THE MARS & NEPTUNE TRUST Inaugural Sale
Saturday, 19 October 2019 11:00 a.m.
NADEAU’S AUCTION GALLERY
hosts the Inaugural Sale of
THE MARS & NEPTUNE TRUST 11 am, Saturday, 19 October 2019
A potion of the net proceeds from all items in this sale to benefit the Mars & Neptune Trust. To learn more about the Trust and its programs or for information on how to consign to future curated sales, please visit our website: www.marsandneptune.org or call (304) 279-7714.
Table of Contents and Sale Information ............................................. Page 3
Introduction ........................................................................................ Page 5
Lots ...................................................................................................... Page 7
Conditions of Sale ................................................................................ Page 114 Catalog Notes........................................................................................ Page 115
Lodging & Restaurant Suggestions ...................................................... Page 116
Directions ............................................................................................. Page 116 Nadeau Auction Gallery 25 Meadow Road, Windsor, CT 06095 Sale Information:
AUCTIONEER Edwin J. Nadeau III, President email@example.com 860-246-2444
CONDITION REPORTS Edwin J. Nadeau III, President Josh Lynch, Operations Manager firstname.lastname@example.org 860-246-2444
CLIENT AND BIDDING SERVICES Stephanie Krantz, Office Manager email@example.com Phone: 860-246-2444 Fax: 860-524-8735
INTERNET BIDDING www.invaluable.com www.bidsquare.com www.liveauctioneers.com
PREVIEW TIMES: Wed 10/16 2–4pm • Thurs 10/17 2–6:30pm • Fri 10/18 1–7pm • Sat 10/19 9–11am
Research and Cataloging: James L. Kochan Catalog Design: Kim Dolce Photography: Andrew Davis, James Hamann, James L. Kochan and Gregory R. Staley Printing: Lincoln County Publishing Company Contents: copyright ÂŠ 2019 The Mars & Neptune Trust All rights reserved. No images or text may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the express written permission of the copyright holder.
The Mars & Neptune Trust 31 Fort Hill Street P.O. Box 41 Wiscasset, Maine 04578 www.marsandneptune.org (304) 279-7714
Printed in the United States of America
Front cover: detail of Lot 114: Presentation Grade Sword of French Manufacture, c. 1810-1830 Rear cover: detail of Lot 182: Presentation Walking Stick of John Hancock, c. 1755 4
INTRODUCTION Welcome to the Inaugural Sale of the Mars & Neptune Trust (MNT) hosted by Nadeau’s Auction Gallery, our first major fundraising venture. Founded three years ago, the purpose of the Trust is to foster “knowledge of the lifeways and material world of military and naval forces in North America prior to 1850” through programs that include, but are not limited to archaeological and historical research, publications, and collaborative exhibitions and symposia. Lofty goals perhaps, but we are hopeful that the Trust’s first foray into the auction world proves successful. Funds derived from such will enable it to publish The Military Antiquarian, a vetted journal of military and naval material culture studies. Heavily illustrated in full color and covering a wide range of subjects, including arms, uniforms, military engineering, and the art of war, the semi-annual journal is intended for both scholars and collectors. Another major project planed for 2020, is Phase I of a major research and preservation project on a War of 1812 site in Maine—more on this in the coming months. We have been blessed to have some truly outstanding consignments from museums and notable private collections for our inaugural sale and it offers advanced collectors and museums, as well as new collectors, the opportunity to acquire important pieces to fill gaps in their collections. We already have an impressive lineup of pieces consigned for our next sale, which is tentatively scheduled for May 2020. Please do keep the Trust in mind for your future deaccessioning, downsizing or estate planning. Good hunting! James L. Kochan Founding President and CEO The Mars & Neptune Trust
1 A MID-18TH CENTURY, BRITISH IRON-HILTED HANGER BY WILLIAM HARVEY A handsome example of a British infantry hanger of the French & Indian War period, 29 in. L overall. The curved, single-edged blade is 22 ¼ in. L x 1 3/16 in. W at the ricasso and has a single, narrow fuller running up the blade to within 5 3/4 in. of the tip, at which point a false edge begins. The obverse face of the blade has a partial maker’s mark struck upon it ‘W/H/V’, while the opposite face has the full mark ‘WM/HAR/VEY’. The hilt is ironmounted, with an open-work, heart-shaped guard with a side branch that is aligned parallel to the grip and has a bar running from its center, connecting it to the knucklebow. The ovoid pommel has a unit or issue number struck or engraved on its inward face, ‘C[?]/ [?]S’. The grip is wooden with spiraling grooves, wrapped with shagreen and twisted brass wire. The blade is in good condition, with age wear and some light pitting, while the iron hilt has medium pitting; the grip wraps are replaced. William Harvey was a Birmingham cutler working during the 1720s-c.1750, succeeded by his son Samuel. Iron-hilted hangers were furnished to the two ‘American’ Regiments of Shirley and Pepperell, raised for King George’s War and re-raised in 1755, among others. $1500-2000
