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WOMEN’S RIGHTS ARE HUMAN RIGHTS


women’s rights are human

rights

Women’s Rights are Human Rights project, symposium and publication created thanks to the support of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Representation in Poland.

feminism is for everyone

.

PJAIT 2017


contents Introduction Marta Zofia Myszewska

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Essays Elizabeth Resnick  18 Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk  24 Colette Soler  34 Anna Gromada  60 Ania Światłowska  72 Barbara Nowacka  78 Ewa Kuryluk  90 Mariusz Knorowski    96 Verena Gerlach  102 Workshops Elizabeth Resnick  110 Verena Gerlach  116 Aušra Lisauskienė  122 Maja Wolna  132 Ceren Çalişkan  140 Sylvie Pagé  149 Janna Beck  156 Grafprom studio  164


Marta Zofia Myszewska

Introduction

Our small war

The world is changing. People’s access to knowledge,

Women began to think about themselves as early as in

technology and culture is easier than ever before. The

the middle of the 19 th century. The women’s movement was

economy is progressing and the world is getting wealthier.

primarily liberal in nature, aiming to bring about changes in

In the 21 century, the world is pushing forward, opening

legal systems and women’s suffrage. Women’s activity was

one new door after another and uncovering new mysteries.

visible mainly in English-speaking countries, but it quickly

Women are changing as well. All around the world, women

spread to Western Europe, making its way to Poland as well.

are demanding equal treatment in the workplace, at home

It was the first women’s social movement reported in history,

and in the public space. Through their determination,

referred to as first-wave feminism.

st

they are changing their situation and making themselves ever more visible and audible. Voicing their opposition to

At the turn of the 20 th century, women fought primarily

polygamy, rape, mutilation, lack of access to education and

for the right to vote. The activists involved were called

many more issues, including religious, cultural and political

suffragettes (from the Latin word “suffragium”, meaning

ones, they are fighting for equality and respect.

“vote”). The first national organisations were founded, aiming to spread their ideas among the public. They used various

What is happening before my eyes in the 21 century is real.

methods of action: demonstrations, educational activities,

On the one hand, there have been outstanding achievements

as well as acts of civil disobedience.

st

in technology and engineering; on the other, in some countries, half of the society is still oppressed. Women

Major changes in women’s situation were brought about

around the world have to fight for their rights, remembering,

by World War I. As a result of the general mobilisation of

above all, about their right to have their own opinions and

men, many women went to work, which helped overcome

to decide about their bodies. This issue is not disappearing

many gender stereotypes and caused major changes in

or limited to the least developed and developing countries:

the employment structure. In the early 20 th century, most

it is just as visible in the developed world.

European countries granted full suffrage to women. Since this was the main focus of the feminist movement, this development is considered to have marked the end of

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Marta Zofia Myszewska

Introduction

first-wave feminism. The movement wound down

medical care, education, as well as support in the case of

significantly before taking to the streets again in the 1970s

violence. The media allowed women around the world to unite

(second-wave feminism).

and learn about other customs, which for many years had been “walking myths” or stereotypes created by the world of men.

Second-wave feminism continued the fight for equal rights

The participants were no longer merely groups of women, but

for women in the political aspect, but its main topics were

entire nations of fully self-aware women fighting for equality

equality on the job market, abortion issues and female

in every area of life. The women’s rebellion is visible to this day:

sexuality and self-awareness. Participants in the women’s

nowhere is the situation the way it should be. There are still

movement questioned various taboos, initiating a discussion

many men in the world who cannot imagine a woman holding

about the mutilation of women, the right to decide about

a high position or achieving international success. Yet, we

one’s own body and family, as well as the possibility of

are born and we die the same way. We are able to achieve the

self-education. Soon after, in the early 21st century, young

same with the same energy and involvement. The male world

women in the East, Africa and the Americas began loudly

should not feel threatened. We do not want to fight against

and spontaneously fighting to topple the old regulations,

men; we want to fight for ourselves.

the old private status and the separation of rights and obligations in marriage, aiming to gain equal access to

The events of many years ago have their reflection in the 21st century. In 2017, women in many countries have once again taken to the streets en masse to loudly manifest their dissatisfaction with the lack of access to abortion and unequal, chauvinist treatment, delivering emotional speeches in opposition of governments, conservative factions, radical regulations and new laws dictated by politicians, traditionalists and the church. There was a time we had to ask men to speak our beliefs; now, we are numerous enough and have enough power to finally speak in one voice on behalf of all the women who cannot stand up for themselves or are afraid to do so. Protests, acts of civil disobedience, leaving our daily duties in order to paralyse the regular order, demonstrations, marches… It is hard to believe we still have to fight for the same things our grandmothers fought for.

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It is for the women who boldly fight for emancipation, education and self-awareness that I wanted to be part of this project. Women’s Rights are Human Rights is an important topic for society as a whole — for both women and men. Together, we should demand our rights; decide about our family and health. We should respect and tolerate religious and cultural traditions as long as they are not abused and do not violate anyone’s dignity. We should remember about this for the sake of both our close ones and those far away. Everyone should have the same rights to live. Thanks to the courtesy of Elizabeth Resnick; the help of Ewa Satalecka; the support of the Poster Museum at Wilanów, the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology and the Friedrich Ebert Foundation; and the honorary patronage of Barbara Nowacka, a Women’s Rights are Human Rights Women’s Week was held in April 2017. As part of the event, young designers had the opportunity to tackle the issue during a design workshop, fight stereotypes, present their opinion on the issue, listen to enlightening stories at a conference and confront their thoughts with posters by female and male designers from around the world at an exhibition of posters from Elizabeth Resnick’s private collection of Women’s Rights are Human Rights held at the Poster Museum at Wilanów.

Ewa Wein My Body My Rights


Symposium program 27.04.2017

Women’s Room Foundation Alliances: looking back and building for the future

Verena Gerlach Paradox Alg(i)er(s)

Ewa Kuryluk When I was 18, Artemisia Gentileschi did not

Ceren Caliskan

Ania Światłowska

exist. On how the world has changed in my

The Woman On The Street

“Stuck between vagina and uterus” Feminist art in Poland

lifetime, and on the reaction to progress.

Ausra Lisauskiene Maja Wolna

A story about how such letters of the human

Barbara Nowacka

Freedom, Intuition, Power of Creativity,

body — sensitive historic artifacts — were

Woman rights — a fight that never ends

Expression ­­— recovery of health a link in

transformed into the virtual format of the

building healthy relationship with ourselves and

21st century

Milada Ślizińska Barbara Kruger

the others

Janna Beck Sylvie Page

Selfie

I cannot believe we are still protesting! How can

Elizabeth Resnick Women’s Rights Are Human Rights: International

we improve the women’s right using Humor in

Grafprom Studio

Posters on Gender-based Inequality, Violence and

our work?

objects and minibooks

Discrimination

h


Essays


Elizabeth Res nick

Elizabeth Resnick Elizabeth Resnick is a Professor Emerita, former

and The Environment 1965–2005 with Chaz

chair of Graphic Design and current part-time

Maviyane-Davies and Frank Baseman (2005);

faculty at Massachusetts College of Art and

Graphic Intervention: 25 Years of International

Design, Boston. She earned her b.f. a . and m.f. a .

aids

degrees in Graphic Design from Rhode Island

Cortés (2010); Graphic Advocacy: International

School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island.

Posters for the Digital Age: 2001-2012 (2012).

Awareness Posters 1985-2010 with Javier

The newest exhibition, Women’s Rights Are Elizabeth Resnick Design, an independent Bos-

Human Rights: International Posters on Gender–

ton design studio was in operation from 1973 till

based Inequality, Violence and Discrimination

1996. Clients included: Ciba Corning Diagnostics

(2016) investigates gender–based inequalities

Corporation, Store 24, Animal Rescue League

deeply entrenched in every global society.

of Boston, aiga Boston, Massachusetts College of Art, and other area schools plus many local

Her publications include catalogues for the

non-profit cultural organizations.

most of the exhibitions mentioned above plus Developing Citizen Designers, Bloomsbury

Professor Resnick is a passionate design cura-

Academic (2016), Design for Communication:

tor who has organized seven comprehensive

Conceptual Graphic Design Basics, John Wiley

design exhibitions: Within/Without: The Art of

& Sons Publishers (2003) and Graphic De-

Russell Mills with Teresa Flavin (1991); Dutch

sign: A Problem-Solving Approach to Visual

Graphic Design: 1918–1945 with Alston Purvis

Communication, Prentice-Hall Publications

(1994); The Art of the Poster: Makoto Saito with

(1984). She is currently working on The So-

Jan Kubasiewicz (1999); The Graphic Imperative:

cial Design Reader for Bloomsbury Academic.

International Posters of Peace, Social Justice

She has led poster workshops and lectured

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throughout the United States, Mexico, Ireland, England, China, South Korea, Iceland and Bolivia. Her posters have been accepted at the Warsaw Poster Biennial and the

bicm

Mexican Poster Biennial, and other invitational exhibitions.

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Elizabeth Resnick

Women’s Rights Are Human Rights

Women’s Rights Are Human Rights Women’s Rights Are Human Rights is a very fitting title

is often rooted in ideologies of male sexual entitlement,

for an exhibition of Women’s rights and advocacy posters,

and these systems grant women very few legitimate

as it is a term used in the women’s rights movement and

options to refuse sexual advances. This entitlement

was the title of an important speech given by Hillary

can take different forms, depending on the culture.

Rodham Clinton at the United Nations Fourth World

Human rights and women’s rights are violated every single

Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. In her speech,

day as the rape and brutality on women are used as an

Hillary Clinton suggests that

instrument of armed conflict. Women and children make up a large majority of the world’s refugees. And when

If the term “women’s rights” were to be interchangeable

women are excluded from the political process, they

with the term‚ “human rights” the world community would

become even more vulnerable to abuse. This exhibition

be a better place because human rights effect the women

features posters created by both men and women to

who raise the world’s children, care for the elderly, run

celebrate and acknowledge the vital role that all citizens

companies, work in hospitals, fight for better education

should play in protecting and promoting human rights

and better health care.

while challenging gender inequality and stereotypes, advancing sexual and reproductive rights, and protecting

Yet, gender inequalities remain deeply entrenched in every

women and girls against brutality. These posters promote

society. Women lack access to decent work and face

women’s empowerment and participation in society while

occupational segregation and gender wage disparities.

challenging religious and cultural norms and patriarchal

Women are often denied access to basic education and

attitudes that subordinate, stigmatize or restrict women

health care, and suffer from violence and discrimination,

from achieving their fullest potential. In their collective

and are under-represented in political and economic

visual voice, these posters are designed to jolt the viewer’s

decision-making processes. In many cultures women

sense of collective responsibility to challenge prevailing

have very little control over their own bodies, with female

attitudes towards gender inequality and discrimination,

sexuality being largely controlled and defined by men in

while provoking both a healthy discomfort and empathetic

patriarchal societies. Sexual violence committed by men

response in the viewers.

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Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk is a psychoanalyst working in Warsaw. She is one of the founding members of the Polish Forum of the Lacanian Field and a member of the School of Psychoanalysis of the Forums of the Lacanian FieldFrance. She conducts psychoanalytic lectures and seminars as well as debates that engage psychoanalysis in a dialogue with various other fields of human activity. Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk is also an honors graduate of the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, she is the author of photographic and performative theatre projects. She lectures at the New Media Art Department of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology.

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Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk

Introduction

Introduction to Colette Soler Colette Soler was a guest speaker at the Polish-Japanese

correlational with the way in which desire can never be

Academy of Information Technology. Her lecture on March

entirely satisfied — it can’t be justified precisely through

4th, 2017, entitled Was Freud Wrong About Women? was

reference to a need or a goal that would make it fulfilled.

organised by the Polish Forum of the Lacanian Field. By way

It is what always remains beyond the scope of what is

of introduction to the text of our prominent guest, Colette

demanded. And, even if desire seeks a jouissance, a specific

Soler, I would like to address the question: what authorises

way of enjoying, it springs from a cause which will never

us to speak about psychoanalysis at an artistic university?

exhaust itself fully, whatever that desire may seem to attain

In other words, what justifies bringing together these two very

as its goal. Desire has no definable object, except the object

different disciplines of human activity? In my brief attempt at

that is missing. This may seem like a complex description,

answering this very broad question, I would like to point out

but it can account for a simple fact of experience, and one

the importance of desire. Both art and psychoanalysis not

easily visible in art, as well. For example, which artist is

only deal with the notion of desire, but they also operate with

ever entirely satisfied with their work? And, isn’t it the sense

and upon its very presence. It is this desire whose bringing

of restlessness, and the more or less disturbing presence

out is at stake in the analytic cure. This desire, whose radical

of a want, the active presence of an absence that can

difference from need was underscored by Jacques Lacan with

account for what we call human creativity?

particular emphasis, cannot be captured directly or exhausted in any defined form of a wish — even as it expresses itself

Lacan, whose teaching called for a careful re-reading of

through various avatars. If desire is different from need, if it

Freud, focused much of his effort on bringing the question

isn’t a wish, it is also that motor of permanent search, one that

of desire back to the very heart of psychoanalytic pursuit,

can never be satisfied completely. What sets desire in motion

and in this, he differed from other psychoanalysts of his era.

is always an absence, whether we call it poetically a longing,

Lacan elaborated the radical break between desire and what

or more psychoanalytically, a lack.

he called the world of goods, in one of his seminars, titled the Ethics of Psychoanalysis which he gave in 1959 and 1960.

Desire is also something ultimately impossible to name,

We can already get a sense, then, that an ethics oriented

and even — to justify. Its unjustifiable character is

by desire, the true Psychoanalytic ethics which isn’t guided

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Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk

Introduction

by promoting any kind of goods, has repercussions for the

said. For him, it was rather the reverse — it was art that

practice of psychoanalysis that we can rightly call political.

instructed him in his search on subjectivity. I would say

It should be added here that any ideals, new or old, such

that Lacan taught himself through the works of art he looked

as those of mental health or success, easily become such

into, treating them as unique paths towards a knowledge

“goods”, as well.

of what it is, or what it can be, to be a human being.

It is within this context that I find it is crucial to notice what

So, is there any similarity shared by psychoanalysis and art

role Lacan attributed to his interrogation of the creative

in their relationship to knowledge? I will quote the words

act and the work of art. He approached what could be

of an English writer, E. M. Forster, How can I know what I think

situated beyond the world of the goods, by re-examining

until I see what I say?. I picked out this phrase on purpose,

and ultimately re-thinking the notion of sublimation.

having especially in mind the graphic designer. The element

His original perspective, different to the one presented

of surprise, then, would be the base of this knowledge, but

by Freud, is affirmed in the Seminar on Ethics, when he

also verification through experience — an essential condition

states that idealisation is not what is at stake in sublimation.

for any surprise to appear. The etymology of “surprise” leads

The artist doesn’t render respectable and ideal the drives

us to the Medieval Latin superprehendere, meaning the verb

that are normally considered forbidden. That is not the point.

“seize”. To be seized, therefore, to be taken by surprise. As we

Nor can the artist fully identify an ideal-ego to the object of

speak, to be taken by surprise by that which speaks through

his work — clinically, this is often rather a source of inhibition.

us — in the slips of the tongue, dreams and symptoms — an

According to Lacan, what is especially valuable in sublimation

experience of being “spoken by” something, is at the heart

is the imaginary function. This crucial function is understood

of psychoanalysis, in its radical difference from any other

as the capacity to invent a representation for the object

talking cures that have developed since Freud’s discovery. It is

which, out of its very nature of being noticed only once lost,

through the effect of surprise by that which is unprecedented,

doesn’t actually have a representation.

that unconscious knowledge is attained in its singularity.

