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Module CBL7012: Multimedia Programming

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN FOR EDUCATIONAL GAME TO BE INCLUDED IN A EDUCATIONAL MULTIMEDIA PACKAGE


Mary Price, 9788654 August 2009

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CONTENTS Page 1

ANALYSIS Background Specification and Problem Domain

4

Generic Program Requirements

6

Specific Program Learning Outcomes

6

Target Audience – Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

6–7

Outline of Pedagogic Component

7–8

Computing Component 2

OUTLINE DESIGN Overview Contents Component

3

8

9 9 – 10

Pedagogic Component

10 – 11

Interface Design and Content Functionality

11 – 16

DETAILED DESIGN Overall Functionality Pedagogic Component

17 – 18 19

Interface Design

19 – 22

Content Functionality

22 – 25

Evaluation

26

DIAGRAMS AND CHARTS Figure 1 - Program Content Structure

10

Figure 2 - Wireframe - Interface Design – Opening Screen

12

Figure 3 - Banner Design

12

Figure 4 - Design for Topic Buttons

13

Figure 5 - Wireframe – Interface Design – Topic and Sub-Topic Screens

14

Figure 6 - Wireframe – Interface Design – Quiz Introductory Screen

15

Figure 7 - Wireframe – Interface Design – Quiz Game Screen

16

Figure 8 - Flow Chart – Overall Functionality

18

Figure 9 – Design for Self-Assessment Quiz Button

19

Figure 10 - Game Rules Pane

20

Figure 11 - Design for ‘Lifelines’

20

Figure 12 - Design for ‘Incorrect’ Feedback Message

20

Figure 13 - Design for ‘Correct’ Feedback Message

21

Figure 14 – Design for ‘Game Over’ Message

22

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TABLES Tables 1, 2 and 3 – Design Specification for Opening Screen

13 - 14

Table 4 – Design Specification – Topic and Sub-Topic Screens

14

Table 5 – Design Specification – Quiz Introductory Screen

15

Table 6 – Design Specification – Quiz Game Screen

16

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1

ANALYSIS

Background Specification and Problem Domain Further Education (FE) tutors who deliver the EDI (formerly JEB) Level 3 Certificate in Education Practice: ICT Skills qualification to part-time learners, have identified that a proportion of learners do not spend sufficient time on independent learning of theory topics to successfully complete Unit 1 of their course, rather, learners prefer to focus their attention on the practical elements of the course. One solution was to allocate a theory topic to each student to research before planning and delivering a short theory lesson to peers. While this approach was found to be useful, tutors are still concerned that many students do not gain a satisfactory level of knowledge and understanding of the full range of theory topics included in this unit. The aim of the EDI Certificate in Education Practice: ICT Skills qualification is to certify that candidates can teach information and communications technology to an elementary/intermediate level and is suitable for those who wish to deliver ICT in a school, college or training organisation or act as an ICT facilitator in open learning or drop-in centres. The course is also appropriate for qualified teachers or those in the process of completing an initial teacher training qualification wishing to teach ICT. The Certificate is listed on the Qualifications Credit Framework (QCF) and is available for delivery throughout the United Kingdom. It is offered as a part-time course by the 6 area-based colleges of further education in Northern Ireland. The course is structured into 3 mandatory units with guided learning and independent learning hours allocated as follows:

Unit

Unit Title

Unit 1:

Managing the ICT Learning Environment

Unit 2:

Preparation of ICT Learning Resources

Unit 3:

Applied Principles of ICT Education.

Learning Hours Guided Learning Hours – 20 Estimated Learning Hours – 30 Guided Learning Hours – 20 Estimated Learning Hours – 30 Guided Learning Hours – 20 Estimated Learning Hours - 40

There are separate assessments for each of the three units and which together involve: 1. preparing resources to teach ICT concepts 2. questions on a case study 3. preparing materials for teaching applications software 4. a teaching project 5. teaching practice, evaluation and identification of improvements to be made

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Unit 1, which is a concern for tutors, provides learners with the theoretical background they require to teach ICT. This unit is sub-divided into 2 sections Unit 1 Section 1(a) Section 1(b)

Section Title Teaching ICT Concepts Managing ICT Learning Resources

To achieve Section 1(a), learners must design, create and submit 2 different types of teaching resources for topics chosen from: •

Computer hardware and peripheral units

Input and output devices

The roles of the CPU, ROM and RAM

The roles of operating system software, utility software and the various categories of application software

Data storage devices and media, and their properties

Computer communications equipment and techniques.

