenced by Irving’s vision of Sinter Klaas and his flying wagon and gift giving. But Moore made a few alterations to make it more believable. The clogs that the Dutch children left in the chimney became stockings - which children could relate to in cold weather. The wagon became a “miniature sleigh” with “eight tiny reindeer.” “The sleigh and horse with its bells was a common means of transportation in New England...And for it to be pulled by reindeer gave St. Nicholas an exotic link with the far North - a land of cold and
snow where few, if any, people traveled and hence was mysterious and remote.” Moore described St. Nicholas as a dwarfish “jolly old elf” dressed in furs, who goes down chimneys to give children their presents. Moore also gave the reindeer names - Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donder, and Blitzen. Moore's poem, called A visit from St. Nicholas was published anonymously in the Troy, New York Sentinel on December 23, 1823. Moore published it anonymously to protect his reputation from the disapproving church community. The poem eventually became known as The Night Before Christmas.
soldiers, and the magazine stuck with the image for 40 years. Over this period, Nast added features to St. Nicholas. One year he showed him pouring over a list of naughty and nice children; another year showed him in a toy shop at the North Pole. In 1931, the Coca-Cola company hired artist Haddon Sundblom to
In the mid - 1800s St. Nicholas was drawn in a Bishop’s robe and pointed hat, a long coat and straight beard. Some had him with black hair. This changed in 1863 when Harper’s Weekly hired 21 year old Thomas Nast to draw St. Nicholas.
create artwork for a massive Christmas advertising campaign. Their soda was primarily a summer drink and Coca-Cola wanted to promote its winter sales. Sundblom dropped St. Nicholas’s black and white suit in favor of one in Coca-Cola red and white. The image stuck. In 1939 Montgomery Ward hired ad man Robert May to write a Christmas poem for their department store. It was called Rollo and the Red-Nosed Reindeer.
He drew him as a jolly, roly-poly old man who wore a star-spangled jacket, striped pants, and a cap. This boosted the spirit of the civil war
The company didn't like the name Rollo and they changed it to Rudolph. Later the poem was recorded by singing cowboy Gene Autry.
The rest is history.
[Editor Note]This review first appeared on The Masonic Society forum and after discussion Bro Carroll has agree to come on board as our resident book reviewer. He also gave me permission to add the odd comment in the text which I will highlight when it is mine. I can highly recommend this book but I will leave it up to Jeb to share his views.
I first heard about the book Crown of Serpents by Michael Karpovage on Masonic Central's podcast October 18th 2009 when they had the author on to talk about it. The book is classified by the author as being a "High Concept" which is similar to Dan Brown's Da Vinci Code and Lost Symbol or National Treasure where the author uses historical mysteries to weave a fascinating and intriguing modern day mystery to discover a hidden past. These stories often include secret societies and of course the center of this book is Freemasonry as well as a fictional secret society created by the author called The White Deer Society.
1779 campaign map by Colonel Dearborn. Shows route of Sullivan's march heading north from Catherine's Town (present day Watkins Glen) on bottom of map below Seneca Lake, all the way up and to the west towards the Genesee River.
The books prologue is amazing and opens on a bloody battle taking place in 1779 between a small band of Continental Soldiers and the fierce British Rangers and Mohawk Warriors led by Colonel John Butler and Mohawk Indian Chief Joseph Brant. Michael Karpovage's writing of the battle is detailed and sometimes shocking with descriptions such as
"His scalp was immediately and thoroughly sliced and peeled back from his head." "...buried a tomahawk in the back of his skull. The crunch was crisp." It is at the end of this very short and fast paced prologue that the reader is quickly thrown into the realm of the craft when a captured Thomas Boyd uses the mystical sign of a distressed Master Mason at a last ditch attempt to convince his captor and fellow brother of the Craft Chief Joseph Brant to spare his life. The rest of the novel takes place in modern day upper New York State and we are introduced to the main character Major Jake Tununda, a Native American of the Seneca Tribe, Special
Forces Veteran of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, current field historian of the Military History Institute and Master Mason of Military Lodge Land, Sea and Air Number One Iraq. Jake's deep knowledge of American war history and fateful discoveries lead him to the Journal of the captured Thomas Boyd discussed in the prologue and learns about an ancient Native American secret society called the White Deer Society who take their name from the white fur deer in the area who are considered sacred. In the journal Jake Tununda reads that Thomas Boyd discovered part of the White Deer Societies secrets and stashed the clues in different places in upper state New York before going into battle. The clues are hidden in Masonic Cypher and Jake goes on to find them.
