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TITLE SUB-TITLE

ADAPTABLE SEDIMENTATION LAGOS, NIGERIA

Adam Louis Alyx Robinson Cody Jones Dillon Gogarty Li Tianze Tim Goheen


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction Pages

04 - 07

Mapping Phase Pages 08 - 24 Indexing Phase Pages 26 - 47 Meshing Phase Pages 48 - 57 Final Mesh Pages

56 - 57

Model Work Pages

58 - 59

Conclusion Pages

60 - 61


INTRODUCTION LAGOS, NIGERIA

The country of Nigeria lies in the crook of Africa, and is home to many different regions and climates. This project specifically focuses on the coastal city of Lagos, found in the state of Lagos. It is the second largest city in Africa, both in size and population. As a coastal nation and city, Lagos thrives in a symbiosis between the water, the people and the landscape. The city of Lagos is faced by several major issues: a lack of infrastructure, constant flooding, and a serious issue with pollution. These issues all have a different cause and effect relationship with each other, and the study of these things eventually will lead to the suggestion of a prototype to “solve” some of the problems. The lack of infrastructure affects several aspects of the city and the population in Lagos, from the inefficient waste management system that exists to the lack of quality road ways. Though the State is tasked with the pick-up and disposal of waste and sanitation, the system does not work outside of the “planned” areas of the city, and sometimes not even there. When it is picked up, the waste is taken to the main sanitation site in the northern portion of the mainland or the smaller secondary sites found around the mainland and on the eastern portion of Lagos Island. Due to the proximity of these waste sites, residents of undeveloped areas are often forced to dispose of their waste in the rivers, Lagoon or the surrounding landscape, damaging the environment, the water sources and their settlements. Due to the nature in which the informal settlements often crop up in, they lack the infrastructure that is found within the city itself, though this is not an issue only in these areas. They lack paved roads, electricity, sewage systems, plumbed water, and the like.


The flooding that happens along the coast is a constant threat to the settlements that have developed there, and the informal roadways and settlements are often damaged or completely destroyed. The flooding also causes the polluted water to rise into the landscape and settlements, further polluting the groundwater and in-land water sources. It can also cause sickness amongst the population, as the water has been known to sit for weeks at a time, due to the lack of topography. Based on these things and other sources, the development of a concept of these informal settlements as “sediment� evolved, for they are much like the sediment which is forced to settle on the shores of the rivers which run through the city.

http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/5893814.jpg


INTRODUCTION LAGOS, NIGERIA

There does remain a portion of the state and city where these conditions are not as extreme, and where infrastructure does indeed coexist with the people. These locations exist primarily in the planned areas of the city, normally found in proximity to where the business and industry districts, hospitals, police stations, sanitation routes and jobs exist. In between these “planned” locations is where the informal villages would settle, furthering the concept of the “sediment village”. As these “New Arrivals” move from the rural regions of Nigeria and into the city center of Lagos, they often end up settling in these impromptu areas because they are available, due to the conditions found there.

(http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/blog/nigeria-lagos-water-communities-look-like-waterworld)


In the lands surrounding Lagos, there are three main soil types: gleysols, psamment and nitisols. These soils, aided by the topography and constant flooding cause constant changes to the landscape. Though this results in good farming conditions in some areas, when combined with other existing factors this often leads to areas that become completely “unusable” by normal standards. The final soil types from the area can be found in the Rafia and Mangrove swamps that form the areas surrounding Lagos city. All these factors affect the people of Lagos by forming a kind of social hierarchy, which becomes based on area. This means that the New Arrivals are often forced into these “unusable” areas to try and create their homes and neighborhoods, which leads to the construction of unstable housing foundations and a lack of quality roadways. All the things that have been discussed, from the dominating presence of the water in the area to the soil types which dictate usable lands, led the study to focus on the things which will be introduced in the Mapping Phase. The concept of “sediment villages” will be predominant throughout the study, and lends a certain correlation between the city and state of Lagos, as well as the inhabitants and the informal villages that they create.

(http://urbanafrica.net/news/2013/07/19/fear-demolition-grips-lagos-slum-dwellers)


MAPPING INTRODUCTION

To begin, the research was focused on information and data from the city of Lagos and the surrounding areas that was predominant and easily accessible. Early information was often taken from satellite images of the area, which allowed for the identification and mapping of things considered important – like the informal settlements which dot the landscape. Also considered was what a “build-able slope” might be considered, and though it was decided that <15* was acceptable, it was also discovered that this does not apply to Lagos and the flat topography found in the area (where the majority of slopes in the area were <6*). The next point of emphasis was the water that surrounds the city and general area, found in the Lagoon and its two main rivers, the Obo and Obun. The Lagoon is subject to tides, the rivers which empty into it, as well as the rain run off that reaches it. The constant flooding in the area is a direct result of these factors, combined with the flatness of the topography. It is also important to discuss the pollution levels of the Lagoon and rivers, due to the lack of infrastructure found in many areas of the city, as well as the heavy industrial areas that are located there. Other preliminary concepts and directions that will also be studied during this phase include: surrounding land use, road types, the flora and fauna found in the area, construction types and the like.