2 CROWN POINT HORN OF CONNECTICUT PROVINCIAL EBENEZER REYNOLDS, C. 1759 Horn carved in the provincial manner, inscribed with brig- and schooner-rigged (warships that may be intended to represent the British naval force on Lakes George and Champlain), floral motifs, and a post-and-beam structure of some 3 ½ stories (barracks? church?). On the inner curve of the body is centered a cartouch with a band bearing the words ‘MADE AT CROUN PINT / EBENEZER REYNOLDS’. Within the cartouch is an upright arrow, with leaved branches emanating from the shaft. Below the cartouch is a rudimentary, folky figure of a face with hourglass body. To the right of the cartouch and running parallel with the horn body is a crude engraved ‘1777 / IR’. The tip of the horn is fitted with a 2 ¼ in. L nozzle of pewter, clearly a period repair. The horn is 12 ½ in. L with a wooden butt plug of 2 ¾ in. dia., with an iron wire staple for strap that appears to be also a later replacement. Ebenezer Reynolds of Greenwich first entered service as a private in CPT David Waterbury’s 5th Company (Stamford) of the 4th Connecticut Regiment in the 1756 campaign. The following year, he was a member of the 6th Company of the 1st Connecticut Regiment, raised and sent for the reinforcement of Ford Edward. He may have also served in the failed 1758 campaign and was in the successful campaign the following year that resulted in the capture of the French forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, probably later serving for a period as part of the garrison that built the new British fort named for that place. The initials IR’ probably represent a son or other relative who owned the horn during the Revolutionary War. $6000-10,000
3 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR BRITISH OFFICER BRITISH SCHOOL, 18TH CENTURY Unknown British Infantry Officer, c. 1755
Oil on canvas, 30 x 25 inches, in early Victorian, gilt composition frame; old varnish and relining with scattered inpainting throughout. Infantry officer dressed in gold-laced, scarlet regimental coat and waistcoat, with goldlaced cocked hat as worn in the British Army during the 1750s. His right hand grasps the crimson, sprangwork sash worn over his shoulder. Due to the old yellowed varnish, it is difficult to discern the color of the laced facings (lapels and cuffs), which appear to be either buff, a deep yellow or orange (“orange” during this period was a dark yellow ochre shade and used by only one regiment in the army during the 1750s--the 35th Foot). There were a number of regiments with these facing colors and gold trimming, including the 35th, that served in America during the French & Indian War $2000-4000
4 (DEATH OF WOLFE) WILLIAM WOOLLETT after BENJAMIN WEST To the Kings Most Excellent Majesty.: This plate, The Death of General Wolfe, is with: His gracious Permission Humbly dedicated by his Majesty’s most Dutiful Subject and Servant. Published as the act directs, January 1, 1776, by Messrs. Woollett, Boydell and Ryland, London. Painted by B. West, Historical painter to His Majesty. Engraved by Wm. Woollett. 1776 Copperplate, mixed method engraving, 25 5/8 x 28 ½ inches (sight), conservation mounted and framed.
The famous scene of Major General James Wolfe’s death on 13 September 1759 on the Plains of Abraham, at the point in the battle when a British victory has become certain. His opponent, the Marquis de Montcalm fell in the same action and Quebec surrendered shortly thereafter. The painting catapulted West to the forefront of the British artistic community and helped achieved lasting immortality to the victorious general. This is the first state of the original engraving, from which were derived many later and unauthorized versions, so popular was the demand for this print. $1200-1500
5 JUSTE CHEVILLET (1729-1790) after F.L.J. WATTEAU Mort du Marquis de Montcalm Gozon (Death of the Marquis Montcalm)
Copperplate engraving after original work by François Louis Joseph Watteau (1731-1798) Paris, Chez Le Noir (n.d., but circa 1780); trimmed just inside platemark, 19 1/4 x 24 3/8 in., conservation mounted and framed. Louis Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon (1712-1759) was the controversial commander of French forces in North America during the French & Indian War. Having resolutely defended Quebec during the 1759 siege, Montcalm opted for open battle on the Plains of Abraham after the British made a successful landing from the St. Lawrence River and scaled the heights to that place. This proved disastrous, culminating in the defeat of the French army and his own mortal wounding during the retreat back to Quebec. As the legend on this print describes, he died the following morning and was buried at his request in a bomb crater. However, the place of burial was not on the grounds of a tropical battlefield cantonment, as shown rather fancifully by the artist, but rather within the ruins of the Ursuline Convent in the walled city of Quebec. Literature: F. St. George Spendlove, The Face of Early Canada, pages 80 - 82.
