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The relationship of

Graphic Design and

Sustainability related to

Packaging Design By Martina Caruana HND 2 Graphic Design


To complement the content of the essay regarding graphic design, sustainability and packaging, this booklet was printed on recycled paper.


Environmental issues have been increasing through the years and even though the economy has not been at its best in the last few years, people are becoming more conscious of the effects on the environment. Since customers have been demanding sustainable packaging, it is the role of graphic designers to reach a harmony between sustainable packaging and design. They have the responsibility to motivate people to take care of the environment; through their designs as well as they themselves produce their package without having a huge impact on the environment. There are many ways through which graphic designers can contribute and this makes it a very interesting topic to analyse and explore in the packaging sector of graphic design. Graphic design can contribute to design a successful sustainable package, which does not have an excessive impact on the environment, as sustainability ‘should be at the heart of any design consideration’ (Designweek, n.d)¬¬. Elements and processes that are used are analysed to see how, through the use of graphic design, a successful sustainable package could be designed and produced. The aim behind packaging is to protect and store the product until it is delivered to the customer. This idea was inspired by nature itself were things such as the oyster was designed to protect its contents, in this case the pearl. As early generations transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more agricultural one, they had the need of storing and transporting goods thus they made containers using natural materials such as leaves and clay (Klimchuk and Krasovec, 2012). Packaging was also a huge aid to producers in the 1600’s; as they began to manufacture their products, packaging helped them store their goods for transportation. The 19th Century was a time when the simple package evolved into a more complex package made of newly developed materials. (Dupuis and Silva, 2008). Another aim of packaging is to communicate and interact with the customer, thus it needs a type of written (designed) communication language. Although according to Klimchuk and Krasovec (2012), the Sumerians were few of the first who developed this type of language, it emerged mainly with the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th Century. This gave an opportunity for packaging to expand even further thus becoming more effective. Graphics began to surface to achieve better communication also through the use of images which where very prominent (Dupuis and Silva, 2008). Of course this transition in packaging would not have been possible without the advancements in technology, which not only had an impact on the materials used but also on the transportation methods and other social changes (Calver, 2004). New technology paved the way to new designs as designers where able to experiment more since new machinery was available. They could now experiment with new ideas and explore new areas of packaging design (Klimchuk and Krasovec, 2012).


Thanks to Alois Senefelder, who invented Linotype printing in 1798, designers where now able to transfer their designs onto the package. This invention left its mark on packaging design history not only because packaging was made more visually attractive but also because of a new level of interaction with the customer (Klimchuk and Krasovec, 2012). This couldn’t be possible without further advancements in the printing industry, which led the way to mass production (Dupuis and Silva, 2008). The 20th Century led to a change in the customer’s buying experience, as it became more self-service oriented, the role of designers became more fundamental. Since customers now had the chance to interact with the product, designers had to make an effort to make the product standout amongst the others thus attract customers. To do this, designers had to focus more on the packaging of the product and its design (Dupuis and Silva, 2008). The challenge designers are facing is how they can contribute to social change using their work as a medium. Traditionally designers tend to be aware and selective when it comes to choosing materials for their work, however, that is not enough for today’s society and environmental problems (Communication Arts, n.d). There are many decisions that designers must make regarding their work, keeping in mind that sustainability should be at the start of the design process (Benson, 2008). In fact, when it comes to sustainable packaging design, the design must not concern the final package itself but the design of the whole process that is going to be used throughout the creation of the package (Sherin, 2008). Sustainability is the balanced use of material, social and economic capital for the continued health of the planet and future generations (Sherin, 2008, p.12). Designers might think that their sustainable solution is the best one while in reality it is not. A clear example of this is the glass bottle vs. the cardboard box, at first glance the glass bottle might seem the best solution, however, when all elements are valued one will notice that in the long run the cardboard box is more sustainable if it is accompanied by a good recycling system, since much energy is used to prepare the glass bottle for re-use (Sherin, 2008). At this point it is important to highlight the difference between eco-friendly and sustainable. The goal behind an eco-friendly philosophy is to save the world completely, thus without compromising anything when producing an eco-friendly package. When it comes to a sustainable philosophy, it acknowledges the harmful impact and try to find ways and means how to decrease that impact (Sherin, 2008). Also the term eco-friendly mainly focuses on the environment and the impacts on it, ‘whereas “sustainability” also considers the social and economic implications of materials, designs, and production processes’ (Sherin, 2008, p.13).


