Urban CT-scan: The City as Body(ies) in Movement “The ordinary practitioners of the city live ‘down below’, below the thresholds at which visibility begins. ... whose bodies follow the thicks and thins of an urban ‘text’ they write without being able to read it. These practitioners make use of spaces that cannot be seen; their knowledge of them is as blind as that of lovers in each other’s arms. The paths that correspond in this intertwining, unrecognized poems in which each body is an element signed by many others, elude legibility. It is as though the practices organizing a bustling city were characterized by their blindness. The networks of these moving, intersecting writings compose a manifold story that has neither author nor spectator, shaped out of fragments of trajectories and alterations of spaces: in relation to representations, it remains daily and indefinitely other.” Michel de Certeau in Walking in the City in The Practice of Everyday Life.
Living Section fig. 3 To be immersed is to look at the city in section, to be inside, to look at the inner workings of this body, as a kind of x-ray vision. The section drawing as we know it allows us to understand the adjacencies of interior spaces, their configurations and relative proportions, etceteras. While they are revealing of this static, and abstract characteristics of space, they do not provide us with the representation or the analysis of what is happening inside, how often it is happening, what are the variations, the rhythms and patterns, the ephemeral, what is the life of that which is being investigated. To be immersed is to be inside but it is also to look at the city moving, to look at the city in time, to look at the city changing. I have been involved in a series of dissections of time/space studies which take the conventional section-cut drawing as we know it and combine it with video to create a new kind of document, a document which is immersed, picturesque, yet also abstract and analytical, a document, or rather a thinking tool which allows us to reveal, study and communicate both the qualitative and the quantitative, and the fixed and temporal aspects of place. These projects include a series of my studies of cities as well as a series of studies done by my students. These explorations, which merge the vocabularies of drawing and of moving image started with the idea of exploiting the readily available audio/video camera as an investigative tool in our practice and has evolved to include other readily available time based tools at our disposal. fig. 4
In Living Section, by former student Christopher Lanzisera, we are able to view and understand the adjacencies of spaces, their configurations and relative proportions, etceteras yet more importantly because of the ability of the camera to record activities in time, we are able to understand the fluctuation of programs that are happening across this section-cut of the city over a period of time. This study achieves what architect Bernard fig. 5 Tschumi refers to as the “tripartite mode of notation… (events, movements, spaces)…for all inevitably intervene in the reading of the city”. (5) However in this case it is drawing which is influencing our understanding and use of the moving image. And while the inspiration for this study comes directly from a common drawing convention, a similar condition can be found visually in the film; The Cook, The Thief, His Wife, and Her Lover directed by Peter Greenaway where the camera pans slowly across adjacent spaces and between walls revealing the activities happening within and along the indiscriminate line that traverses the building from a parking lot, through a kitchen to dinning room. (6) Similarly this occurs with audio in the film Delicatessen by Jean-Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro where we hear the various spaces of a building playing against each other as sounds that originate in different spaces permeate each other or disappear into wall cavities. (7)
Mike Stopka, another one of my students’ studies, presents us also with the familiar section drawing; in this case to scale, with exact dimensions and placement of windows and doors and with appropriate wall thicknesses, yet suddenly a video window appears animating the static drawing with the activities of the user within the space. As we watch, we see and hear the user moving from one domestic activity to another as he crosses from room to room space the drawing and across the section-cut. At points, we are zoomed into the video leaving behind the drawing, as it exists the frame of the
The Cook, The Thief, His Wife, and Her Lover directed by Peter Greenaway presents spaces and activities panning across a section-cut line
As axial CT-scan format, NY A/V studies the interiority of Manhattan over the period of seven days along Broadway Street as the axis of rotation.
In a more recent one of my studies of cities, the exploration of the merging of the vocabularies of drawing and moving image which aims to read and write the city simultaneously through its abstraction and its reality came closer to defining the city as a “manifold story that has neither author nor spectator”. BiCi_N , examines the city of Barcelona through the CT-scan idea but not from one single point of view or axis but from a multiplicity of views. As a Multislice CT-scan, in this case, images are not restricted to one axial plane but can be adjacent, distant and overlapped. (15) The project fig. 12 utilized the recently instituted Barcelona open public bicycle transportation system Bicing, in which individual users of the city can pick up a bike at any of the 300 stations in the city, ride it and drop it off at another location, as the framework by which to collect the information. In the BiCi_N project fig. 13 the bikes are equipped not only with audio/video cameras but also with GPS (Global Positioning Systems) devices. What is collected, “fragments of trajectories and alterations of spaces” writes the city from within and from the multiplicity of the routine of the city as individual users displace themselves within the city on the moving bikes as they go about their individual routines. With the body(ies)/bike(s) as extensions of the human body fig. 14 into the city body and as drawing apparatuses, numerous itineraries are collected. As individual slices of a body under analysis these are reassembled to describe the city as alive, moving and changing - as “daily and indefinitely other.”