6 FIRE BUCKET FROM THE WRECK OF THE HMS INVINCIBLE (1758) Leather water or fire bucket with original leather-covered, rope handle from the Royal Navy warship HMS Invincible. Used aboard ship for a variety of purposes, but principally as a sound, water-tight container to hold water for cleaning ship decks, dousing fires, and the sponging of cannon during action. Wooden buckets were incapable of holding water without leaking, unless kept constantly filled; thus, leather fire buckets were deemed the superior container for all situations and used aboard ship, despite their greater expense. The “broad arrows” incised around the sides of the bucket denote Crown ownership. Part of the assemblage of artifacts that were archaeologically-recovered from the underwater wreck, this bucket was sold at auction in the 1981 to benefit the Invincible Conservation Ltd.’s ongoing conservation programs for the HMS Invincible artifact collections. The bucket measures 10 ¾ in. H (exclusive of handle) by 9 ¼ in. (appx.) diameter at top and 6 ¾ in. at base; the 17 inch-long, leather-wrapped, hemp rope handle is connected to 1 ¾ in. iron ring and leather keeper at bucket rim on one end and a brass ring replacement at the other end, added during professional conservation of the bucket prior to deaccession in 1981. The bucket comes with a signed, certificate of authenticity from the directors of Invincible Conservation Ltd. The Invincible was launched in Rochefort in 1744, the second built in a new class of 74-gun ships that dominated 18th century naval warfare. She was captured by the Channel Fleet on 3 May 1747 at the battle of Cape Finisterre. She was the first true 74-gun ship in the Royal Navy and the Admiralty avidly copied her design. During the French & Indian War, she was part of the large fleet of warships and transports that sailed from England in the expedition to take the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Canada. While enroute, she ran aground on a sandbank in the Solent on 19 February 1758. Despite desperate attempts to get her off, the warship sank three days later. $1200-1800
7 CARTRIDGE BOX FROM WRECK OF THE HOLLANDIA, 1743 On 3 July 1743, the Hollandia, a 700 ton ship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), set off on her maiden voyage from Texel, enroute to the Dutch East Indies. Armed with more than 40 cannon, she had stowed in her hull two large brass mortars for the VOC army in Batavia, and more than 129,700 guilders worth in Spanish and Dutch coins. Blown off course by contrary winds, she struck upon Gunner Rock northwest of the Scilly Isles and sank in 22 fathoms depth of water. Aboard her were 276 sailors and soldiers, as well as 30 passengers, including a brother of the governor of the Dutch East Indies and his family. In 1967, Rex Cowan began the hunt for the wreck and her treasure, culminating in discovery and recovery of the silver coin, one of the two bronze mortars, cannon and some artifacts from the wreck, including this rare brass cartridge box. Commonly known as a “belly box” among early arms and militaria collectors, it was originally covered in leather, with a leather flap closure. Within the curved box are twelve brass “pipes” to contain 12 musket cartridges, three of which are later replacements. The cartridge box was worn slung to a narrow leather belt buckled around the waist of a musket-armed soldier or sailor. This is the only box known to have been recovered from the Hollandia wreck, but identical boxes were archaeologically-excavated from the wreck of another Dutch East Indiaman, the Amsterdam, which sunk more than a decade later. Provenance: Rex Cowan to Austin C. Campbell, noted British historic ordnance expert; purchased by consignor from Campbell at Park Lane Arms Fair, 1999.
8 AN EARLY 18TH CENTURY BRITISH FLINTLOCK MUSKET A heavy and early 18th century flintlock musket, 56 ½ in. L overall, with a round, 3-stage barrel having an extremely broad breech, 39 in. L and of 0.84 caliber bore, with partly indecipherable touchmarks on the left of the barrel at breech, one of which appears to be that of Richard Dyer (barrel appears to be reduced in length); plain, rounded, early style, banana-shaped lock having swan neck cock and unbridled frizzen; plain walnut full-stock, the butt deeply impressed with a coronet over “I” stamp or brand; brass mounts include a sideplate, buttplate and three ramrod pipes of early Land Pattern form, triggerguard with acanthus finial, and vacant escutcheon plate with acanthus finials at each end; plain replacement wooden ramrod with brass button tip. Lock in good working order and musket in overall good condition, the lock and barrel with light-moderate pitting overall, and an old repair (22 ¾ in. of the forestock replaced before the swell. Richard Dyer’s proof (1677) consists of a fleur de lys over ‘RD’. He was a contractor to the Board of Ordnance, 1680-1715 and to the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1687-1701. The coronet/I stamp on the butt resembles the barrel touchmarks seen on c. 1720s muskets produced for the Irish Establishment. $3500-6500
9 MORAVIAN MISSIONARY JOHN JOSEPH (“SHEBOSH”) BULL’S 1746-DATED, CLASP OR FOLDING KNIFE John Joseph Bull (1721-1788) was the son of John and Elizabeth Bull, who immigrated from Powys, Wales to eastern Pennsylvania early in the 18th century. The younger Bull met David Zeisberger, the noted Moravian missionary, and under his influence joined the Moravian Church at Bethlehem in 1742. John Joseph became a close friend and assistant to Zeisberger in his missionary work and is often mentioned in the latter’s diaries. On the 12 January 1747 he married Christine, a Munsee Indian convert. He was given the name “Shebosh” (“Running Water”) by the Indians and following his marriage, is most frequently referred to in period accounts as “Joseph Shebosh.” The couple lived in the Pennsylvania Moravian communities of Nazareth, Bethlehem and Christianbrunn before moving to the Christian Delaware Indian settlement of Schoenbrunn and later, to another at Gnaddenhutten, (both in present-day, eastern Ohio). Despite their pacifism and declared neutrality during the Revolutionary War, the Moravian missionaries and the Christian Indians in the Ohio Valley were viewed with suspicion on both sides. Zeisberger was incarcerated by the Patriots for a time and in the fall of 1781, Shebosh was captured by a scouting party and imprisoned at Fort Pitt. Following his release, he went to Bethlehem and was joined there by his wife, daughter and her husband, who had escaped the 1782 massacre at Gnaddenhutten, Shebosh’s son Joseph being one of the first murdered in that tragic affair. It wasn’t until July 1783 that the family returned to the Ohio country, where they joined the New Salem settlement of Moravian Indians on the Huron River. Christine died in 1787 and he followed her the next year. This extremely large, folding or clasp knife, bears the date ‘1746’ engraved on its upper, iron bolster, with ‘JB’ on the recto. The knife is said to have been a wedding present to John Joseph (“Shebosh”) Bull. It has antler grips and measures 8 in. L folded and 15 in. L unfolded. The blade is 7 11/16 in. L and bears the touchmarks ‘+/&’ [cross/ampersand). The cross mark has been observed on other Moravian forged blades, usually with an ‘F’ or ‘L’ below, the ‘&’ mark has yet to be identified. Provenance: Norm Flayderman Collection until 1988; Ken Murray Collection to 2009: private Pennsylvania collection.