Frequently, when introducing new, complex ideas, Lacan

The sensibility of Forster, who was not a psychoanalyst,

took recourse to examples from the world of art. Highly

but a writer, makes us perceive how artists and designers

critical of any psychological readings of the supposed

can experience the way language shapes and even structures

latent motivations behind creative work, he never sought

reality. In their work, designers as well as artists search

to prove an artist’s hidden intentions. It was not ever up to

for means of shaping the content of their message, means

psychoanalysis to reveal the intentions of an artist, Lacan

of shaping what is transmitted. The subversive cleverness

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Introduction

resides in their imaginary ability to question those ideas and ideals functioning within social discourse that are taken for granted. (An allusion of this kind — toying with the discourse connected to “masked” femininity, or even the idea of temporal inadequacy, the supposedly dated character of Freud’s findings, can be discerned in the poster created by students of the Polish-Japanese Academy, which announced Colette Soler’s lecture). Even when their medium is the word, or their artistic savoir-faire encloses, as we say, a thousand words within one image, artists give a shape to something which words cannot capture. In that, that they create a way of “knowing” this lack. Although artists and designers can decipher, and sometimes even denounce certain ways of perceiving reality, more fundamentally, they also find particular ways of ciphering and creating new realities. Psychoanalysis, on the other hand, helps people de-cipher their own ways of perceiving reality, in as much as these realities can be a source of suffering. The psychoanalyst doesn’t decipher art or artistic creation, but only that which dictates the paths of suffering. She triggers an interrogation of what speaks through the particular reality that a subject complains of. It is within that scope, then, that analysis questions reality, and can also promise to transform it. But the possibility of this questioning is verified only individually. The offer of analysis is never that of a world view, in accordance with Freud’s objection, and never promising the solution of a good

Anna Wawer

that could be marketed on any mass scale.

29

Colette Soler lecture at pjait

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It is also clear that the problems at stake in society at large do have an impact on the lives and realities of these individual subjects. And one of the issues which have their pertinence today is the question of the position of women in society. Colette Soler’s lecture is an excellent occasion for the voice of psychoanalysis to resound at the margins of this debate — at the margins, as the voice, or perhaps rather the point of view of psychoanalysis is different to others. It is a fact that Freud’s discovery of the unconscious and his invention of psychoanalysis was strictly determined by the status that science had already achieved at the turn of the 19 th and 20 th centuries. And, according to Lacan’s statement from 1974, psychoanalysis has the status of a symptom, because it is that which reveals the discontents within civilisation. With analysis, the subject of the unconscious returns onto the stage — that same subject which is necessarily foreclosed and cut off from the discourse of science, with its ever expanding universalisation. As speaking beings, we experience the effects of this expansion to this day. It was precisely in this civilisational context that Freud encountered his first patients, who were women. The symptoms they presented and experienced in their bodies couldn’t be accounted for or treated by universal medical knowledge. Freud saw beyond simulation, and followed a truth of these speaking bodies thus, he discovered psychoanalysis. The question, which Colette Soler opens up for us is thus all the more compelling — was Freud wrong about women?

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Colette Soler Colette Soler practices psychoanalysis and

lacanien, Paris 2000, translated into Spanish;

teaches it in Paris and in the diverse Forums of

L’aventure littéraire, ou la psychose inspirée.

the Lacanian field across the world. A qualified

Rousseau, Joyce, Pessoa, Champ lacanien,

professor in philosophy, she holds a degree in

Paris, 2001, translated into Spanish and Greek;

psychopathology and a doctorate in psychology.

L’inconscient à ciel ouvert de la psychose, pum,

It was her encounter with the teaching and the

Toulouse, 2002, translated into Brazilian, Span-

person of Jacques Lacan that encouraged her

ish and Italian; Ce que Lacan disait des femmes,

to choose psychoanalysis.

Champ lacanien, Paris, 2003, translated into Spanish, Italian, English, Portuguese, Greek,

A former member of the École freudienne de

Turkish (publication pending), and Chinese

Paris, officially dissolved by Jacques Lacan in

(publication pending); Lacan, l’inconscient

1980, she took an active part in the creation

réinventé, puf, Paris, 2009, translated into

of the new École de la Cause freudienne, of

Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and English; Les

which she was the first president. Following

affects lacaniens, puf, 2011, translated into

the scission of the

in 1998, Colette Soler

Spanish, English and Italian (publication pend-

was at the origin of the Forums’ movement,

ing); Incidencias politicas del psychoalaisis, s&p,

and later that of the School of Psychoanalysis

Barcelone 2011; Lacan lecteur de Joyce, puf,

of the Forums of the Lacanian Field, where she

Paris 2015, translated into English.

wap

is currently working. She is the author of numerous publications: La psychanalyse pas la pensée unique, histoire d’une cris singulière, co-authorship, Champ

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Colette Soler

Was Freud wrong about women?

Was Freud wrong about women? I will try to say something about this very broad

at all the same experience. Points of view are sexuated

and difficult theme, that is, women.

and socialized.

To get a good starting point I will highlight two sentences.

In psychoanalysis, we speak of women on the basis

I have chosen the title Was Freud wrong about women?

of a certain practice of psychoanalysis and the facts

due to Freud having been extremely criticized for his theses

that make themselves evident in that practice.

or what many believed to be his theses regarding women. You will see why that was, if you don’t know it already. I shall put

The point of view of psychoanalysis is as partial as any point

forward a phrase which Freud uttered at the end of his life.

of view. For instance, when Freud asks What does a women

After about 40 years of analytic research, he said: What does

want?, he isn’t speaking of women in the world. He isn’t

a woman want? We still don’t know. In other words Freud

speaking of women in civilisation, he is speaking of women

himself made a judgement of what he had elaborated on,

in terms of sexual desire, which obviously is a limited point

just to admit that he didn’t resolve the question.

of view.

As to Lacan, who provided an answer in 1972 criticizing

For a brief moment, I will take a broader perspective and

Freud on the issue of women, he claimed that what had

abandon the psychoanalytic standpoint to take a glance

been said up to that moment on women in psychoanalysis,

at what happens in civilisation.

was a “scandal” of the psychoanalytic discourse. We live in a time which, at least in the West, is marked Thus, we have reached a starting point of what I have to say.

by the presence of movements called women’s liberation

I could have taken as title Women as seen by psychoanalysis.

movements, movements which derived directly from human

Why? Because one always speaks from a certain point of

rights. In the West, this women’s liberation movement

view and the point of view is not always an obvious one.

started quite long ago and, it’s marching forward, however

We speak from a position which we take in the world, on

unfinished it might be. I’m not discussing its effects here,

the basis of our own experience, our sex, and it is not

neither its geographical distribution since it is not present

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Colette Soler

Was Freud wrong about women?

everywhere. For that very reason do I stress the fact that

natural, for example, to have her undergo genital mutilation.

it is present in the West.

We’re dealing with situations like these all over Europe.

Just a word on what is located outside of the culture

So the subjugation, if you will, which is a fact, goes hand

of Human Rights. It is an indisputable fact that in Europe,

in hand with the discursive hypothesis on female nature.

ancient Greece, China, Egypt, virtually everywhere, women

You know it — women are of feeble constitution, fragile,

were in a position of being “subjugated”. And not only that;

unable to act, with little capacity for scientific objectivity,

they were also deprived, of the possibility of accessing

not very artistically gifted, in other words, made for

any sort of culture, science, arts, political careers, work,

reproduction and the maternal role, confined to family

salary, voting rights. Even in France, women’s voting rights

space. And for a long time in civilisations, that we know of,

are quite recent, dating back to the time after the Second

people would ignore the fact that what is taken for granted

World War. It is an absolutely general fact. On the other

as the order of things is what we call the order of discourse,

hand, in somewhat parallel fashion women’s bodies —

that is to say, the order of culture, the order of beliefs, the

and I’m not talking about subjects here — their bodies were

order of mores. Quite a number of centuries had to pass

always controlled, one could almost say tethered — think

for people to start realizing that discourses change, that

about the feet of Chinese women, about the practice of

they are historically entangled. Basically, the moment dates

harems, of genital mutilation which still exists in vast parts

back to the 18 th century, the century of Enlightenment.

of the world, etc. In all the places where these facts came

Obviously when what previously appeared to be natural

about, they were thought of as being part of the order of

turns out to be a historical contingency, it makes what

things, with the general idea that this order was guided

was bearable — unbearable.

by the will of God. And not everywhere this has ended yet. However, when we think about these facts as revealing an

First of all, what has psychoanalysis, which is a product

order of things, they become possibly acceptable to these

of culture itself, brought in on the matter of women which

subjects, i. e. acceptable to women themselves. We well

would constitute its specific contribution?

know the following scenario of a young woman coming from a place where women are subjugated in one way

Secondly, how can one in light of this contribution

or another. The daughters emigrate, change their culture

understand and interpret the long historical subjugation

on the occasion and this provokes confrontations between

of women which was so overwhelming? There is an issue

the daughter and her mother who thinks it’s absolutely

here. What was it that had to be controlled with the subordination of women?

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Colette Soler

Was Freud wrong about women?

A third point would be to ask what can one say of today’s

self-imposing thoughts, parasitical thoughts with

women, women who live in places where women’s rights

consequences on behaviour, forced avoidances. Basically,

have been adopted, that is, where they have won new

the symptoms are manifestations which pose obstacles in

freedoms in social and private life and where they have

the domain of work and in the domain of sexual relations, the

obtained control over their bodies in particular, especially

relations of love and desire. Symptoms are wherever there is

regarding reproduction and sexuality. I believe that this

desire. What we call a “symptom” is an untimely, involuntary

still gives rise to a lot of discussions in the West and

manifestation sometimes experienced by the subject, which

particularly in Poland.

prevents them from living a full life and which in all cases hampers the accomplishment of one’s desires, especially,

From today’s standpoint, a time when psychoanalysis

but not only, sexual ones. I want to underline that on the

will soon have reached the age of 150, I see three

basis of this, Freud couldn’t but encounter the question

questions: I shall begin by shedding light on the

of the difference between men and women, as ultimately

psychoanalysis on women.

psychoanalysis looks for the desire which conditions the symptoms with the question about the libidinal difference

In the beginning was Freud, Psychoanalysis is a practice

between men and women. That is the perspective adopted

which was invented by Freud at the end of 19 century. It is

by Freud from the very beginning and it doesn’t pose

a practice which has but one instrument — speaking. It was

questions about women’s rights — we ask about the

invented by Freud on the basis of what at the time used to be

intimacy of desire. In the end, Freud encountered quite

called “nervous illnesses”. The first patients, the first female

a few surprises in a practice which requires the subject

patients of Freud were called “nervously ill”.

to say their thoughts or rather to say what comes to their

th

mind without censorship. Because in life all speaking is We don’t speak of “nervous illnesses” anymore, everywhere

censored, be it by friendship, decency or coherence.

in psychoanalysis we rather speak of “symptoms”. Symptoms are dysfunctionalities and a dysfunctionality

One of the surprises of this practice is how quickly

always refers to a functioning which is deemed normal.

the subject speaks of love and sexual couple problems,

Thus, a dysfunctionality can occur on the level of the body

starting with the parental couple.

which Freud discovered particularly in hysterical women — paralyses or cases of non-organic blindness which yielded

The second point concerns sexuality proper, when

to speech. Or it is a dysfunctioning which can occur on the

one says “sexual couple” which implies two notions

level of oriented thinking, in what is called obsessions,

distinguished a lot in psychoanalysis; it implies love,

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Was Freud wrong about women?

which happens between two subjects, but there is also

and regardless of their anatomy, in other words every

a relationship of desire happening between bodies. These

speaking being’s relation to sex, to their own sex and that of

two relations can be connected, but they are different.

their sexuated partner, for both sexes, is established through

In his exploration of desire, Freud witnesses the

the phallus. And this remains true in all couples regardless

appearance in speaking of nothing else but what he

of whether they are homosexual or heterosexual.

called “partial drives”, not genitality, however, and this he calls “infantile sexuality”. Thus, speaking bears witness to

According to Freud’s works, it would thus seem that in

the modes of auto-erotic bodily enjoyment derived from

speaking, in what passes through speaking, sex is reduced,

one’s own body, without a partner and without genitality.

apart from the partial drives which I spoke of, to the phallus

In other words, enjoyment is oral, anal, scopic and that

alone, the symbol of the male organ. Obviously, that was not

which is connected to the invocatory drive of the voice.

something that pleased feminists.

What a surprise, indeed! People often have the idea that Freud saw sexuality everywhere. Except that in what he

As a result, clinically, this determines two forms of anxiety

called “sexuality”, at the outset the body to body relationship

depending on whether one is a man or a woman; from

is absent. So a question was raised for Freud of how the

a clinical stance it is unquestionable — in a man there is

little polymorphic pervert, the child who derives satisfaction

the fear of losing what he has, basically, of emasculation,

from its own body, manages to transition from this to adult

whereas in the case of a woman there is the envy of what

sexuality where there is a partner, another body, be it

she does not have. Freud has this absolutely wonderful way

homosexual or — Freud found even more difficult to explain —

of putting it where he says, speaking of the penis, “she saw

heterosexual. That is the problem which Freud had to face.

it, she wants it”.

These are immense questions which I’m only summarizing you in a somewhat elementary fashion. I cannot do otherwise

There is thus an idea in Freud, who takes up the words

with the allocated time. I’m summarizing briefly Freud’s

of Napoleon, “Anatomy is destiny”, not a social destiny,

theses in their popularized form which outraged feminists

but a destiny on the level of subjectivity. And Freud came

who from the very beginning were not very friendly towards

up with the idea that these two anxieties are irreducible —

Freud. They were friendly towards Lacan a bit later, as I tried

the fear of castration in men and penis envy in women, even

to show in my book called What Lacan said about women?.

with the analytic treatment. This is a general summary of the freudian concept.

Freud puts forward an altogether uncompromising thesis — everybody’s relation, be they a man or a woman

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Was Freud wrong about women?

Lacan enters psychoanalysis later than Freud and he already

Substitutes of the phallic having were first discovered by

has the thesis of the primacy of the penis, construed by the

Freud, who insisted greatly on the fact that for a woman

latter. He advanced at the same time as Freud’s continuator

there is a having which is specific to her, which means

and his critic. His first step as the continuator was rethinking

that it’s not within the reach of men — it is the child. We

the notion of the phallus.

say, “She has a child”. In psychoanalysis there is a whole series of clinical works on the phallus-child, when a woman

He showed that the organ, which might not be there, as is

becomes a mother. Becoming a mother is situated on the axis

the case with women, functions as a signifier. The phallus

of the desire to have and it is not necessarily the same desire

is not an organ but a signifierized organ. Lacan spent a lot

as the one of a sexuated women as such.

of time developing what a signifier is. The closest word in common speech — not identical but the closest — is the

The series of phallic havings is very vast. In the first place

word “symbol”. The phallus in the unconscious operates as

there is money. Wealth phallicises. More generally, it is also

a symbol. This completely displaces the question of having

the case with power in different domains, be it the power in

or not having the penis — I will not explain it here, I will just

the political, professional, creative domain — all these belong

simply presuppose it. It is thus a signifier, which is a sort of

to the series of having which we call the “phallic having” and

symbol, since it is characterized by the fact that one can

which is unified by a single symbol, the phallus.

find substitutes for it, which is not the case for the organ. We might note in nowadays’ society that access to the phallic We can see this on the level of what is called the “phallic

having thus defined is perfectly within the reach of women

having”. Man has the penis, but he might not have the

when the society allows it. Lacan mentions the naturality

phallus. On the level of having this phallus has many

with which women can do exactly the same things as men

substitutes. All the objects which one might appropriate

in the field of having, that is, in the field of social competition,

are phallic substitutes. These are the object of having.

cultural artefacts, sublimations of culture to which women

As a result of this the not having of the penis as is the

have gained legitimate access.

case in women’s anatomy does not prevent from having it in symbolic form, in signifying form. It is how people can

At a certain point in the past and with the continuous

speak, not everywhere of course but in the psychoanalytic

passage of time I used to entertain myself by drawing

movement, not necessarily lacanian, of phallic women or

up a catalogue of professions from which women used to

phallic mothers, which obviously doesn’t mean that they

be legally banned and as to which it would be announced

have a penis.

that woman had finally managed to become a representative,

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Was Freud wrong about women?

thus, opening the way for others — banking, being head of state, construction site manager, police, army. There are women torturers as well. I am not sure, however, whether we have already seen a female army general. It seems to be missing in the collection. We can clearly see what it was that female subjugation deprived women of — all the phallic enjoyments of having, which were reserved for men, except one, maternity. And in that field they were all reduced to being mothers. On this point Freud appears as a reactionary in the political sense of the term. I think that it is just an appearance, but it makes itself seen, nonetheless, since he goes on to say that the desire of women prevents them from being creators of works of civilisation. We find this explicitly said in Freud. Women would not have access to sublimations of cultural production, their specific desire not pushing them there. Obviously, we might say that it is a factual mistake. Women have become cultural agents just like men. But what was Freud in fact talking about? He wasn’t talking about the desire of women as subjects, but of that part of desire which in everyone, man or woman, is nothing but sexual desire. It is where he marked out a difference. He called it a dark continent.