This drawing/movie is both a conventional section-cut drawing and a story revealing both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the spaces.
and change become evident against the consistent time/place as a reference point. In his photographs he finds “sometimes the same people, sometimes different people, sometimes the different people become the same, and the same ones disappear as the earth revolves around the sun”. A friend of Auggie’s who is flipping through the thousands of photographs remarks that they are all the same. Auggie agrees but also corrects him, pointing out that each interaction is the same yet it is unique. (18) In 1957 the urban sociologist Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe who was interested in understanding the city through the activities of the citizens collected the trajectories of one young girl in Paris’s 16th arrondissement over the period of a year in a document called exactly that; Trajects pendant fig. 15 un an d’une jeune fille du XVIe arrondissement. The drawing, an accumulation of lines in a triangular pattern revealed that her movement through the city during this long period of time was actually quite simple and repetitive. The blurry triangle marked her movements from home, to school, to piano lessons. The abstract diagram of repetitive lines in a closed geometric formation revealed her cyclical use of the city, it visualized her routine fig. 16 in time. In 1953 Architect Louis Kahn did a series of drawings of Philadelphia, which illustrate the city through the movement, speed, and flow of its vehicles rather than by its physical configuration. In these documents, an inversion occurs in which the physical and static (the building blocks) are simply suggested, becoming residual space against the accumulation of marks which define the traffic flow of the city. However while these documents suggest the importance of the ephemeral activity of the city (moving car traffic, in this case) it does not capture or explain the patterns in time of the city, it does not illustrate the cyclical aspects that these movements define. The potential is clearly visible in the 1983 film Koyaanisqatsi by experimental documentary film director Godfrey Reggio where a series of stationary moving image views of the city are sped up visualizing the city
Visualization of a year’s routine of one inhabitant in Paris.
The cycles of life are captured with daily photographs of a corner cigar store at 8:00 a.m. every morning.
The City of Philadelphia visualized as car traffic flow.
Cycles: From Accumulation to Accuracy Amsterdam RealTime and Cabspotting demonstrate the possibility of understanding the city from the accumulation of individual acts. Through the multiplicity of itineraries, the collective order of the city begins to emerge, a map defined not from above but from below, from the interactions of individual inhabitants of the city. Geographer and graphic designer Rebecca Ross in Perils of Precision posits the question; is such a collective map in its accumulative “fuzziness” and x-ray quality even more precise than the maps “presented behind a façade of precision and expertise” She argues that master builder Robert Moses’s Panorama of the City of New York project, a detailed 3-dimensional model of New York City while being “the most detailed physical map ever made” and while attempting to be used as a “tool for the future of social planning… by being kept up-to-date over time and referred by city leaders as they thought through changes to the city’s master plan”, is not only static, inflexible, quickly irrelevant, but also inaccurate. (22) “This paradox of representation—in which summary is valued more highly than the experience to which it refers—enables official maps to become information-spaces within which power is accumulated and maintained. Highly detailed maps are presented to culture as if they were flawless reflections of space. In fact, they are more typically accumulations of the maker’s own experience from a single point of view, subject to the limits of space and time.” Rebecca Ross in Perils of Precision in Else/where: Mapping New cartographies of Networks and Territories
Amsterdam RealTime and Cabspotting instead of becoming quickly irrelevant and of the past, regenerate and are constantly up-to-date. They present the potential of a different kind of accuracy, where the map is made accurate out of the accumulation of their users activities in the space of their city in time, they are made accurate and real out of the accumulation of the real life of the city. Likewise, ants will adjust their behaviors based on their local ground level interaction and its repetition over time as a way of achieving accuracy. Johnson states that “because the decision-making process is spread out over thousands of individuals, the margin of error is vanishingly small… for every ant that happens to overestimate the number of foragers on duty, there is one that underestimates.” (23) The accurateness in the “fussiness” that Ross speaks about in the Amsterdam RealTime project is what emerges out of accumulation. It is like the blurry yet definite triangle revealed by the routine of the young’s girl in Paris over afig.year. 15 However in this case the “fussiness” is the collective accumulation of the numerous users of the city and not the accumulation of one single user. More importantly it is the accumulation of ground level reality and not the abstract reflection of an authoritative single mapmaker. The authoritative map in its stillness and inflexibility is stagnant and irrelevant. The authoritative map does not breathe, change or adjust. Is the authoritative map more akin to a dead body?