Currently, tutors allocate one hour per week to the delivery of topics associated with Unit 1, however, it is evident from the work submitted for assessment of Section 1(a), that many learners depend heavily on course handouts, they do not spend sufficient additional time on furthering their knowledge of topics, and a proportion do not possess the level of understanding required to be successful in the assessment for this section, or to teach these topics in the future. As learners enjoy the practical elements of the course tutors believe that a solution to the problem may be the development of a computer based learning (CBL) resource that would support the independent learning of theory topics included in Section 1(a) of the EDI ICT Skills specification as listed above. The inclusion of a self-assessment facility within the resource is considered to be high priority as it will ensure that students gain a realistic picture of their level of understanding of the topics covered. To enhance learning and to encourage users to engage with the topic content it has been suggested that the resource should employ a range of multi-media elements for teaching and reinforcement purposes. As the resource will be used by the primary target audience outside of class contact time it will need to be well designed and intuitive to use. Topics will need to be clearly identified and it should have a consistent interface design. The resource should be easily navigated and orientation information should be available so that users can easily identify their position within the program.

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It is believed that a CBL approach to the problem will offer additional advantages, for example, learner motivation is likely to be enhanced; ‘trainee teachers’ will

gain an appreciation of the

potential of multimedia in education, and it will facilitate colleges in their move towards introducing a blended learning approach to significant part-time courses. The development of an interface for a CBL program that will support Section 1(a) – ICT Concepts, has been suggested. However, the self-assessment component will be completed in the first instance. If, after evaluation, the resource is found to be valuable then development of a full resource for this section will be undertaken. Generic Program Requirements The generic requirements for the ICT Concepts CBL program are as follows: •

provide a sound knowledge of basic ICT concepts and terminology;

promote and support independent learning through the appropriate use of CBL courseware;

allow the primary target audience to appreciate how multimedia may be utilised to enhance teaching and learning.

Specific Program Learning Outcomes On completion of the full CBL program the user should be able to: •

demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the specified subject content;

explain and interpret terminology and abbreviations commonly used in connection with ICT in education;

identify and explain the specific roles of ICT hardware and peripheral devices that are in use in educational and learning situations;

identify and explain the roles of operating systems, utility software and categories of applications software;

identify and explain the importance of data security and the legal requirements of storing data electronically;

explain new and emerging ICT developments.

Target Audience Primary Target Audience: The primary target audience will be male and female learners aged between 19 and 60 years. The primary audience will be part-time students completing their qualification at a college of further education in Northern Ireland. The audience will have had different prior learning experiences, Mary Price, 7988654

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however, as a minimum they must hold 5 GCSEs at grades A* - C, be competent in using ICT to Level

3

of

the

Qualifications

and

Credit

Framework

(QCF)

and/or

have

equivalent

professional/industrial experience. The target audience will be from different religious, ethnic and economic backgrounds and these factors will be taken into consideration during the planning and design stages to eliminate the possibility of discrimination.

Secondary Target Audience: The secondary target audience is full-time learners completing ICT courses that include elements of ICT theory at levels 2 and 3 of the QCF, for example, ECDL or GCSE ICT. It is assumed that the secondary target audience will reside in the United Kingdom. They will have had different learning experiences and will be from a range of backgrounds. As ECDL is often undertaken as an ‘introductory’ ICT qualification, this, and characteristics associated with the secondary target audience will need to be considered during the planning and design phase.

Tertiary Target Audience: The tertiary audience is likely to be teachers and tutors involved in the delivery of the ‘ICT concepts’ theory element of Level 2 and 3 ICT qualifications including Unit 1, Section 1(a) of the EDI Level 3 Certificate in Education Practice: ICT Skills qualification. Outline of Pedagogic Component The solution to the problem described above is to develop a Computer Based Learning (CBL) resource that will support independent learning. The resource, when complete, will be made available from a college intranet, from a VLE or from the Internet. An advantage of this mode of delivery is that learners will have the opportunity to access and use the resource at a time, place and at a pace that best meet their individual needs. It will also free up class contact time which can be used for practical activities and peer teaching. It is envisaged that the resource will employ 3 CBL approaches as follows: •

tutorial – to introduce the content of the various topics and sub-topics. A linear approach is envisaged;

simulation – to illustrate concepts, for example, to illustrate the processes and activities undertaken by the CPU;

gaming – to add an element of challenge to the assessment of learning and to identify areas that need to be revisited.