The inclusion of sustainability in graphic design is considered to be a vital change in the graphic design industry since the invention of movable type by Johann Gutenburg. In the 1990’s sustainability began to be weaved up into a few graphic design works and processes, as many designers where focused on addressing issues such as gender equality or AIDS. However, in the last fifteen years sustainability has become an important element of graphic design. Organizations such as Re-nourish have been developed to help designers find the best sustainable solution for their problem. These organizations helped in the transition from traditional solutions to more sustainable solutions that use fewer resources (Schwarte, n.d). The purpose of packaging is to solve problems, however, unwillingly it creates other problems such as generating wastes, and make use of several resources, energy and materials, thus contributing to the pollution of the Earth (Hardt, 2008). Unlike what Sherin (2008) said when he stated that ‘the final graphics on the packaging are just decoration, not design’ (p.107), graphic design in an important tool that if used in the right way, it can have a positive impact, it can help create awareness (Randall, n.d). Different elements of sustainable packaging are analysed and researched to see how graphic design itself and the customers can help minimize the negative impact on the environment.


Design

Reusability

Reusability is an element of sustainability although it is not given much attention since it is not a common practice when it comes to packaging. In the 1960’s the throw away packaging revolution took place in the industrialized nations. At the time people did not worry much about sustainability and the harm done to the environment thus they used to throw away all the packaging. However, before this revolution people used to reuse things such as food containers, mainly because of their economic situations. A package can be reused in many ways, thus graphic designers try to communicate with the customers through their graphics to make them conscious that they could reuse the package rather than throwing it away. When reusing a package, energy is saved from the recycling process since the package is not thrown away. It has recently become common for people to reuse the packaging due to the global economy crisis and the bad environmental conditions. Chris Cavill a graphic design student at Somerset College in the United Kingdom created a prototype of sustainable package for Tesco’s own brand of refrigerated soup. In his design, he utilises graphic design to communicate with the customers. The graphics used suggest ways in which the container could be reused. The designer says that he chose that particular look to include the aspect of sustainability in the design since the container looks like it is made out of recycled materials; this look also aids transferring the intended message to the customers. In this case reusability is emphasized and highlighted so that it is included into the product’s life cycle, which makes it a more successful sustainable package if it would be implemented in reality (Fresh and easy buzz, 2010). Refer to figure 1 & 2.

Figure 1 : Chris Cavill’s Packaging Design


Figure 2 : Chris Cavill’s Packaging Design Lee clothing company also came up with an initiative so that they encourage their customers to reuse their shopping bags. They came up with a bag that apart from being made out of recycled paper it can be 100% reused. It can be reused either as a paper bag but also can be transformed into many other things such as a pencil holder, ruler and calendar amongst other things that could be mounted out of the paper bag (Arandilla, 2011). Refer to figure 3 & 4. Innovation graphics such as those used in the above examples highlight reusable packaging. Also it can be regarded as an initiative to mark its presence in the market since nowadays there are many brands to choose from. A product should standout amongst the others so as to attract more customers to the product because of its packaging, in fact, packaging is a vital elements in marketing (Fresh and easy buzz, 2010).