10 AN 18TH OR EARLY 19TH CENTURY LOCK COVER FOR A FLINTLOCK RIFLE OR FUSIL Blackened leather, grain-out, 3 ½ in H (at lock apex in center) x 12 5/8 in. L, with 1/8 in. diameter hole on recto, centered ¼ in. up from the bottom edge, for attaching the wrapping cord to the cover. A fine and rare example of a lock cover for a flintlook rifle, fusil, carbine or small fowler. This essential accoutrement is frequently mentioned in accounts of frontier campaigning in the 18th century, but seldom encountered today. Wet-formed around the lock area to mold into a fixed shape, this cover is somewhat rigid and may have also have been jacked when originally made. $400-800
11 JEAN BAPTISTE LE PAON (c. 1736-c. 1785) French Dragoons Attacking Prussian Hussars, circa 1756
Brown and grey watercolor wash, heightened by white, over pencil, on laid paper (watermarked “BLAUW”) and signed ‘Le Paon’ at center bottom; 13 7/8 x 9 7/8 in.; conservation framed. Known as a painter of battles scenes and as an engraver, Le Paon was born on the outskirts of Paris in either 1736 or 1738. At the beginning of the Seven Years’ War he enlisted in the French dragoons and served in the Hanover campaign, during which he was wounded and obtained a discharge in 1756. After recovery, he went to Paris and submitted drawings made during the war to Boucher and Carl Van Loo, who encouraged perseverance in his artistic endeavors; he thereafter became a pupil of Casanova. Le Paon first exhibited at the Salon in 1779. He soon obtained a reputation as a painter of military scenes and was nominated principal painter to the Prince of Conde. Le Paon drew on his own firsthand military service and perhaps his wartime sketchbook for the theme of this fine drawing, a skirmish between French dragoons and Prussian hussars at a crossroads. The French dragoons seemingly have the upper hand over the famous Death’s Head troopers (so known for the device worn on their mirliton or cylindrical caps) in this chance encounter while scouting or foraging in front of their armies. $3000-4500
12 JEAN BAPTISTE LE PAON (c. 1736-c. 1785) French Grenadiers at Rest, circa 1756
Brown and grey wash, heightened by white, over pencil on laid paper (watermarked “BLAUW); and signed ‘Le Paon’ at right bottom, 13 7/8 x 9 7/8 in.; conservation framed. The Seven Years’ War, like most conflicts, consisted largely of marches, encampments, and counter-marches, interspersed with a few skirmishes and pitched battles. In this scene, Le Paon shows a party of French grenadiers and a drummer in their bearskin caps enjoying a smoke and drink--the latter served by a local femme--with a church steeple of a nearby village dominating the skyline behind them. All of the grenadiers, however, are wearing accoutrements and with arms in hand or nearby, while two are posted as sentries, scanning the countryside around them. As such, this view probably represents a picket or advanced guard post for an army encampment, rather than soldiers resting from a recent march. $3000-4500
13 EARLY 18TH C. BRITISH CUTTEAU British cutteau or hanger of a form popular with naval officers, privateersmen and pirates (judging from period artwork and archaeological evidence from shipwrecks), 1700-1730. Brass-mounted hilt consisting of D-shaped guard with clamshell side-guard or langet and half-round pommel cap and matching ferrule at the other end of the stag-horn grip. Overall length of 28 in. with slightly curved blade, 23 in. L x 1 in W. VG hilt with light pitting to blade. $700-1000
14 PRUSSIAN MODEL 1740 INFANTRY MUSKET AND BAYONET (INFANTERIEGEWEHR 1740) This is a superb example of the Prussian infantry musket introduced in 1740 and which was the principal arm carried by the Prussian Army during its campaigns in the Seven Years’ War and beyond. At a time when the British Army was still using wooden ramrods, light and susceptible to warpage and breakage, one innovation of the Prussians was the introduction of a heavy, cylindrical ramrod of iron—much thicker in diameter than those used in other European armies, which was standardized in 1773. Although it made the musket slightly heavier, the improved ramrod ensured that a cartridge round could be seated home quickly with a minimum of ramming, thereby allowing Prussian infantry to load and fire their muskets at a rate nearly double of their opponents. Prussian firepower was famous and did much to contribute to victories on the battlefield. The lockplate is marked ‘POTZDAM MAGAZ’ for the famous Prussian arms manufactory at Potzdam and the brass thumbpiece on the small of the stock bears the FR monogram of Frederick II (“Frederick the Great”), the Prussian ruler. The musket is in fine condition, less a small splinter of wood missing from the molding just above the rear top of the lock, the latter of which is in excellent working order. Overall length is 57 5/8 in. with 41 ¼ in. L barrel of 0.77 caliber. The musket still retains its original socket bayonet, 18 ¼ in. long with 13 ¾ in. L x 1 3/16 in. W blade. 6,000-9000
15 SERGEANT’S PARTIZAN, KINGDOM OF POLAND-SAXONY, 1ST HALF, 18TH C. A partisan as carried by senior non-commissioned officers of the combined Kingdom of PolandSaxony during the first half of the 18th century. A leaf-shaped blade of 12 in. L widens into an elaborate crossguard with figural piercings that is 6 ¾ in. W. The base is threaded and screws into a 3 ¾ in. L iron socket with 6 3/8 in. L straps, by which it is affixed to the haft and set with two iron, peened cross pins. The socket bears engraved regimental markings: ‘RO: mK. /No. ZS’. The haft, which may be a later replacement, has been cut-down and only measures 46 in. L. $400-600
16 DOMINIC SERRES, RA (1719-1793) AN IMPORTANT GEORGE III OVERMANTEL MIRROR WITH NAVAL VIEWS, C. 1766