seq. F + G
In Amsterdam RealTime the city emerges out of the accumulation of user’s activities in the space of the city in time.
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Ironically, Ross notes that this fussy quality is x-ray looking. (24) And I must also note that more importantly it is x-ray acting as it reveals to us the true inner-workings of the city as a body under analysis. This interiority is visualized through the markings of activity that accumulate as GPS lines that emerge, move and flow like the life of the city and like the systems of a living body under analysis. But are they x-ray acting in that it provides us with a view inside? Are they really sectional views into the interiority of the city and are they analytical? The Cabspotting project is experimenting with the analytical potential. The site is open for proposals and several artists have already begun analysis of the material in an attempt to understand the social, economical and cultural tendencies that are revealed by such a drawing. (25) While the studies featured on the site gives us a fore view into the possibilities, are these two projects, Amterdam RealTime and Cabspotting really looking inside? While these two innovative projects are incredibly interesting by attaining the multiplicity of the city and of the multitude of trajectories happening daily and in being temporal and changing as the city does, these documents are still views from afar, they are planometric and flat, and from above and do not possess the picturesque “evoking of lifelike images” aspect of the city. Is it possible to return to the balance between the “intellectual and mathematical” and the “pictorial and sensual knowledge” of the early maps that Lucia Nuti describes? GPS undoubtedly has the mathematical accuracy and as demonstrated by these two projects, GPS also has the potential of revealing a kind of sensuality of the city through the emerging temporal lines that are suggestive of body movement and activity. However the documents remain mostly abstract and distant and the balance is not yet achieved.
Activity flow studies of two cities
x-ray if human body blood flow
Mathematical and Sensual Knowledge, The Body and the City Let us now return to the cycling term and look at it as an idea of time but also as an activity. Let us look at it in time as a collector of the routine of the city and let us look at it as the activity of [bi]cycling and return to the BiCi_N project which collects the cycles of the city via the bicycling activities of fig. 21 its many occupants as they cycle the city. The project writes the movements of the city in time and in movement as the numerous inhabitants of the city live their lives while it also maps the individual rotations and data of each user as they displace themselves within the city. Again, these inhabitants as body(ies) on bikes are equipped with GPS and audio/video extending into the city as mobile GPS/A/V drawing apparatuses drawing the city and fig. 14 their own bodies at full scale and in real time. With GPS we get the absolute, certain information of the trajectory such as location, altitude, weather,
Cabspotting is a “living map” of San Francisco that regenerates constantly as the city’s cab routes change minute by minute.
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heart rate, cadence, speed, duration... while audio/video captures the perceptive, bodily characteristics of the space such as imagery, ambiance, texture, light, activity, conversations, sounds, expressions, etc. Cycling as the city cycles, the inhabitants read and write their stories vividly and precisely in the BiCi_N project. Described and narrated through the imagery of the scenery and conversations caught on the A/V device and grounded with the details of the data inscribed by GPS, the city is revealed qualitatively and quantitatively as a system of routines and interactions. The city is captured in all of its qualities as “pictorial and sensual, intellectual and mathematical”.
