Welcome at Vision We are proud to show our first edition of Vision. A new online magazine which will provide you with information about different media perspectives around the world. This edition will be about different digital developments, but also the effect of those developments. Most people think that we, the western population, are ahead of the rest of the world, but did you know that Africa was actually way ahead of us? Even though, it is a third-world country, the population actually is a lot smarter than us when talking about mobile phones and its capabilities! Next to that, our lifestyle is changing. Social media is being more and more a centre of our environment. It is in fact dominating our life, but is this positive or negative? What is social media doing to our social capabilities? Not only social media is dominating, actually Internet in general is dominating. People are able to be â€œonlineâ€? and up to date all the time, what is this bringing us? Business wise it can be interesting, think about the m-commerce that is coming up and giving businesses new marketing opportunities. On the other hand, Internet can also be a competition towards the traditional Television. Will eventually Internet replace the Television, because of all the digital developments that are taking place? In order to get answers to the questions, we invite you to interactive travel around in our Vision!
How Is Mobile Technology Transforming Africa? Africa is globally seen as a poor and undeveloped continent. However, according to the African Development Bank, Africa is now the fastest growing continent in the world. One of the sectors in which a huge growth is booked, is the mobile technology sector. The first cellular call in Africa was made in Zaire in 1987. Nowadays, there are more than 52 million mobile users in the continent, not even limited to functions of talking-only. The Sub-Saharan Africa Mobile Economy report states that the Sub-Saharan Africa’s unique mobile subscriber base has grown by 18% annually over the last five years, not even included the remaining African countries. This fast spread of mobile phones in Africa is a noteworthy phenomenon, especially when looking at the enormous economic and social challenges people are facing. Mobile telephony is creating a whole new business culture, from banking to agriculture to health care.
Banking Africa has done what we call ‘leap frogging’; it has skipped a stage. The continent skipped the stage of building networks of fixed telephone lines, directly went on to wireless phones and even followed up on this development with a trend that’s not even launched properly in Europe yet, namely; mobile paying. Four years ago, the mobile network Safaricom introduced a service called M-Pesa, a service that allows people to store money on their mobile phones. Users can pay bills or send money to friends by simply dispatching the amount they want by text and the recipients can convert it into cash at a local M-Pesa office. For most Africans, it wasn’t possible to open a bank account due to lack of funds. Now, millions are using the service. For example, in the African country Kenia, 73% of the population has a mobile phone and more than 50% uses his or her phone to pay with it. We could call this a revolution in – African – banking. Health Care Mobile technology is not only revolutionary in banking in Africa, but also in health care. We all know, even though people own mobile phones, Africa is a continent where poverty and diseases like malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis are present everywhere. Before mobile technology was developed in Africa, only little surveillance and monitoring on the health of people in Africa was possible. Medics had to rely on a few sites and modeling estimates to track down ill people and the spread and
place of diseases occurring. I can imagine this being very frustrating, not to be able to accurately measure where to find these ill people and so not to be able to
provide help. Mobile technology can bring – and has already brought – change to this problem. Because of the wide spread usage of mobile phones, medics are now able to receive accurate data that can tell them who is dying and from what, who is ill and where diseases are occurring. People can even send visual symptoms to the nearest medical center. Also, it is now possible to keep track of medicines and other health supplies, even in rural areas. Mobile technology has a high importance in cases of health-emergencies. Another great example of using mobile phones in health care, is the health check-up service by message. Community health workers are using text messages to keep an eye on people living with HIV instead of doing home visits, which cost more and takes more time. Vice versa, people can also contact health workers themselves. This has already lead to a lowering of the maternal death rate. In addition to this, mobile phones are also being used to provide in-
formation about diseases, for example by calling a hotline where health professionals respond to questions about diseases. In this way, people are always on time with treating a disease before it gets serious. Education Another sector in which mobile technology has brought many changes, is education. It has brought changes not only for students, but also for teachers or teachers in spe. An example is M-Ubuntu – literally translated from Zulu: “I am, because we are” – a platform that connects African teachers with professional literacy coaches in the US, England, Sweden and Italy to help them gain new knowledge and close the digital gap between these worlds. M-Ubuntu enables teachers to use recycled smart phones to bring introduce handheld computing to their students. This can be students who are in the vget a degree. These students are learning remotely. They don’t use computers, due to a lack of funds and electricity, but instead they use smartphones. These smartphones allow them access to the web and also loads of online courses and literature offered by the greatest universities in the world, all at very low costs. We can definitely conclude that mobile technology has improved education in Africa. Agriculture A sector which cannot be left undeveloped mobile-wise, is agriculture. Loads of positive improvements have presented themselves. Farmers can now use the
Statistics: “The Sub-Saharan Africa’s unique mobile subscriber base has grown by 18% annually over the last five years” earlier described mobile payment systems to quickly and safely transfer money to colleagues and do business. Next to this, they can use a mobile micro-lending system to lend money – or goods – to others and even a mobile micro-insurance especially for farmers to protect themselves against losses when bad weather destroys their harvest or against injuries at work. By making this insurances mobile, it is accessible for everyone, since it is way cheaper than an insurance would normally cost. Special mobile information platforms for farmers as well as farmers helplines are available through mobile phones. The information farmers get from these services, can be used to improve productivity of their lands and to boost their incomes. Other platforms farmers can use, are the mobile agricultural trading platforms. These platforms link (small) farmers directly to potential customers and secure the best prices for their products. Also, farmers can use tracking systems on their mobile phones to follow their product through the supply chain to check on lo-