Figure 3 : Cut outs from Lee’s Shopping Bag


Figure 4 : Lee’s Shopping Bag


Design for

Recycling

Recycling has many affects on the packaging design as it influences the designers’ choice of materials used to produce the package. Not all materials are recyclable or require the same amount of energy consumption for recycling. On the other hand, recycling is also effected by packaging design since the majority of the packages use more than one material, thus requires other facilities and resources so that is could be recycled. Designers and manufacturers must be careful in the choice of materials so that the consumer could easily recognize the materials used. If well-known and common recyclable materials were used, it would be easier for the consumers to identify which parts of the package could be recycled. However, the role of the designer and his decisions regarding sustainability will always be affected by the client’s demands. Designers can contribute by being conscious of the situation and try to persuade their clients to choose the most sustainable solution (Calver, 2004). Designers make use of graphics such as icons and symbols in the design of the package so as to communicate important information such as environmental information with the customer. Icons are specifically used because of their ability to communicate quickly, which is utterly important when it comes to packaging design. In some cases where the environmental information is fundamental in the packaging design, could be incorporated into the branding of the product itself (Calver, 2004). A case in point where this has been done is by Levi’s clothing company, where they combined their branding with the essential environmental information regarding the product. They found a way of transmitting their initiative of blending sustainable design together with environmental practices in one of their jean collection. They created a waste less denim from which a pair of jeans was made out of 8 recycled water bottles. The process not only incorporates recycling of objects but also a finishing technique that have been reducing the company’s water use by 96% (Environmental Leader, 2013). This initiative was very successful amongst their clients as they felt good about buying that pair of jeans as they are contributing to sustainability, Levi’s has plans of expanding the process to include other products in their range of clothing thus minimizing the company’s sustainable impacts (Connar, 2013).


Figure 5 : Levi’s Branding

Figure 6 : Levi’s Advert for Sustainable Jeans


Design

Zero Waste Or Almost

Due to the negative impacts on the environment that waste creates, the zero waste philosophy is one that should be taken into consideration when designing a package. Graphic designers are aware of the fact that most of the package they design gets thrown away therefore, they will do their utmost to prevent this from happening when its no longer serving its function of protecting the product. The aim of this philosophy is to turn the waste that is left from the package into something that could be used in the creation of another package or product without any implications on the environment (My Zero Waste, n.d). This philosophy has become a criterion for modern design since sustainability has become a norm in the design and manufacture of products and their packages. By using this system designers are not only helping the environment but also reducing costs, if using recoverable materials; meaning that the materials used are recoverable for recycling and re-usage. If manufacturers, designers and consumers work hand in hand they could make a great difference on the usage of raw materials, thus saving environmental resources (My Zero Waste, n.d). When it comes to designing packaging, designers must evaluate the situation to come up with the best sustainable solution even if as Dirk Fowler said in an Interview for a BlogSpot, ‘the solution for the design is that there is no package’ (Shannon, 2011). In the zero waste system the more you eliminate the packaging the more successful is the system. As people become more aware of the sustainable problems they desire greener solutions, thus designers must make their utmost to fulfil the demands of the customers. The most challenging part is to find an equilibrium that accommodates all parties involved in creating a package. Everyone is making more effort to be able to achieve an adequate harmony between commercial success and sustainability (Sillence, n.d). The role of graphic designers at this point is to focus on their choice of materials and adapt it to the type of product involved in the design. A good example is Bob’s, which is a Brazilian burger chain. Their initiative to contribute to the zero waste system was to replace their plastic wrappers with edible one. Created by Harvard researchers these wrappers are made from a biodegradable membrane. This new technology does not only serve the same function as the plastic wrappers but also contributes to sustainability without compromising the validity of the product (Sillence, n.d).