The end to the scandal? What do we notice on Lacan’s side? I am starting off again from the phallus-symbol, the signifier. I have illustrated the

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Colette Soler

Was Freud wrong about women?

function of this signifier on the level of the aspiration to have,

but that’s another issue. Hence its quest for compensating

which has been brought to extremes by capitalism. But there

objects. It is what in psychoanalysis, long before Lacan,

is another dimension of the phallus, which according to Lacan

was called “object relations” or what desire aims for.

is more primary and which concerns being. If the phallus is a signifier of lack in the speaking In order for there to be any aspiration, any desire whatsoever,

subject, one can immediately understand that anatomy

there has to be a lack. One desires only on the basis

in this respect is not destiny, that all subjects, regardless

of lack and not on the basis of completeness. One can

of their anatomy, be they a man or a woman, as subjects

have satisfaction, sleep, but one cannot desire based on

have a relationship with the phallic lack and, consequently,

completeness. To desire there has to be something lacking

with desire. And since it is so, they can compensate their

and that very thing pushes you forward. It is what Lacan

lack through having. On this point women and men are equal,

ended up calling the “cause of desire”. Essentially, the very

except for the baby. So if we were now to bring the question

aspiration to have is a sign of there lacking something.

solely to the level of the sexuated relationship, we would

Accordingly, Lacan emphasised that the phallus is primarily

have to ask: What does desire aim for in the relation with the

the signifier of what is lacking owing to the fact that the

other sex? Lacan, having rethought the phallus as a signifier,

speaking subject knows lack and that this lack grounds

completely displaces Freud’s formulas. He agrees with Freud

desire, all desires. All desires aim for a complementary

in saying that on the level of sexuality both sexes refer to a

element, compensating this lack. If there were no lack,

single signifier, the phallus — this is Freud, only reformulated.

there would be no desire. It is thus how Lacan insisted a

But they don’t refer to it in the same way and this constitutes

lot on the difference between organic needs and desires.

a critique of Freud or this is simply Lacan, if you will.

A common trait between the two is that both are headed towards an object. But organic needs, having been satisfied,

According to Lacan, there is a disparity of desires in relation

are appeased, whereas the desire is more of a phoenix,

to the phallus. How could we formulate this difference?

even if satisfied it is not extinguished, precisely because

Well, through a difference between having and being. A man

it is grounded in lack. I will not develop it further here.

wants to have it, it’s a desire for sexual potency, whereas the woman wants to be it. Over the years, there have been

What Lacan calls the barred subject, with an S which is

a great number of elaborations by Lacan on his topic closely

written with a bar, $, is a first approximation of this, the

tied to the analytical clinic. And essentially it is true that

being which is defined by its lack. Let us add that this lack,

in its relation to the woman, the male desire is a desire

according to Lacan, results from an effect of language,

for sexual potency in the sense of having it as an organ

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Was Freud wrong about women?

of enjoyment, which engages the major masculine fear,

the castration lack. The lack grounds desire and essentially

of which Lacan provides a very simple formula in the seminar

the woman-as-phallus comes in to fill up this lack for him to

on Anxiety — the formula of basic anxiety in men is that of

the point where sometimes it fetishises her a little.

not being able to perform, sexually but not only. With this in mind you can clarify a whole series of small As for the woman in her relationship with a man, I mean,

phenomena, a series of behaviours which one might

in her relationship with a man and not in herself, well, she

take note of outside of psychoanalysis. These are all the

wants to be it. What does this mean, if not desire of a man

behaviours where we see that a man displays his woman.

and the fact of being desired, which for a woman makes

In a nutshell, the first major stage of Lacan’s elaborations

her equivalent of what is lacking in a man. The desire

is that the phallic mediation lies at the heart of the sexual

of a man phallicises her and thus establishes her as

couple and precisely of that which desire regulates.

what is lacking, as the cause of his desire. In this sense being desired phallicises, there is no doubt about it. For

Later, I shall introduce the word “jouissance”, enjoyment,

example, when we listen to a woman who is in a situation

inevitable when one speaks of sexuality. Love is not the

where she is not desired, where she is not desired any

same thing as desire and desire is not the same thing

more, what does she very often say? She says that

as enjoyment. When one speaks of sexuality one cannot

she feels annihilated, she feels like she isn’t anything

but speak of enjoyment. Emphasis put on desire, its

anymore. One can notice, even on the surface of the terms

irreducibility, its foundation in lack, is but one aspect

themselves, this register of the phallic having. With this

of the difference between sexes. The big question, from

Lacan introduces a whole different perspective on women.

before psychoanalysis, is that of the respective enjoyment

Sexually it is not the envy that characterises them in their

of the two sexes. I’ve said from before psychoanalysis

relationship with a man, but something altogether different

because you might be acquainted with the myth of Tiresias

— it is rather the aspiration to receive what I may call the

which Lacan brings up also in the seminar on Anxiety.

investiture of being singled out by a desire. So it is an

In Greek mythology Tiresias was transformed into a woman

aspiration to receive what is lacking.

for a certain amount of time to later become a man again. When asked whose is the bigger enjoyment — that of a man

Similarly, for a man to have the organ, and thus the enjoyment

or that of a woman, Tiresias responds that a woman’s

proper to the organ which he is the only one to have, does

enjoyment is by far the greater one! Here we are at

not amount to saying that he has the phallus since, on the

the level of the living body, precisely of what is called

contrary, as a subject he falls under the sway of a lack called

the orgasm in the sexual act, with the question of whether

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Was Freud wrong about women?

at this level there is a difference, which would not stem

on what happens in bed. One cannot say that analysands

from culture, from discourse.

are excessively talkative on this subject.

It has to be said that Freud elaborated only a little bit on this

Essentially, in psychoanalysis since Freud we decipher the

difference. He was essentially interested in sexual failures,

unconscious. To decipher means to proceed word by word

in symptoms of failures — basically impotence on the one

and what we discover is that the unconscious does not say

hand with its different forms and frigidity on the other. But

all. The unconscious says about the desire and the phallic

Freud questioned little the enjoyment of the sexual act as

enjoyment, which led Freud to assert that there is only one

if it was something obvious.

libido for both sexes, what seems to be somewhat odd, as there are two sexes. On the level of enjoyment, there are

In the 1970s, Lacan came to the question of there being

words for solely the phallic enjoyment, the one illustrated

different types of enjoyment or not. There exists

by the penis, for the one connected with the drives. What

a famous and easy formula, even if you have never heard

we know of it, is its briefness, its fall announced in the act

of psychoanalysis, and which proclaims that the success

with, for instance, the anxiety of the interruptus, described

of the act, not the failure, not the symptom but the

by Freud. The other enjoyment, the non-phallic one, is the

success of the act, brings about the failure of the

one of which the unconscious, structured like a language,

“sexual relationship”.

does not speak. And it’s at this level that Lacan situates the difference specific to women. A woman has a relation

In short, this formula says that there are two types of

to the phallus, Freud was right, but she is not fully all in

enjoyment, which are heterogenous and which don’t meet:

the relation to the phallus, she has a different, non-phallic

what he called “phallic enjoyment”; this is not the phallus as

enjoyment, of which she doesn’t speak, even if, as Lacan

the signifier of desire, its prototype, it is the male enjoyment;

says, she were begged on the knees. Thus you can see

and the “other enjoyment” which is not the phallic enjoyment

how the construction presents itself. A sole signifier of

and which would be specific to a woman. You might be asking

desire — the phallus as the signifier of lack. A sole signifier

yourselves how psychoanalysis can bear witness to it since

of jouissance — the Phallus written with a capital letter.

as a practice, as I like to say, it doesn’t hold the candle at

But two enjoyments, a supplementary one with regard to

the feet of the bed and everything that psychoanalysts are

the phallic enjoyment on the side of the woman. It is what

able to say comes from what they hear from their patients.

Tiresias seemed to know. These of Lacan from the 1970s

Psychoanalysis cannot attest to anything which doesn’t

bedazzled the feminists. Lacan’s texts were spread at

pass through what is said in a psychoanalysis, sometimes

American universities in the cultural studies departments.

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They also enjoyed success in France. The Women’s Liberation Movement became in some way a lacanian movement. I would like to point out that the feminist movement, the feminist movements as they are many, have been divided on a particular point of these matters. All of them underscored the cultural determinations of the feminine. You might know the quote of Simone de Beauvoir One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman. This means that what is called femininity — one says for example: “She is very feminine” or “not feminine at all” — is an “artefact” of the discourse. On this point all feminist movements agree. But elsewhere, they become divided. There is a current which demands what I call the “unisex beyond the clothing”. Theword “unisex” was introduced for jeans when they came from the United States to Europe; in advertising it was the first piece of clothing to be called “unisex”. So a part of the feminist currents, which shout out that men and women are the same, demand what I call the “unisex beyond the clothing”. And then there is another part of the feminist movements which postulate a beyond of the cultural determinant, there being a limit to the unisex; where would it stop if not at the feet of the bed, at least on the level of the drives. The process of culturation would have a limit in nature. But here, attention! There is nothing more alien to psychoanalysis than the idea of nature. And Lacan does not say “The woman”, Dalida Karic-Hadziahmetovic Woman is not an object

which would mean all the women according to anatomy, but “a woman”. A woman has a different enjoyment. Which

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Was Freud wrong about women?

means that what the discourse calls “woman” is defined

of infertile couples. Currently, the new dramas are the

with regard to the sexual relationship with a man. Lacan

conflicts between professional achievement and the success

uses this expression: she who offers herself to be called

in emotional life, as they say. In a time where everyone

woman. In other words, when he says that there is another

believes in “managing” their life as one “manages” a company,

enjoyment and that women are not-all, this doesn’t prevent

or at least believes to be able to manage it, we see more and

certain women from being all in the phallic enjoyment.

more profiles of women who make a plan for their life. First

Finally, Lacan says that the subjects have a choice of

of all, studies, a job, a salary, the phallicism of having, then

placing themselves on the side of the phallic all or on the

a family. A father for the children has to be found; not just

side of the not-all phallic, regardless of their anatomy.

a man, but a father for the children. And the new dramas

Lacan is led to the idea of a sexual option, antithetical

are expressed in terms of the “biological clock”. We see that

to anatomical destiny. It is a very complex issue, in any case

there are more and more cases of women like this — at the

there is an alternative between the phallic and the not-all

age of 35 they have made their lives, they have had a career,

phallic, to which he adds that it’s an unconscious choice.

all is well, everything’s in order, there is a house, there’s money and now they’re moving on to the next point on

The new galleys: I will say a word on the women of today.

the agenda. Only it’s more difficult to find a father for their

What have they gained all in all?

children, a man who could be a father, who would be suitable for the role, who’d like to be one, and all this with a tight

First of all, new anxieties. They have not only the

deadline since the biological clock rings the alarm around

feminine anxieties, but moreover the same anxieties as

the age of 40. Of course there are pregnancies after the age

men. The anxiety of failing, of not being able to achieve

of 40, but statistics tell us that it is less and less frequent

professionally, in case of success, of not being able to

and that artificial insemination is not reimbursed after the

seduce a man, of not being able to be the select object

age of 40, at least not in France. It’s very interesting to see

of desire. So there are new anxieties. They also have access

the new satisfactions, without a doubt, new freedoms, but

to new symptoms — the debasement of love life, that

also new galleys. The hellish life that some women force

is to say, the disjunction between the loved partner and the

themselves to live is striking. Similarly, I was surprised

desired partner, is the debasement that Freud discovered

by Simone de Beauvoir who at the end of her life said,

in men, but with the liberalisation of mores we notice that

I was tricked, that is to say, I have missed that which was

it also functions in women. What’s more, there are all

worth the effort. She, who chose an intellectual life without

the new dramas on the level of maternity. The dramas

family or children, when she says I was tricked, she means

of maternity have always existed. These are the dramas

nobody else but herself, it was her choice.

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So what was Lacan’s view? There was no question of him objecting to women’s rights, they’re untouchable, he supported women’s rights to access whatever is possible. He always did a lot, there are testimonies to this, to support what the female analysands wanted regarding work, the life of the couple and maternity. He had nothing against it, but he did have, I believe, a tendency to think that a woman has a lot to lose, that women have a lot to lose, if they enter phallic competition. There are several remarks on this subject. It was probably his opinion, but we are not obliged to share it, we have a choice. That would be all.

Transcription: Anna Wojakowska-Skiba

Lex Dreviński

French-English Translation: Anatol Magdziarz

Free Pussy Riot


Anna Gromada Anna Gromada — Polish sociologist, economist, researcher of the Polish Academy of Sciences, co-founder of the Kalecki Foundation. Anna obtained an

ma in

International Development

from Sciences Po Paris,

ba in

Sociology and

Politics from Cambridge University, ba in International Economics from the Warsaw School of Economics. She has collaborated, among others, with Polish and French public administration, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd) and Thomson Reuters.

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Anna Gromada

Can gender inequality be attributed to family roles?

Can gender inequality be attributed to family roles? A case study of the childless art world

making this environment radically less family–centric than other groups in the Polish society. For another thing, women constitute 77% of Polish art

The “leaky pipeline”, or diminishing proportion of women

students but only 22% of art professors — despite being

along the career path, has been observed in various domains

the majority of art students since the 1940s. This is the

of public life, including academia. When trying to explain

biggest gender gap between subsequent career stages

barriers to women’s advancement, many academics and

among all academic disciplines apart from theology where

laypeople alike resort to different versions of the allegedly

the over–representation of men reflects their privileged

universal argument: it is all because of the family.

position in the Catholic Church2. A major which is equally frequently studied by women as art is medicine but there

Usually, an impact of family roles is hard to disentangle

we see more continuity between academia as a place of

from a myriad of other influences that make for the

study and academia as a place of teaching: 74% of students

fabric of social life. Yet, to weight up this claim against

and 57% of teachers are female. In comparison with medical

other criteria that could potentially explain inequality —

schools, gaps in art go well beyond the “expected loss” of

such as differences in treatment, networking, aspirations,

women — a phenomenon that calls for explanation of what

priorities or self–confidence — one might focus on a milieu

makes this academic pipeline particularly leaky. Moreover,

which is simultaneously characterised by departure from

if the two phenomena — considerable childlessness and

familiarism and by extreme outflow of women from higher

leaky pipeline — can coexist — gender inequality is a

echelons of the academic ladder: Poland’s art world.

phenomenon that penetrates substantially deeper than the classic: it must be because of the family.

For one thing, Poland’s world of visual arts seems very far from traditional family roles or — in some cases — any family roles. As shown in the “Art Factory” report , 79% 1

of the surveyed art–projects’ employees were childless,

61

1. Kozłowski M., Sowa J., Szreder K., Fabryka Sztuki: Podział pracy oraz dystrybucja kapitałów społecznych w polu sztuk wizualnych we współczesnej Polsce. Free University of Warsaw, Bęc Zmiana Foundation, 2014. 2. Central Statistical Office, Higher Education Institutions and their Finances, Warsaw, 2014.