MAPPING ARRIVAL VILLAGES

This map of Nigeria shows the city of Lagos as the “Arrival City”, a concept that explains the sudden and extreme boom in population that is happening in numerous cities across the world. Here, it shows the city of Lagos as the migratory destination for numerous villages scattered across the state of Nigeria. These people move out of their villages and travel towards the city in hopes of finding better lives for themselves and their families. They are often forced to seek out work in the city due to conditions in their home villages, which limits their ability to raise and support families.

NIGERIA Kwara

Oyo

Osun Ekati Anambria

Ogun

Imo

Edo

LAGOS

Delta Abia

image 1 A map of Lagos, as the “Arrival City” for the greater area of Nigeria. image 1


MAPPING LAGOS, NIGERIA

These images show the reference maps that will be used to call out specific areas being discussed throughout the research, but will also be used to introduce the area itself.

image 1

image 2

image 1 A map view of Nigeria, with the state of Lagos highlighted in the bottom corner. image 2 A zoomed in view of Lagos as an area, with the city of Lagos highlighted. image 3 The city of Lagos, with the area of interest (Ilado Island) highlighted. image 4 A zoomed view of Ilado Island.

image 3

image 4


MAPPING MAKOKO & FLOODING

The rivers in the area of Makoko are notorious for their tendency to swell with water and flood over the banks, due to the lack of slope found in the topography. This combined with the lack of water run off and road maintenance allows the water to run rampant, and use road ways as channels to run further in-land.

image 1

image 1 A real world example of river flooding through the streets of Lagos. image 2 A mapping diagram that shows the raising levels of the river when it floods. image 2 FLOOD DISTANCE

528ft

351ft

387ft


MAPPING ARRIVAL CITY DIAGRAM

During the 15th century, more than millions slaves and people are exported and imported to Lagos due to the unique geographic position, sitting on the edge of Africa and connecting the US, Europe, South America and Middle East. Lagos then rapidly turns into a massive populated city by shaping the city itself. Within the state, cities keep breaking down and forcing to the south coast.

image 1 Arrival City Diagram

image 1 Major Areas of People moving

Moving Flows


MAPPING FLORA & FAUNA

Nature has a large impact in every community, both in beneficial and detrimental ways. By mapping the dispersion of usable resources (such as trees, and shrubs), there could possibly be some benefit seen to the community surrounding those areas.

image 1 Flora Dispersion mapping diagram. SPECIES

image 1 Taliparti Tilacieum Hawaii Sea Hibiscus

Rhizophora Racemosa Red Mangrove

Avicennia African Black Mangrove

Raphia Africana African Palm Tree


MAPPING CONSTRUCTION TYPOLOGY

These are the following construction Building Type types that were deduced from viewing a combination of photographs and Metal Roof Construction satellite images. Wood Frame

Cluster Types Groups of CMU Buildings with Metal Roofs

Thatched Roof Wood Frame

Groups of Buildings with Courtyards

Large Structure Metal Roof CMU

Clusters of Similar Buildings Generic

Under Construction Incomplete

Clusters of Buildings Under Construction

Building With Courtyard

Small Utility or Storage

image 1 Many village houses are built on stilts to avoid flooding. image 2 As development proceeds and populations grow a base infrastructure also expands and construction materials and methods increase in quality. image 1 (http://static.panoramio.com/photos/1920x1280/8667225.jpg)

image 2 (http://static.panoramio.com/photos/1920x1280/6478619.jpg)


MAPPING LAND USE

The focus led to the mapping of how the land was used throughout the localized region of Lagos, primarily focusing on Tin Can Island, Snake Island and Ilado Island. For the combined area, the mapping consisted of Industry, Dense Vegetation, Light Vegetation, Developed Land and Exposed Soil. The purpose of this mapping process was to locate areas that are appropriate for expansion, which would include the Low Vegetation and Developed Land as important considerations.

TIN-CAN ISLAND ILADO ISLAND

SNAKE ISLAND

image 1 Land Use on Ilado Island, Tin-Can Island, and Snake Island. image 1 LAND USE CATEGORY

Developed Land

Exposed Soil

Industry

Forest or Dense Vegetation

Light Vegetation


MAPPING COMPLETE ROAD NETWORK

The road networks became a very important aspect in the study of the flows in the city of Lagos. The study evolved from the organization of roads based on levels of connectivity (from highways, to major roads, to minor roads, and continuing on down), to the study of the “block” and how it and the spaces that it created were organized. Based on the “Streets & Patterns” reading by Stephen Marshall, the image 1 blocks were then organized further into types (of the A-D variety).

image 1 The combined and complete road types across the island of Ilado. image 2 The combined and complete road types across the city of Lagos. image 2


HIGHWAYS

image 1 The road networks broken down; the first part of the road networks are the image 1 highways.