The relationship between the human body and the city body become an important point of departure for further exploration, something that has not been explored in the previously mentioned GPS projects, Amsterdam RealTime and Cabspotting. What do calories burned, heart rate, and body mass mean as related to length and speed of travel, weather, and topography? And what does latitude and longitude of user, distance to destination, and time, and latitude mean as related to track, bearing and heart rate? Can we analyze this data of the human body and city body as interrelated an fig. 20 intimately connected? Can we analyze this data the way that a radiologist analyzes a CT-scan? The Chronocyclegraph of bricklaying by Frank Gilbreth of 1912 are uncannily similar to the GPS drawings generated by these various city mapping projects. The visualization of the “fine details of hand movement of an assembly worker over time” in the chrnoncyclegraph resembles the accumulation of movements of the city’s individual users in the Amsterdam RealTime, Cabspotting and BiCi_N GPS drawings (26). Both of these types of documents as x-ray looking images reveals ephemeral details of a body in movement. One extreme looks at the activity as related to the human body, the other as related to the body of the city. In the same way that information such as weather, time and topography is derived and graphed from the longitude, latitude location, and altitude information of the city users as marked by the GPS device, the chronocyclegraph, from the Greek term chronos (time), is itself a graph of cycles in time. This method/ device, which continues to be used today in industrial engineering, charts and examines this information in order to improve ease of movement and efficiency. What does this suggest for the potential of the GPS as a device/method between the human body and the city body? Could it lead to the optimal functionality of this intimate relationship? Could it lead to optimal functionality of the city body and to optimal functionality of the human body? And what is the significance of this? The photographs by scientist and chronophotographer Étienne-Jules Marey are also important references in the discussion of this relationship. His fig. 19 photographs, which also look like x-rays in motion or Cine CT scans and GPS drawings, were significant contributions to the development of cardiology, aviation and moving image. As disparate as these areas seem, they refer to the extreme of scales and fields that I am proposing we merge here and of their latent relationship. Marey started his research by examining the movement of blood in the human body and in 1863 he improved a device from the mid 19th century, which measured blood pressure. He made the Sphygmograph, which was originally designed by German physiologist Karl von Vierordt a decade earlier, portable as well as able to chart graphically the beat of the heart. He was able to amplify this repetitive internal rhythm
BiCi_N audio/video sequences map the various activities of life happening in the city as a series of life-like views and sounds.
Slowing down reveals many stories, speeding up makes change visible.
Manhattan is studied at the scale of minutes, hours, days.
In Auggie’s story, slowing down allows one to understand the uniqueness of each moment and the many stories told with the images captured with photography over a long period of time, while looking quickly through these images (speeding up) allows us to see the repetition and sameness of fig. 22 these individual moments. In “this contradiction is embodied the two distinct scales that can be revealed in two different speeds” in moving image. This is evident in NY A/V. “By speeding up the footage of the entire length of Broadway Street, we see and understand the physical and ephemeral patterns of the city. We see the transformations of the configurations of the street, the light, the topography and the movements of people and cars. Slowing down the footage allows us to see the details - the activities, the populations, their clothing, what they say and look at, what they express”. fig. 23 (32) At both speeds, we experience the fleeting moments, the temporal. These moments are as Kracauer states in The Establishment of Physical Existence, “…imperceptible were it not for two cinematic techniques: accelerated-motion, which condenses extremely slow and, hence, unobservable developments…and slow motion, which expands movements too fast to be registered”. (33) Speeds with video, like scales in a drawing, allow for different information to be articulated. In the study of a place, extreme slow motion exposes the subtleties of what may be considered banal everyday
Using the zoom feature of the video camera, individual sections are taken every 15-minutes along the lenght of Broadway Street in NY A/V.
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interactions, slowing down reveals the gestures that would usually remain unseen at normal speed. Like artist Bill Viola’s video/sound installation, The fig. 24 Greeting, which takes the real-time 45-second encounter of two women and stretches into a slow-motion encounter of 10-minutes, this document is in a zoomed-in state, achieving a kind of possession of time. It is a moment so slow that it is “arrested, rendered, stretched, and compressed, in short articulated, we can state that we have possession of it, that we are approaching a new vocabulary of space-time”, as stated by photographer László Moholy-Nagy in Vision in Motion in 1965. (34) Kevin Lynch in What Time is this Place? states;
“How ill-equipped we are to observe this moving, changing world! Our range of detection is so narrow that we are nearly blind and must use ingenuity to extend our sight. A plant appears unconscious to us but if we visually speed up its movements by time-lapse photography, the plant seems to become a perceiving, reacting animal. Edward Steichen is currently filming the changes of a rosebush. At the other pole with still photography and extremely slow movies, Hans Jenney makes visible the rich, strange world of very rapid vibratory motions. In these previously invisible brief shudderings, we now see complex rhythms, elaborate circulations, fantastic growths, violent disturbances. Is it possible to extend our perceptual reach new artificial means, in order to sense environmental changes that are now beyond that unaided reach? A film compresses twenty-four hours of city changes into three minutes, and a new world is revealed…” Kevin Lynch In Change Made Visible. What Time is this Place?