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Anna Gromada

Can gender inequality be attributed to family roles?

Literature

reproductive capacities of a woman’s body but not that

Family has a long tradition of being quoted as the universal

of a man. These narratives are closely linked to one of

explanation of a wide range of phenomena linked to a

the strongest assumptions in the discourse on gender:

gendered division of power. Against the backdrop of this

women want and will perform family roles and bear the

legacy, it is important to distinguish between serious

majority of career–related sacrifices. Yet, what about

research and narratives that mechanically translate

people who decide to remain deliberately childless?

assumed family roles into power differences. Serious

They can still be subject to “preventive discrimination”,

research has long shown influence on women’s careers:

or a situation when a person in a position of power

for example, Mason and Goulden who followed careers

deems reasonable to calculate imagined family roles

of over 160 thousand American PhD holders concluded that

into expected “return on investment” from an employee

marriage and parenthood are the top reason for eliminating

or a student, regardless of the person’s actual plans.

women from academia. At the same time, men who become fathers early in their career are 38% more likely to be hired than women in the same situation. In Xie’s and Shauman’s

Research Findings

study of eight thousand academic careers, female

The research Little Chance to Advance? involved almost

scientists with children had lower career prospects and

a thousand representatives of Poland’s world of visual

less mobility than male scientists with children: in contrast

arts. Data have been gathered from freedom of information

to women’s careers, men’s careers have benefited from

requests, surveys, and in-depth interviews at all Polish public

starting a family 3 .

institutions offering visual art training. Almost 970 students or more than 10% of Poland’s art student population filled in our

By contrast, narratives on family tend to make strong links

survey, while 32 professors, assistants, alumni and students

between “biology” and justifications for keeping women

participated in in–depth interviews. The work sought to accept

away from power in a society. For example, in Sex in

or reject ten hypotheses linked to the leaky pipeline with one

Education, or a Fair Chance for the Girls, published in 1873,

of them referring to family. Questions about family occurred

professor Edward Clarke argued that education can harm

in three contexts: overall life aspirations with family being one of the future options; job priorities — whether having time for family is among the features considered when choosing a job; and questions about sacrifices that respondents would be

3. Y. Xie, K.A. Shauman, Women in Science: Career Processes and Outcomes, Cambridge,

able to make for the sake of family.

MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.

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Anna Gromada

Can gender inequality be attributed to family roles?

Firstly, neither men nor women saw “taking care of the family”

not be willing to give up their artistic aspirations even for

as an attractive prospect. It was placed ninth among twelve

the sake of the family.

options with only “retraining”, “employment in a profession unrelated to art” and “other” ranked lower. In comparison

Overall, homemaking has turned out to be an attractive

to men, women were slightly less eager to take care of

future prospect neither for female nor male students

the family after their studies (2.3 and 2.0 points respectively)

of visual art academies. Yet, when it comes to options

with attractiveness of “taking care of the family” decreasing

of advancement, opinions of recruiters might be more

in time to an average of 1.8 in the final year among both

important than those of the recruited. In turn, recruiters

women (from 2.3 in the first year) and men (from 2.5 in the

tend to be people who have obtained certain status that

first year). Importantly, women saw this prospect as more

correlates with age and usually have been shaped by

probable than attractive — in other words women more often

different times and ideas.

declared that even though they do not want to take care of the family after their studies, this would probably happen.

In our qualitative sample, professors often repeated received ideas about women’s futures. One acclaimed male

Secondly, when we have asked respondents to pick

professor believed in the natural turn to family that occurs

three work priorities, both men and women went for self–

around the middle of the 5–year studies: After their second,

development, independence and money. Only 28% of women

third year, women become less active as artists and start

and 23% of men mentioned “having time for the family”

transitioning into the realm of motherhood, womanhood,

as a desired work feature.

the family. If I see a female student in her fourth year and she comes to classes with a small dog or a pet, I know she

Thirdly, to learn how students envisage combining

will be pregnant very soon. Interestingly, in our sample that

professional careers with family life, we asked about

embraced people born between 1967 and 1996, overwhelming

sacrifices that they would be ready to make. Respondents

97%, or 895 out of 922 students who answered the question

were unwilling to give up their artistic aspirations and

about their family situation, said they were childless.

salaried employment for the sake of the family. Women and men agreed that the division of house chores should

Another male professor in the position of power admitted

be equal, yet both declared greater readiness for sacrifices

that his male friends were wary of employing women

for the sake of art. When respondents were finally asked to

because of the fear of “consecutive pregnancies”.

choose between art and family: 58% of female respondents

This statement is even more paradoxical than that about

and 52% of male respondents declared that they would

little dogs foreshadowing pregnancies: since 1990, Poland

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Anna Gromada

Can gender inequality be attributed to family roles?

has total fertility rates below replacement levels which

dedication to art but possibly also to an attempt to protect

has turned the country into “one child society” with the

themselves from preventive discrimination — that occurs

art scene more likely resembling “zero child society”. Yet,

when others make unjustified assumptions about your future

discoursive ideas might have more impact than the reality.

life that you might not even seek.

If recruiters a priori assume that women will start a family, their convictions are more likely to influence recruitment

This brings us to a broader question: what is the origin

choices than actual life plans of women in question. It is

and the result of presenting parenthood as a looming

also against such received ideas that some of women

professional threat rather than as one of the ways of human

fight — especially these who are strongly career-focused.

fulfilment that people should be able to pursue without fear

In our sample, an interesting case was an accomplished

and prejudice? One of the origins might be a willingness to

female professor who not only decided to remain childless

put women “to their place” — underpinned by the conviction

for the sake of art but also was very outspoken about this

that when faced with the “either/or” choice, they would

life choice with her colleagues — as if she tried to forestall

point to family. Yet, in the past few decades, the adaptive

preventive discrimination.

behaviour of women has substantially changed. Until very recently, it was assumed that if a work-life reconciliation project failed, a woman would be the one to abandon her

Discussion

career for the sake of family. However, in Europe, the last

Presented results point to a series of paradoxes: on

40 years have shown that, increasingly, this is not the

the one hand, both women and men of art are relatively

case: for instance, in today’s Germany, 40% of university-

uninterested in family life and willing to make greater

educated women remain childless. It is possible that,

sacrifices for the sake of art than for the sake of family.

in Poland, seeds of this cultural change are germinating

On the other hand, female students are judged on the

first in the most liberal circles, such as the art world.

imagined family roles that many of them do not even aspire to perform. Concurrently, it is possible that what

Yet, more important are potential consequences of forcing

is presented as a “peril of motherhood” rather than one

people to choose between false alternatives. Worryingly, it

of the options for achieving human fulfilment would not

might be possible that some of respondents would like to

push some of these women into “either/or” dilemma,

have a family, had they felt that they are not compelled to

had it not been presented as a factor that diminishes their

choose between binary oppositions. These fears remain

role as artists. Outspoken refusal of family roles by some

despite the fact that visual art students appear to be

of the participants of the study might be linked to their

significantly more progressive in terms of attitudes towards

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Can gender inequality be attributed to family roles?

gender equality than Polish society in general and the

family?” — 52% of men and 58% of women choose art.

equivalent age group in particular. Only 7% of female art

This “afamiliarism” is especially striking when juxtaposed

students and 16% of male art students agreed with the

with values declared by the Polish society (cbos, 2013) where

statement that “women should be prepared to cut down

family comes regularly at the top (82%), followed by health

on paid work for the sake of a family”, while 89% of

(74%) and upright life (26%), while “access to culture” comes

women and 78% of men agreed with the statement that

consistently at the bottom (1%). We have always known

4

“men should take as much responsibility as women for

that “artists are different”. Yet, our research shows that this

home and children”. It is possible that the prospect of

difference embraces unusual lack of interest in family with

professional judgement is more potent than that about

little chance for advance for women at the academic ladder.

the division of labour at home.

Conclusion Gender inequality is a deeply rooted phenomenon that goes far beyond the realm of the family and can take deep root also in predominantly childless environments. The research has shown a presence of an extremely “leaky pipeline” among people who declare an utmost dedication to art combined with relatively weak interest in family. As far as the Art Factory focused on working artists, Little chance to advance? has shown that even at earlier stages of life — most participants were in their 20s — art students do not place family among their key aspirations. Three fourths do not envisage time for family among their three job priorities and — when asked a border question “art or

4. B y contrast, in Poland’s age group 19-24, 47% of men and 46% of women agreed with this statement (ess 2010 database.)

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Anita Kunz Treat Women As Equals


Ania Światłowska Visual artist and graphic designer. Doctor of Fine Arts at Complutense University of Madrid, Resident Artist at School of Visual Arts in New York City. Co-founder of Grafaktura graphic design studio and

sito

silkscreen workshop in

Warsaw. A great admirer of typography, geometry and colour grey. Her doctoral dissertation Feminist art in Poland. Emerging artists 2010–2015 was awarded a honorable prize by the ucm Fine Arts Department.

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Ania Światłowska

Feminism in Polish art

Feminism in Polish art In the history of Polish art we have an outstanding

practices of Polish artists, regardless of the generation.

feminist representation — Ewa Partum, Zofia Kulik, Alicja

“The problem” is also pretty visible among the youngest artist,

Żebrowska, Anna Baumgart, Elżbieta Jabłońska, to name

whom I interviewed as a part of the research. Many of them,

a few artists. We also do have a problem with feminism,

despite creating art with clear feminist or post–feminist

and Polish feminist art has it, too. The complicated

tones and being aware of the gender inequality, did not

relationship between art and feminism in Poland became

refer to feminism directly in their work and even denied it,

one of the main topics of my research, with special focus

explaining — just like their older colleagues — that they did

on emerging artist.

not want to be labelled. They were keen on taking a confusing approach, in which, on the one hand, they recognized

Feminist art arose in the late sixties during the “feminist

the importance of feminism, and on the other, rejected

wave” which influenced the United States and Western

it. They said things like: “I am a feminist, but not like that”,

Europe. In Poland, however, due to the geopolitical isolation

“I don’t need feminism, because I don’t feel discriminated”

and the peculiar social reality, feminist theories hardly

or “If women artist are discriminated it’s because they

existed until 1989. With this scenario, it seems incredible

want to be discriminated”. In some cases, it was clearly

that lready as far back as the seventies, artists who

a self–defence mechanism — well known from previous

took actions with feminist overtones were active. Along

generations of Polish feminist artists — against contempt

with the capitalist transition and the opening of borders,

and denial by the artistic community. In other cases, this was

feminist issues were gradually being introduced in the main

due to the belief that the problem of inequality is out–dated

artistic trends and are present to this day, having taken an

or exaggerated. Also, the aversion to define the work as

impressive variety of forms and meanings. The one thing

“feminist art” was often caused by various problems and

that remains unchanged through the years is the infamous

misunderstandings when defining feminism and feminist art.

“problem with feminism”. One of the main reasons for this situation seems to be, The ambiguous attitude towards feminism and the aversion

beyond cultural and social factors, the system of art

to the term “feminist art” is the feature of the feminist

education in Poland. The fine arts academies are very

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masculinized — although women make up statistically the majority of students, they hardly ever become university professors. The program does not include feminist art or any critical theories that can develop social awareness and intellectual independence of young artists. The negative image of feminist art and the fear of being excluded from “serious” artistic circles is still alive among both teachers and students. Interestingly, all the interviewed artists graduated under the supervision of a male tutor, and when asked about their artistic influences, most of them indicated male artists. This similarity in the declarations of the emerging artists with their older colleagues shows that, sadly, not much has changed, that the problem remains the same, and there actually aren’t any great ideas for a big change in the nearest future. It seems safe to say that today, despite the unquestionable progress in gender equality in the last decades, in Polish world of art we still mannerly play by the old, male rules.

Robynne Raye I Am Woman Hear Me Roar


Barbara Nowacka Barbara Nowacka (born 1975 in Warsaw) is a

Protest” action, a massive nationwide demon-

feminist, politician and left-wing activist. She

stration which ultimately succeeded in forcing

holds an

mba

and is an

it

specialist by educa-

the political right to back down. For her role in

tion. She is Chancellor of the Polish-Japanese

“Czarny Protest”, Nowacka was ranked one of

Academy of Information Technology in Warsaw.

the Top 100 Global Thinkers of 2016 by Foreign Policy magazine.

Nowacka is co-chair of the “Twój Ruch” Party, a member of the Women’s Congress National Council, and chair of the progressive association “Initiative Poland”. She is also a co-founder and deputy chair of the Izabela Jaruga-Nowacka Foundation, an organization which aims to promote equality, social justice and social inclusion. Nowacka headed the election committee for the “United Left” coalition during the 2015 Polish parliamentary election. In 2016 she organized and chaired the “Save women” initiative, a civil bill which aimed to liberalise abortion laws in Poland. In October 2016, in response to an attempt by the political right to implement a total ban on abortion, Nowacka became a leading figure in the “Czarny

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Barbara Nowacka

Women’s rights: the fight that never ends

Women’s rights: the fight that never ends Gender-based discrimination continues to be a prevalent

the objective is one and the same: it is a fight for dignity

feature in our politics, culture, media, education, and

and justice.

healthcare system. The most popular weapons of choice — religion, tradition and society — are still being utilised

Polish women appear to have been victorious in many of

in the battle against the full emancipation of women.

these battles — the right to vote, for example, was granted to the women of Poland in 1918. This was no easy victory;

Despite the hard-won achievements of women’s movements

but the importance of the role of women during Poland’s

over the past hundred years, such as voting rights and access

turbulent struggle for independence during the nineteenth

to education, women today continue to be constrained by a

and early twentieth centuries meant that demands for

patriarchy which maintains a powerful grip on both the public

suffrage and property rights could no longer be ignored.

and private spheres. More recently, the focus of the assault on women’s equality The fight for equal rights and equal opportunities has

in Poland has shifted to the question of reproductive

spilled over into the twenty-first century. The fight against

rights. Or rather, shifted back to the question, for the battle

gender-based discrimination is a global one; while the

over women’s reproductive rights has now been raging for

form of discrimination may vary from country to country,

over a century.

the motivation remains the same. Alas, the fundamental idea that women’s rights are human rights is still called

Sandwiched between Protestant Germany and Orthodox

into question.

Russia, Poland, during its long struggle for independence, was constructing a national identity based on Roman

The specifics of these struggles vary from one part of the

Catholic values. The strong links forged between the Church

world to another — in some countries, the enemy is forced

and Polish independence movements (and their political

marriage, genital mutilation and “rape culture”; in others, it is

leaders) resulted in increasingly restrictive views regarding

domestic violence and the gender pay gap. But, at their core,

the role of women in society and, in particular, their right to make decisions about their own bodies.