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These approaches are described in greater detail within the Outline Design and Detailed Design sections. Computing Component When complete the resource will be exported in html and Shockwave format, therefore, available for uploading to a college intranet, Virtual Learning Environment or the Internet. It is envisaged that the primary and tertiary audience will access the program at home or from within a college ‘open learning’ facility, while the secondary and tertiary audience will gain access to the resource from any computer linked to the Internet. Therefore, the resource will need to be compatible with a range of hardware and software. In consideration of the target audience and the range of media to be included in the resource a typical computer system would be a multimedia, Internet ready PC offering the following features •

Intel Core 2 processor

Minimum 80 GB Hard Disk

1 GB RAM

Onboard graphics – Intel Chipset 950, for example

Onboard sound card

19” LCD Monitor

Keyboard/Mouse

Speakers/Headphones

Windows XP, Vista, Mac OS 10, Linux – all distributions

Internet Explorer – all versions, Mozilla Firefox V3, Google Chrome or Safari

Plugins – Flash, ActiveX, Java Runtime Environment.

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2

OUTLINE DESIGN

Overview To address tutors’ concerns, as described on Page 5 above, a Computer Based Learning (CBL) resource will be authored and programmed using Adobe Director, Version 11. Adobe Fireworks MX 2004 will be used to create design elements for importing into Director.

The program will be

structured around the specification content for Section 1(a) of the EDI Certificate in Education Practice: ICT Skills qualification titled ‘ICT Concepts’. When fully developed, the resource will allow part-time learners work independently outside of class contact time, to gain a sound knowledge and understanding of ICT concepts and terminology and to self-assess their level of understanding. The aims and learning outcomes listed on Page 6 above and the characteristics and needs of the target audience as discussed at Pages 6 and 7 above will be pivotal to the design of the resource and will be considered throughout the implementation and evaluation stages. The outline design will describe the solution in the form of the program’s main elements and their inter-relationships and will outline the contents and interface component. Contents Component When fully complete the contents of the ‘ICT Concepts’ specification will be presented in the CBL program within 5 separate topic areas as follows: •

Computer Hardware and Peripheral Units (including input and output devices)

The Roles of the CPU, ROM and RAM

The Roles of the Operating System, Utility Software and Application Software

Data Storage Devices and Media and their Properties

Computer Communications Equipment and Techniques.

Only a framework for the contents of the ICT Concepts specification will be developed at this stage. However, it is envisaged that the primary structure will involve presenting content hierarchically within sections or topic areas, using menus to provide access to sub-topics. Within each of the 5 main topic areas the user will be presented with an introduction to the content of that section and the learning outcomes. The information provided will be directly linked to the specification content. It will be important to ensure that the information provided is pitched at the required level for the primary target audience; therefore, breadth and depth of content will be guided by the paper-based learning resources provided by the awarding body. Additionally, the topic content must be up-to-date to reflect the rapid changes in technology, for example, the information Mary Price, 7988654

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relating to hard drive capacity, amount of RAM, speed of the CPU etc must allude to that of ‘typical’ standard, mid-range and high-end computer system. It will be necessary to ensure that the information presented remains current so regular updating will be required. It is envisaged that the target audience will work through the topic content in a linear fashion. The secondary audience, if using the resource for revision purposes, may choose to select topics and sub-topics at random. To accommodate the assumed uses, each topic will be ‘self-contained’ and as such will link back to the main screen only, rather than to the other 4 main topics or quiz areas. Figure 1 below illustrates the proposed ordering of main topics and the linkages between the topics and the main page:

ICT Concepts Home Page

Computer Hardware and Peripheral Units

T he Roles of the CPU, ROM and RAM

The Roles of Operating System, Utility and Application Software

Data Storage Devices, Media and their Properties

Computer Communications Equipment and Techniques

Self-Assessment Quiz

Figure 1 A prototype of the self-assessment multiple choice quiz, which will assess understanding of ICT concepts, will be fully developed in the first instance. It will be loosely based on the rules of the television quiz program “Who Wants to be a Millionaire?” The aim of the quiz will be to allow the user to confirm their understanding of the topics listed on Page 5 above by correctly answer 15 multiple choice questions, presented consecutively, in one attempt. Similar to the television programme, users will choose from 4 possible answers but they will be awarded a ‘fictitious’ sum of money. Lifelines will be available to help prompt the user who is unsure of the correct answer and feedback will be given for ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ responses.

Pedagogic Component As discussed in the Analysis section above, 3 CBL approaches will be employed within the resource.