The rectangular top consisting of a thick wooden panel, centrally painted with a coastal landscape, flanked by octagonal-shaped ship scenes, above a three-paneled mirror, all framed by giltwood and composition molding with beaded edging, 32 1/4 x 66 1/2 inches. The three, oil on panel paintings by Dominic Serres set within this overmantel mirror or “chimney piece”, although undated, appear to be directly related to a pair of large oil on canvas works by Serres depicting a Royal Navy squadron entering and departing Plymouth, both signed and dated 1766 and now in the collections of the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich. All were likely commissioned by a senior naval officer to commemorate respective commands he held during the 7 Years’ War, the two large paintings probably flanking the overmantel mirror or “chimney piece” in the drawing room of his country estate or city townhouse. Serres is known to have executed similar pieces, including two works exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790 described as “a frieze for a chimney.” This is the only known, surviving example of such a “frieze” or chimney piece by Serres. Dominic Serres was already the leading marine painter in Britain by the mid-1760s, his ‘sea pieces’ drawing heavily from the influence of the leading British landscape painters of the period. All three of these views, although small studies, demonstrate the artist’s careful delineation of naval and land architecture and his masterful use of shadow and light to evoke drama and mood. Note: Thanks to Alan Russett, author of the important biography and catalogue, Dominic Serres R.A. 1719-1793: War Artist ot the Navy (2001), who supports the relationship of this piece to the two 1766 Plymouth views in the NMM collections and also noted the similarity in execution of the storm view in this mirror to a 1781 Serres painting of the wreck of Hyde Parker’s Phoenix off Cuba (at Long Melford Hall, NT), noting that the artist “did not often paint lurid storm scenes.” Further thanks to Dr. Katy Barrett, Curator of Pre-1800 Paintings at the NMM, for her additional comments and insights.
A Royal Navy Squadron Departing Plymouth oil on panel, signed at lower right: ‘D: Serres’ A view of Plymouth Sound with a Royal Navy squadron of the blue exiting the Cremyll Passage, as viewed from the Hoe. In the left background can be seen the fortifications of Drake’s Island, with Mount Edgcumbe serving as the central backdrop of the vice admiral’s flagship, denoted by the blue broad pennant flying at the fore of this ship-of-the-line.
A Royal Navy Squadron at Anchor oil on panel, initialed at lower right: ‘D. S.’ A small squadron of Royal Navy ships at anchor in a sound, possibly Plymouth, the 3rd Rater in the rear being the flagship of a vice admiral of the red squadron. A barge is pulling away from her, possibly conveying the flag officer to an appointment ashore.
A British Man-of-War in Stormy Seas oil on panel, signed at lower left: ‘D: Serres’
17 A CONTINENTAL ARMY-ALTERED, FRENCH M1717 RAMPART MUSKET WITH BAYONET Overall length: 63 1/4 in. Barrel length: 47 1/8 in. Bore: 0.78 Weight: 10.6 lbs.
In February 1777, Silas Deane and Benjamin Franklin, the commissioners to France from the Continental Congress, were offered a considerable stock of arms by a French merchant, consisting of “a large Quantity of Fuses [“fusils”], swords, &c. at Nantes, part of which are good & part broken and damaged” which he proposed selling “for a trifle.” On 27 March 1777, the contract was concluded and the United States found itself in possession of a considerable “magazine” which included “7700 Rampart fusils good, 18,000 do. to be new mounted”, as well as 8200 loose barrels, some of which had corresponding locks and furniture. By January 1778, 1500 of the best rampart muskets were on their way to America, followed by subsequent shipments of complete or repaired ones over the next two years. When the chests of rampart muskets and parts reached New England ports, they were sent to the Continental Army arsenal at Springfield, where gunsmiths began to alter them for use as infantry arms, rather than their original use in the defense of fortifications. The intact M1717 and M1728 rampart muskets had their forestocks cut back just enough to mount a socket bayonet and a bayonet lug brazed to the top of the barrel, for such purposes. The capture of Charleston, the defeat at Camden, and Arnold’s expedition against Virginia in 1780 led to severe arms shortages for both the Southern Army and in that state. In March of 1781, the Continental Board of War ordered 1000 rampart muskets sent to Virginia from Springfield to arm its militia and state regulars and by June, an additional “four thousand Rampart arms for the use of the Southern Militia” (including Maryland and the Carolinas) was authorized. On 26 June, Colonel William Grayson wrote to General George Weedon for his opinion of the new-mounted, rampart arms sent to Virginia: “...what do you think of them? The Militia cannot grumble about them being heavy”, noting that they are “are precisely of the same weight” as a British musket. This rare M1717 musket is one of those altered at Springfield during 1778-1780 and its associated bayonet is an American-made example made for one of these rampart muskets. It is the only example of an intact, American-altered, M1717 rampart musket configured for infantry use currently known to survive. The lock and barrel bear the stamp ‘IFC” of Jean Fournier, who supervised the Royal Arms Manufactory at Charleville during the first half of the 18th century. The cock of the former shows a period, forged repair to the center of its “gooseneck”. A Roman numeral ‘XIX’ is carved on the right face of the butt, probably signifying an American unit or issue number. Exhibited: Wall Guns in 18th Century America (Best of Show Award), New England Antique Arms Collectors Annual Show, 2015; A Revolution in Arms: Weapons in the War for Independence, The Society of the Cincinnati, Washington, DC, Oct. 2018-Mar. 2019.