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Barbara Nowacka

Women’s rights: the fight that never ends

In Poland, as in many countries where abortion had been

as France in the 1960s. Abortion was legal and the sole

outlawed, an underground abortion industry sprang up,

decision of the woman at this time.

whereby desperate women were forced to seek out doctors who were willing to carry out the procedure (for an exorbitant

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 signalled the symbolic

fee), or visit a backstreet abortionist. The latter writers

endźof the Communist era in Eastern Europe, the year

often elderly women — so-called “babki” — who worked

of freeźdemocratic elections in Poland.

in unsanitary conditions and employed dangerous and unorthodox methods to terminate the pregnancy. As a result,

Poland had regained its sovereignty, but the transformation

many women died or became gravely ill. Progressive activists,

from a socialist to a liberal economy had a catastrophic

artists, writers and poets — including Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński

impact upon the lives of Polish women. In the economic

and Irena Krzywicka — began to educate society and put

sphere, women were the first to lose their jobs, the result

pressure on the authorities. In 1932, the government passed

of a neoliberal paradigm which demanded the closure

a law permitting abortion in cases where the pregnancy

or privatisation of non-state-owned industries. In Lódź,

resulted from rape or incest, or where continuation of the

Poland’s second largest city, the cotton and textile

pregnancy would endanger the woman’s life or health.

industries (which employed vast numbers of hardworking women) began to decline and wrought an economic hardship

After World War II, the Stalinist government stripped Polish

which continues to this day.

women of their right to an abortion. Like other totalitarian regimes, Stalinism sought to remove women’s ability to make

The gender pay gap widened further still. Newly implemented

autonomous decisions about their bodies and believed

reforms to the healthcare system saw the liquidation of

the State could and should command women to give birth,

health centres specialising in women’s health.

regardless of any negative consequences to the health of the women concerned. As a result, the underground abortion

The question of reproductive rights soon resurfaced on

industry grew rapidly, as did the death rates for women

the battlefield. The democratic opposition which took

following illegal abortions.

power after the collapse of Communism had strong ties to the Catholic Church. Faced with a swathe of dramatic

With the end of Stalinism came greater autonomy over

neoliberal reforms, these politicians sought to sacrifice

women’s reproductive health. A 1956 white paper produced

the freedom of Polish women at the altar of political

by the Polish government on abortion rights became the

expediency, to profit by gaining the support of the Church.

template for several countries in Western Europe, such

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Barbara Nowacka

Women’s rights: the fight that never ends

Meanwhile, the reigning Polish pope, John Paul II, embarked

legally engage in sexual activity (the age of consent in

on a crusade to protect the unborn. Conservative politicians

Poland is 15), but cannot obtain contraceptives without

and those on the extreme right viewed the curtailment

parental consent.

of women’s freedoms as a small price to pay for the endorsement of the Catholic Church, an institution which

The so-called “conscience clause” may be cited not only

commanded considerable respect due to its opposition

by doctors unwilling to perform a legal abortion (including

to Communism.

an emergency abortion), but also by pharmacists who refuse to sell contraceptives.

In return for its political support, the Church was given primacy in the Polish education system. To this day, religion

In the meantime, the underground abortion industry

(i. e. Catholic teachings) remains a complementary subject

flourishes once more, and is joined by an increase in abortion

in the curriculum in all Polish public institutions, from

tourism, whereby desperate women will travel to countries

kindergarten to secondary school. This dominance has also

with more liberal abortion laws, such as Slovakia, Germany,

brought the Church financial benefits. In 1992, the Polish government passed a draconian law which completely outlawed abortion and threatened doctors and patients alike with incarceration. Following a flurry of civil actions and high-profile resistance, the government was forced to reach a compromise and, in 1993, the law was amended to permit abortions in cases where the pregnancy posed a risk to the life of the mother, where conception was the result of a crime, or where the foetus was irreversibly damaged. Abortion under any other circumstances was considered a criminal action. The problem is compounded by the absence of sexual education in the school curriculum and the fact that contraceptives are both expensive and difficult to obtain from public healthcare facilities. Young women under 18 may

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Barbara Nowacka

Women’s rights: the fight that never ends

Sweden, the UK and Ukraine. Independent research

We even received a touching photo and support from

estimates that as many as 80 000 abortions are performed

the ruins of Aleppo. Those who were unable to attend

annually (either illegally or abroad) at the request of

a protest posted photos of themselves dressed in

Polish women.

black to social media and added the protest’s hashtag (#czarnyprotest). Mothers, daughters, grandmothers,

This sorry state of affairs has seemingly done nothing to

husbands, fathers, sons and members of the lgbt community

placate ultra-conservative politicians, who, in 2016, renewed

stood shoulder to shoulder in heavy rain to protest this latest

their attempts to introduce a bill outlawing abortion

assault on the women of Poland. The weather provided the

completely, with punitive measures of up to five years

protest with its very own potent symbol: the black umbrella.

in prison for any woman in violation of the law. The decision by a parliamentary majority to progress this bill met with

The women who gathered across Poland began to speak

massive protests by women across Poland in October 2016.

out about the oppression they experience in everyday life. About the discrimination in education, the labour market,

This nightmare of right-wing radicals exerting total control

the pension system. About the scourge of domestic violence.

over women’s reproductive cycles, from first menstruation

About the difficulties they face in accessing medical care

to menopause, was just beginning.

and social services.

Hundreds of thousands of women (and countless men)

That day we won the battle.

joined us to voice their opposition on the streets of Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław, and in many other towns and cities

The October protests had a significant impact on the media,

throughout Poland. While cities saw the largest protests

on politics and society. And on women more generally.

(attracting crowds of 50–200 thousand people), smaller

Political parties and society began to realise that “women’s

towns and villages with no history of political action also

issues” were not a red herring, but a serious, complex and

got involved. For example, in Hel — a village in northern

significant issue. And reproductive rights were merely the

Poland — fourteen people proudly marched in support

tip of the iceberg.

of the rights of Polish women. The feminist movement has attracted new support and new Protests also sprang up internationally, both in Europe

allies from varying walks of life. Journalists, actors, artists,

(London, Paris, Berlin, Copenhagen, Dublin and Strasbourg)

personalities, academics and opinion leaders have come

and further afield (New York, Delhi, Toronto and Sydney).

aboard in support of the cause of women. The media is also

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beginning to open its eyes to the fact that women’s rights are about so much more than reproductive rights. Women have become emboldened to speak out and the number of local women’s rights activists has increased; this in turn has strengthened the resolve of women’s organisations throughout Poland. Through solidarity, women are now increasingly more likely — and less afraid — to speak out about the injustices they face, e. g. domestic violence. Reproductive rights lie at the very heart of women’s fight for equality. If the decision to make fundamental decisions about our own bodies is not our own, if our maternity belongs not to us, but to politicians and lawmakers, then society is sending its womenfolk a clear and dangerous message: you cannot be trusted to make important decisions. This “we know better” attitude only reinforces the notion that women are not equal to men, not as capable. This insidious paternalism creates a space for discrimination and genderbased violence. And takes away not only our human rights, but our dignity. For hundreds of years, women have dreamt of a world free of oppression, be it from governments, religious leaders, employers or spouses. Now, in the twenty-first century, we have done enough dreaming: it is time we were afforded the same rights and power as the other half of the species. Anything else would be an untenable injustice. Joe Scorsone & Alice Drueding Sexual Slavery


Ewa Kuryluk Ewa Kuryluk (born 5 May 1946) is a pioneer of textile installation, painter, photographer, art historian, novelist and poet, and the author of numerous books, written in Polish and English, many of which have been translated into other languages. She had over fifty-five solo exhibitions, participated in many group shows and created outdoor installations throughout the world. In 2016 her Painting Retrospective was shown by the National Museum in Kraków. Her work can be seen in the National Museums in Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław and Poznań, as well as in public and private collections in Europe, usa , Latin America and Japan.

for Linda Nochlin and Ann Snitow

Ewa Kuryluk at her studio, 2010, photography by David Henry

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Ewa Kuryluk

Rafaella! Rafaella!

Rafaella! Rafaella! In 1959, with my father appointed a diplomat in Austria,

Palazzo Ducale was mostly empty. The traffic was running

I moved with my parents to Vienna, and to the world on

along the Adriatic coast, few tourists ventured into the narrow

the other side of the iron curtain. I saw my first old masters

road winding up the hill to Urbino, most students preferred

in original in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, and I hitchhiked

going to street cafes. Thus the museum guardians, glad

across Europe in the summer holidays. But it’s the last

to have a regular visitor, walked me around and pointed out

vacation before returning to Poland in the fall of 1964 that

windows with views reminiscent of Renaissance landscapes.

really made a change. I was awarded a summer fellowship

That summer, full of expectation and feeling already adult,

at the University of Urbino by the Italian Institute in Vienna

I was drawn to portraits of young women. I saw myself

and went to Italy after my high school exams for the first

in the countless Holy Virgins, in princesses, courtesans,

time on my own. On previous trips I discovered medieval art,

angels, and in all sorts of female allegories. As I admired the

then I discovered the Renaissance.

delicacy of features, the luminosity of eyes, the fine curving of lips, the elegance of pose and outfit, and the silent eloquence

The University had put me up in a small dark room

of hands, I tried to imagine women who had stood model for

overlooking the yard of a school for boys. Across the street

the artists: their mistresses, brides and wives, sisters and

was the birth house of Raphael. When the boys saw me

maids, and the old nannies posing for the Lady of Sorrow.

paint on the balcony, they laughed and shouted: “Raffaella,

Would I ever be able to learn how to draw and paint like that?

Raffaella!” Raphael’s father, Giovanni Santi, was a court

What will they teach me in Warsaw? Am I talented enough?

painter of the duke of Urbino. His Palazzo Ducale, an icon

And why isn’t there any art work made by women?

of pure Renaissance style, was a museum I could visit for free with my student pass. So I went almost every day,

Indeed. In the pre-feminist year 1964 no paintings by

and came to love two paintings in particular: Piero della

Sofonisba Anguissola or Artemisia Gentileschi — both

Francesca’s Madonna di Senigallia, a harsh beauty with baby

of them as famous in their day as they are famous today —

Jesus wearing the coral, symbolic of passion, and Raphael’s

were to be found on museum walls or in guidebooks. This

portrait of an enigmatic young girl called “The mute”.

worried me quite a bit, but I reassured myself with my father’s explanation that it’s not a question of sex. No, not at all! In the past women simply had no access to education and

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could not exercise a profession. Hence, even when they were gifted and passionate and hardworking, they could become, at best, helpers of male artists in the family, usually their fathers. In October, I enrolled at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, and was shocked by what I saw and heard. Who wants to educate girls? They are gifted for making babies, not art, used to say one of our professors, as he invited girls to sit on his lap. Oh yes! I would have fallen in despair, had my parents not believed in me so much. My father told me to fight for the rights I had been already granted, if only “on paper”. And my mother, even though an artist manqué herself, considered me already then “a real painter”. In May 2016, a book of conversations about my life and work was published in Warsaw to coincide with my Painting Retrospective at the National Museum in Cracow. The book’s title, “Manhattan and Little Venice”, refers to New York and London where I lived and worked in the last century, and one chapter is titled “Rafaella, Rafaella!” Having read it, a friend asked me, perhaps tongue in cheek, if I feel proud to be “the Rafaella of the late 20th century”. Not at all, I replied seriously, I was lucky to be born to feminist parents in postwar Europe, and I profited from feminist mentality all over the world. I am a beneficiary of women’s emancipation, but I don’t take anything for granted. We must keep fighting for human rights, and for our right to be “a Raffaella.”

A modified fragment of Ewa Kuryluk’s book Manhattan i Mała Wenecja, Manhattan and the Little Venice, Zeszyty Literackie, Warsaw 2016

Teresa Sdralevich Salaire Egal Equal Pay


Mariusz Knorowski Curator of the Poster Museum at Wilanów

On June 4th 1968, this institution, boasting one

The Museum’s archives hold over 62 thousand

of the largest poster collections in the world,

artistic, advertising and propaganda prints from

commenced operations in the Wilanów palace

all over the world, encompassing almost every

complex, the suburban residence of King Jan

culture. The oldest date back to the birth of the

iii

Sobieski. For its pioneering activities, in 1983

poster as an artistic medium.

the Poster Museum was the recipient of the prestigious Ernst Litfass (inventor of the original

The world’s first Poster Museum is today one

free-standing cylindrical advertising column)

of the most dynamic branches of the National

medal of honour, awarded by Fachverband

Museum in Warsaw. Since its inception, the

Außenwerbung e.V. (faw) in Düsseldorf.

staff of the Wilanów Museum have organized, either independently or in cooperation with

The Museum is housed in the palace’s adapted

numerous renowned institutions from many

former riding arena, which dates from the

countries, nearly 400 exhibitions devoted to

second half of the 19th century, and whose

poster art. Monographic shows, in the conven-

distinctive façade, attributed to Franciszek

tion of temporary exhibitions organized in the

Maria Lanci, is one of the most representative

Museum’s galleries, present the rich history

examples of Polish modernism. The Poster Mu-

of the poster, its innumerable variations and

seum’s modern architectural complex, designed

functions, and popularize the achievements of

by Jacek Cydzik and Halina Kossuth, is also the

the most outstanding creators of “street art”.

first building erected in Poland after 1945 to take into account the specific needs and functions of a modern museum.

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Mariusz Knorowski

The Poster Museum at Wilanów

The subject of equality for women The subject of equality for women in the public discourse

as in other, related events around the world, especially

has a long tradition in democratic societies. As early as the

in the 1980s, associated with the so-called third wave

mid-nineteenth century, the first arguments were being

or post-feminism. From the point of view of the Poster

put forward concerning the need to regulate certain issues

Museum’s collection, which includes such works, we can

in this connection. In the early-twentieth century, activities

talk about a clearly formed style of artistic expression,

to promote equal rights for women in public life had already

whose task is to intervene against real threats and acts

been undertaken by the suffrage movement, which is

of violence, sometimes bordering on barbarism. Not all

commonly associated with the process towards women’s

the messages of this kind appear in competitions as merely

emancipation. It would be difficult however, to point to any

the aesthetic expression of an artistic or activist attitude,

separate iconography during that rising tide of protest

though this in no way reduces their value. Many of them

that could be considered as constituting a weapon in

operate directly in the existing reality, where aesthetic

the struggle. The known cases were mainly distributed

values are of secondary importance. Their task is in fact

declarations and varied forms of manifestation. Only in the

to exert social pressure aimed at changing the status

last quarter of the twentieth century, with the advent of the

of women in modern society. Functioning as posters,

feminist movement (i.e. the second wave of that movement),

in accordance with the nature of this medium, they alert

can we talk about a conscious strategy in the field of visual

the viewer and appeal for specific tasks to be undertaken.

arts. Such manifestations, conducted on a global scale,

They point to the threats, in order to make us aware of

sometimes in the form of aggressive and coordinated

the inappropriateness of erstwhile hierarchies, and the

actions, or simply solidarity support, in response to drastic

inequality and injustice in mutual relations and treatment.

violations of women’s dignity and manifestations of extreme

They appear on the modern forum in order to oppose

discrimination or finally, brutal rapes of an ethnic nature,

examples of the exclusion or even pathological behaviour

were eventually provided their own language of expression.

to which women fall victim. A positive aspect is the fact that women are ever more frequently speaking out en

This situation is reflected in the kind of works submitted

masse on those issues most vital to them and finding

to the International Poster Biennale in Warsaw, as well

many allies.

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I hope that this exhibition, as illustration of the subject, will not only bring an important contribution to the debate, but will also help to assess the scale of the phenomenon in the field of art and will demonstrate means of expression and the power of their persuasion through suggestive images free of camouflaged allusions. Regardless of our assessment, the works constitute a documentary description of the “battlefield” and an integral part of our social iconography. Most of them are unconfined by any period of limitation, and although some are now history, others continue to participate in a number of battles, on the fringes of various cultures and civilizations.

exhibition

28.04–30.07.2017

Marta Zofia Myszewska Women’s Rights Are Human Rights

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Verena Gerlach Verena Gerlach was born in Berlin and studied Visual Communication at Kunsthochschule Berlin Weissensee. Shortly after finishing art school in 1998, she founded her own studio (fraugerlach) for graphic design, type design and typography. As well as all kinds of typographic print works and type design, Verena also art directed several video clips and worked on the typographic production for international contemporary artists. Verena lectured in type design and typography at Design Akademie Berlin from 2003 till 2009 and has given lectures and workshops about type and graphic design all over the globe. She also works as a freelance book designer for the German publisher Hatje Cantz.