MAPPING MAJOR ROADS

image 1

image 1 Showing the â&#x20AC;&#x153;major roadsâ&#x20AC;? across Ilado island. These are mainly footpaths across the island, and pathways between the clusters themselves. image 2 Showing the major roads across Lagos city. image 2


MINOR ROADS

image 1

image 1 Showing the minor roads across Ilado island. We considered the extension of the major roads to be the minor roads. image 2 Showing the minor roads across the city of Lagos. These are often related to or the same as blocks, but the image 2 study considered them differently.


MAPPING BLOCKS

image 1

image 1 Showing the â&#x20AC;&#x153;blocksâ&#x20AC;? across Ilado island. These were the major footpaths across the island, as seen on Google Earth. image 2 The blocks in Lagos city. These were considered blocks because of the relationship they had to one another, the spaces they created, and the relationship they hold to the image 2 neighborhoods.


ROAD TYPES

image 1 An example image of an “A” type road network. “A type roads are irregular, with small angular streets that are mostly short/ crooked, and vary in width but go in every direction.”

image 1 image 2

image 2 The “A” type roads found in Lagos. image 3 An example image of a “B” type road network. “Regular, orthogonal, and rectilinear streets of consistent width, moving in two directions.” image 4 All of the “B” type roads found in Lagos.

image 3 image 4

image 5 An example of a “C” type road network. “A mix of regularity and irregularity in streets, of a typically consistent width; with curved or rectilinear formations, which meet at right angles.” image 6 The “C” type roads found within Lagos. image 7 An example of a “D” type road network. “D types are based on a consistent road geometry, with curvilinear or rectilinear formations that meet at right angles.”

image 5 image 6

image 8 The “D” type roads found within Lagos. **Information and images regarding road types from Stephen Marshall’s “Streets & Patterns”

image 7 image 8


MAPPING TRANSPORTATION

This map shows the major transportation routes and stops throughout the city of Lagos, and the immediate surrounding area. The dashed line represents the major bus routes through the city, and although these are not the only routes that exist within the transportation system, they are the “main” routes. Also shown, as black boxes, are the main bus depots. Not included are the numerous stops found along the route, and other routes. The three ports are marked at the bottom of the page, and the larger airport is marked towards the middle of mainland Lagos. This is important, because it shows the disconnect that occurs outside of the dense city center, where most of the informal living settlements arise. There are transportation routes that go near some of the larger slum areas, but they are not afforded the same kind of access as the other “planned” parts of the city.

image 1 A map of the city of Lagos, with the major transportation lines marked out on it. The three ports and airport are marked out, along with the two major bus stops that serve the greater area. image 1 Airport

Ports

Major Bus Stops

Major Bus Routes


TRASH SITES & SLUMS

image 1 A map of the city of Lagos, where the informal housing clusters are shown in relationship to the major waste dump sites. The sizes of the circle gradient is in relationship to the size image 1 of the dump site. Trash Sites

Informal Housing areas


MAPPING WATER DEPOTS & WALKING DISTANCES

This map is a diagrammatic representation of the water depots found in the greater Lagos area, and their direct routes. Each circle represents a distance from a central point, which is the water depot, as a diameter. This distance is being considered a casual walking distance, at ½ a mile. As some of the depots are close to each other, their walking distances overlap and create a larger circle. The routes depicted by the dashed lines are the simplified version of the actual routes that water would take, if it were being piped through the system and to Lagos Island. This is important, due to the fact that the “safe” water available in the city is often piped in. For 11% of the population, it is piped > 1km, and for the other 89% of the population it is piped < 1km. It is thought that only 60% of the city population has access to “safe” water.

image 1 This diagram map shows the location of the major water depots found in the greater Lagos area. The dashed lines represent the paths that the water takes, and the circles around the points represent the walking distance image 1 to reach the water depot. Water Transport Lines

Walking distance to individual water depots


MAPPING TYPICAL INFORMAL HOUSING CONDITION

Selecting the arrival city region of focus required analysis of where the poor settle within Lagos. This led to the decision to select an area on the southern edge of the city for further study.