45 second encounter
In the case of Gordon’s harvester ants as Johnson points out, what was not understood, what was still invisible was how the ants’ colonies, the global picture of this system, developed over time. This was a problem of scales. The “phenomenon had gone unobserved because people had been thinking about ants – and watching ants in the wrong scale.” Entomologists had been studying the ants “at the scale of weeks and months” but to really understand the cycles of this system they needed to observe them at “the scale of decades”. Gordon who had been observing ant colonies year after year for fifteen years, in about five years began to see what was really happening; “like a stop-motion film of a vine winding its way around a branch, Gordon’s research transformed the way we think of ants by transforming the temporal scale with which we perceived them”. (35)
In BiCi_N, the City of Barcelona is understood from within, from below through the multiple subjectivities of its many inhabitants.
In A Universal History of Infamy, Jorge Luis Borges speaks of a map, which was the size of the territory, which it mapped. The map was so large that it had to be folded and unfolded and began to deteriorate becoming useless and irrelevant. (42) Why look at this cumbersome map when the information was also in the territory itself? Are we arriving to the full-scale map of this fiction? And is it irrelevant? Or does the map become even more relevant? The Robert Moses three-dimensional map of New York City while not full scale strove for 99% likeness in detail to the reality that it represented. As a huge and elaborate wooden object lit to compress the cycles of the day/night, it remains static and fixed to a quickly fleeted reality. The document while it represents a historical moment in time in the physicality of that city does and did not represent the life and ephemerality of the city except for the fact that it became quickly irrelevant as a tool for urban planning. That was its intent. (43) With the technologies that we have available today, we are not only able to represent the city in all of its qualities; realistic and abstract, immersed and removed, qualitative and quantitative but it is also inherent in these processes the representation also being life like, real time, moving and changing. This ease and flexibility allows for constant accuracy. In addition, the map that is produced from below and collectively is inherently and as has been demonstrated more precise. Will we get to an “improved flow of information from citizens to decision-makers, and a strengthening of the form of our built environment”? , (44) and will inhabitants participate more directly in the design of their cities. The city and the map will be ever changing and up-to-date. This document will also be analyzable in its fullness with all of its qualities and therefore the functionality of the body of city and of the human body will be continuously optimized? Does the living map become more relevant by remaining “daily and indefinitely other”? And is the static, fixed, authoritative map dead?
Notes: 1 de Certeau, Michel. “Walking in the City”. In The Practice of Everyday Life, Trans. by Steven Rendall. California: University of California Press, 1988, p. 93 2 Nuti, Lucia. “Mapping Places: Chorography and Vision in the Renaissance”. In Mappings, edited by Denis Cosgrove, 90- 108. London: Reaktion Books, 1999, p. 91 3 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software Scribner, New York 2001 p. 33 4 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software Scribner, New York 2001 p. 75 5 Tschumi, Bernard. The Manhattan Transcripts New York: St Martin’s Press, 1994 p.9 6 See The Cook, The Thief, His Wife, and Her Lover directed by Peter Greenaway 1989 7 See Delicatessen by Jeunet and Caro 1992 8 See CT-scan in wikipedia 9 See CT-scan in wikipedia 10 Skinner, Martha. “South to North: Zoom/Section Seven Day Trajectory on Broadway Street”. In South edited by Ronald Rael, 30-39. Clemson School of Architecture, 2005, p. 32 11 See CT-scan in wikipedia 12 See CT-scan in wikipedia 14 Calvino, Italo. Invisible Cities, Giulio Einaudi Editore, 1972, Skinner, Martha. “South to North: Zoom/Section Seven Day Trajectory on Broadway Street”. In South edited by Ronald Rael, 30-39. Clemson School of Architecture, 2005, p. 32 15 See CT-scan in wikipedia 16 Corner, James. “The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention”. In Mappings, edited by Denis Cosgrove, 211-252. London: Reaktion Books, 1999, p. 227 17 Lightman, Alan. Einstein’s Dreams. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993, p. 11 18 See Smoke by Wayne Wang 1995 19 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software Scribner, New York 2001 p. 74 20 See Amsterdam RealTime website http://realtime.waag.org/