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Paradox alg(i)er(s)

PARADOX ALG(I)ER(S)

In 2009 Verena Gerlach made two visits two Algiers, the capital of Algeria. She was invited by the Goethe Institute and was scheduled to teach two workshops for the design students of the École de Beaux-Arts. While staying in Algiers, Verena learned a lot about life under a dictatorship. The paradox: Algiers is a very beautiful city, the people are lovely, the culture stunning, the weather pleasant, Verena Gerlach Doku Casbah Cens

and it could be the perfect place… but: there 4 four instances where Verena was threatened with arrest for taking ordinary photographs (like letters, details, architecture). She was also censored in her first workshop. The second workshop was blocked by the government. As a response to her

Verena Gerlach Doku Fisch

experience in Algiers, Verena designed a series of screen printed posters (A1) for different subjects that especially

because most of the information will be covered by the

caught her interest.Since the posters were to be exhibited

silhouette of something which replaces the suppression

in both Germany and Algiers, Verena had to decide to either

and censorship. To offer more information about Algeria,

visually lie and make only ‘nice’, touristic posters, which

Verena designed fourteen A0 size posters about its history

would please the Algerian authorities, or to show the

and political background. The texts were taken from Dr. Alix

oppressive reality.

Landgren’s reception speech at the Berlin exhibition.

The solution: she created two set of posters. One for

To support the force of these texts, she worked in a collage

Algiers and one for Berlin. But the censored (and therefore

technique, using her own typefaces and the photographs

true) posters are the ones for the “free West”. They are a

she had taken on her visits. These posters are printed in

bit like the city itself: You can’t see the real beauty or joy,

black and white, to contrast the colourful screen prints.

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Workshops program 24.04 – 2 7.04.2017

Elizabeth Resnick (usa) Women’s Rights Are Human Rights: Designing posters as agency for social change

Verena Gerlach (ger)

Ceren Çalişkan (tr)

The Little Things — Visualizing Every Day Sexism

The woman on the street

Aušra Lisauskiene (ltu)

Sylvie Page (ger)

Feminine or Masculine type design

Trivial Pursuit Humor in the women’s universe

Maja Wolna (pl) The source of feminine power and its

Janna Beck (gb)

impact (influence) on the development

Selfie

of a dialogue between men and women (all over the world) — poster and its power

Grafprom studio (uk )

transmission

objects and minibooks

h


Workshops


Women’s Rights Are Human Rights: Designing posters as agency for social change

Elizabeth Resnick of contemporary sexual politics as mandated by

Elizabeth Resnick is a Professor Emerita, former

the state and the dominant religion. I was told

chair of Graphic Design and current part-time

that most of the students were first and second

faculty at Massachusetts College of Art and Design,

year Media majors. By the time of this work-

Boston. She earned her b.f.a. and m.f.a. degrees

shop, many of the students had developed an

in Graphic Design from Rhode Island School of

adequate visual language/computer–enabled

Design, Providence, Rhode Island.

skills set, and were able, with feedback and encouragement from both their peers and their

Elizabeth Resnick Design, an independent Bos-

“Design can and must become a way in which

The workshop assignment given to the stu-

instructor, to develop compelling visual re-

ton design studio was in operation from 1973 till

young people can participate in changing so-

dents was to develop and design an aware-

sponses to the issue at hand. I was very pleased

1996. Clients included: Ciba Corning Diagnostics

ciety… The main trouble with design schools

ness or advocacy poster, or series of related

with their results overall.

Corporation, Store 24, Animal Rescue League of

seems to be that they teach too much design

posters for any current political, economic, or

Boston, AIGA Boston, Massachusetts College of Art,

and not enough about the ecological, social,

cultural issue present within Poland today, or a

and other area schools plus many local non-profit

economic, and political environment in which

political, economic, or cultural issue affecting

cultural organizations.

design takes place.”

the world today like women’s rights includ-

This quote from designer Victor Papanek’s 1971

ing gender-based inequality, violence against

Professor Resnick is a passionate design curator

women and/or discrimination against women.

who has organized seven comprehensive design

book, Design for the Real World, still resonates

exhibitions.

today. Design students and young design pro-

The English-language workshop was scheduled

fessionals should focus their creative talents

at the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information

on social issues during their formative years

Technology in Warsaw for 3 full days: Monday,

to ensure that these ideals will carry into their

April 24 till Wednesday, April 26, 2017. 18 out

professional life. Graphic designers, because

of 19 registered students took on the chal-

of their visual art training, possess the stra-

lenge of visually articulating and/or advocating

tegic tools to create memorable messages.

for some aspect of women’s rights, mirroring

They should be encouraged to use these skills

their own personal concerns as young women

for community and activist purposes, and so

and men in contemporary Polish society.

that they might significantly contribute to

Given that English was every student’s second

public service and non-profit organizations

(or third) language, I admired each of the in-

by conceiving and promoting their awareness

dividual student’s ability to verbally articulate

campaigns for the good of the society at large.

their personal view point within the discussion

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Zofia WÅ‚oczewska

Julia Ninh

Toys for Boys

Equal Responsibilities Before & After

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A WOMAN’S RIGHT TO CHOOSE

Julia Ninh

Magda Kowalczuk

Would you be more careful if it was you that got pregnant?

A Women’s Rights To Choose

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114


Verena Gerlach to get out of these patterns without hurting

Verena Gerlach was born in Berlin and studied

anyone (women are trained to always care about

Visual Communication at Kunsthochschule Berlin

the emotions of others first)?

Weissensee. Shortly after finishing art school in 1998, she founded her own studio (fraugerlach) for

The Little Things — Visualizing Every Day Sexism

Being from former West germany, I experienced

graphic design, type design and typography. As

issues related to “working mothers’ (I am not one

well as all kinds of typographic print works and

myself) differently than the Polish participants.

type design, Verena also art directed several video

In Germany, society makes it very difficult to

clips and worked on the typographic production

have a career while having a family. Due to its

for international contemporary artists. Verena

Communist past, the situation in Poland is quite

has lectured in type design and typography at

the opposite: it is expected that women work

Design Akademie Berlin from 2003 till 2009 and

hard to care for their family (husband included)

has given lectures and workshops about type and

In the Western world, society has agreed that

immune against all kinds of gender inequality.

after work. It was very interesting to see, how

graphic design all over the globe. She also works as

by law, all humans, no matter what gender

They are still in the protected environment of

the (mostly female) group started to (between

a freelance book designer for several well known

and race, have to be treated equally. But how

educational (creative) institutions where, for ex-

the lines) blame the women themselves for their

German art book publishers.

come we frequently have to fight for this basic

ample, the ratio of women to men is higher than in

repressed position. Having this pattern/behav-

human right all the same? Obviously, there is

other fields. But what happens if you take a little

iour pointed out, they mostly felt embarrassed

still a big difference between official papers

closer look? How many of the females will remain

and started to develop their very personal, al-

and real life.

in their creative jobs, and take leading positions?

most intimate, opinions and thoughts. This turn-

Where is the freedom when you leave your com-

ing point was the actual starting point for the

Even though people know that in most of

fort zone? Why do women still (for a reason)

development of really creative and deliberate

Western countries the salary of women is

avoid using short-cuts through parks at night?

ideas. The results are strong and straight to the

20–30% less than of men, a lot of them deny

What about dress codes and judgements? What

point posters. Not loud, but clearly explaining

the fact of inequality. The same counts for

about expectations?

the inequality that still exists within the smaller

career opportunities or just the fact that

scale of life.

women will still be judged negatively if they are

At the beginning of this design workshop, the

not “fulfilling” their (socially) expected duties,

group was discussing their own experiences

I am very proud of the participants having been

while men enjoy some freedom in this concern.

very enthusiastically. They spoke about their

this open and brave about their thoughts, emo-

The younger generations (always) seem to feel

upbringing, the power of family structures. How

tions, and creativity.

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pewnie masz

OKRES STATUS OUO “TATUŚ” MEANS “DADDY”

Borys Kosmynka

Maciej Połczyński

Krystyna Urbańska-Engelmayer

Nie przesadzaj / Not overdo it

Statuś Quo

Persnoal space

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Julia BĹ‚aszczak

Anastasia Buialo

Barbara Krajewska

Watch your language

My personal space

50 shades of feminism

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Aušra Lisauskienė

Feminine or Masculine type design

Ausra Lisauskiene is a calligrapher and a profes-

a search for her own personal writing style, using

sional graphic designer. She graduated from the

non-traditional tools and techniques, calligraphy

Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts and presently is work-

elements in graphic design and vice versa. She

ing as the Head of Graphic Design Department at

also takes part in calligraphy exhibitions, graphic

the same school. She is a member of the Lithuanian

and type design events in Lithuania and abroad

Graphic Designe Association lgda , a member of

scholarships and awards:

the Lithuanian Society of Designers, a member of ATypI, and its country delegate of Lithuania.

•• Norwegian scholarship in 1996;

Her field of interest is the visual examination of

•• The Lithuanian State Scholarship in 2004, 2010,

the phenomenon of typography and a practice in

2015, 2016;

graphic design, visual arts and new media. She

•• French scholarship in 2012;

designs identities and communication systems for

•• Certificate of Excellence of The European Design

The experimental workshop will conceptu-

cultural events, exhibitions, illustrates and designs

ally explore the meaning of the Feminine and

books, creates typefaces, is an expert in the field

•• Graphis Silver Award 2015;

Masculine type design and typography in

of type design and typography. She is involved in

•• Red Dot Communication Design Award 2016.

Annual 2000;

a contemporary cultural/social practices. The students will focus on creating a set of letters communicating as a textual and visual narrative through the medium chosen by themselves: the print media, animation, video, interactive design, etc. A strong concept has to be made into a compelling communication piece through the experimental typography. In addition to communication concerns, the students will be focusing on the contemporary society, to radar or mirror social, cultural or every-day live practice/habits between genders.

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Finding an idea for a creative workshop in a for-

While surfing the Internet, I found some fonts

mat of the whole event Women’s Rights are Hu-

and some of the letters were provoking and

man Rights which was held at Polish-Japanese

teasing. In fact — there is nothing new in the

Academy of Information Technology in April

world of fonts and letters — since the Middle

wasn’t easy for me. And it was also difficult to

Ages the human body has been placed in the

find a fresh idea for the seminar presentation,

initial letters of the ancient manuscripts, playing

because so much has been already said on

cards, satiric illustration letters, etc. I became

this theme…

interested in exploring how such letters of the human body — sensitive historic artifacts —

Personally, I work mostly on Type design,

were transformed into the visual format of the

Typography and Book design and the social

21st century. After some research, I managed

aspect is not so often visible in my artworks

to find several experimental projects and type

at all. Everything should be simple and clear.

design examples that continued the tradition;

However, the phenomenon of typography oc-

the experiments were mostly performed on

In the creative workshop, students were asked

masculine gender, without feminine gender,

curs not within the elements of the structure

women’s hair and bodies. And the question was

to conceptually explore the meaning of the

without gender reassignment and so on.

and composition of an object but within the

— why is only the feminine body used for this?

Feminine and Masculine type design and typog-

interrelations between elements and separate

raphy in contemporary cultural/social practices.

Students were able to use as a source for a set

parts, as well as the visual concepts and their

After I had discovered this social aspect for my

They focused on creating a set of 26 letters —

of letters any/all parts of Human body, as well

semantic meaning. So I decided to focus my

presentation, I was able to go forward with the

communicating as a textual and visual narrative

as everything what goes with the body — for

attention on this, in my presentation as well

idea for the creative workshop. Are the human

through the medium of posters. A strong concept

example: lips and lipstick, body — clothing.

as during the workshop.

(woman) body–letters created in order to visu-

had to be made into a compelling communica-

ally satisfy human (and, especially, male) eyes?

tion piece through experimental typography. In

The result of the workshop was quite good,

After long hours of thinking and sitting in front

If so — may they be attributed to any gender?

addition to communication concerns, students

as in a short time all the students did what

of the computer, I started to search the Internet

Are there male and female letters? What do

were focusing on contemporary society, to radar

was expected of them: sets of 26 letters and

to refresh my memory and mind. The main ques-

the female letters mean? After dealing with

every–day practice/habits between genders

posters. Two days were devoted to creating

tion for me was — is there something interesting

the Human body as a whole, I decided that the

and to try to show by creating a set of letters

letters and the rest of the time was spent

about women’s rights and type design in the

main idea for the workshop will be a question —

and a poster based on an idea without: with-

creating conceptual posters.

context of typography, and how can they be

is there something Feminine or Masculine in

out gender gap, without gender identity, without

connected through Graphic design?

typography and Font design at all?

gender bias, without female gender, without op-

Students were able to learn more about ex-

posite gender, without same gender, without

perimental typography and the duality in Type

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Maciej Mainda Twink

design: first — the image of the text, and sec-

to talk assertively about the human — woman/

ond — text/meaning of the text. The deeper

man body as an equal subject/object in type

perception of Font design, as well as the ability

design and Typography. Why are only young and

to individualize it and creatively integrate it

attractive women’s body parts used for creating

into different forms of media helps to come

such letters? Why not use a man’s or an older

up with the innovative typographical solutions.

woman’s body parts? Are some parts of our

The feedback of the font and poster media, the

body better than others? Are the body–letters

content of the message and its form, the his-

created in order to visually satisfy human (and,

tory and the present are extremely significant.

especially, male) eyes? If so — may they be

As typography, the font (created in the context

attributed to any gender?

of human cultural development) eventually obtains new visual meanings, adapts to the new context, need, as well as the new media factors through its form. The biggest issue at the Feminine or Masculine

Filip Wyrzykowski

Type Design experimental workshop was to start

Can you buy the guts

125


Weronika Racz & Igor Rams

Weronika Racz & Igor Rams

Olga Kullish

Taboo

Taboo

Girls’ Power

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128


Aleksandra Andreeva

Weronika Ĺ awska

From M to W

My brain is the same

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Maja Wolna Studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań, and obtained her ma Diploma in Fine Arts at the Graphic Department of the Academy of Fine Arts

The source of feminine power and its impact (influence) on the development of a dialogue between men and women (all over the world) — poster and its power transmission

Together, we will ponder what meaning is hidden

in Poznań. Currently, she works at the Animation

in the mysterious term “source of power”. Is it

Department of the University of Art in Poznań and

merely an abstract idea, or perhaps the greatest

at Graphic Department of the Warsaw School of

force which may naturally and gradually heal the

Computer Science. She also works at the Warsaw

world in which we live? We will attempt to reach

School of Photography and Graphic Design.

the essence of the relation between women and men. We will try to find the answer to the

Maja Wolna has participated in many interna-

question which issues in everybody’s life and

tional art contests, group and individual exhibi-

in the lives of various societies deserve to be

tions all over the world. She is a winner of the Gold

the first to undergo radical changes. We will

Medal in International Poster Biennial in Warsaw,

address the issue which areas of life require

2010. Wolna cooperates with the Polish daily

healing. We will ponder what rights are vested

magazine Gazeta Wyborcza. Her involvement in

in everybody, regardless of their sex, gender,

the problems of violence, freedom and human

background, origin and religion. How to demand

rights is reflected in many of her works, including

them, how to raise awareness, how to heal?

posters, graphics, paintings, illustrations, collages.