group in Africa, since mobile phones are now available for everyone. This is simply because it’s cheap, they do not require literacy or foreign language knowledge – since they communicate with people of their own country – and simply because they are practical in every day use. Mobile technology not only changes the way people who know each other communicate, but also the way people meet new people. This is where social media comes in. Now, every African can install Facebook, Twitter or Instagram – depending on what phone they own – and meet new people, everywhere on the globe. It connects them with the world; something that wasn’t possible before mobile technology was introduced to them. The Future of Mobile Technology in Africa
Obviously, a new middle class is emerging in Africa, stimulating entrepreneurship and leading to further innovations in many areas. Banking will purely be aimed at mobile phone users and mobile phones will replace ATMs in time. The success
“Have you ever seen an African tribe-leader call a friend with his smartphone? No, me neither, but it happens.” cation, quantity and quality of the product. All of these new services weren’t possible before mobile technology was introduced to the sector. Now, small, poor farmers get much more chances to sell themselves and put themselves on the market. Social Have you ever seen an African tribe-leader call a friend with his smartphone? No, me neither, but it happens. This is one of many examples I could give about how Africa is also changing socially because of the mobile development. The whole way of communicating between people is changing drastically, at every level and every ethnic
of Mpesa was only the beginning, as they only aimed at transferring and receiving money. In the next few years, people will not only use their phones to transfer money, but also to accept the same phone to be the main mode of payments for goods and services. Mobile commerce will be booming in Africa and thus improve this sector enormously. The boundary between smart and feature phones will blur more and more over time, because of the rise of more cost effective smartphones. These smartphones will also increase the mobile web access – especially for social contact – bringing more of the African people online, mainly via a mobile screen.
The people who were on the wrong side of the digital divide, will be able to finally connect to others and close the huge gap that was first isolating them from the world. These isolated people don’t have to worry about language issues, because anybody from any device will be able to access or enter content in any language of the world. Appropriate elements such as free fonts and a character set will be available for people to obtain in their own language. In this way, every person in Africa will be able to share information with the world. This will also help with creating equality and solidarity in Africa; equal access to resources and information. Africa will be home of the fastest, most modern mobile telecommunications infrastructure stationing in the world. The continent will also start manufacturing their own devices to keep up with demands and to keep costs low. This trend is already starting in Nigeria, where Nigerian companies are manufacturing tablet computers based on Android. This means that they will be expanding their market. Africa will not only be producing low cost mobile phones, but also tablets and later on maybe laptops and computers. Considering all this information, we can definitely conclude that all changes that mobile technology is bringing and will bring, are improvements. Because of the increase of mobile phones, a whole new investment/business culture has arose in all sectors, which helps the African population to escape from poverty and to close the gap and connect with the modern world. The phenomenon ‘leapfrogging’ – skipping the stage of wired telephony – has helped with the fast spread of mobile phones and the fast development of knowledge of new technology in underdeveloped parts of Africa. Mobile technology has created – and will continue to do so – a safer, more equal and more accessible Africa. It has transformed Africa into a better place to live, where people can get education, proper health care and job opportunities. I believe this is only just the beginning; a bright future for Africa lies ahead.
You’re watching Seinfeld on TV, and you like the jacket he’s wearing. You click on it with your remote control. The show pauses and a Windowsstyle drop-down menu appears at the top of the screen, asking if you want to buy it. You click on ‘yes.’ The next menu offers you a choice of colors; you click on black. Another menu lists your credit cards asking which one you’ll use for this purchase. Click on MasterCard or whatever. Which address should the jacket go to, your office or your home or your cabin? Click on one address and you’re done—the menus disappear and Seinfeld picks up where it left off. Just as you’ll already have taught the computer about your credit cards and addresses, you will have had your body measured by a 3-D version of supermarket scanners, so the system will know your exact sizes. And it will send the data electronically to a factory, where robots will custom-tailor the jacket to your measurements. An overnight courier service will deliver it to your door the next morning (Sherman, 1994). Is this what the future is bringing us? Different media working together in order to give you the most comfortable life. Hopefully after reading this, there will be an answer to this question. To come to an answer some history about TV, Internet and the upcoming digitalization is necessary.
On 7 September 1927 the first electronic television, designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, was demonstrated. RCA invested $ 50 million in the development of electronics and 1939 president Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the first president which appeared on television. By 1941, the CBS was broadcasting two 15-minutes newscasts a day. Even though, it was not until 1947 that full-scale commercial television broadcasting took a lead in the United States. By 1955 half of the U.S. households had a television. In the mean time television was developing in other countries, as the United Kingdom, France and Japan as well. For a long time in the United States the government owned the major networks, as it was the case in most other European countries. In the late 1980s and 1990s a change was shown and most countries were moving toward the U.S. model of privately owned, advertiser-supported television networks as well. In the 1980s home videocassette recorder became widely available. This gained an extra dimension to the viewers, because now they were able record and replay their programs, as well as rent movies and watch it at their preferred time and at their own couch. Not only home videocassettes added an extra dimension, also video games became very popular. Due to the fact that the passive entertainment of television now became interactive entertainment. In 1997 the high definition television (HDTV) was introduced, which also lead to the digital transmission later on. This digital transmission lead to further convergence between Internet and television. Before looking at the convergence between Internet and television, lets first discover more about the history and development of Internet. Internet started in 1962, when a series of memos was recorded through networking.