18 FRENCH MODEL 1767 ‘EPEE D’ OFFICIER’
Length: 35 7/8 in. Blade: 29 7/8 in. L x 7/8 in. W This smallsword form or pattern is that officially authorized in 1767 by the French King to be worn by all infantry officers in the French royal army and thus, known as the 1767 Epee d’Officier. During his return to France in 1779, Lafayette purchased swords of this pattern and presented such to all of the officers in the Continental Light Infantry upon his return to America in 1780. On 23 September 1780, an artillery officer attached to Lafayette’s command wrote that the “Marquis has gave fresh instance of his munificence by presenting each Officer in his Division with a neat gold gilt small Sword.” Three swords known to have been presented to American officers in Lafayette’s Light Division survive in museum collections today. This fine example of a 1767 epee has the rare variant solid brass grip (as opposed to the more common twisted copper wire wraps over wood core, with a double-clamshell crossguard, D-shaped knuckle-bow, and fluted, ovoid pommel; the diamondprofile, double-edged blade bears fine, etched floral/martial devices upon it. Exhibited and published: ‘France in the American Revolution’, an exhibition at the Society of the Cincinnati, Washington, DC; 19 OCT 2011-14 April 2012; published on p. 26 of accompanying catalog of same title (2011).
19 AN AMERICAN COMPOSITE OR COMMITTEE OF SAFETY MUSKET, C. 1775 Overall Length: 57 in. Barrel: 42 in. Bore: 0.81
Found in New Brunswick, Canada in 1936, the musket appears to be an American composite or possibly Committee of Safety musket that was later used by Canadian militia, as the right face of the butt appears to have a carved or branded name purposely carved down, very likely one of the county names (Cumberland, Argyle, etc.) of New Brunswick or Nova Scotia. An associated 1807 India Pattern lock replaced the original lock some time prior to 1936. The barrel has private Tower proof-marks slight to the left of the top of barrel near breech, with an indistinct touchmark just to its left, which appears to be an M or W in an oval cartouch. The side plate is missing and a leather strip substituted in its place, but the shape of the inletting suggests a rounded form similar to that found on Long Lands. The triggerguard has a front finial similar to that on Land Patterns, but the rear is simply rounded without the nipple protrusion and with a different shape and faceting to the bow, esp. at the front where the rear sling swivel (missing) was attached. The brass pipes are for an iron ramrod, but are slightly different in form than those used on Land Pattern arms (the forepipe is only 2 7/8 inches long, for example). The brass buttplate has three steps to its tang, which is secured with a screw at the top and ends with a pronounced nipple and the brass thumbpiece varies somewhat in form from those on Land Patterns and is also secured by a screw in its center; both of which have been observed on American muskets setup by Maryland gunmakers at the start of the Revolutionary War. The apron around the tang of the barrel consists of a rounded V end, with no raised carving along the sides, as also observed on Maryland muskets. The wood appears to be American walnut, but it has not been tested. There is scarring and some cracks in the forestock, and a 5-6 in, narrow splinter of wood missing on each side of the forestock’s upper edges just past the nosecap. The associated lock is in good working order. An interesting musket worthy of further research and restoration. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati (1979 donation)
20 The American General Lee taken Prisoner by Lieutenant Colonel Harcourt of the English Army, in Morris County, New Jersey  Line engraving by Hawkins after Hamilton, London, 1783.
Charles Lee, former British officer and now major general in the Continental Army and next-in-rank to George Washington, was surprised in his quarters at Basking Ridge on 13 December 1776 by a detachment of 30-odd troopers from the 16th or Queen’s Light Dragoons. Led by the regimental commander, Lieutenant Colonel William Harcourt, and a young cornet by the name of Banastre Tarleton, they routed Lee’s small guard and captured Lee (still abed when they first appeared undetected, after a daring forced march that took them behind American lines). Ironically, Lee had served with this same regiment during the Seven Years’ War. This print originally appeared in Barnard’s History of England (1783). $250-350
21 THOMAS DIXON after SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS Henry, Earl of Pembroke & Montgomery
Mezzotint by Thomas Dixon, pub. 5 Feb. 1771 by William Wynne Ryland, Cornhill, London; 18 x 13 in. platemark with wide margins; within French mat. Pembroke, then a major general, was colonel-commandant of the 1st or Royal Dragoons and is shown in the uniform of that elite regiment. His right hand rests on the hilt of his basket-hilt, dragoon sword, which is identical in form to the original discussed above. Considered one of the premier cavalry officers of the British Army, Pembroke was the author of a seminal work on the care and training of horses for war, Military Equitation, that was reprinted at least three times during the 18th century. $300-500
22 JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH (1751-1812) after SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS Lt. Col. Tarleton
Mezzotint by John Raphael Smith, published 4 Oct. 1782, London; 25 x 15 3/8 in. (trimmed within platemark, includes full image and legend below), float-mounted in French mat within antique frame. Flamboyant, aggressive and often reckless, Banastre Tarleton took leave from his elite regiment, the 1st Dragoon Guards, in order to serve in the American conflict. As a young cornet attached to the 16th Light Dragoons, he came to notice for his role in the capture of Major General Charles Lee in December 1776 and soon established a reputation for his skill in raiding and skirmishing during the 1777 campaign. With the establishment of the British Legion in 1778, Tarleton entered Provincial service as second-in command of Lord Cathcart’s British Legion with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, later assuming overall command. During the Southern Campaigns of 1780-1781, Tarleton and his Legion gained notoriety for ruthlessness and earning from his opponents a new epithet, “Bloody Ban”. Arriving in London shortly after his capture and parole following the Yorktown surrender, the handsome young cavalryman was an immediate celebrity and was painted in his green Legion uniform by the leading society artist, Sir Joshua Reynolds. Tarleton had earlier lost two of his fingers in combat during the battle of Cowpens, which may account for his pose in this portrait. Shortly after its completion, John Raphael Smith, a highly skilled mezzotint engraver and artist, produced this famous print in partnership with Reynolds; both works were an immediate success and are considered the epitome of both artists’ skill in their respective medium. $2000-2500