For centuries, women were seen chiefly as

healthy relations between women and men. The

beings meant to serve others. The patriarchy

world needs balance, which we can get closer

disturbed the natural order and almost reduced

to by discovering, manifesting and respecting

The poster will help us express our intentions

women’s innate ability to use their own power

our needs and the natural right to live and to

as explicitly and clearly as possible. We will

and share it with the world. Suppression of the

create in accordance with our natural rhythms.

dedicate most of the time to the search regard-

Can a poster develop the awareness leading

ing the idea itself. During the workshop, which

towards the restoration of the rights arising

natural female desires and skills has been pro-

Currently, she is experimenting with projects using new forms of artistic expression.

gressively impeding women’s ability to connect

The workshop proposed is addressed to ev-

will last only a few days, we will explore the field

from our natural conditioning? I am certain that

with their own energy force, which is the basis

eryone, both female and male, for whom the

of graphic design. However, we will involve our

we will reach the answer during the workshop.

of both vital and creative energies. Authentic

right to discover their own potential and the

minds, hearts and our own emotions and po-

Let us therefore commit ourselves and reach

connection with the female power within us

return to their own hidden sources of power

tentials, allowing for the creation of remarkable

into our sources of power. A poster, especially

is not only a source of emotional and physical

constitute a more or less recognised factor im-

statements. We will begin the practice part by

an engagé one, requires a discipline of form.

health, but also the beginning of healthy rela-

pacting the quality of our lives and our relations

sketching on a piece of paper, and then we will

During our meetings, we will attempt to em-

tions with ourselves and with our own poten-

in the world.

move on to the implementation, using the means

ploy our own potentials, using the means for

which will best allow us to express our message.

conveying our creative expression.

tials. It is also the essential aspect of building

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First of all, I must say I was impressed with

power means in different cultures, religions.

it with the world. Suppression of the natural

the process of working with the international

But regardless of the fact that we come from

female desires and skills has been progressively

group of students. We hadn’t met before, so

different cultural background, we agreed that

impeding women’s ability to connect with their

everything was quite new for all of us. I was

feminine power starts from accepting ourselves,

own energy force, which is the basis of both

especially amazed at their point of view. It was

which of course is not that easy because

vital and creative energies.

a real pleasure to work with the open-minded

most of us carry a lot of emotional wounds.

people, ready to deal with the topic, which

But for sure we should start with ourselves

In many of our talks students mentioned that

wasn’t an easy one. So, I must say I really ap-

and should start to learn how to heal our pain.

many girls have been taught to be quiet and

preciate having met a group of young, wise

By accepting yourself, loving yourself, loving

polite, while boys have been taught they are not

people with whom I could easily discuss the

your own body, recognising the emotions that

allowed to express their emotions by crying. The

current issues. We talked about what’s going

we have, we can regain ourselves and thereby

conclusion was obvious. They both learnt how to

on in the world we live in, about feelings, about

influence the change of the world.

hide their emotions, their tears and fears. It has

what they think, how to start the communica-

Anna_Rajewska_I love myself.pdf 1 2017-04-26 10:53:33

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Anna Rajewska

been mentioned that society uses comparisons

I love myself

tion between women and men all over the world,

A number of difficulties arising from cultural,

saying who’s better, stronger, who should wear

what to do for a better understanding.

religious, and social backgrounds had caused

pink or blue colour. Especially the colour classi-

The final result of their work during the work-

that women to be unable to make their own

fication raised an especially a heated discussion.

shops was an evidence of their own courage.

I asked students to produce “positive” answers/

decisions (self–determination). This, in turn,

projects. I asked them to wonder what we can

caused most of them to live in mental separa-

We also discussed that showing yourself, your

women’s fragility. She said she dared (herself) to

do to somehow change the situation for bet-

tion from themselves, from their bodies (treated

abilities, your point of view requires a real cour-

show it against the general opinion that women

ter. We spent a lot of time (must be hard to

instrumentally), in isolation from their desires,

age. It happens that when you do something

should be strong. I really appreciated her brav-

imagine, because we had only three days, but

feelings, emotions and source of inner power.

different or in a different way than other people

ery and I absolutely supported her with it. That

they really did their best!) to think and dis-

The fact is that for centuries, women were seen

and it goes beyond what is commonly known and

was an act of her strength.

cuss what is hidden behind the secret term:

chiefly as beings meant to serve others. They

then you share it with the world, you are likely to

the source of feminine power. That question

struggled with everyday life, bearing many

be exposed to criticism, ridicule or comparison.

Usually our natural reactions, innate abilities

was actually the starting point of our work.

roles as mothers, daughters, wives, mistresses,

It can be easily predicted that someone more

and finally our emotions in most cases are go-

So, the students somehow looked back on

servants, full time workers, artists. Usually, de-

sensitive will clam up and not share her or his

ing to be disgraced and blocked at the early

their own experiences, their childhood, their

spite so many challenges, they remained in the

treasures. She or he will surely hide their talent,

stage of our lives. Therefore, showing yourself

daily life, to their relationships with the other

shadow of men. The patriarchy disturbed the

ability and madness — everything that makes

but also overcoming your limitations requires

people, with the opposite sex/gender, with

natural order and almost reduced women’s in-

her or him authentic.

courage.

their parents. We discussed what feminine

nate ability to use their own power and to share

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One of the students made a poster showing

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Courage requires meeting with our own emo-

are stoned by words and laws. A lot of women

around the world. The workshops were such

tions, the most difficult ones in particular. If we

are thrown out of the bounds of public life or

a minor action and I highly respect all the

want to be heroic we must recognise all these

kept on an invisible leash of domestic duty and

works which the students have produced.

difficult emotions, as well as appreciate our

domestic violence.

Their projects were the result of their own thoughts/considerations/opinions. So, if you

weaknesses, unpleasant things and limitations. Only when we recognise them, respect them

Female Genital Mutilation is the extreme prac-

look at the works, you can see that their authors

and express our gratitude for their involvement

tice recognised as a violation of the human

have much to say and they call for change.

in our lives, can we start building our new, au-

rights of girls and women, it reflects inequal-

We surely need more aware women and men.

thentic identity, our new life based on respect,

ity between the sexes but in other cultures,

So I trust that we’ll be able to continue such

gratitude and love for ourselves and the world.

and countries, also here in Poland, women

projects/workshops which involve the voice and

are treated as second-class citizens and their

creativity of the young generations.

If we want to change this planet and im-

rights are restricted too, so (on some level)

prove our living conditions, we should start

there is no much difference between the two.

by repairing ourselves. Everyone is aware

Everywhere people fight in the name of broadly

of that but we often don’t do it for various

defined freedom and everywhere these natu-

reasons. It’s not about being like someone

ral laws are being broken. So the question is

else or someone we recognise as an authority.

whether and how this freedom, and dignity can

The point is to allow yourself to be authentic,

be regained? Especially when some unspeci-

to allow yourself to make choices at every

fied external conditions make it difficult for us

stage of our lives. Of course, there are some

to use that freedom, which is the privilege of

situations and circumstances that prevent us

each of us (the privilege given at the moment of

MARTYNA_BYRKA_strengh lies in the female nature.pdf

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Strenght lies in the female nature.

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from making a choice but then we can rely on

being born). One of the keys to achieve security

our inner wisdom and intuition.

and the sense that our presence here, on this

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planet, is not a coincidence, is a turn towards Women and men worldwide are opposed to

ourselves and an attempt to heal our own pain

someone/something defending natural rights

and our own wounds.

and humanity. Everywhere there is violence and discrimination against women. Some people

Even minor actions by women (and men) to-

sentence women to death by stoning and in

wards self-discovering contribute to the im-

the other countries (also in Poland) women

provement of the situation of other women

135 135

Martyna Byrka Strength lies in the female nature

136


Marta Jagodziska - Naucz mnie mamo (teach me mom).pdf 1 26.04.2017 10:45:32

Anna_Rajewska_I LOVE MEn.pdf 1 2017-04-26 10:54:03

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Anna_Rajewska_awesoME.pdf 1 2017-04-26 10:54:24

AWESOME

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women’s rights are human rights

women’s rights are human rights

Marta Jagodzińska

Anna Rajewska

Anna Rajewska

Teach me, Mom

I love MEn

AwesoME

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Ceren Çalişkan Ceren is a Turkish designer/academician based in Istanbul. After obtaining her undergraduate degree in graphic design at Marmara University in Istanbul, she began her mfa degree in Environmental Graphic Design at The Nottingham Trent University in Nottingham-uk as a full-time student. After working for many agencies like

ddb as an art director, she enrolled in a ph d programme in Art and Design. Now, she works as a full-time lecturer in Department of Visual

The woman on the street

Communication Design at Istanbul Arel University and gives lectures and workshops all over the world, such as esad (Escola de Arte e Design) in Porto-Portugal. Also, she works as an independent designer and artist. She participated in many national and international exhibitions including

This workshop integrated Typography and

the Istanbul Design Biennale.

Environmental Graphic Design. Environmental Graphic Design (egd) embraces many design disciplines including graphic, architectural, interior, and landscape, all concerned with the visual aspects of wayfinding and signage, communicating identity and information, mural, installation and shaping the idea of creating experiences that connect people to places. Students should think themselves as a flâneuse while applying their project in the city. The essential thing is using Typography and Women’s Rights. This work could take on the form of a Mural, Video Mapping, Installation, Signage, Wayfinding or only Typography on Wall.

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Since the 19 th century, the role of women in

Flâneur, means “stroller”, “idler” or “loafer”.

the city has been a highly debated issue in the

Flâneur is the act of strolling, with all of its

world. The relationship of women to cities has

accompanying associations. The flâneur was,

long preoccupied reformers and philanthro-

first of all, a literary type from the 18 th cen-

pists. In the recent years the preoccupation

tury France, essential to any picture of the

has been inverted: the profile of the woman

streets of Paris, found by the philosophers

who was dependent on society rules has been

Rousseau and Goethe. It was described by

replaced by a feminist concern for women’s

Charles Baudelaire as “gentleman stroller of

safety and comfort in city streets. But whether

city streets” in his book Modern World Painters.

women are seen as a problem of cities, or cit-

The flâneur has a key role in understanding,

Ceren Caliskan walking in

ies as a problem for women, the relationship

participating and depicting the city. The flâneur

manifesting Women’s Equality.

remains fraught with difficulty.

participates in city life, but remains an objective spectator — in theory.

With the intensification of the public/private

Pola Mokotowskie in Warsaw

well-to-do men can mingle, gaze, and maintain

flâneuse was invisible. The disguise made the

their respectability. After Walter Benjamin’s

life of the flâneur available to her; as she knew

divide in the industrial period, the presence

Baudelaire was the first to deeply examine

exploration of urban life in his book The Arcades

very well, she could not adopt the nonexistent

of women on the streets and in public places

modernity, the city, and the dandy/flâneur; his

Project: the flâneur “goes botanizing on the

role of a flâneuse. Women could not stroll

of entertainment caused enormous anxiety,

definition of modernity is well known as “that

asphalt”. Flâneur was an indifferent individual,

alone in the city.

and was the occasion for any number of moral-

which is ephemeral, fugitive, contingent”. To

wandering among crowds and taking a look

izing and regulatory discourses. To research

be more specific, for Baudelaire, modernity

at shop windows in urban. He goes to gather

Garb’s observation about women’s more lim-

woman position and gender differences in

is directly and necessarily linked to the city

plant samples in the asphalt. Flâneur blends

ited access to “urban spectacle” highlights

perception of the city, the flâneur and flâneuse

and its mass of humanity, as well as to a male

into crowd and surrenders to the metaphoric

the problems of finding a subject matter and

are used. The flâneur as a man of pleasure, as a

conception of looking at and watching others

space surrounded by flows of customers. He is

an acknowledged space for the female painter

man who takes visual possession over freedom

in a detached and superior manner.

a detective, as well as an alien among the crowd

of modern life. This is the central problem in

in the city. After this concept, the idea of the

dealing with gender and modernism: how to

of the city, who has emerged in postmodern feminist discourse as the embodiment of the

Following in Baudelaire’s tradition of modernity,

flâneur reveals it to be a gendered concept. The

understand the female within the context of

“male gaze”. He represents men’s visual and

from the late 1860s through the 1880s, the

flâneur has a female version, the flâneuse. And

the dominantly male conception of modernity.

voyeuristic mastery over women. According

flâneur can be closely equated with the male

it suddenly seemed inextricably linked to the

to this view, the flâneur’s wander at will through

Impressionist’s vision and experience of Paris:

“woman issue”. Among the critics, the existence

Griselda Pollock aptly states that “sexuality,

the city is essentially a masculine freedom.

he enters cafés and theaters, and he walks

of the flâneuse is debatable. Janet Wolff argues

modernism or modernity cannot function as

the streets and other public places where only

that there could never be a female flâneur: the

given categories to which we add women. That

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only identifies a partial and masculine view-

As the results from this inquiry show, cor-

point with the norm and confirms women as

relations between the spatial configurative

other and subsidiary”. This statement creates

structures and how men and women use urban

a foundation for establishing a separate matrix

space were discovered. On the one hand, in a

within which to understand the flâneuse as

spatially integrated street, an equal number

compared to the flâneur.

of women and men could be met. The more segregated the streets the more they were

After the opening of arcades, women could

dominated by men. On the other hand, as soon

find a place in the city. They could walk alone

as the shops were closed, men began to domi-

and often went to the shopping centre.

nate the streets. Women are using the streets as corridors and not as a destination itself. The

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Group 1

Women on the street

The flâneur is a product of modern life and the

woman who strolls alone is still either a street

industrial revolution, parallel to the references

walker or a stupidly naive victim only asking

Group 1 made their installations in one

of the tourist in contemporary times. The ar-

to be robbed.

of the most popular places in Warsaw —

rival of department stores and the “Haussman-

Pola Mokotowskie. They used balloons

nization” of Paris’ streets in the second half

In order to understand gender differences and

with helium and information boards with

of the nineteenth century swept away large

to emphasise equal rights between women

some everyday sexist sentences.

parts of the historical city and also the domain

and men, we created typographic installations

of the flâneur.

in various parts of the city. Approximately 80

Paulina Kalinowska, Zuzanna

participants created 6 different installations

Mieszczanek, Kajetan Baranowski,

The archetype of the flâneur disappeared with

within 3 days. Firstly, each group found a con-

Jan Spymul, Mikołaj Mieszczański,

its surroundings, in favour of the women-

cept, a slogan, a design solution and a place

Barbara Rosiecka, Zuzanna Bek, William

oriented department stores. “The depart-

where they could apply their project. During the

Konior, Anastasiia Zwirska, Anastasiia

ment store may have been, as Benjamin put it,

following two days, they created their project in

Jarova, Patrycja Gleba, Oryna Bondar

the flâneur’s last coup, but it was the flâneuse’s

the university building. The third day they went

first”. The department stores were a starting

to the city centre and installed their projects.

supported by

point for the existence of the flâneuse, but

Thus we aired our voices within the city through

Agnieszka Ziemiszewska,

this also marked her as a consumer.

environmental graphics.

Rafał Masłyk, Agata Moryto

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Group 3

Abuse Group 3 created a typography installation no one see abuse, where they hid the “abuse” word inside the “no one see” paper cage Ewa Dankiewicz, Julia Kosobudzka, Dominika Michalik, Jan Gawałkiewicz,

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Tomasz Kaczmarczyk, Alyosha Kovalenko,

Group 2

Małgorzata Lisiecka, Kamil Pośnik,

Public/Private

Dominik Seroczyński,

Group 2 made a very bright installation,

Petran Vasilopoylos,

using the stereotypical pink colour,

Joanna Żak

which suggested that the women’s rights issue is easy and cheap. The

supported by

installation was shown at the main

Agnieszka Ziemiszewska,

Warsaw square where it presented

Rafał Masłyk, Agata Moryto

woman as a public object. Anastasiia Beda, Joanna Baska, Joanna Trześniewska, Margarita Minkiewicz, Matylda Gurne, Milena Rasińska, Olga Przytuła, Valeriia Mykytenko, Zuzanna Charkiewicz, Andrey Mykhalenko, Maciej Kosplotrowski, Mateusz Dziubicki, Paweł Szczyrowski supported by Agnieszka Ziemiszewska, Rafał Masłyk, Agata Moryto

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Group 4

Woman/Human Group 4 made a clean typographic installation, which stated that women are equal to men. They walked with the sculpture around the city and observed people’s reactions. Michalina Chłodzińska, Natalia Czarnocka, Ewa Dudka, Helen Galanevich, Tomasz Godlewski, Daniel Lewandowski, Piotr Malanowski, Serhii Mykytiuk, Joanna Opińska, Joanna Owczarek, Iga Sikora, Marta Sołtysiak supported by Agnieszka Ziemiszewska, Rafał Masłyk, Agata Moryto

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Trivial Pursuit Humor in the women’s universe

Sylvie Pagé Sylvie Pagé, born in Canada, studied Communications at Concordia University in Montreal (Major in Film) then Art History at the University of Montreal where in 1993 she obtained her Master Degree:

Humor is a very powerful tool to communicate

Figure and Structure in Film Dramaturgy. From

your message in an unpolitically-correct way.