Figure 7 : Bob’s Edible Packaging

Figure 8 : Bob’s Edible Packaging


Design With

Sustainable inks

Inks are a small part of the packaging, however, they can have a huge impact on the environment, thus graphic designers should be careful when choosing the printer that will do their print job. Inks and printing makes it possible for the intended message to get through to the customers. Ink makers should keep in mind that people are getting more informed about sustainability and what it entails, so they are noticing even if their packaging is made and processed in a sustainable way including its printing. The ink used should not compromise the package’s sustainability by making it difficult to recycle (Kalkowski, 2007). Ink was invented for commercial purposes, by time it became a medium which graphic designers used as a tool for their language. Throughout the development of ink, petroleum-based inks dominated the market. Due to their contents these type of inks where a hazard to the environment. Apart from containing elements such as heavy metals, they also omit VOC’s (Volatile Organic Compounds). The importance for graphic designers to choose the inks is noted, however, today they are exposed to a wide range of sustainable inks such as vegetable-based inks, soya-based inks and UV inks. The best of which is the vegetable-based ink since it is the one that omits less VOC’s. Graphic designers should also be aware of the characteristics that identify inks as sustainable such as reduction of emissions, creation of less toxic waste and make use of renewable resources are a few that are found in sustainable inks (Benson, 2009). There are also other ways by which a designer can create a more sustainable package, one of which is avoiding ink coverage. This not only reduces the resources used but also makes the package easier to recycle. Minimizing or eliminating bleeds is also a way to be more sustainable since the cutting off of bleeds increases the amount of waste generated in the printing process. The designer should think in the long run and the whole life cycle of the package rather than to finish the job right away. The printer should be chosen carefully and preferably be one that makes use of paper that was manufactured by sustainable methods and processes such as renewable energy. Making use of local printers also help to reduce waste since it cuts down the energy that is used in transportation (New Leaf paper, n.d).


Design

Education and Communication

Graphic Design is an important element of packaging design since the package has to compete with other brands to make it pop out and attract the customers’ eye. The graphics used onto the packaging serves for two aspects of communication. It must communicate to the customer both the function and emotion of the product. Thus graphic design is all about connecting the product to the customer through a graphic design level. Apart from making the package distinguishable, graphic designers must emphasize the positive features of the package such as that it is made from sustainable materials and processed through a sustainable way. Through the use of graphics the sustainability aspect of the package could be highlighted so that to inform the customers about the benefits of the package (Design Council, n.d). To be able to do this, graphic designers must have a good knowledge of sustainability themselves, so as to be able to find the best sustainable solutions for their clients. Encouraging sustainability amongst the customers is not enough. Online programs targeted at professionals are also available with the aim to teach professionals how they could implement sustainable practices, theories and techniques (Sherin, 2008). Packaging is what first attracts the customers’ eyes and it is also the last remains of the product, therefore means of communication by graphic designers are important so that to incorporate the sustainable efforts made by the company. Combining the information into interesting graphics could achieve better communication with the customers (Daymon Worldwide, n.d). The term graphics as used in this context does not necessarily refer to informative information but also the graphics used that could urge the customer to recycle or reuse the package for instance. Designers must find successful ways through which they communicate with the customers, since sustainability involves them as well. Customers might be discouraged to recycle the product for the simple reason that they feel unsure or confused about the process they should go through to recycle the product, or whether the package is recyclable or not. Through graphic design, designers could easily guide the customer through the most beneficial ways for the environment, in the case of recycling. By this people would feel encouraged that they are contributing to sustainability (Sherin, 2008).


Throughout the essay we have seen the combining of graphic design with packaging design to help boost the idea of sustainability. We have gone through a brief history of package design, from where it all began and through the development along the years. The importance of the contribution of graphic design to sustainability was mentioned and discussed throughout, thus we have seen the responsibility graphic designers have on a successful sustainable package. The waste problem that packaging creates was clearly evident, therefore through the use of graphic design the communication of various solutions was analysed and discussed. We have also gone through many areas in which we have seen what graphic designers could do to leave an impact regarding sustainability. Possible sustainable solutions from the graphic designers’ end or from the consumers’ end where discussed. It does not matter if it is the graphic designer choosing a sustainable material for his work or the customer reusing a container; if everyone makes more effort we could contribute to a more sustainable way of life.