J.C.R. Licklider envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers which everyone could access data and programs from any site. In 1965 a computer in Mass was connected to a computer in California, this experiment showed that computers could work well together, run programs and retrieve data. ARPANET was introduced in 1967. Due to this introduction it became clear that globally there were different independent researches done on this subject. By the end of 1969, four host computers were connected through ARPANET: Internet was off the ground! In the period of 1971 – 1972, the development of application started, as well as the first public demonstration of ARPANET. Fast after this demonstration one of the most important application was published: Email. This was the first application that lead to the growth of peopleto-people traffic through the web. Around 1985, Internet was used as a technology supporting a broad community of researchers and developers and started to be used for daily computer communication. From that point on Internet evolved and developed more and more, and became a common instrument in the households. Internet made communication worldwide easier and more accessible. Though the development of Internet is still not over, this is just the start!
What is it bringing us?
Now the history of television and Internet is clear, what is this actually bringing us? Television is still the main instrument in a living room and computers are also not indispensable at in the modern households. While Television was
mainly developed to provide information, news and entertainment, with the development of Internet, the majority of people are using Television more as a form of entertainment instead of a source for the latest news and information. People are now earlier and faster up to date by the Internet than through Television. Due to the fact that Internet is easier accessible for the people and through the social networks there can be communicated even faster. Is Internet able to replace the Television, because of this change? Different research has been done on
this aspect and the overall conclusion is, no. Yes, Internet is bringing more to communication and the social environment we are living in now. Internet does give the people the capability to control the production, storage and dissemination of information. Internet also encourage the interpretation and editorializing. However, the Internet will not replace the old media as Television, but it will bring something extra, due to the strong communication impact Internet has. What is this extra element that Internet can bring? At the moment, people are not only watching Television. Research has shown that the majority of people are doing other things while watching Television. As at the beginning,
watching Television was a social aspect of people’s life, because they were watching the same show all together. Nowadays it is more common that one person is watching Television, while the other is working on the Laptop and the third is playing with his mobile phone while being in the same room. Sometimes even the same person is watching Television, in the meantime reading an article on his/her laptop and is also playing a game on his mobile phone. The whole environment of social interaction is changing and gaining a different definition. Due to the development of digitalization, people are proposing social activities differently. As we thought earlier that social activities were only activities where people saw each other, talked to each other and did something together. Nowadays, talking through mobile devices, e-mail and video games is also seen as a social activity. Martijn, hier kan je wel een division maken in het artikel
longer period of time, but was mainly used to watch movies or series. For example instead of going to the cinema, now the movie could be seen at home and for a lower price than in the cinema. This development worked, because people could watch something they want for cheap, at their own time and in their own comfortable environment. Even though the USA this ‘on demand’ button was incorporated well and a success, this needed to be introduced to the rest of the world as well. This is down
for a new Idol” show, but they added an extra value through the blind auditions. This was something new and attractive for the viewers. Though what they do now is making the blind auditions also blind for the viewers. In addition they made an application for the show, so the viewers at home could also vote. After the audition the score of the viewer was shown as well, so the people knew if the home viewers would send the candidate home as well. This example is one the many examples that is coming
Change Besides the fact that the social perception is changing, the lifestyle of people is also changing. This change has influence on the use of Television and Internet. Initially people could only watch their favorite show on a specific date and time, because that was how Television was scheduled. Since the past 5 years, people are also able to watch shows back on the Internet. This started with small shows, and now almost every show you are able to watch back on the Internet. This can be done through
“Is Internet able to replace the Television?” the website of the programs, or the so called “I missed a program” websites, as well as through downloading. Due to this development, people are suddenly able to plan and control their own digital entertainment schedule. They do not have to stay home to see a program anymore, they can now decide to do something else and watch the show back whenever they want to. Even though people made use of this option, it was not a booming business, because the quality of watching back on the Internet was lower than the quality at Television. Although this development, did influence the Television and also the development of digitalization. This extra element of watching back on the Internet showed, that there is a need of watching on demand. This need comes from the change of lifestyle. People do need to work harder and mostly do not have the time to adapt their lifestyle to the Television schedule. Televison needs to adapt to the lifestyle of the viewer. This is where the development of digitalization comes in place. Research showed that watching back on Internet was not a booming business, because of the bad quality. In order to let this new element work, the quality of watching on Internet needed to become better as well as incorporating the Television in here. Over the years de quality on the Internet became better and people used this option more and more. In the meanwhile another development took place as well, namely the ‘on demand’ button on the television remote. In the USA the “on demand” button is already known for a
with platform called Netflix. Netflix offers 1000 movies and series to their clients. People are able to subscribe and have than unlimited access to those movies and series. This platform is not available for free of course but is still a lot cheaper than renting or going to the cinema. Netflix is a rather new platform, but because of the success and need of the people, this on demand approach is becoming more well known and successful amongst the people. Does it work? Still that one question is remaining, do Internet and Television work together? As you can read above, Internet and Television do encourage each other, but is this a positive or negative effect? As stated earlier, Internet will probably not be able to replace the Television, but will affect the traditional Television as we know from the early ages. As we now know, people have unlimited access to media as well as to Internet, because of the mobile phones, applications, social networks, tablets etc. All those developments make it harder to stand up for the Television. Though it is also something that broadcaster and programs can use in their advantage to make their shows more and more attractive. This is something that is also used a little more the past years, the usage of the media that is available. More producers are using the opportunity of Internet to make their show more attractive. A good example of this is the TV show “The Voice of ..”. This show started as one of the “looking
up more and more. Broadcasters and production companies are actually using the Internet in their advantage in order to make their show more attractive. In addition they want to attract the people to stay at home again and watch Television together on the time scheduled.