23 REVOLUTIONARY WAR BRITISH LIGHT DRAGOON SABER Length: 44 7/8 in. Blade: 36 7/8 x 1 3/8 in. Weight: 2.8 lbs.
Light dragoons were established in the British Army in 1756, when a troop was authorized to be raised in each dragoon regiment, with entire regiments being converted or raised as light dragoons beginning in 1759. These light horsemen were to be armed with “a straight cutting sword, 34 in. in the blade, with a light hilt, without a basket.” By the Revolutionary War, the blades had lengthened and there was much variation of pattern of hilt, although Hinde (1778) describes the typical saber as “about 37 inches long in the blade, either crooked or straight according to the regulations of the Regiment.” From period iconography of light dragoons from c.1759-1778, it can be established that this example was one of the more popular patterns, with a heavy, iron-mounted, slotted D-guard, pronounced ovoid pommel, and slightlycurved blade. This example has seen heavy service and the blade width and possibly its length, have been slightly diminished by repeated sharpenings. The hilt is good-sized, with a grooved wooden grip that would have originally been wrapped with shagreen and twisted wire. $2000-3000
24 LIGHT DRAGOON SABER FOR PROVINCIAL HORSE, c. 1781 Overall Length: 41 ¼ in. Blade: 35 5/8 in. L x 1 5/16 in. W In late 1780, Loyalist Benjamin Thompson, then Under-Secretary of State to Lord North, received permission to procure and import 500 light dragoon sabers from Solingen, Germany to equip the newly-authorized King’s American Dragoons, of which he was to be the future commandant. Thompson argued that the German weapons were both less-expensive and better-made than those that were made by English cutlers for British light dragoon regiments and could also be procured in less time than in England. The Treasury and Ordnance Board both agreed, the former on basis of cost and timeliness and the latter on the stipulation that the swords must pass the same government proofing tests that the Tower employed on such arms that were English-made. The swords all passed with flying colors and it was determined in 1781, with increasing demands from America for horse equipage and arms to equip mounted Loyalist corps in the South, to procure an additional 2000 additional sabers from Solingen. The 2000 sabers were shipped to America in fall 1781 and while many were issued out and used in the subsequent year’s small actions fought on the outskirts of Charleston SC, Savannah GA, and New York City, still more remained in the Ordnance storehouses until those said cities were evacuated by the British, the arms eventually returning to England. Two examples of this pattern are known bearing blades etched with the appellation, “KING’S DRAGOONS”, which are believed to be those issued to Thompson’s regiment; the balance of known examples are of the same pattern, but with unmarked blades, with the exception of Tower inspection/proof marks, which are the same on all: crown/1 (located on the obverse face or flat of the blade, near the hilt. All of the arms have brass, stirrup-hilts with shagreen-wrapped, channeled, wooden grips—not surprisingly very much like those used by Prussian hussar regiments, but the blades themselves, although of superior German steel, are in the typical form favored by British light horse: slightly curved (nearly straight), long blades with clipped points. $3000-4000
25 BRANDING OF CONTINENTAL ARMY HORSES Thomas Werkes, ADS, 1 p., 4 x 7.5 inches, dated “Fish Kill [New York] August 3rd: 1779”. Werkes, a Deputy Quartermaster in the Continental Army, certifies “that Major Quackenbush has Got a Large Sorrel horse Mark’d CA in Leu [sic] of one taken from him, of his own Property, for Publick Service”, indicating that a horse belonging to the Continental Army, indicated by the brand mark ‘CA’ was exchanged for one privately owned by Quackenbush. Without this certificate, Quackenbush might have been accused of theft of public property. This is one of a handful of known manuscripts documenting the specific brands applied to public horses. $200-300
26 REVOLUTIONARY WAR ERA SADDLE HOLSTERS A fine and complete pair of early American horseman’s pistol holsters, circa 1770-1800, complete with their bearskin-covered tops and the linen webbing/leather” girth” strap for attaching it around the horse. The joined holsters are in remarkably fine condition considering their age, with leather still relatively supple, although the fur on the linen-lined, bearskin “caps” of the holsters has long-since fallen away. The linen webbing of the strap is woven in an interesting pattern often seen on Revolutionary War era cartridge straps and then closed by leather strap ends, the buckle-end provided with a hand-forged harness buckles furnished with a roller. Contrary to collector-lore which claims that rollerbuckles are mid-19th century, roller-buckles have been employed since as least the 16th century, especially for horse accoutrements and armor strapping. Expensive when hand-made, as in this example, they are generally found only with “officer-quality” furnishings on most American accoutrements until the 1830-40s. However, by 1796 the use of roller buckles had already been standardized for the enlisted accoutrements and horse equipage of the British cavalry. Holsters: 31 x 8 ½ in.; “girth” strap: 79 x 2 in. Provenance: found in eastern Pennsylvania by Jacqueline T. Eubanks; James Kochan Study Collection since 2001.