REference

List

Arandilla, R. 2011. Creative and Environment-Friendly Packaging Designs. 1st Web Designer, [blog] 2011, Available at: http://www.1stwebdesigner.com/design/environmentfriendly-packaging-designs/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Benson. 2009. Re-nourish | Design Sustainably. [online] Available at: http://re-nourish. com/?l=articles_detail&id=32 [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Calver, G. 2004. What is packaging design?. Mies, Switzerland: RotoVision. Communication Arts. n.d. Design Ignites Change. [online] Available at: http://www. commarts.com/columns/design-ignites-change [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Daymon Worldwide. n.d. Communicating Sustainability Through Packaging. [online] Available at: http://www.tailorednews.com/u/Daymon/5EtznoRFkAXk59/129199/InsightsCommunicating-Sustainability-Through-Packaging-Full-Story.html [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Designcouncil.org.uk. n.d. Packaging graphics | About design | Design Council. [online] Available at: http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/about-design/Types-of-design/Graphicdesign/Packaging-graphics/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Designweek.co.uk. n.d. Beginners’ Guide | Features | Design Week. [online] Available at: http://www.designweek.co.uk/supplements/beginners-guide/3014834.article [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Dupuis, S. and Silva, J. 2008. Package design workbook. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Environmentalleader.com. 2013. Levi’s Process Combines Sustainable Design, Environmental Practices · Environmental Management & Energy News · Environmental Leader. [online] Available at: http://www.environmentalleader.com/2013/11/08/levisprocess-combines-sustainable-design-environmental-practices/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Graphic Design: A Powerful Tool for Social Change. 2011. Graphic Design: A Powerful Tool for Social Change, [blog] 10 th December, 2011, Available at: http:// graphicdesignsocialchange.blogspot.com [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Green, M. n.d. MY ZERO WASTE. [online] Available at: http://myzerowaste.com [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Hardt, M. 2008. In: Sherin, A. eds. 2008. SustainAble. Beverly, Mass: Rockport Publishers.


Kalkowski, J. 2007. Environmentally-friendly inks a rising issue in sustainability - 200710-01 06:00:00 | Packaging Digest. [online] Available at: http://www.packagingdigest. com/article/343426-Environmentally_friendly_inks_a_rising_issue_in_sustainability.php [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Klimchuk, M. R. and Krasovec, S. A. 2012. Packaging design. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Newleafpaper.com. n.d. Sustainable Printing | Designers & Printers | New Leaf Paper. [online] Available at: http://www.newleafpaper.com/designers-and-printers/sustainableprinting [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. RawrDenim.com. 2013. Levi’s Green Initiative - 8 Bottles. 1 Jean. The Waste Less Video. [online] Available at: http://www.rawrdenim.com/2013/02/levis-green-initiative-8-bottles1-jean-the-waste-less-video/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Schwarte, A. n.d. The rapid expansion of environmental sustainability in graphic design. [e-book] http://www.historiadeldisseny.org/congres/pdf/19%20Schwarte,%20 Adrienne%20THE%20RAPID%20EXPANSION%20OF%20ENVIRONMENTAL%20 SUSTAINABILITY%20IN%20GRAPHIC%20DESIGN%20IN%20THE%20UNITED%20STATES%20IN%20THE%20LATE%20TWENTIETH%20CENTURY%20A%20DECADE%20OF%20 CHANGE%20FROM%20THE%20GROUND%20UP.pdf [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Sherin, A. 2008. SustainAble. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Thedieline.com. n.d. Zero Waste Packaging - The Dieline -. [online] Available at: http:// www.thedieline.com/blog/2013/10/21/zero-waste-packaging.html [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. ‘Use Me’: Should Reusable Packaging Be Part of Tesco’s Sustainable Private Brand Offering? A Student-Designer Thinks So. 2010. Fresh and Easy buzz, [blog] 9 th October, 2010, Available at: http://freshneasybuzz.blogspot.com/2010/10/use-me-should-reusablepackaging-be.html [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014].