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It is envisaged that a ‘linear’ tutorial approach will be used to present the information associated with each topic and sub-topic. Each section will be presented as a self-contained unit with links back to the ‘home’ screen. Therefore, users will work through each topic and its sub-topics in a linear fashion – see figure 1 above. The tutorial will involve the user reading facts presented on a sequence of screens. The topic content will be presented in a range of multimedia formats. Factual information will be accessible in both text and narrated formats. Text based information will be enhanced by providing ‘roll-over’ definitions of keywords. Graphics and animation will be used to supplement text and narration to aid understanding. Short videos available from ‘How Stuff Works’ will also be employed to supplement the tutorials, for example, to enhance understanding of the main pieces of computer hardware a link to a short video available at http://videos.howstuffworks.com/howstuffworks/23-computer-tourvideo.htm could be used. Simulation and narration will be used to illustrate concepts that cannot be easily explained or demonstrated. For example, the layout of various network topologies could be presented graphically, while simulation could be used to illustrate the route data takes as information is passed between computers on the network. An interactive self-assessment activity will be incorporated into each topic area. A range of assessment techniques will be employed, for example, ‘drag and drop’, ‘matching pairs’ or ‘true/false’ quizzes. On completion of the assessment activity, the user will be presented with feedback on their performance. This type of assessment can be used to consolidate and reinforce what has been learned. To assess their understanding of the ICT Concepts specification learners will complete a final selfassessment quiz loosely based on the television quiz ‘Who Wants to be a Millionaire’. This approach is considered to be appropriate as it will add an element of excitement as the user tries to successfully answer 15 consecutive questions correctly. Interface Design and Content Functionality The program will consist of 4 key screens – Screen 1:

Opening screen or home page offering links to the 5 main topics and selfassessment quiz,

Screen 2:

Section or topic screen providing a menu of links to sub-topics. This screen will be utilised throughout the ‘teaching’ element of the program,

Screen 3:

Self-assessment quiz introductory page

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Screen 4:

Quiz question page which will be used throughout the ‘self-assessment’ element of the program.

It is envisaged that Screen 2 will be adapted and reused as Screen 3; therefore, in total it will be necessary to plan, design and create 3 screen layouts for use within the program. The wireframe shown at Figure 2 below illustrates Screen 1, which is the proposed interface design for the opening screen of the ICT Concepts CBL program. 800 pixels

Exit Button

Graphic Program Title

Graphic Program Title

Links to 5 Topic Areas and Quiz

600 pixels

Home Button

Navigation Buttons

Figure 2 The dimensions of the screen will be 800 x 600 pixels. The background of the main screen will be white (#FFFFFF). A banner and title as illustrated in Figure 2 below and described in Table 1 below, will be created in Adobe Fireworks and will appear at the top of each screen. The image (taken from Microsoft Clipart Gallery) will feature throughout; however, the title text within the banner will change to reflect the contents of each section – this should help orientate the user as they progress through the various sections.

Figure 3 Mary Price, 7988654

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Element Title Banner

Tool Font Rectangle Century Gothic

Fill Colour Effect #2828FF Solid

Border Colour/Size None

Size 800 181

x

Position

Effects

0, 0

Drop Shadow #000000

Table 1 As can be seen from Figure 2 above, the contents of the CBL package will be accessible from 6 buttons located on the opening screen. Each of the 6 buttons will be created in Adobe Fireworks and will contain an image and a topic title – see Figure 4 and Table 2 below. All images will be taken from Microsoft’s Clipart Gallery. When the user moves the mouse pointer over the image the mouse will change to a pointing finger and the colour of the image will change. This design approach provides user feedback and is extremely intuitive, making the resource suitable for the primary, secondary and tertiary audience.

Figure 4

Element

Tool Font

6 Topic Link Buttons

Rounded Rectangle Arial, 14 pt

Fill Colour Effect None

Border Colour/Size #2828FF Stroke size 10

Size

Position

Effects

107 x 107

130, 200 332, 200 538, 200 130, 382 318, 382 538, 382

Drop Shadow #9797FF Raised Emboss

Table 2 Home, Exit, Next, Previous and Help buttons as illustrated in Figure 2 above and described in Table 3 below will be designed in Adobe Fireworks, saved in ‘.png’ format and positioned consistently throughout all screens. These features will be intuitive to use as they employ commonly understood images to convey their purpose, for example, ‘arrows’ to move forward and back and ‘x’ to exit the program. As with the topic buttons, the mouse pointer and button colour will change when the user moves the mouse pointer over them. The ‘next’ and ‘previous’ arrows will be inserted onto buttons using Windings 3, 26pt. The colour of the ‘help’ button will differ from the other 4 buttons to make it stand out from the banner background colour.