Image 1 As Lagos expands the space available within the city decreases and rent prices escalate. Government image 1 continues to push out squatters and illegal housing. The result is that arrival cities fill up the areas in between the â&#x20AC;&#x153;cracksâ&#x20AC;? with informal housing. These communities are typically set back from the street, area smaller, more randomly organized, and of poor quality materials. Image 2 The crisis is further escalated as these few spots that many people settle into are areas that were open because they were less desirable. They are prone to flooding, are often locations of garbage dumping, and are less accessible. The positive side of this is that these people are the strong willed, the brave, and the resourceful. This results in subcultures that thrive on innovative small business ventures that make the most of the resources available. Solutions to quality of these communities start with supporting this image 2 subculture. LEGEND

Formal Housing

Major Streets

Informal Housing

Garbage Dumps

Flood Zone

Waterway

Minor Streets


INDEXING INTRODUCTION

The next phase, Indexing, evolves from the previous phase by studying the relationships between the different groups of information that were mapped. The focus of the project then turns to the informal housing areas known as Makoko (on the coastal side of the mainland) and Ilado Island (found south of the mainland). In these villages, the water continues to play an important role in shaping the clusters and the infrastructure found there. Seen in both areas and other spaces across Lagos, the flooding determines the gradient of housing types and the hierarchy of social standings. Between the flooding, swamp lands and dense city fabric, the desirable building areas are extremely limited. Access between Ilado island and the mainland is limited to a single dock and the ferry system, as well as personal docks and boat use, both of which cluster on the northern central side of the island. This further effects the building zones on the island, as one must live within walking distance of the coast to have access off the island. At present, this has heavily affected the flow on the island. This concept can be seen in the paths across the island, and the alleys that carve out the villages.


INDEXING BUILDING PROXIMITIES TO RIVER

The areas of the Island which contain the highest density of informal settlements are extremely close to the rivers and other forms of water. Due to this proximity, the housing is in danger of being damaged or destroyed by the flooding. Entire sections of the villages are washed away on a semi-regular basis, requiring the inhabitants to start over and rebuild. Due to this, it was decided that immediate proximity to the river is not necessary.

image 1 This diagram map of the island represents the proximity of the buildings to the river, and grades their distance by safety. POOL HEIGHT

image 1 250ft

250ft to 500ft

250ft to 500ft

1/4mi


INDEXING DENSITY OF SLUMS

The high density of the informal housing clusters on the island causes the residents of the area to be tightly packed together. Due to this, any incident (fires, floods) effect many buildings in the area, instead of just singular units.

image 1

image 1 This picture shows an area in Makoko, where the informal housing is extremely dense and very close to the danger of the waters. image 2 A diagram map showing the density of the informal housing clusters, marking houses that are within a 50 foot proximity of 5 or more other houses. FLOOD HEIGHT

image 2 Housing with 5 or more buildings within 50 feet

1/4mi


INDEXING RAIN RUN OFF

Due to the lack of topography found across the city of Lagos and Ilado island, the rain has little option to â&#x20AC;&#x153;run offâ&#x20AC;? the land and into the rivers. This causes the water to pool across the Island, which can become quite hazardous due to the lack of infrastructure also found on the island. The combination of the flooding and the water pooling seriously restricts the amount of buildable area found.

image 1 Lines of Water Run Off

image 1 This map diagram represents the run off lines and their relationship to where the water pools on the Island. image 2 Shows the run off pools by themselves, without the run off lines. image 2 POOL HEIGHT

1ft

2ft

3ft


INDEXING FLOODING DISTANCES

The only real difference found between the flooding on the mainland and the flooding on the island lies in the fact that the island is completely surrounded by water. The rivers flood annually, and in the instance that they rise 3 or more feet, almost all of the coastal settlements would be displaced and damaged.

image 1 This diagram map shows the amount of the island that would be covered if the river were to flood 1 foot, 2 feet image 1 or 3 feet. FLOOD HEIGHT

1ft

2ft

3ft

1/4mi


INDEXING Contour Elevation Gradient and Relative High Ground

By creating a contour gradient from the high to low point this forms another way of analyzing the favorable higher ground on the island.

image 1

image 1 Showing the mid elevation cut-off where it may be considered safe building grounds. image 2 This further differentiates the land elevation by showing the highest points in green and land at the cut-off level of safety in yellow. image 2 LAND ELEVATION

Dangerous Low Zone

Low End of Safe Zone

High Ground


INDEXING LAND USE AND SAFE LAND ELEVATION

The island is 61 percent forest, 24 percent developed land, and 15 percent light vegetation or exposed soil.

image 1

image 1 Land Use image 2 Land use and safe building area image 2 index. ZONES

Forest

Light Vegetation or Exposed

Developed

Safe Building Area

Already Occupied Safe Building Area


Further exploration of this index relationship shows areas that should be built up and areas where forest regions act as buffers in flood risk zones.