21 Vetters, Trui. “‘Night on Earth’: Urban Practices and the Blindness of Metatheory”. In The Urban Condition: Space, Community, and Self in the Contemporary Metropolis 343- 357. Rotterdam: OIO Publishers, 1999, p. 349 22 Ross, Rebecca. “Perils of Precision”. In Else/where: Mapping New cartographies of Networks and Territories by Janet Abrams and Peter Hall, 184-199. University of Minnesota Press 2006 p. 184 23 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software Scribner, New York 2001 p. 77 24 Ross, Rebecca. “Perils of Precision”. In Else/where: Mapping New cartographies of Networks and Territories by Janet Abrams and Peter Hall, 184-199. University of Minnesota Press 2006 p. 186 25 Cabspotting website http://cabspotting.org/ 26 see chrnoncyclegraph in wikipedia 27 see chrnoncyclegraph in wikipedia 28 Kracauer, Sigfried, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 52 29 Vidler, Anthony. Warped Space, Art, Architecture, and Anxiety in Modern Culture, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England 2000. P. 115 30 Kracauer, Sigfried, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 52 31 Kracauer, Sigfried, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. xi 32 Skinner, Martha. “South to North: Zoom/Section Seven Day Trajectory on Broadway Street”. In South edited by Ronald Rael, 30-39. Clemson School of Architecture, 2005, p. 34 33 Kracauer, Sigfried, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 52 34 Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo. Vision in Motion. Chicago: Institute of Design, 1947, p. 247 35 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software Scribner, New York 2001 p. 80 36 Skinner, Martha. “South to North: Zoom/Section Seven Day Trajectory on Broadway Street”. In South edited by Ronald Rael, 30-39. Clemson School of Architecture, 2005, p.38 37 see NY A/V guest book, day 1 Bowling Green, May 30 2005 38 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software Scribner, New York 2001 p. 40 39 Johnson, Steven. Emergence, The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software
Scribner, New York 2001 p. 41
32’11’_98N. 30E / no
40 see Immersive Media Corp. http://www.investcom.com/feature/imc.php 41 see http://www.motionbased.com/ 42 Borges, Jorge Luis. A Universal History of Infamy. E P Dutton 1972 43 Ross, Rebecca. “Perils of Precision”. In Else/where: Mapping New cartographies of Networks and Territories by Janet Abrams and Peter Hall, 184-199. University of Minnesota Press 2006 p. 184 44 Ross, Rebecca. “Perils of Precision”. In Else/where: Mapping New cartographies of Networks and Territories by Janet Abrams and Peter Hall, 184-199. University of Minnesota Press 2006 p. 186 Project Credits: NY A/V Principal Investigators: Douglas Hecker and Martha Skinner Collection of Footage.Huey-Ru Chang, J.T. Krisnamurti Lumenta, Christopher Christian, David Rhose, Jule Tsai, Katrhyn Dobija, Neil Meredith, Koonseo Ahn Footage Editing: Daniel Culbertson, Matthew Warner Installation Research and Design Development: Daniel Culbertson, Julie Garst, Peyton Shumate, Nick Kunzi, Natalie Gualy, Marc Leverant, Michael Stopka Construction of Container: Clemson University students Arch 151, Carlos Skinner, Cleveland Walter, Elizabeth Sumner, Glenn Timmons, Nick Kunzi, Julie Garst, Brandon Gerhke, Katrina Cobb, Clinton Menefee Stair/Door Fabrication: Consolidated Southern Industries Inc., Anderson, South Carolina Installation: Natalie Gualy, Nick Kunzi, Emily Cox, Carlos Skinner, Candy Chang, Hans Herrmann, Speranza Octavia Funding: Discretionary Fund, The University of Michigan, Research Grant, Innovation Fund, McMahan Fund for Excellence, Clemson Advancement Foundation, Clemson University Technical Support and Equipment: Video Studio, The University of Michigan, Communications Center, Multimedia Authoring, Teaching and Research Facility, Clemson Univesity BiCi_N Principal Investigator: Martha Skinner Tutor: Alex Philis, Metropolis Program, Barcelona, Spain Participants: Catalina Gomez, Douglas Hecker, Vasilis Kyriakopoulos, Martha Skinner, Manuel Tuteigua Web Design: Zemoga, Fabian Garzon, Alejandro Gomez, Nelson Morales Sanchez Film Editing: Roi Ettinger, Martha Skinner Assistance: Douglas Hecker , Sophia Hecker-Skinner, Anat Katsir, Patricia Perez-Salem
The City as Body(ies) in Movement