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Tool Font Rectangle Arial, 20 pt

Element Home Exit ext Previous Help

Fill Colour Effect #2828FF Solid

Border Colour/Size #FFFFFF Stroke size 1

Size

Position

Effects

35 x 35

5, 562 757, 562 712, 562 664, 562 762, 5

Outer Bevel Raised #0033FF #A8B9F

Table 3 The wireframe shown at Figure 5 below illustrates Screen 2, which is the interface design for each of the 5 main topic areas. A menu of sub-topics on the left of the screen will provide links to subtopic content. Information will be presented in ‘presentation area’. The menu and presentation background will be white (#FFFFFF) and these will appear in front of a blue (#2828FF) rectangle measuring 800 x 365 pixels. A range of formats including text, narration, video, simulation, sound and still images will be utilised in the delivery of resource content, therefore sound controls will be provided. Details of the menu box, presentation area and sound controls are provided in Table 4 below. Exit Button

Graphic Topic Title

Graphic Program Title

Topic Information Presentation Area

Menu Box

Sound Control Buttons

Home Button

Navigation Buttons

Figure 5

Element Menu Box Presentation Area Sound On Sound Stop Sound Off

Tool Font Rectangle Rectangle Rectangle

Fill Colour Effect #FFFFFF Solid #FFFFFF Solid #2828FF Solid

Border Colour/Size #0000CC Stroke size 1pt #0000CC Stroke size 1pt #FFFFFF Stroke size 1pt

Size

Position

Effects

151 x 348 616 x 347 35 x 35

15, 195

Drop Shadow #000000 Drop Shadow #000000 Outer Bevel Raised #0033FF

173, 195 407, 498 461, 498 496, 498

Table 4 Mary Price, 7988654

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The wireframe shown at Figure 6 below illustrates Screen 3 - the interface design for the screen that will introduce the self-assessment quiz. As discussed earlier, this layout is similar to Screen 2, however, the menu box and sound controls have been removed. To differentiate between the ‘learning’ section and the ‘self-assessment’ section of the package, the image and colour scheme used within this banner will complement but differ to the banner that runs through each of the topic screens. This screen will introduce the user to the Quiz Rules. A ‘Start Quiz’ button will reveal the ‘game’ window. These features will be developed in Fireworks – see design details in Table 5 below.

Exit Button

Graphic Quiz Graphic Program Title

Quiz Title

Quiz Rules

Start Quiz Button Home Button

Navigation Buttons

Figure 6

Element Title Banner

Quiz Pane

Rules

Start Quiz Button

Tool Font Rectangle Century Gothic

Rectangle Blue Highway, 65 and 20 pt Rectangle Arial, 20 pt

Fill Colour Effect Left: #2828FF Right #00CCCC Linear Gradient None

Border Colour/Size None

#2828FF Solid

Size

Position

Effects

800 x 181

0, 0

Drop Shadow #000000

#2828FF Stroke Size 1pt

655 x 430

72, 200

Drop Shadow #000000

#FFFFFF Stroke size 1

110 x 35

353, 492

Outer Bevel Raised #0033FF #A8B9F

Table 5 Mary Price, 7988654

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The wireframe shown at Figure 7 illustrates Screen 4, which is the interface design for the ‘game area’ –

Exit Button

Graphic Quiz Graphic Program Title

Quiz Title

Life Lines

Question Box List showing

A - answer

C - answer

B - answer

D - answer

Prize Money

Next Question Button Home Button

Navigation Buttons

Figure 7 The banner and navigation buttons are described in Tables 3 and 5 above respectively. On the left of the screen, as questions are correctly answered, the question number and the corresponding amount of money won will appear. The ‘game area’ will contain 5 rounded rectangles – one for the question text to appear in and 4 smaller rectangles for the answer options the user will choose from. The answer boxes will be labelled A - D, 3 oval shaped lifelines and a ‘Next Question Button’ will also be showing. These features are described in Table 6 below.