So, to conclude: do Internet & Television work together? Based on the research and articles consulted the answer could be “Yes”. Television is hard to replace and this is also not something people and business, in general, should want. Through the development of digitalization the world is already becoming more and more individualized. The option of using Internet & Television together, brings the society together again. Whether, it is through the “on demand” button or just the traditional television, including the advantage of Internet, that should not matter. Those media can definitely help each other to make entertainment even more entertaining than it is nowadays and then especially entertaining in a more interactive way. Not only interactive as an individual but also interactive and entertaining together!
How did internet change bullying for kids? Bullying is there since children go to school. The definition of bullying is unwanted and aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. Bullying has potential to happen more often and usually takes place during recess or after school. There has been a change in bullying over time. Since the emerge of the internet and the social media it is easier to be an anonymous bully because it can be done from the safety of the bully’s bedroom.
The old fashion bullying happened at the schoolyard or after school. There are 2 types; there is the kind that is aggressive and physical. This kind of bullying is used to intentionally hurt someone. The characteristics are kicking, hitting, pushing and threatening. Not only aggression is part of the bullying but also intimidation is involved. Relational bullying is intended to hurt the relation between other age members and their own reputation and confidence. It is done by using verbal aggression, excluding from the rest of the class mates and gossiping (Pesten, 2006). The old school bullying happened face to face. It was easier for the victim, when having the confidence to speak up to either the parents, teacher or even the bully. It was less complicated to point out the bullies and there for punishment can be given. Over the years bullying changed. Because the internet and social media came to live and developed really steep. With this development a new type of bullying was born. Where the old schoolyard bullying mostly stopped after school ended, there is no escape from cyber bullying.
Cyber bullying is when a child or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child using the internet, social media or a cell phone . Cyber bullying seems to have no boundaries. Stopping cyber bullying is very hard because methods used for this type of bullying, are limited to the bullies imagination only and to his access to technology. It is also very hard to exile because it is anonymous. The bullying does not happen face to face and it can easily go on for a long, long time. The bully can do ‘their job’ from every possible place as long as there is an internet connection. And, let’s face it that’s eve-
rywhere! The only thing the bully has to do is to type his nasty message and to send it. From a bully’s perspective there is not an instant satisfaction from his actions. But because of the anonymity the bully can continue for a long time and will get more addictive to the behavior. How the victim is effected is seen at school. By the way the fast majority of the children (81%) thinks it is easier to get away with cyberbullying than the so called face to face bullying.
There are two different kinds of cyber bullying; the direct attack and cyberbullying by proxy. The direct attack works by: • instant messaging or text harassments • stealing passwords • blogs/websites • posting pictures on the internet • internet polling • impersonation. Most of the examples above speak for themselves. Maybe two need further explanation. Internet polling e.g. is very scary and is ‘big’ among young minors! The polls include questions like; who is the biggest slut of the 6th grade?, who is the ugliest? or who is the most hated? The bully and his classmates (fallow bullies) are able to vote anonymous. The kid that gets the most votes will feel very hurt and insecure. When the bully pretends to be a victim in chat rooms it is called impersonation. The bully acts by posting hateful messages as ‘victim’ and as such he attacks on the real victim.
Cyber bullying by proxy is very fictitious. The bully has other people doing his dirty work. These people are not aware that they are actually helping the bully. Cyberbullying by proxy is
dangerous because even parents get involved in the bully’s play. For example the bully maybe notify the parents about an illegal act done by the victim. This way the victim will get punished for something they did not do. This way the parents are the innocent accomplishers of the bully. the victim will feel all alone and will feel even more hated. The most violent manner of cyberbullying by proxy is when the bully gets access to the victims accounts and is able to control will them. He will send hateful messages to all the victims friends. These friends will think that the victim has send those messages and will get angry. This way the victim will end up having arguments and fights with his friends. In this manner the friends are used by the bully to make the victim’s life miserable. Practice shows that 4/10 middle school kids have had their accounts stolen and got locked out of it, while the bully send hateful messages (Statistics). This ratio shows that Cyberbullying by proxy must not be underestimated.
The effects of cyber bullying are very impactful. The victim feels left out and alone. Over time, dealing with the bullying becomes harder and harder because of the ongoing cyber- attacks. It can even get to a point that the victim does not know how to deal with his life anymore. Cases are known that victims commit suicide. It is hor-
Statistics: - Practice shows that 4/10 middle school kids have had their accounts stolen and got locked out of it, while the bully send hateful messages. - Bully victims are 5 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims - The fast majority of the children (81%) thinks it is easier to get away with cyberbullying than the so called face to face bullying. rible and impossible to understand that the bully is capable of making someone’s life so extremely miserable that the victim can only think of one way out. According an American study, bully victims are 5 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims (Yale). Another study shows ( British) that half of the suicides committed by young people are bully victims (Young). The internet has many web pages containing information about minors that committed suicide after being victimized by cyber bullying. Even many forum discussions can be read. It is hard to believe but is shows how minors treat each other these days. Can we blame the internet and social media for these deaths? It cannot be the main reason this happens but it is a fact that the existence of internet and social media makes it a lot easier to target victims anonymously. The youngest victim of cyber bullying ever stated is an eleven year old boy from England. He had taken an overdoses of pills and suffered a severe heart attack. This act was done after a long time of bullying only because he was very intelligent and did not fit in with other boys of his age (Tozer). The fact that this boy got bullied be-
carefully documented by the family. As blue was her favorite color, a social media event — blue4grace — was begun by friends and quickly went viral. The mourners at her funeral wore blue nail polish, blue-striped ties, blue jewelry, and blue dress shirts (Real life stories). Puresight.com shares stories from cyber bully victims that took their own life. These stories can open our eyes and reflect on
what type of world we live. It is horrifying that such young children do not trust parents or lack the faith that it will all become better..