Two halves of the Freemason's Cipher directions to Boyd's buried keg of
containing war loot.
Enters at this time an evil character named Alex Nero who is a ruthless mob boss and Casino tycoon who extorts his Native American lineage to amass great wealth from tax free gambling and controlling his own people with an iron fist. He believes himself to be a direct descendent of an ancient evil Indian Wizard who wore a silver Crown of Serpents which gave him mystical powers until it was The author declared if a movie was created he would stolen from him and hidden by like Wes Studi as Alex Nero the White Deer Society. Now Alex Nero dying of Cancer is desperately searching for the Crown to save his life and become supreme ruler of his people and re-expropriate his land from the white people. He too learns of the Thomas Boyd journal and with his gang of Indian thugs races against Jake Tununda to find the crown creating an amazing story of exciting fights, page turning chases and
sometimes jaw dropping plot twists. The book is excellently narrated with well thought out characters and complete with a detailed historical time line and maps in the book. The author is very upfront about what is factual history and what was created to make the story possible. Michael Karpovage's character Jake Tununda is fascinating and displays the amazing qualities of a Seneca Indian, An American Soldier and true Freemason. The author being a Freemason was able to weave the craft in and out of the story so well that it didn't appear forced and complemented the plot well. He was also able to describe some small secrets about the
proper grammar. I suspect that the book was privately published and probably didn't go through a proper editorial process and in my opinion is the books greatest flaw. Overlooking the editorial errors which plague the book it is exciting, enthralling and makes me proud to be a Freemason and to recommend it to my friends and family who aren't Freemasons. If you don't like picking up historical or esoteric books on the Craft consider buying this one which runs for about $15-$22 on Amazon.com [remember you can buy a copy via the MAE web site: http://masonicae.com/newsletters/v1i5.html ]
…and I promise you that you will find it exciting and easy to get through the 368 pages. I haven't read every book this year but have read six different Masonic books published in 2009 and I declare this book to be the Author Michael Karpovage
BEST MASONIC BOOK OF 2009!
Four and a half Square and Compasses out of five.
What Others Have To Say “The plot is very intricate but well conducted by the Author, the characters are well developed and the narrative is fluent. This mystery thriller grabs the reader and does not let go him until the end.” Bruno Gazzo Editor, PS Review of Freemasonry “Crown of Serpents is a bombshell of a book! Starring Jake Tununda, special forces officer turned field historian, it is a suspenseful mystery and high-fueled adventure all wrapped in one. The action never stops as the hero attempts to foil a corrupt, power-seeking Indian casino owner from obtaining an ancient Iroquois relic that would make him invincible. Precise maps and historic manuscripts help lend credence to a compelling scavenger hunt that burns across the reservations of Western New York. If a major studio hasn’t turned this book into a summer movie release, they’d better get on the stick!” William P. Robertson, “Bucktail” novelist “Karpovage crafts a story rich in intrigue, history, folklore, and the mystery of the white deer. His myriad of subplots and personalities keeps the reader entranced and on edge, begging for more.” Dennis Money, Chairman, Seneca White Deer, Inc., Canandaigua, NY
Craft which only Freemasons would recognize and stays true to any obligation which is a great accomplishment. Although the book is a great page turner I do have to point out that it was poorly edited. The book is ripe with words out of place and sentences which should have been rewritten for
“Crown of Serpents is a page-turning story with a creative plot backed up with incredible historical tidbits from the author’s extensive research. Karpovage’s careful crafting throughout compares him very favorably with others in the genre such as Follett and Ludlum.“ Sue Lofstrom, Associate Professor of English, Georgia Perimeter College, Atlanta, GA The author of Crown of Serpents Michael Karpovage is also an accomplished graphic designer running a design business Karpovage Creative being responsible for the cover design and all the maps and illustrations in the book for more information see his web site. [http://www.karpovagecreative.com]
eMolay member Pul Angelio (josesoull) from Cebu Ozamiz in the Philipines became a member of the Order of DeMolay (Misamis Chapter, Ozamiz City, Philippines) when he was 13 years old after he received encouragement from his family to join the Order. With his dedication and service to the Order he became a Master Councillor of my chapter on December 21, 2008, before he became Master Councillor he held the position of Junior Councillor, and Junior Steward, and was appointed to act as Scribe (secretary of a chapter) with the encouragement of the Chapter advisors (DAD MASON).