Element Question Box Answer Boxes – A, B, C, and D Life Lines x 3 Next Question Button

Tool Font Rounded Rectangle

Fill Colour Effect #000FFF

Border Colour/Size #00CCCC

Rounded Rectangle Arial, 20pt Bold Doughnut

#000FFF

Rounded Rectangle Arial 20pt

Size

Position

Effects

464 x 85

216, 278

#00CCCC

180 x 50

#2828FF Solid

None

60 x 30

#2828FF Solid

#FFFFFF Stroke size 1

148 x 43

268, 371 452, 371 268, 427 452, 427 712, 300 712, 342 712, 384 389 x 148

Drop Shadow #000000 Drop Shadow #000000 None Drop Shadow #000000

Table 6

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DETAILED DESIGN

Overall Functionality As discussed previously the element that will be fully implemented in the first instance will be a prototype of the self-assessment quiz. The quiz will be completed by the user to assess their knowledge and understanding of the theory elements of the EDI Level 3 Certificate in Education Practice: ICT Skills specification as described in the Analysis section above. The quiz or game will be loosely based on the rules of the television programme “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”. To complete the game the user will be required to correctly answer 15 multiple choice questions, presented consecutively, in one attempt. The questions presented will have been chosen randomly from a bank of 45 preset questions. A ‘Start Quiz’ button will open the ‘game’ screen and present the user with their first question. The user will select from 4 possible answers – 3 incorrect and one correct answer. In contrast to the television programme, users will be awarded a ‘fictitious’ sum of money for each correct answer ranging from £100 to £1Million. The user will have one chance at each question. If they are unsure of an answer they can use one of 3 lifelines while answering the set of 15 questions – ’50-50’, ‘Ask the Audience’ or ‘Ask a Friend’. If the answer selected is right, ‘Correct’ feedback and a prompt to select ‘Next Question’ will appear as an overlay within the game area. Similarly, if the answer selected is wrong, then ‘Sorry – that was the wrong answer’ feedback and a prompt to ‘Start Again’ will appear as an overlay. The following flowchart – see Figure 8 – illustrates the overall functionality within the game:

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Overall Functionality Flowchart - Figure 8

Start

User selects ‘Start Quiz’ Display random question in question box. Display 3 incorrect and 1 correct answers in answer boxes

Yes Does the user know the answer?

No User Clicks on one Answer User Clicks on ‘Ask the Audience or ‘Phone a Friend’

Display Audience or Friend ‘Hint’

User Clicks on 50-50

Deactivate 2 incorrect answers

No

Is the answer selected the correct Answer?

Yes

‘Wrong’ answer feedback revealed.

‘Correct’ answer feedback revealed. Winnings highlighted

User Clicks on ‘Start Again’

User Clicks on ‘Next Question’

Reset Question and Answer Fields. Clear Winnings from Winnings List

Reset Question and Answer Fields


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Pedagogic Component Providing a ‘gaming’ or quiz element within the CBL resource to assess the user’s understanding of the ‘whole’ content should add an element of excitement and challenge. The advantages of this approach are that after working through all sections the user can – •

self-assess their level of understanding;

receive immediate feedback on their progress;

retake the quiz – competing against themselves – in order to improve their score;

Interface Design The quiz or game will be presented on two screens as described in the Outline Design – see Pages 15 and 16 above. The game will be accessed by selecting the ‘Self-Assessment Quiz’ button on the main program page – see Figure 9 below.

Figure 9 This will take the user to Screen 3 which is the introductory quiz screen that explains the ‘rules’ of the game – see wireframe illustrated at Figure 6 above. The design and layout of the navigation buttons will be exactly the same as for Screens 1 and 2, however, the colour scheme will change to differentiate the ‘self-assessment’ element from the ‘teaching and learning’ aspect of the site.

The rules will be displayed within a white (#FFFFFF) rectangle measuring 655 x 340 pixels. The ‘Rules’ pane will be created in Fireworks and imported into Director. A clear font – Clear Highway, size 20, Blue (#F2828FF) – will be used to introduce the user to the game rules - see Figure 10 below.

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Figure 10 After reading the ‘Quiz Rules’ the user is prompted to select the ‘Start Quiz’ button which opens up the main ‘quiz’ screen – see Figure 7. The main quiz screen, will display the following features: Winnings and Lifelines As each question is answered correctly the question number and its associated winning amount will appear in fields on the left of the main game area. The design specification for the ‘Lifelines’ - see Figure 11 - is shown in Table 6, at Page 16 above.

Figure 11

Question and answer fields These will be located in the centre of the screen. The design specification for the question and answer fields are described in the Outline Design in Table 6, on Page 16 above. Each answer box will be clearly labelled – A, B, C and D.