“There is no escape from cyberbullying” cause he was different is worrying. Everybody is different! And that is what makes the world great! is not a reason to bully people into their dead! Here’s another example of someone that committed suicide due to cyber bullying: Grace K. McComas 1996-2012 Grace McComas, a 15-year-old Glenelg High School sophmore from Baltimore, whose favorite color was blue, took her life on Easter Sunday, to end the pain of a cyberbullying campaign against her. According to her father, Chris McComas the cyber bullying had lasted for months and was
not tell their parents out of fear for overreaction. This can make the bullying worse. “It will all be fine!” is also much feared. It is important for parents to understand that words due hurt and that a cyber-attack will follow your child always (every action on the internet will always be traceable). Parents are smart to take precautions by making full use of privacy settings. Next to that children need to be taught to think before they post. The internet is a very public space. “Do not give out any personal information on who you are or where you live”. Parents should not only educate their children but also themselves on this matter. It will help parents to become more aware and in understanding the phenomenon of cyber bullying. School should put bullying on the agenda from time to time. And have open discussions with students. Unfortunately there will be still a lot of water under the bridge before bullying will have stopped. But it all starts with open communication at school, at home and amongst friends.
You can’t protect children 24/7! But how do you prevent children from being a victim of bullying? It is hard to find one concrete solution because bullying is of all times and all bullies have different motives to bully. Nowadays it certainly starts with educating children on consequences of cyber bullying. Who is responsible? What is the role of the school and parents when cyber bullying occurs? This is a difficult discussion, schools do not have any say over any student after school. There for it would be good for parents to work together with the schools. Parents are in general the most trustworthy people for children. Child victims however do
Before writing this essay I had no clue that cyberbullying is so huge. After reading all the articles on this matter, it became very clear to me that internet did change bullying. I was in tears while surfing the internet and reading all the personal stories of victims and parents. After watching the documentary ‘Bully’ I was curious how the victim was doing. I googled him and found out that he was no longer bullied. This simply happened after airing this documentary and people became more aware of his situation and the bullying stopped. This showed me that there is hope. It raised my awareness as well and I made a promise to myself that I will never become a bully and that I will not become a victim. This by being careful with what I put on the internet. My dream goal for the future is that everybody accepts each other for who they are. Whether they are tall, short, fat, skinny, dumb, intelligent or whatever item people can be bullied on. Energy should be focused on more important things in life like world peace, hunger, education and human rights. Reality is that life is everything but a dream. Do I think that bullying will disappear? No I do not think so but I hope that we will find a way to make the ones that bully more aware of the damage that they cause to their victims. There needs to be a way to educate people about cyber bullying… maybe the internet can be the answer.
Ordering a pizza on your tablet while your friend is using his on-demand TV application to purchase a movie which was recommended to him by a program which analyzes his preferences. Fifty years ago this might look like a scene from a science fiction movie…but times are changing. During the last decades, media and technology have evolved. The rise of internet brought a new level of possibilities to the world and the development in mobile devices changed the behavior of consumers. In the western world, a large number of individuals has a device available in their pocket which can request every piece of information that is available on the internet. The possibilities are endless. An upcoming trend in this development is online shopping on mobile devices (M-Commerce). This trend reflects in the advantage where people are able to do their own research, find what they are looking for and even purchase it without leaving the comfort of their home. The fact is given that there is a growing use of smartphones and tablets. Together with the rise of online shopping possibilities, this is the perfect environment for M-Commerce to evolve . This change in shopping behavior influences the way consumers are operation, but more important; it should influence how businesses market their product. Businesses must consider this mobile use and commerce as a new opportunity. In this article you will be guided through the intriguing world of M-Commerce and how this growth in market share forces businesses to change their marketing strategies.
Media is changing
It is not that long ago when printed media was giving in to new media. Printed folders were losing market share and bigger investments were made in TV/Radio commercials. This major change made a huge move visible in the marketing strategies of companies. New strategies had to be developed to keep up with this changing media and technology. This evolvement heavily influenced the way of how messages are transported from the company to the customer. Although this influenced the way messages were spread, the main change in shopping behavior was visible during the rise of the internet. The internet gave the customer the possibility to stay at home while finding, researching and purchasing products. This reflected in the development that less people were visiting physical stores. The cause of this decreasing number of visitors can be found in roughly two theories: •Customers are able to find the needed information about a product themselves. This destroys the added value of a physical store having an employee who is able to provide you with this information. •Time is money. We are living in a fast world where time is money. If the customer has the possibility to reach the same success (purchasing a product or service) in less time, the choice is easily made. Currently, a new trend in online purchasing is arising; Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce). M-Commerce has been defined as a process of conducting commercial transaction via a mobile telecommunication networks using a communication, information, and pay-
ment device such as a smartphone or tablet. M-Commerce has a rapidly growing share of the total E-commerce industry (buying and selling products or services by using an electronic system. For example the internet). In the end, it can be concluded that online shopping has taken over a large part of the market share compared to the old (physical) way of shopping. Obviously, there is a possibility to create extra value for physical stores (compared to an online store) but at this moment a closer look will be taken at what trends are upcoming in the world of M-Commerce on how these trends can be used in marketing strategies.