image 1 Land to safe building area index with image 1 added details. ZONES

Forest in Safe Building Area

1/4mi

Forest as Buffer

Developed at Risk

Safe Building Area

Already Occupied Safe Building Area


INDEXING NEIGHBORHOODS

The study of neighborhoods evolved as a consideration of how and why people settle as they do, considering tendencies. The self-organization that occurs on the maps shows this type of patterning which leads us to surmise that like settles with like, to form these communities within communities. The lines between the â&#x20AC;&#x153;geometric centerâ&#x20AC;? of each block represents the proximity to one another, and shows the relationship that exists there.

image 1 Image of the island as a whole, with the smaller images highlighted on it for context. image 2 The Northern Neighborhood image 3 The Central Neighborhood image 4 The Southern Neighborhood

image 1 1/4mi


NEIGHBORHOODS ZOOMED VIEWS

image 2

image 4

image 3


INDEXING DISTANCE TO PUBLIC SPACES

The study of how and why people settle the way that they do evolved to include the consideration of the spaces that are formed by those settlements. These kinds of spaces that are created could serve a public function, like town squares, markets and other kinds of open public spaces where people could gather. Across the island, the proximities of buildings and residences to these necessary open spaces were measured. Everything that was considered a close distance was within <100 feet, while anything too far away was >500 feet.

image 1 This map represents the distance between the houses and the public gathering spaces, which were discerned from Google Earth images. DISTANCE

image 1 0’-100’

100’-250’

250’-500’

500’+

1/4mi


INDEXING DISTANCE TO MAIN DOCK

As the dock and Ferry route is the main way off and onto the island, it acts as an “anchor point” for the island. The informal villages expand from this point and the closer the proximity, the better the land. Due to the size of the island, most of the villages are within moderate walking distance. This excludes the northern point, which is somewhat segregated from the rest of the communities on the island.

image 1 This diagram map highlights the distance from the individual clusters (and gradients within those) to the main egress off the island, the ferry dock. image 1 DISTANCE

0’-833’

833’-1666’

1666’-2500’

2500’-5000’

5000’+

1/4mi


INDEXING POPULATION GROWTH ON ILADO ISLAND

Without accurate population data, the growth rate of Ilado island can be measured by the developed and developing areas. The boundaries of the developed areas were traced from the satellite images shown from 2000, 2006 and 2013 to form a growth rate that were then averaged to a yearly rate and represented on the map.

image 1

image 2

image 3

image 4

image 5

image 6 6.2%

10.8%

image 1 A satellite image of Ilado island from 2000 image 2 A satellite image of Ilado island from 2006 9.3%

image 3 A satellite image of Ilado island from 2013 image 4 A close up of image 1 image 5 A close up of image 2 image 6 A close up of image 3 image 7 The index diagram map of the island growth between 2000 and 2013 YEAR GROWTH AREA

9.6%

image 7 2000 130.4 Square Miles

2000 - 2006 144.8 Square Miles

2006 - 2013 129.5 Square Miles

%

Indicator of Average Annual Growth Rate

9%

Total Average Anual Growth Rate Per Year


INDEXING DISTANCE TO NEAREST PATH BY CONSTRUCTION TYPE To analyze construction type trends we indexed the relationship between construction type and the nearest path. This furthers our comprehension of the way the settlements are expanding.

image 1 Showing the construction type with the average closest distance to the image 1 nearest path in each region.


INDEXING DISTANCE TO NEAREST PATH BY CONSTRUCTION TYPE: EXTRACTED DATA FEET FROM PATH

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

SOUTHWEST

NORTHWEST

SOUTH

image 1

FEET FROM PATH 1000 NORTHEAST 1

chart 2 Describes the relation of the total building samples from each region. A shallow slope indicates smaller change in distance within sample a steep slope indicates that a few buildings are significantly farther NORTHEAST 2 away.

800

image 1 Representational lines of the distances from buildings to the nearest path. Shows polarization toward nearest chart 1 paths. CONSTRUCTION TYPE

Metal Roof

41

204 295

830

1898

S

NE2

200

NE1

400

N

600

SW

chart 1 Extracted data from rhino showing average feet from paths based on construction type, the average of each region, and the average of the whole island.

NW

The average distance is a reference point for where intervention in NORTH connectivity would be beneficial.