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If the answer selected is incorrect an ‘incorrect’ feedback message will appear as an overlay over the ‘game’ area of the screen. The message will prompt the user to have another go by selecting the ‘Start Again’ button – see Figure 12 below. The ‘incorrect’ feedback message will be created in Fireworks. The text message and ‘Start Again’ button will appear on a blue (#2828FF) rectangle measuring 600 x 348 pixels.

Figure 12 If the answer selected is correct the user will be provided with a ‘correct feedback’ message that will appear in a ‘text’ field’ above the question box – see example in Figure 13 below.

Figure 13

If the user answers 15 questions in one attempt they will be presented with a ‘Congratulations’ message that will inform the user that the game is over - as illustrated in Figure 14 below. The message will appear as an overlay over the game area. From this window the user can select the ‘Home’ button to return to the main program area.

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Figure 14

Contents Functionality and Pseudo Code Four possible scenarios to be considered when writing the game script are: 1. The user selects the correct answer and is awarded a fictitious sum of money before moving to the next question; 2. The user selects the wrong answer, loses any money previously awarded and is advised to ‘start again’; 3. The user doesn’t know the answer and selects ‘Ask the Audience’ or ‘Ask a Friend’, An audience hint or friend hint will appear as appropriate; 4. The user doesn’t know the answer and selects 50-50. Two answers are hidden and two remain for the user to select from.

These scenarios have been illustrated in the Overall Functionality flow chart displayed as Figure 8 above and are further explained below.

When the user selects the ‘Start Quiz’ button the question and answer fields need to be cleared or emptied so that the quiz is ready for the user to begin. To initialise this functionality a custom written handler called ‘resetGame’ will be placed in an event handler called ‘on startMovie’ within a Movie Script. The pseudo code to reset the fields will be as follows – clear the question from the question field clear the answers options from the 4 answer fields.

To present the user with a question selected randomly from a bank of questions and then display the question and its related answers on the stage it will be necessary, in the first instance, to create a Mary Price, 7988654

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property list containing the questions and associated possible answers. This will be initialised using a custom written handler called ‘on setList’ which will also be called from the ‘resetGame’ handler available within a movie script. The pseudo code will be as follows set up fifteen property lists, each containing 3 questions and related values choose a question randomly from the property lists display the question and its related values within specified fields on the stage.

The next stage in the process will be to check the answer selected by the user against the correct answer held in the property list, provide either ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ feedback and if the correct answer has been selected then display the amount awarded. To achieve this, a behaviour script called ‘Check Answer’, will be created. The script will then be attached to each of the four answer fields on the stage. To implement this functionality a ‘on mouseUp’ event handler is required; therefore, the script will run when the user clicks on one of the answer fields.

The pseudo code for the ‘Check Answer’ script is as follows: check the answer clicked by the user against the correct answer set up within the property list if the answer selected by the user is the correct answer – display the question number and the amount won within the relevant fields on the stage display ‘Correct’ feedback (and ask the user to select ‘Next Question’) play correct answer ‘sound’1 set ‘Next Question’ button to ‘active’ if the answer selected is an incorrect answer – display ‘Incorrect’ feedback (and ask the user to select ‘Start Again’) play incorrect answer ‘sound’2 clear/empty the amount won from the fields on the stage

1 2

Royalty free crowd and applause sound effects from http://www.partnersinrhyme.com/soundfx/applause.shtml As above

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If the user does not know the answer to a question he/she can select any of 3 lifelines to help them make a selection as follows –

Ask the Audience When the user selects the ‘Ask the Audience’ button, if a new question and related answers are displayed, they will be presented with an ‘Audience Hint’ which they can choose to go with or ignore. If a correctly answered question is still displayed they will be alerted to select ‘Next Question’.

In the first instance a property list containing a number of ‘Audience Hints’ will be set up within a property list called ‘gvHintList’. The behaviour will be attached to the ‘Ask the Audience’ button and a ‘on mouseUp’ event handler will be used to display ‘hints’ to the user in a text field on the stage. As the hint must not be visible after the user makes their selection an additional piece of script will be added to the ‘on mouseUp’ handler that will set the length of time the hint will be visible on the stage. The button will then be set to inactive until the game is reset. The pseudo code for the ‘Ask the Audience’ script will be as follows – set button to inactive check new question/answers are displayed if not alert user to select Next Question set button to active set up a property description list containing a number of ‘Audience Hints’ set the ‘Hint’ to appear randomly from the property list display the ‘Hint’ in a text field on the stage set a timer to control the period of time the ‘hint’ is visible on the stage remove ‘Hint’ from the stage set the button to inactive