Bibliography Arandilla, R. 2011. Creative and Environment-Friendly Packaging Designs. 1st Web Designer, [blog] 2011, Available at: http://www.1stwebdesigner.com/design/environmentfriendly-packaging-designs/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Benson. 2009. Re-nourish | Design Sustainably. [online] Available at: http://re-nourish. com/?l=articles_detail&id=32 [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Calver, G. 2004. What is packaging design?. Mies, Switzerland: RotoVision. Communication Arts. n.d. Design Ignites Change. [online] Available at: http://www. commarts.com/columns/design-ignites-change [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Daymon Worldwide. n.d. Communicating Sustainability Through Packaging. [online] Available at: http://www.tailorednews.com/u/Daymon/5EtznoRFkAXk59/129199/InsightsCommunicating-Sustainability-Through-Packaging-Full-Story.html [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Designcouncil.org.uk. n.d. Packaging graphics | About design | Design Council. [online] Available at: http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/about-design/Types-of-design/Graphicdesign/Packaging-graphics/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Designweek.co.uk. n.d. Beginners’ Guide | Features | Design Week. [online] Available at: http://www.designweek.co.uk/supplements/beginners-guide/3014834.article [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Dupuis, S. and Silva, J. 2008. Package design workbook. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Edwards, B. 2009. Really good packaging explained. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport. Environmentalleader.com. 2013. Levi’s Process Combines Sustainable Design, Environmental Practices · Environmental Management & Energy News · Environmental Leader. [online] Available at: http://www.environmentalleader.com/2013/11/08/levisprocess-combines-sustainable-design-environmental-practices/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Graphic Design: A Powerful Tool for Social Change. 2011. Graphic Design: A Powerful Tool for Social Change, [blog] 10 th December, 2011, Available at: http:// graphicdesignsocialchange.blogspot.com [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Green, M. n.d. MY ZERO WASTE. [online] Available at: http://myzerowaste.com [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014].


Hardt, M. 2008. In: Sherin, A. eds. 2008. SustainAble. Beverly, Mass: Rockport Publishers. Hargreaves, B. 2004. Eat me. Mies, Switzerland: RotoVision. Kalkowski, J. 2007. Environmentally-friendly inks a rising issue in sustainability - 200710-01 06:00:00 | Packaging Digest. [online] Available at: http://www.packagingdigest. com/article/343426-Environmentally_friendly_inks_a_rising_issue_in_sustainability.php [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Klimchuk, M. R. and Krasovec, S. A. 2012. Packaging design. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Newleafpaper.com. n.d. Sustainable Printing | Designers & Printers | New Leaf Paper. [online] Available at: http://www.newleafpaper.com/designers-and-printers/sustainableprinting [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Phillips, R. 2000. Packaging graphics. Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. RawrDenim.com. 2013. Levi’s Green Initiative - 8 Bottles. 1 Jean. The Waste Less Video. [online] Available at: http://www.rawrdenim.com/2013/02/levis-green-initiative-8-bottles1-jean-the-waste-less-video/ [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Schwarte, A. n.d. The rapid expansion of environmental sustainability in graphic design. [e-book] http://www.historiadeldisseny.org/congres/pdf/19%20Schwarte,%20 Adrienne%20THE%20RAPID%20EXPANSION%20OF%20ENVIRONMENTAL%20 SUSTAINABILITY%20IN%20GRAPHIC%20DESIGN%20IN%20THE%20UNITED%20STATES%20IN%20THE%20LATE%20TWENTIETH%20CENTURY%20A%20DECADE%20OF%20 CHANGE%20FROM%20THE%20GROUND%20UP.pdf [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. Sherin, A. 2008. SustainAble. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Thedieline.com. n.d. Zero Waste Packaging - The Dieline -. [online] Available at: http:// www.thedieline.com/blog/2013/10/21/zero-waste-packaging.html [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014]. ‘Use Me’: Should Reusable Packaging Be Part of Tesco’s Sustainable Private Brand Offering? A Student-Designer Thinks So. 2010. Fresh and Easy buzz, [blog] 9 th October, 2010, Available at: http://freshneasybuzz.blogspot.com/2010/10/use-me-should-reusablepackaging-be.html [Accessed: 27 Jan 2014].


Reuse ME Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark Bookmark


The idea for the previous page design was inspired by Lee’s Shopping Bag, which is one of the examples that I used in my essay. The way they combined the graphics into the package is very effective and by viewing it one would be encouraged to cut out and put all the different things together. Thus without knowing one is reusing the package rather than throwing it away. In my simplistic design I tried to incorporate the same concept into the design of my essay to portray what my essay is all about. Apart from that the design adds more humour to the editorial piece and the reader could literally take something out of it.


The Relationship of Graphic Design and Sustainability related to Packaging Design  
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