Upcoming trends for M-Commerce
Payments through an online device has always been a point of discussion considering safety. A research done by MarketReponse gives some interesting numbers. They found out that around 50% of the European consumers isn’t convinced of the safety of online payments in general. This number is even higher (67%) looking at people who are not convinced of the safety of payments made by credit card. Over the years, the trust in online payments has grown, but there is still a generation gap between online and offline consumers. The “older” generation is less convinced in the possibility of online payments due to safety reasons. They are used to purchase products in a physical environment and are somehow afraid of change. The younger generation grew up with the internet and has become more familiar with it. The internet is a reliable environment for them and although they are aware of the dangers, they are not holding back looking at online payments. Another upcoming trend is the existence of a NFC (Near Field Communication) chip which
can be placed in a mobile device. This chip, which is incorporated in normal payment cards, provides the possibility to make a physical payment. At the moment, 1 in 5 cell phones have an integrated NFC chip. Google predicts that in 2014 50% of the cell phones will use NFC technology. This upcoming technology is able to change a smartphone into a device which is capable to replace your wallet. Maybe the most important upcoming trend is the possibility to follow possible customers. Mobile devices can transfer information about their location. This provides the option to focus marketing campaign on locally relevant products. Research by JiWire shows that 80% of mobile users prefers this locally relevant advertising and that 75% of these people is willing to take action after seeing a location-specific message.
-76% of the consumers is doing online research before purchasing -80% of the mobile users prefers locally relevant advertising -72% of the marketers are aware of the rise of M-Commerce Statistics of global M-Commerce
M-Commerce is growing, and it’s growing rapidly. This adoption of mobile web shopping has a growth which is 8 times larger than the general web adoption between the years 1990 and 2000. At this moment, the number of owners of a smartphone varies per country. The US holds a percentage of 58% of owners of a smart phone where in Singapore 90% of the people are in possession of a smartphone. The use of global mobile traffic has grown to a percentage of 15% of all internet traffic. This growth is related to the rise of the tablet. Tablets are winning the battle against desktop computer looking at an average European home. The comfort of using a mobile device on the couch is gaining share from actually moving yourself from that same couch to a desktop computer. This also reflects in the fact that online purchases done by using tablets are growing rapidly. Google found out that a lot of mobile purchases come out of spontaneity. These purchases aren’t planned but the figures show that customers can be triggered to make purchases with their mobile device. Research from Ipsos Mediact shows us that 76% of the customers are doing research on the internet before purchasing a product. In
ingly enough there is over 25% of the marketers unaware of this change. But the main question will be: How will it be possible to for marketers to use this knowledge in their advantage?
Marketing strategies for M-Commerce
After stating the technology, trends and statistics behind M-Commerce the point is reached of discussing how it will be possible to incorporate this information into marketing strategies. The first step in creating a good M-Commerce environment is to optimize your website. Figures above have shown that it is important to have a website which is easy in use, clear, and fast. If the shopping environment is created, the real marketing strategies will need to be set up. This will be divided into two parts; new and retuning customers. In M-Commerce, it is important to be able to reach your customers. Customer data has a high level of value. The more data is available, the more possibilities there are to focus on a specific target group. It is possible collect data by using background information but the power of interaction shouldn’t be underestimated. People are willing to tell you what they want and what they are looking for. Analyzing is of high importance. Using ana-
enlarge the number of returning customers. A returning customer is very valuable for a business. In this era, a customer can easily switch between companies with just a few clicks. There are a few essential reasons to focus on repeat customers. •It costs more money (on average six times as much) to make a sale to a new customer compared to making a sale to a repeat customer. •Happy customers spread positive messages about goods or services. •Repeat customers give a competitive advantage •Repeat customers are clearly somehow related to a brand. They are capable of providing a lot of (free) information on how to extend businesses. These strategies can be combined with the trend of using location-specific messages to optimize conversion.
Online shopping trends and behavior are constantly changing and there is a large growth in M-Commerce. At this moment there are a lot of opportunities for starting and existing companies to take advantage of these developments. Although a lot of marketing techniques are comparable to E-Commerce, there is definitely a specific way to obtain the interest of user
“Locally relevant adversising is the future of M-Commerce” 2013, 51% of these people did do research online before buying the product in the actual store, where 49% did buy that particular product online. There is also a smaller group who prefers to do their research in physical stores and buy the product online by using a mobile device. The main reason to prefer an online purchase over a purchase in a physical store is the difference in price. An important research done by MoPowered shows us that 30% of the mobile shoppers, who are willing to buy a product online, abandon a transaction because the experience is not optimized for mobile devices. This lack of experience reflects in websites which aren’t optimized for mobile browsers and the speed of the website. Research from Amazon shows us that 71% of the people are expecting that a website will load faster on a mobile device and that every 100ms increase in load time decreases sales by 1%. If it takes more than 3 seconds to load a site, 57% of the people will leave. Combined, these statistics show that M-Commerce is growing rapidly. The main factor which is holding back this growth is ease in use and speed. This is related to a lot of websites which aren’t optimized for M-Commerce. A logical prediction of the future will be that sites will be optimized for M-Commerce and that the growth will reach even higher levels. It is needless to say that businesses have to adjust their strategies to this market. Forrester Research revealed that 72% of the marketers are aware of this rise of M-Commerce. Surpris-
lytics provides the option to see how people are using an online environment. This gives the possibility to follow their traces, see how they move in a mobile environment, trace how a website has been found, what the customer is looking for etc. All this data provides important information about why a customer is buying a product. Analyzing these statistics and locating strengths and weaknesses is the way to get a clear view of customers. This clear view generates the possibility to set up a trail to lead customers to a products. The payment barrier is a difficult issue in MCommerce. There is a certain amount of people that isn’t convinced of the safety of this new trend in shopping and is therefore not willing to do any online purchases. A very large number of mobile users are connected to social media. These social channels will provide lots of possibilities. Enlarging your business names, influencing buyers behavior, generating traffic for your website, interacting with your customers, influence on search engine results. Needless to say that these channels have a high level of importance for M-Commerce strategies. It provides the opportunity to stay in contact with the customer and create that bonding that is possible in a physical store. That bonding will
of mobile devices. The best advice is to create a good mobile shopping environment, be creative with your campaigns, connect to your customers and keep analyzing and improving while aiming at location-specific messages. The world is changing very fast, be ahead of your customers and don’t just follow them.
