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General linguistics

Conceptual Maps of Morphology and Phonology

Student: Wendy Ortiz

2014


Lexical Morphemes: Words that have their own meaning. For example: nouns, verbs and adjectives

Morpheme Is a linguistic unit that is defined by a constant core meaning associated with a constant form.

Grammatical morphemes: Words that don't have a meaning in themselves. Instead, they express some relationship between lexical morphemes. For example: prepositions, articles and conjuntions

Morphology The study of how words are formed.

There are four points about morphemes:    

Distinct from syllables Identical spelling Minimal unit with more of less constant meaning Determine rules for forming words in particular languages.

Free Morphemes: They can stand alone as words. Bound Morphemes: They cannot stand alone as words


1. Plural (PLU) - 2. Possessive (POSS) - 3. Comparative (COMP) - 4. Superlative (SUP)5. Present (PRES) – 6. Past (PAST) - 7. Past participle (PAST PART)-8. Present participle (PRES PART).

Affixes and bound morphemes occur •Inflections Affixes: Serve as varity functinal after or before a word base. Before a grammatical words, word base are called they are only eight •Derivations Affixes : ''Prefix'' example: Serve to alter the ante, pre, un, dis. meaning of a word; After a word base example: ful- into are called ''suffix'' beauty from: Beautiful examples: ly, er, ism, ness

• Is the creation Word of new Formation words:

Derivation

Category Extension

Compound; example: put+down

Root creation

Clipped form

blend

Acronym

abbreviation

Proper name

Folk Etymology

Back Formation


1. Segments Changing set of sound waves composed by smaller unit when we talk

5. Phonemic Alphabet It used to justify which symbol represents one segment

Phonology The study of how sounds are organized in a natural language :

4. Vocal tract Consist on that passage way between the lips and nostrils

2. Districture of features That refers to the sound of the lips

3. Levels of representation That means that two segment can be the same but different to another

æ

a

cat, bad, trap

ɛ

e

bed, net, dress

ə

@

about, comma

ɪ

I

kit, bid, hymn

i

i

happy, glorious

ɒ

Q

hot, odd, wash

ʌ

V

dug, run, strut

ʊ

U

book, put, foot

ɑː

A:

cart, arm, father

i:

meet, see, fleece

ɜː

3:

her, nurse, learn

u:

boot, too, group

ɔː

O:

port, saw, thaw

Quinio (1996-2014)

Place of Articulations

   

Bilabial: It is putting lips together. Labiodental: Put lower lip with upper teeth. Interdental: The tongue articulates with top teeth. Alveolar: The tongue articulates with the back part of the alveolar ridge.  Palatal: Use the palate with the tongue.  Velar: Use soft palate with the tongue.  Glottal: Use together the vocal folds.


Manner of Articulation

Stops: It is when oral cavity is closed, no air is flowing through the nose [p],[T] and [K]. Fricatives: The air stream is abstracted [z]. Affricates: A stop follows by a fricative. Nasals: A sound use by the soft palate [m] in ‘’my’’.


References

Quinion M. (1996–2014). Pronunciation Guide, retrieve from: http://www.worldwidewords.org/pronguide.htm

The Mimic Method. (2014). Learn Good Manners, retrieve from: http://www.mimicmethod.com/manner-of-articulation.html

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