1994 until 2002, she worked as Professor for Film

The students will have the chance to make an

Studies at the University of Johannes Gutenberg in

animated film of a maximum of 30 seconds, in

Mainz. In 2003, she was appointed lecturer at the

which they will advocate for gender equality.

University of Applied Sciences Mainz in Germany where she teaches Script-writing and Film Production. As a Filmmaker, Pagé directed films for the National Filmboard of Canada and also for Arte Germany. Her latest film Hundeleben (12 min., 2015) was a production from Group.ie Gessellschaft für Identity Engineering.

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Look, you can’t be faithful to the book, or if you’re

harm results, no matter how brutal the physical

faithful to the book, it’s only where it’s coinci-

pounding. There is a strong element of play

dental. You’ve got to be faithful to the audience.

in comedy. It’s not serious but only kidding.



There is less empathy in comedy. We identify

Nunnally Johnson

less with comic characters. Comedy also inWe say an image is worth a 1000 words. With

volves having an attitude of superiority. We feel

a good script you can reach a large audience,

superior to the comedy and the comic character.

like exaggeration, incongruity, the comic build,

2018 at our University of Applied Sciences in

and with a good film you can communicate a

There is an aggressive quality in our response

the topper, the reversal, the rule of three, the

Mainz. 7 different Universities from 7 different

social message that brings new perspectives

to the comic.

recall, the delay, running gags, the misunder-

countries will be presenting their short films

standings, absurdity, and the outrageous, a way

all talking about Women’s Rights. We will see

These different characteristics are ideal for

of insulting and deflating the pompous were

if we can open a constructive discussion with

If it makes us laugh we have even more chances

communicating a political message in an un-

used to reach their goal.

that screening and improve Women’s Rights.

of reaching a larger internationala audience.

forgettable way and without too much emotionality — the use comedy instead, operates

This writing session was followed by a brain-

Sam Keen wrote: Let’s begin with the story.

like suspense.

storm where every student gave their opinion

Human beings are storytelling animals. We

about the narrative structure of each story and

domesticate our world by narrative, by myths.

into our daily life.

But is comedy writing a gift? Can every student write good comedy? Perhaps more than other forms of writing, comedy writing is visceral,

Our group of students during that workshop

about which one worked the most efficiently.

and a sense of timing, which is so important

at the Warsaw Academy was composed of

This is where we had to create anatmosphere

We are hungry for a story that will dramatize

to comedy, is perhaps, a gift of sorts. On the

completely different personalities from various

that allowed ideas to flourish, where there was

some meaning we can hold on to. The need

other hand, comedy writing is a skill that can

cultures. It was fascinating to hear the different

support, where there were no taboos regarding

for a myth that begins with, “once upon a time”

be acquired through practice. In this workshop

testimonies of sexisms which occurs in Turkey,

the way people think or speak or write. These

and ends with, “Hero finally triumphed after

we had a big issue, we wanted to prove that you

Egypt, America, Poland, Africa. Most of the time,

specific group dynamics can be productive or

many trials and returned home” still sleeps in

can use humor as a weapon to defend women’s

the stories that the students were telling us,

destructive, and it characterizes a class in an

our substance.

rights and succeed in obtaining gender equality.

were very sad and very emotional. And we had

extraordinary way while creating demands or

to work with humor!!!

even challenges.

During the workshop students had an intensive

Why is humor the perfect weapon? A certain

experience of writing for film. They had the

detachment operates in comedy — the comic

We decided to write two versions of their sad

The results of those film scripts were amazing,

chance to discuss their story among them-

distance. We know that it is is not real and we

personal story: one which was close to what

so different but all fighting for the same cause:

selves. Nevertheless, nothing can substitute

are reassured by the comic approach. Even in

they had experienced and the other version was

Women’s Rights. The finished films will be pre-

for weekly writing and subsequent feedback

broad, low slapstick comedy, no permanent

interpreted in a funny way. Comedy techniques

sented during the International Week in April

about that writing.

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Agnieszka Toczyska The Bus Stop

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Selfie How Do Women profile themselves? Cultural or personal differences? Perception of viewers?

How Do Women profile themselves? Cultural or personal differences? Perception of viewers?

Janna Beck

The workshop was conceptualised in 6 steps:

Janna Beck can be described as a multidisciplinary 1. Contextualise: group discussions and brain-

artist. She is a lecturer at the Royal Academy of

storming about the topic of selfies: What

Fine Arts Antwerp, she is a facilitator of several

are selfies? What defines a selfie? opposites

master projects and master classes and organises

#yesorno?: What kind of a picture serves the

international collaborative projects. (Academy

#selfie? How visible should it be? Should it

Antwerp, Sint Lucas Antwerp, Aalto University

be a photo? Can it be an illustration? Selfie

Helsinki, Ringling College Sarasota Florida, pjait

versus profile? Selfies in motion/animated

Warsaw, Nottingham Trent University). In 2014,

gifs?

Janna Beck and Michael Segers founded Max-

2. Collect: find examples online, look for selfies,

lab — a research facility for Media + Art experi-

bad selfies, selfies that stand out;

ments for Royal Academy and Electronica ict ap.

3. Select and present arguments why the specific images were selected;

Janna is also the founder and director of the arts

4. Claim: this was the most surreal sub-assign-

initiative Collectiv National, an artists initia-

ment, how to claim a selfie from someone

tive with a focus on contemporary trans medial

else. We experimented with remakes, mor-

experiments where she curates the exhibitions.

phing of images and questioned copyrights.

Her personal Artistic research is focused on

5. Make static and dynamic selfies: experi-

the interaction between analogue and digital,

ment with different ways of photograph-

manual and high-tech. She is engaged in research

ing, different kinds of applications, filters,

that explores the technical imperfection of the

rephotographing from the screen;

photographic image. Janna Beck has contributed

6. Present and tag online;

to national and international exhibitions, among them exhibitions for Europalia, the expo in Aichi and the book Stadsgedichten by Tom Lanoye. She was commissioned for some public art projects and new media concepts.

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A selfie (/Selfi/)[1] is a self-portrait photo-

conversion and the technical imperfection of

stretch-marks, or a rounded tummy… Although

very good results, selfies that looked random

graph, typically taken with a digital camera or

the image.

opinions about it are divided, recently some big

and spontaneous but containing a concept

lingerie campaign decided to not photoshop or

and idea. Images with subtle layering, meaning and suggestion.

camera phone held in the hand or supported by a selfie stick. Selfies are often shared on

Take a selfie, fake a life! During the workshop

hide imperfections on a female body and have

social networking services such as Facebook,

we questioned the selfie-culture: is there a

the models look more natural.

Instagram and Twitter. They are usually flat-

difference between a self-portrait and a selfie?

tering and made to appear casual. Most selfies

Is it nothing but a trendy name for something

Don’t just be another brick in the wall. A

are taken with a camera held at arm’s length

that has already existed for ages? Is a selfie

third and very important question during the

or pointed at a mirror, rather than by using a

but an expression of narcissism? What about

workshop was how social media and smart-

self-timer. A selfie stick can be used to posi-

the #bad-selfie? One of the conclusions was

phone-photography influence the contemporary

tion the camera farther away from the subject,

that because of the posting on social media

image-culture. We took a closer look at the

allowing the camera to see more around them.

selfies are also a way of self-expression and

visual language of social media and asked how

(artificial) identity. Mostly, they are vain, they

to make a possible difference. We questioned

Posting intentionally unattractive selfies has

look spontaneous and effortless (but are often

and experimented with possible ways of pho-

also become common in the early 2010s — in

not). Selfies are mostly used as a proof of being.

tographing selfies, possible filters and apps.

part for their humour value, but in some cases

We experimented with still and moving images

also to explore issues of body image or as a

#women’s-rights #proud-to-be-female A sec-

and tried to make images that stand out among

reaction against the perceived narcissism or

ond topic of discussion was how social media

millions of others.

over-sexualization of typical selfies.

could have influence or the power to spread

I chose this topic for a workshop because so-

ideas. And how images circulate on social me-

#catch-of-the-day The experiments and results

dia: tagging, posting, reposting, etc…

of the workshop were posted on an Instagram

cial media, their influence on contemporary

account made especially for this workshop:

image-culture and the space between virtual

Could social media have any use on the topic

and reality is a returning topic in my personal

of women’s rights, human rights?

work. Selfies are for me the epitome of today’s

selfie experiments. It was an uncommon idea to combine selfies

smartphone-photography. Over the last year I

There do exist a lot of blogs, Instagram accounts

with the topic of human rights. The main goal of

even made hundreds of selfies myself to en-

about women, about celebrating femininity. Lots

having students reflect about the topic and cre-

gage with the subject. As in the rest of my work,

of initiatives go against the typical visualisations

ate a certain awareness of the impact on social

I also experimented with the digital-analogue

of the perfect female body, showing natural

media was achieved. The outcome gave some

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h

Zuzanna Rawa

Maciej Biernacki

Human

Selfie

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160


Jan Dembiński Selfie

Ola Solińska

Maja Biskubska

Selfie

Selfie

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sculpture objects + minibooks During 3 days of workshops students will build a connection between a scalpture and a book, using everyday objects and plaster. We ask students to find an object which could be interpreted in their message. This object can be something small or simple, it can even be a part of a body. To cast it in plaster, first we have to make the mould and then we can create the sculpture. Thus it’s not the object itself any more, it becomes a symbol. The next step of work is taking photographs of cast objects, printing them in bigger size, A3 for instance, and painting them.

Grafprom studio

After we make a sculpture, we are going to make a portrait of it, by taking photographs. We need to take a lot of things into account, such as light, framing, perhaps also the sur-

Living in Ukraine is sometimes tough, the country

Since 2006, Grafprom design studio has been

roundings. And let’s make the photos black

slipping from one crisis into the next. How can a

fighting evil forces in contemporary design and

and white, so that we can add colour or our

designer survive in Ukraine? How can one make a

art space. And yes, we do care about the place,

personal artistic touch afterwards. We can

that we have many photographs of our beloved

living without an ugly portfolio? What can one do

so that’s the reason for us to take part in differ-

add not only colours but also some writing

objects. We have them painted. We have objects

to keep on developing as an artist and a soul? You

ent eco and cultural projects. We’re members

or drawing.

themselves. How should we present them? We

really have to do three jobs at a time. The story is

of Icograda (International Council of Graphic

are going to make a small book which tells the

about three simultaneous jobs and the way to turn

Design Association), “The 4th block” Ukrainian

The last part of the workshop concentrates on

story of our process of our object, which has

bad into good in order to survive in times of change.

Association of Graphic Designers and Ukrainian

composing all the material in minibooks, now

become a new media painting.

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Designers Union.

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acknowledgments to the Polish-Japanese Academy of

Women’s Rights are Human Rights ­—

Information Technology for their hospitality

International Women’s Week,

and technical support,

Symposium/Workshops/Exhibition

to Barbara Nowacka for her honorary patronage

www.womensrights.pja.edu.pl

of the Women’s Rights are Human Rights event, to Elizabeth Resnick for her Women’s Rights are

Articles and workshops comments

Human Rights Exhibition, her passion and support, to the Poster Museum at Wilanów for their patronage,

This book is the result of the ma project of Marta

to Aleksandra Oleksiak and Izabela Iwanicka who were

Zofia Myszewska which included the design and

the managers of the exhibition at the Poster Museum

production of the visual identity of Elizabeth

to Verena Gerlach for her typeface, Sizmo Pro,

Resnick’s exhibition Women’s Rights are Human

to Ewa Bobrowska for her inspiration content propositions,

Rights, as well as symposium and workshops held

to the group of volunteers who helped us with

in April 2017 in Warsaw, under the supervision

organization and preparations of the conference

of Marcin Władyka and Elizabeth Resnick.

and workshops: Zuzanna Rawa, Nathalie Tippi Olko, Marta Kamieńska,

Authors of the articles, who share their

Jan Duda, Tomasz Grabowski, Maja Biskupińska,

professional knowledge, film and photo makers,

Barbara Krajewska, Nikodem Marek, Anastasia Buialo,

designer Marta Zofia Myszewska, who patiently

Kinga Ostapkowiczm, Julia Michalska, Paulina Kowalska,

collected the materials and put them together

Andrzej Bach, Paulina Kozłowska, Aleksandra Hojszyk,

with the assistance of her supervisors.

and to the professional teachers, designers: Ewa Satalecka, Elizabeth Resnick, Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk, Agnieszka Ziemiszewska, Agata Moryto, Rafał Masłyk, Zuzanna Szyszak, Mateusz Jarmulski

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Lacan J. There Can Be No Crisis of


organizers

authors

consultant

paper

Publication released with support

Elizabeth Resnick

Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk

magno volume 150 gr

of Friedrich Ebert Foundation,

Sara Rodowicz-Ślusarczyk

Representation in Poland

Colett Soler

french

www.feswar.org.pl

Anna Gromada

Anna Wojakowska-Skiba

Poster Museum at Wilanów

and

Ewa Kuryluk

Anatol Magdziarz

28.04–30.09.2017

Polish-Japanese Academy

Barbara Nowacka

of Information Technology

Ania Światłowska

typeface

Izabela Iwanicka and

ul. Koszykowa 86,

Mariusz Knorowski

Sizmo Pro — Verena Gerlach

Aleksandra Oleksiak

02-008 Warsaw, Poland

Verena Gerlach

Sizmo Pro Line — Verena Gerlach

www.pja.edu.pl

exhibitions in poland

english translation

Warsaw

curated by

http://www.fraugerlach.de/ff-sizmo-pro/

Kraków

Questa — Martin Majoor

Galicja Jewish Museum

and

posters

Poster Museum at Wilanów

Ewa Wein My Body My Rights (pl) 2017

ul. Kostki Potockiego 10/16

Yann Legendre Score

photography and film settings

curated by

02-958, Warsaw, Poland

Women Are Not A Game (fr) 2006

Nathalie Tipi Olko, Jan Duda,

Tomasz Stug

www.postermuseum.pl

Dalida Karic-Hadziahmetovic

Tomasz Grabowski,

and

Woman is not an object (ba) 2012

Piotr Syndoman, Jakub Zięba

Galicja Jewish Museum

Lex Dreviński Free Pussy Riot (pl / de) 2014

ul. Dajwór 18

Anita Kunz

print

Polish-Japanese Academy

31-052 Kraków, Poland

Treat Women As Equals (ca) 2001

isbn: 978-83-948531-6-7

of Information Technology

www.galiciajewishmuseum.org

Robynne Raye Modern Dog Design Co

isbn e-book: 978-83-948531-7-4

28.04–30.09.2017

8.03–20.06.2018

students projects exhibition

Warsaw

I Am Woman Hear Me Roar (us) 2017

curated by

editor

Joe Scorsone & Alice Drueding

book print

Marta Zofia Myszewska

Marta Zofia Myszewska

Sexual Slavery (us) 2012

Drukarnia Akapit

womensrights.pja.edu.pl

www.behance.net/martazofia

Teresa Sdralevich Salaire

ul. Węglowa 3, Lublin, Poland

Egal Equal Pay (be) 2008

http://drukarniaakapit.pl

curator

Marta Zofia Myszewska

Elizabeth Resnick

Women’s Rights Are Human Rights (pl) 2017

copies

300 project manager , art director and designer

proofreading

Marta Zofia Myszewska

Alicja Gorgoń


www.womensrights.pja.edu.pl

Profile for Marta Zofia Ita Myszewska

Women's rights book  

Women's rights book  

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