643

SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

chart 2 Thatched/Old Metal Roof

New Metal Roof

Under Construction

Average of Region

Average of Island Median of Island


INDEXING DISTANCE TO NEAREST PATH BY CONSTRUCTION TYPES: REGIONS

DISTANCE IN FEET 1250 1000 800 600 400 200 0

14 19

47 SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

212

image 1 and chart 1 Shows relationship of construction types to nearest paths for the northwest region. chart 1

image 1

DISTANCE IN FEET 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

image 2 and chart 2 Shows relationship of construction types to nearest paths for the southeast region. image 2 CONSTRUCTION TYPE

Metal Roof

0

chart 2 Thatched/Old Metal Roof

New Metal Roof

Under Construction

4

15 SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

19


INDEXING DISTANCE TO NEAREST PATH BY CONSTRUCTION TYPES: REGIONS

DISTANCE IN FEET 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

72 105

149 SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

501

84

142 SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

287

image 1 and chart 1 Shows relationship of construction types to nearest paths for the north region. image 1

chart 1

DISTANCE IN FEET 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

image 2 and chart 2 Shows relationship of construction types to nearest paths for the south image 2 region. CONSTRUCTION TYPE

Metal Roof

0

27

chart 2 Thatched/Old Metal Roof

New Metal Roof

Under Construction


DISTANCE TO NEAREST PATH BY CONSTRUCTION TYPES: REGIONS

DISTANCE IN FEET 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

image 1 and chart 1 Shows relationship of construction types to nearest paths for the far northeast region. image 1

104

648 1143 SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

1895

30 34,35 SAMPLE OF BUILDINGS

102

chart 1

DISTANCE IN FEET 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40

image 2 and chart 2 Shows relationship of construction types to nearest paths for the smaller image 2 northeast region. CONSTRUCTION TYPE

Metal Roof

20 0

chart 2 Thatched/Old Metal Roof

New Metal Roof

Under Construction


INDEXING CONSTRUCTION TYPES

To derive usable construction type information, satellite imagery were traced of all the buildings on the island. The next step was to distinguish between observable variations of construction types. Categories were decided as follows: Thatched and old metal roofs (which were difficult to distinguish between) Metal roofs Newer metal roofs Buildings under construction The differentiation between building areas were then converted to circles image 1 of the same area as their base building contour. This makes it easier to compare the sizes between buildings.

image 1 Mapping of buildings, achieved by tracing Google Earth satellite images image 2 from 2013.

image 3

image 2 Buildings differentiated by construction type, shown with actual shape. image 3 Close up section of Image 2 image 4 Construction type is represented with a circle with the same areas as the initial polygon shape, and accomplished with Grasshopper definitions. image 5 Close up of Image 4 CONSTRUCTION TYPE

image 5

image 4 New Construction

New Metal Roofs

Metal Roofs

Thatched Roofs


INDEXING CONSTRUCTION TYPES BY AREA & REGION

14%

4%

Northeast

14%

Total Building Area by Region

North Center

Northwest

South

Outliers

23% 1011070 SF

526118 SF

320631 SF

332130 SF

45%

pie chart 1

pie charts 2-6 Construction Types by Area

The construction type by building area can be used to distinguish multiple social hierarchical settlement patterns. The construction type may be based on time since establishment, distance from resources or distance from major roads. Construction types per region have trends which indicate the typical social status of the inhabitants, and where people will tend to settle upon arrival to the island. Notable trends include the following: Higher quality homes tend to be in longer established, further from the coast, and further from easily accessible resources. There is a greater quantity of thatched or metal roofs in the northeast corner, which also has the nearest proximity to the coast.

pie chart 1 Total building area by region, based on Rhino area calculations pie charts 2-6 Portions of each construction type per region by area, also from Rhino area calculations image 1 Final Construction types represented by relative area and the centroid of each building CONSTRUCTION TYPE REGIONS FOR pie chart 1

image 1 Metal Roof Northwest

Thatched/Old Metal Roof North Center

New Metal Roof Northeast

Under Construction South

Utility Outlying

101000 SF


INDEXING CONSTRUCTION TYPE WITH METABALLS By utilizing a metabolic Grasshopper definition, areas of concentration of a particular construction types were then denoted.

image 1

image 3

images 1 - 4 The series of metaballs based on construction type. image 2

image 4

CONSTRUCTION TYPE

New Construction

New Metal Roofs

Metal Roofs

Thatched Roofs


CONSTRUCTION TYPE WITH METABALLS: FINAL

images 1 The series of metaballs as the resulting compilation of overlays. image 1 1/4mi


INDEXING FLOWS: HOUSING TO DOCK

The main access to the island is from a ferry and a single dock found in the central section. The dock leads to a row of market buildings and then expands to residential housing. The flows shown are the derived from the Closest Walk in Grasshopper, to the main dock from each section of the island.

image 1 Shows the relationship between the flows, and the shortest walk from the informal housing clusters to the single dock located in the north central part of the island image 1 Flow Paths

1/4mi


FLOWS: HOUSING TO DOCK ZOOMED VIEWS

North Central Cluster

North Eastern Cluster

Western Cluster

Southern Cluster


INDEXING FLOWS: BLOCKS & CLUSTERS

Within each informal housing cluster, blocks were estimated based on the distance between houses and what was surmised could be considered an â&#x20AC;&#x153;alleywayâ&#x20AC;? or path. Shortest Walk was used to draw from the center of each block to the main target of each individual section.