He has a talent that which many will envy with an ability to bring to the public eye through his photography the beauty in the simplest things. When asked various questions about his hobbies like m any teenage boys he is a fan of gaming, sports (tennis being his favourite) and the adventure of travel. But the most sincere answer he gave was when he was asked as an artist himself whom he thought was the greatest artist and he did not reply, DaVinci, Picasso, Blake or even the likes of comic book artists such as Bill Ward or Bob Powell but gave the answer – GOD.
My Eye by Josespul
His Chapter is sponsored by Mt. Malindang Lodge #130 Free and Accepted Masons under the Grand Lodge of the Philippines a lodge in which his Father is a dual member (his Father is a chartered member of Salug Valley lodge No. 216 Molave, Zamboanga del Sur, Phil.) He says,
“Being a Master Councillor is such a hard work [it is for] young men of action.”
Please enjoy some of Pul’s work and you can find more on his deviantart web page http://josespul.deviantart.com/
In this issue I have decided to highlight two web sites one is the site of a book the second a blog. Earlier in the newsletter we reviewed the wonderful book ‘The Crown of Serpents’ the author Michael Karvopage has created a web site that shares with us some of the research behind the book, with a wealth of illustration, information and maps it is well worth a visit. Michael tells me he is currently updating the main site so if the first link does not work please check the alternative.
http://www.crownofserpents.com/ or http://www.wix.com/michaelkarpovage/Crown-of-Serpents
lk on Art in freemasonry for a canaf
This is the end of the fifth and holiday Masonic Art Exchange Newsletter this issue was fun and the many articles were a dlight to edit . As always I hope many of you will take a few moments to put pen to paper or fingers to keyboard and send something in even if it’s just a letter of comment everything is received with great thanks. On this final page I am again going to place a few links to ‘good’ sites, and other groups in Facebook that may be of interest and contact details. PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE get in contact whether it is to tell us how fantastic the newsletter was or alternatively to give us much needed critique on how to improve what we are doing after all that IS what we are here for. We will see you on the web and pray the Great Architect watches over you and you have joyous and safe Christmas and fun filled New Year. Sincerely and fraternally,
I of course would advise everyone to check out the MAE blog from time to time which can be found at http://masonicae.blogspot.com/ but another blog that should be regular reading for the discerning Mason and indeed non-mason is that of Bro Chris Hodapp.
http://freemasonsfordummies.blogspot.com/ Somehow Chris manages to keep us all up to date with the happening in the world of Freemasonry at the same time as being a prolific author and speaker. Having written books that will be found on many Lodge shelves all over the world (Freemasons For Dummies, and the upcoming Deciphering The Lost Symbol). His fun style of prose is easy to read yet he doesn’t dumb it down for us so go on and have a look and you’ll see I’m telling the truth.
Contact details: email@example.com
firstname.lastname@example.org (please remember to put MAE in the subject line)