Social Media; we can’t imagine a world without it anymore. Since the development of the smartphones, tablets, notebooks and other digital devices, the use of social media has increased. Everywhere you go, people are busy keeping up with everything that’s going on in each other’s’ lives. Instead of interacting face to face, we now focus on interacting through social media on our mobile devices. Many people experience this behavior as a antisocial, even rude. You don’t pay attention to your environment anymore, you are only busy reading what happens online. You’ll probably share that opinion, but still, you’re one of the people who also shows this behavior. Why? Why do we want to be connected to everyone around us 24/7? Can’t we live without social media anymore? Would that actually be a problem or a useful addition to society? In this article the influence of social media on teenagers, the older generation, the psychological effects, friendships, work, news and crime will be discussed. Without even realizing social media started becoming part of our lives. There are hundreds of blogs, researches, articles, and so forth, about the impact of social media on our society. Many of them describe the negative effects of social media; how we become less social, how teenagers get a lower self-esteem, how FOMO (fear of missing out) is taking over our lives. The other articles try to convince the reader it’s not that big of a deal. After doing extensive research, it soon became clear the positive effects are mostly being overshadowed by the negative effects.
The Definition of Social Media
First we will start with the definition of social media. Everybody uses the term, but what is the exact definition of social media? ‘Social media’ is the collective noun for online platforms which are mainly being maintained by the user. It’s a platform on which you can share information and interact with each other.
A Brief History
The history of social media goes back to the 80’s when the first e-mail was send. Slowly platforms started sharing information online, arrange meetings and interact online. It was also a start of sharing information and documents, for example by using blackboard, an online course management system for educators and learners. However, there wasn’t a huge breakthrough yet. In 2002 Friendster, a social networking website, started. Soon after that, Myspace as a clone of Friendster was launched in 2003. Also LinkedIn, the platform for business-oriented networking, was launched this year. In 2004, Facebook was started as a college version of Friendster. It was a website to ‘rate’ the prettiest girls at college, but soon turned into a social networking site. This was a slow start in the development of social media we know today. It started quite innocent. People were able to share thoughts, experiences, documents. It was a quick and easy way to keep up with people and information. Soon companies and experts noticed social media wasn’t just a trend. They were aware of the importance of social media. People liked sharing thoughts and feelings online, maintaining friendships, looking up information about products and searching for jobs. The development of smartphones contributed to the fast development of Social media. It became an integrated part of our daily lives, both in business and in private surroundings. In the last two years, social media use has increased by 60,3% to 818.4 million users.
Social Media Use Among Teenagers and the Older Generation
Nowadays, we can’t imagine a world without social media anymore. People share feelings, photos, video’s music, anything you can imagine online. They interact with each other, have conversation and organize parties. It’s an easy way of staying in touch with everybody all over the world. Social media is always with you. You can access it through many sources; tablets, smartphones, computers, they all enable you to access social media platforms. In recent studies teenagers claim that their behavior online is similar to their offline behavior. Teenagers who show pro-social behavior online also show this offline. They don’t show more or less aggression or behave very differently. About 90% of the teenagers from the age of 13 to 17 in America has used a form of social media. From this group of teenagers, 51% visits social networking sites every day. The teenagers from this research claim the impact of social media isn’t that big. The teenagers that did mention social media influenced their lives, often said it was a positive influence. The main purposes are staying connected with friends, meet new friends, share photos and experiences, play games and promote things they believe in. They say it makes them less shy and more confident and lead to a lower chance of depressions. It also is a source of information and a way to deal with different opinions and point of views. Despite the results of this study, a study from Dr. Lary D. Rosen, professor at California State University shows social media also has a negative impact on teenagers’ behavior. It increases the chance of disorders such as
narcissism, aggression or antisocial behavior. An important bad impact social media has on teenagers is the addiction to it. It’s not literally an addiction to social media but more an obsession and fear of missing out on something in their social world. The needs to check social media all the time leads to less time to spend with friends face to face, distraction from people they are actually with at that moment and sleeping disorders. The many impulses from checking social media websites before they go to bed negatively influence their night’s rest. Also the older generation becomes more involved in social media. From 2012 to 2013 the use of the most popular social media sources has increased tremendously. The use of twitter among people of the age from 55 to 64 has grown with almost 80%. LinkedIn got over 60% more members older than 55 years. Also Facebook, Google+ and Pinterest have experienced a growth in usage among people between 55 and 64. 43% of the 65+ internet users nowadays also uses social networks. It’s a way to find back old friends and keep track of their children or grandchildren. Besides that they like Social media just for the same reasons younger people do: to communicate with other, express their feelings and keep up with everything that’s going on in the world.