image 1 Shows the relationship between the created blocks and the clusters as a whole.

image 1 Flow Paths

Blocks

1/4mi


FLOWS: BLOCKS & CLUSTERS ZOOMED VIEWS

North Central Cluster

North Eastern Cluster

Western Cluster

Southern Cluster


INDEXING FLOWS: SHORTEST WALK & CLUSTERS

This last flow highlighted the shortest walk from the center of each block to the main target area of each section. The shortest walk followed the grid of paths throughout the island The final flow highlighted the Shortest Walk from the center of each block to the surrounding clusters.

image 1 This image shows the relationship between the clusters on the island, and how they would be related by the Shortest Walk Grasshopper definition.

image 1 Flow Paths

1/4mi


FLOWS: SHORTEST WALK & CLUSTERS ZOOMED VIEWS

North Central Cluster

North Eastern Cluster

Western Cluster

Southern Cluster


MESHING INTRODUCTION

So far, the processes completed could all be considered “layers” for the final portion of this study. Mapping arose from the collection of data, and Indexing arose from the combination of those maps. Meshing revolves around the same additive concept and process, because the combination of certain groups of information allows us to make informed decisions about the island, and draw conclusions that would not normally be possible or realistic. These conclusions include the understanding of what could now be considered “build-able” areas on the island, based on the information that is being combined. The idea behind this phase for our group was to create three separate mini-meshes from each section of study (Environmental, Flows and Programs). The final step is to combine these mini-meshes into a final mesh, to achieve the final “buildable” areas.


MESHING INTRODUCTION OF INDEXES BEING USED

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Image 1 Shows the Distance to River index Image 2 Shows the Rain water Run off and Pooling index Image 3 Shows the Flooding index image 4 Shows the population index diagram.

expansion

image 5 - 7 Shows the flows index maps. image 8 image 9 image 10


MESHING MESH 1: INDEXES USED

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image 1 Shows the Distance to River index image 2 Shows the Rain water Run off and Pooling index image 3 Shows the Flooding index image 3


MESH 1: COMPLETED

This first mesh was generated through the combination of the Distance to River, Water Run Off & Pools and Flooding indexes. Because water plays such a pivotal role in the lives of the coastal people, it was decided that the particular study deserved a mesh to itself. This mesh considers the proximity to the water on the coast and the low slope areas where water pools, as well as the levels of flooding that occurs and which areas it moves into. The combination of the housing proximity as well as the water on and near the island create natural areas of non-build ability that area very poor for use. These areas are also the areas of high use, and it is impacting the use of the island for the residents very negatively. The information also shows the safe areas outside of the impact of the water, and thus areas of safe use for future settlements.

image 1 1/4mi

image 1 The combined Distance to River, Rain water Pooling & Run off and the Flooding indexes to create this mesh PROXIMITY TO RIVER FLOOD & POOL HEIGHT

Less than 250ft 1ft

250ft to 500ft 2ft

500ft or more 3ft


MESHING MESH 2: INDEXES USED

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image 1 Shows the index

Population

Expansion

image 2-4 Shows the three Flow indexes image 4


MESH 2: COMPLETED

The second “mesh” shows the combined sets of flow types with the population, as it expanded over time. The intention of this mesh is to show the relationship between movement in each village cluster and how the density affects that, and the movement between the village clusters (if there is any). This is combined with the concept of village cluster expansion as a “flow” in its own sense, and how it represents the movement of a community and how the individuals make their spaces within that community.

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1/4mi

image 1 Shows the combined flow indexes, laid over the Population Expansion over Time indexes to create this mesh LEGEND

Flow Paths

Blocks

2000 Developed Area

2000 - 2006 Developed Area

2006 - 2013 Developed Area


MESHING MESH 3: INDEXES USED

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image 1 The index showing safe building zones based on mean relative contour elevation on the island.

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image 2 The land use index for 2013. image 3 Combined indexes of land use and safe building zones. image 4 Index of relationship between community gathering spots and major pathways. image 4


MESH 3: COMPLETED

This mesh differs from the others by taking land use into account as well as community gather points to distinguish between optimal and less optimal but still desirable zones for expansion. It also indicates the existing developed regions that are at risk and could benefit from built up terrain. Finally it shows areas that already have a buffer from flooding of mangrove trees or forest.

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image 1 Shows the combined land use, relative contour elevation, major roads, and nodes in a mesh. ZONES

Safe Building Area

Forest as Buffer

Developed at Risk

Optimal Building Area

Major Paths

1/4 mi. Radius from Community Gathering Places


MESHING FINAL MESH: INDIVIDUAL LAYERS

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image 1 The combined Distance to River, Rain water Pooling & Run off and the Flooding indexes to create this mesh. This forms the “Environmental” mesh.

