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CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENTS LOGBOOK WEEK 4 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

‘Floor systems & Horizontal Elements’! Mary Hou!


FLOOR SYSTEMS CONCRETE

STEEL

WOOD

Cast in place concrete floor slabs are classified according to their span and cast form

Steel beams support steel decking of precast concrete planks. Beams may be supported by girders, columns or load bearing walls

Support structural planking or decking

Pre cat concrete planks may be supported by beams or load bearing walls

Beam framing is typically an integral part of a steel skeleton frame system

Concentrated loads and floor openings may require addition/ framing.

Closely space light-gauge or open web joists may be supported by beams or load bearing walls

Prestressed concrete is reinforced by pretensioning or pretensioning high strength steel tendons within their elastic limit to actively exist a service load. Enables the prestressed member to deflect less, carry a greater load, or span a greater distance than a conventionally reinforced member of the same size, proportion and weight.!

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Pretensioning

Posttensioning

- Complete in a precasting plant! - Stretches the reinforcing tendons before the

- Performed at the building site! - Tension the reinforcing tendons after the concrete

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concrete is cast

has set

SPAN Span is the distance measured between 2 structural supports, it can be measured between vertical or horizontal supports.!

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SPACING Spacing is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements. Generally measured centre line to centre line.!

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SPACING of the supporting elements depends on the SPANNING capabilities of the supported elements. !

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BEAMS • Mostly a horizontal structural element! • Carry loads along length of the beam and transfer these loads to the vertical supports.!

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A beam can be: ! ! - Supported at both ends of the beam! - Supported at numerous points along the length of beam! - Supported at points away from the ends of the beam! - Supported at only one end of the beam! !

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CANTILEVERS • Structural elements that are supported at only one end! • Carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these loads to the support.!

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A cantilever may be:! - Horizontal! - Vertical! - Angled!

!! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! Symbolic representation of materials ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ‘SCALE, ANNOTATION AND WORKING DRAWING CONVENTIONS’

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B!

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<— This indicates the drawing number!

A66-01!!

<—This indicates page number

102!

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11!

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<— Number tag for door! <—Room number for door


152!

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67!

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<— Number tag for window! <— Room number for window

4__  
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