It’s clear social media has become part of everybody’s daily lives. But what effect does social
Statistics: -In the last two years, social media use has increased by 60,3% to 818.4 million users. -The use of twitter among people of the age from 55 to 64 has grown with almost 80% in 2013
If social media makes us feel that way, why don’t we just delete our accounts and start living in the real world again? Research has shown that many people suffer from FOMO (fear of missing out). This creates the urge to keep going online and see what everybody’s up to and the need to show yourself to them as well. People want to go to as many parties as their friends, have diner in those fancy restaurant as well and go on the same amazing holiday as your (social media) friend. When the smartphones developed, this got the change to grow even further, because the smartphones enable you to constantly check everything that happens online. In other words, you constantly feel the need to prove to others your life is just as fun, interesting and successful. The FOMO disorder is a serious and problematic downside.
A positive side of social media is that it enables you to maintain friendships with people around you and people who live far away. However it also creates a false sense of connection to a large number of people, while actually only a small group turns out to be your real friends. Although social networks are an easy way to keep up with friends effectively, the need to have as many friends as possible is growing. Besides that social media allows us to show the person who we want to be instead of the person we actually are. In an actual conversation, you say things and express them the way you do. In social media, you can adjust your message just as long till it’s perfect. This way a large network of so called friends gets
“FOMO (fear of missing out) is taking over our lives.” media has psychologically? It’s an important source for self-profiling. People need to sell themselves in the current culture in order to be seen and/or heard. Self-profiling is a way to avoid the feeling of loneliness. It’s something we need for our self-esteem. People feel the urge to ‘belong’ and be accepted. Social media enables you to satisfy this need. You can upload photos and show the audience where you are, what you do. People are searching for acceptance.
to know you the way you are online. While actually the group of friends who really knows you starts becoming smaller. This way online friendships creates the feeling of loneliness. So if it makes us unhappy, why do we keep doing what we do? We got used to the constant connection with everybody around us. People have the inherited need to be connected to as many people as possible. It’s a way to show your status, your popularity. And why do so many people participate? This is caused by the need for self-disclosure, which has the same effect on the brain as food and sex; satisfaction. We want to show the world we’re interesting.
The Influence of Social Media on Our Study and Career Even though it’s a possibility to create a higher self-esteem by showing your life to others, research has shown that many people feel unhappy, because of social networking. People are constantly being confronted with the milestones, the highlights of other people’s lives. This creates the feeling you are not as successful, don’t have as many friends or highlights in your life as the other person. Besides that it can be used to communicate gossips or mean messages about a person rapidly which can also have a negative influence on a persons’ level of happiness. A girl in The Netherlands committed suicide because she heard a rumor of being on the ‘Bangalist’ a list with names of girls who are being described as sluts. This list was spread through social media. This shows the impact of social media can be huge.
Social media is nowadays also an important source for study or job related issues. Teenagers or adolescents can ask fellow students to fill out a survey, or you can promote yourself in the labor market by describing your working experiences. A social media site which focuses on this is LinkedIn. LinkedIn is a website on which you can show your CV and show yourself to possible employers. For employers it’s a way to find new employees who would fit your company. Despite the advantages of social media related to work opportunities, it’s also a way to destruct your career. It has become increasingly common for employers to check your Facebook, Twitter or other social media account before inviting or hiring you. Therefore you should be very careful on what to post online. Also social media can have a negative effect on your career while you are already work-
ing for a company. The addiction of checking social media sites can cost you your job, but also complaining about your company, your employer or other issues related to the company you’re working at on a Social media Site can lead to the end of your career. People need to be aware of what they’re posting, because many websites say and warn you about: what goes online, stays online. Even if you deleted it, it can always be traced back.
News and Crime
News and crime is also being influenced by social media. Spreading the news through social media goes a lot faster than with the old sources, as for example papers. Everybody can keep up online with what’s happening in the world. A disadvantage is that the chance of reading false news items becomes bigger. All the news providers want to be the first one to send out the news, and therefore aren’t critical enough whether the news is accurate. It’s easier to hack a news provider and send out fake messages. This can lead to confusion, disagreements among sender and receiver and tension. Besides that social media causes and solves crime. In The Netherlands, a girl was killed because of a fight with her best friend that started on Facebook. Messages through Facebook got out of hand and eventually one girl was killed because of the miscommunication. This is an unfortunate effect social media can have on crime. Luckily social media also helps solving crimes. It’s easy to send out a message to people to look for criminals, find back stolen goods and find criminals based on their activities on social media.
As shown in this article, social media has a big impact in our social lives. It’s the cause of several mental and psychological disorders. On the other hand it can contribute to your self-esteem by self-profiling but also makes you feel insecure because other people’s lives sound more interesting. It enables you to maintain friendships but the large number of friends can also make you feel lonely. Both the younger and older generation can easily keep up with old friends, family and the news. On the other hand social media decreases the need for people to interact face to face and makes us less social. People get isolated and less personal in actual conversations. You can make or break your career with social media. Do you promote yourself or do you destroy yourself? News items can be send out easily but also cause trouble because of the chance to send out fake messages. Luckily it also contributes to solving crime. Overall the effects of social media appear to be more negative than positive. The strange thing is that social media keeps growing. This is caused by the development of all the technological devices. The smartphones are still developing and the number of people using smartphones and using social media through their smartphone increases. Another reason is the growing need to be connected all the time. What will the future look like? Personally, I think social media will stay an integrated part of our lives for the upcoming years. Despite the fact people consider the development of social media as negative, the need for connection and self-profiling is stronger. Social media will keep developing till the needs and trends start shifting again and another/ new need/trend will take over the society.