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image 2 Shows the combined flow indexes, laid over the Population Expansion over Time indexes to create this mesh. This forms the “Flows” mesh. image 3 Shows the combined land use, safe construction zone, major roads, and public gathering places forming the “Land Use” mesh. image 3


FINAL MESH: COMPLETED

As mentioned, this final mesh is the result of the combination of three mini-meshes which focused on the Environment, the Flows (of people and their created environments) and the Programmatic data which was found for the island. This removes the areas that would be considered unsuitable for construction of a prototype, and highlights numerous areas across the island that are suitable, but offer different challenges and positive attributes for consideration.

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1/4mi

image 1 Shows the combined meshes on the previous page which led to the final mesh on the next two pages. PROXIMITY TO RIVER FLOOD & POOL HEIGHT

Less than 250ft 1ft

250ft to 500ft 2ft

500ft or more 3ft

Flow Paths


CONCLUSION

After the completion of the Meshing phase and the “Final Mesh”, the areas that were shown to be available for development were taken under consideration for the next phase of the project. The next phase involves the development of a prototype intervention, which would then take under consideration the major site influences, whether they be positive or negative. Essentially, the goal is to design a “solution” to the issues that were raised in this study while considering the locale and population and their needs. The main driving goals include the development of a sanitary and safe living conditions, while fostering the density and community aspects that are already found in the village clusters on the island. Continuing to consider the construction typologies found in the area will create a image 1 cultural cohesion, while allowing the new arrivals some control over the construction of their own homes.

image 1 The resulting unusable land from the three previous meshes. image 2 The resulting usable land from the image 2 preceding meshes. FINAL MESH ZONES

Unusable Zones

Usable Zones

Connection Flows


CONCLUSION

final mesh The resulting optimal and safe zones formed from all the results of the earlier meshes.

final mesh FINAL MESH ZONES

Optimal Expansion Zone

Safe Expansion Zone

1/4mi


MODEL Explanation

The intention of our physical model was to, in three dimensions, model the overlay of the indexes and create a “weave” of our final mesh. It was decided to use a transparent material that would could be cut down to size, but would provide a rigid plane on which to map. An acrylic sheet at .10” thickness was selected, and found in an 8’ x 4’ sheet. This was cut down at Ace Hardware, into 1’ x 2’ pieces. These smaller pieces were then laser cut to the shape of Ilado island, with a water offset, with the flows etched into the material. The actual construction of the model began with the issue of how to support the layers on top of one another, with the use of a base, risers and supports. Using ¾” plywood and ¼” steel weld wire, we created a base with “columns” of 8 ½” in height. The plywood was cut into two 1’ x 2’ pieces, which were laminated together and planed smooth on the sides. The steel was cut with a dremal and vice, then smoothed on the ends and rounded on the points (to make it easier to slide the layers onto). The spacers were made from 5/16” inner diameter brass pipe, which was cut into 1 ½” pieces, to create a space in between the layers when stacked. This resulted in an issue itself, as the pipe ends were being crushed when cut, making it too narrow to fit the “columns” into. This was solved by slowing the process down.

From there, the process work included creating a blank model of our mesh with holes drilled through the acrylic, so that it would fit over the columns (but not over the spacers). As it was started, several group members started to place the pins in place on the layers. This resulted in several issues, as we began to try and drill holes for the pins to be placed in we discovered that the holes were much larger than the pins. Several solutions were tested on a “tester” layer, including different types of glue, which frosted the plexi or did not form a true bond or hold the pins in place. A type of glue was selected as the most efficient, and it was also discovered that the pins could be heated and “burned” through the plexi. This formed a much better bond, and helped the threading process to go smoothly. The threading process involved using different colors of thread to represent different information per layer, the colors of which were used in our graphic representations. The combination of these layers, when looked on from above, create our final mesh. This is represented in the top layer of the model.


MODEL PROCESS

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image 1 Grinding. image 2 Buffing brass. image 3 Weaves and pins showing initial difficulty of glue not holding. image 4 Erecting risers with layer as guide. image 5 Practicing with layers. image 6 Heating pins with flame was discovered to be the most effective method of pin insertion. image 7 Setting heated pins.

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image 8 Threading process using spacers. image 9 Construction typology weave.

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MODEL FINAL IMAGES

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image 1 Mesh 1 model. image 2 Mesh 2 model.

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image 3 Stacked mesh models. image 4 Elevetion of model. image 5 Closeup elevation. image 6 Close up construction & density. image 7 Layering.

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Lagos Nigeria  
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