Phone a Friend A second lifeline is ‘Phone a Friend’. As with ‘Ask the Audience’, when the user selects this button, if a new question and related answers are displayed, they will be presented with an ‘Audience Hint’. If a correctly answered question is still displayed they will be alerted to select ‘Next Question’. Mary Price, 7988654

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In the first instance a property list containing a number of ‘Friend Hints’ will be set up within a property list called ‘gvFriendHintList’. The behaviour will be attached to the ‘Phone a Friend’ button and a ‘on mouseUp’ event handler will be used to display the ‘friend hints’ to the user in a text field on the stage. As the hint must not be visible after the user makes their selection an additional piece of script will be added to the ‘on mouseUp’ handler that will set the length of time the hint will be visible on the stage. The button will then be inactive until the game is reset. The pseudo code for the ‘Phone a Friend’ script will be as follows – set button to inactive check new question/answers are displayed if not alert user to select Next Question set button to active set up a property description list containing a number of ‘Friend Hints set the ‘Hint’ to appear randomly from the property list display the ‘Hint’ in a text field on the stage set a timer to control the period of time the ‘hint’ is visible on the stage when the timer runs out remove the ‘Hint’ from the stage set button to inactive

50-50 The third lifeline – ’50-50’ when selected will reduce the possible answers from 4 to 2 – the correct answer and one incorrect answer. A behaviour script attached to the 50-50 button will be triggered by an ‘on mouseUp’ event handler. As with the other 2 lifelines, the button, once selected, will become inactive and remain inactive until the game is reset. The following pseudo code will apply – check the answer fields against the correct answer in the property list if the answer field does not contain the correct answer field empty/clear the contents of 2 fields display the contents of the correct field and one incorrect field

Mary Price, 7988654

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4

EVALUATION OF CBL PACKAGE

Formative evaluation will be completed on an ongoing basis during the development process. Evaluation at this stage will involve systematic testing of each of the resource elements and processes as they are created, for example testing of script using the ‘debug’ facility available within Director, testing of links, mouse changes etc. User testing will focus on the prototype of the self-assessment quiz in the first instance. It will be tested by a sample group representing the target audience and the tertiary audience. The tertiary audience will be asked to focus on the coverage of topics and suitability of questions to ensure that they adequately assess the ICT Concepts specification. The primary target audience will be observed during testing as a means of identifying the difficulties experienced, for example, if they become confused or have difficulty knowing how to proceed then additional user guidance or feedback may be required and adjustments will be made accordingly. At the end of the implementation process the resource will be further tested with a sample group from the target audience. Observation and questionnaires will be used as a means of identifying outstanding issues so that these can be dealt with. The final aspect of this element of evaluation will involve the testing of the completed resource on different computer systems, for example, different hardware and different software, eg operating systems and Internet browsers. Summative evaluation will be undertaken when the resource is complete. At this stage the resource will be evaluated against the generic and specific learning outcomes, to identify to what extent the resource matches the needs of the target audience. The summative evaluation will be undertaken by multimedia designers who have not been involved with the project and a representative group of ICT teachers. A summative evaluation matrix will be specifically created for this purpose. It will concentrate on the design and appeal of the user interface, usability, orientation and feedback provided to users, content and self-assessment elements of the site. Feedback will be analysed and summarised and distributed to the design group for information.

August 2009

Mary Price, 7988654

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PERSONAL EVALUATION

When selecting the EMM course I predicted that I would find the multimedia programming module very difficult and this certainly proved to be the case. Possibly, because of my ‘expectation’, I had no confidence in my ability and believed that I would not be able to carry out the programming assignment. However, in my favour, I don’t give up easily and my determination not to ‘fail’ kept me motivated through the hours and hours I spent trying to get to grips with ‘Lingo’ in order to develop the ‘Who wants to be a Millionaire’ quiz! Finally, I am reasonably content with my attempt. Although I am aware of the limitations of the program I feel that it is a true representation of my current programming ability. The aspects that I would like to improve on are as follows: I would like to have a grid showing a list of potential winnings with the relevant amount being highlighted as each question is answered correctly. Currently, the 15 questions are being selected randomly from the first property in the gamelist as I was unable to write a piece of script that would select randomly from within each of the gamelists. Although the ‘Next Question’ button has been set to be ‘Inactive’ the button if, pressed moves to the next random question.

Mary Price, 7988654

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Assignment 2