27 REVOLUTIONARY WAR ‘US’ BRANDED SADDLES Samuel P. Jones, ADS, 1 p., 5 x 8 ½ inches, dated Hartford, Connecticut, 16 August 1780. Military Storekeeper Jones receipts for “Eight new Saddles branded US Publick Property” that were received from merchant Jeremiah Wadsworth (1743-1804), per “hands of Jno. Jeffery (probably a teamster). This is the only document that we have encountered mentioning ‘US’ brands being placed on Army saddlery, although certainly this method of identification was necessary to prevent theft of such valuable equipage. Wadsworth had been Deputy Commissary General of the Continental Army in 1777, Commissary General, 1778-1779, and was then serving as commissary to Rochambeau’s French expeditionary force. He later represented Connecticut in the Continental Congress (1788) and in the US House of Representatives (1789-1795). $200-300
28 BRITISH LIGHT DRAGOON CARBINE, LAST QTR. 18TH CENTURY A light dragoon carbine for a volunteer troop or horse or yeomanry, patterned after the Elliot carbine, with pin-fastened, 28 in. L barrel of 0.65 caliber bearing Tower private proof marks on top of barrel near breech. Flat lock with edge engraving of double lines, flat goose-neck cock with similar edging, frizzen with teardrop finial and early style pan of teaspoon shape; lock stamped before cock: ‘MATHER / NEWCASTLE’. Figured walnut stock with handrail butt, with brass mountings of Elliot form, including buttplate, triggerguard, 3 ramrod pipes, flat ‘S’ sideplate and nose-cap, with sideplate being the flat ‘S’ form found on the P1770 sergeant’s carbine. Iron “swollen” ramrod with notch ring in center of swell, which allows it to be secured in the channel when this groove reaches the projecting lip on the underside of the nose-cap. Sling side-bar and ring of iron, attached to stock at the rear screw of the sideplate and another forward of it. Mather is not a known British gunsmith, but more likely a merchant factor. On the inside of the lock is stamped the touchmark of its maker, ‘T.A’, probably Thomas Archer (fl. 1776-1807), a Birmingham gunmaker and sword cutler supplier, who also enjoyed gun contracts with the Board of Ordnance in the first decade of the 19th century. A superior gun in both construction and finish, in very good, near unused condition, with crisp lock mechanism. Provenance: purchased by consignor from the Soldier Shop, Inc. (NYC) 1980 catalog as item AM1616 for $1750. $3500-5500
29 CAMP CHEST OF MAJOR BENJAMIN TUPPER, 8TH MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT, 1775 Benjamin Tupper (1738-1792) turned out during the Lexington Alarm and was appointed major of Fellow’s or the 17th Massachusetts Regiment in late April 1775. During the Siege of Boston, he led a whaleboat raid on Little Brewster Island on July 31st and burned the lighthouse after overcoming its guard of 33 Marines, killing an officer and 3 soldiers and taking the remainder of the garrison prisoner, the exploit being cited by Washington in general orders the following day: “The General thanks Major Tupper, and the Officers and Soldiers under his Command, for their gallant and soldierlike behaviour in possessing themselves of the enemy’s post at the Light House, and for the Number of Prisoners they took there, and doubts not, but the Continental Army, will be as famous for their mercy as for their valour.” In August, the regiment was renumbered the 8th when it was taken on the Continental establishment in August 1775 and although it was officially the 8th Regiment of the Continental Army, period correspondence and returns also indicate that it was also commonly called the 8th Massachusetts Regiment. The 8th was disbanded at the close of 1775, but most of the men reenlisted into the 21st Continental Regiment in January 1776 and Fellows was appointed its lieutenant colonel. Tupper served with great merit through the balance of the war, fighting at the battles of Long Island, Saratoga, Monmouth (where his horse was killed from under him) and other actions. He was promoted to colonel in 1776 and served with great honor and merit through the war, being brevetted brigadier general in September 1783. Tupper was one of the 288 officers who signed the Newburgh Petition in 1783 and was an original member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. In 1786, he assisted Thomas Hutchins in the survey of the Seven Ranges and was instrumental in the formation of the Ohio Company and the settlement of Marietta (presentday Ohio), where he and Rufus Putnam became the first judges in the Northwest Territory. This chest was probably procured by Tupper while the 8th was stationed at Roxbury sometime between August and 4 November 1775, when he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the regiment. Measuring approximately 18 ½ in. H x 39 ¼ in. L x 19 ¾ in. D, it is made of ¾ in. thick pine boards with dovetail joints and is bound with forged iron straps and hinges. The iron latch for the lock has become detached from the chest’s lid. Painted Prussian blue with white lettering, it is the handsomest of the identified Revolutionary War officers’ camp chests currently known. 2 pieces. $8000-16,000
30 1778 MAP OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA ZATTA, ANTONIO. Il Canada, Le Colonie Inglesi con La Luigiana, e Florida. Double-page engraved map showing the eastern portion of North America. 14x19 inches sheet size, wide margins; hand-colored in outline; an excellent example. Venice, 1778. This was one of 15 maps originally produced for Abbe Raynal’. Storia dell’ America Settentrionale (History of North America), published by Zatta in Venice in 1778. The maps were derived from John Mitchell’s important 1755 Map of the British and French Dominions in North America. $500-1000
31 UNKNOWN ARTIST, BRITISH SCHOOL A Royal Navy Officer Taking Leave of His Wife, c. 1774 oil on canvas, 27 x 36 inches, within carved and gilded frame.
Being a seafaring nation, it is not too surprising that Great Britain’s genre art during the 18th and 19th century included a popular, recurring dual-theme: “The Sailor’s Departure” and “The Sailor’s Return”. Such scenes (when done in a sentimental manner) usually feature a handsome, young sailor taking leave of--or returning to the arms of his loving family, although ‘Jack Tar’ is perhaps depicted with equal or greater frequency in a more humorous vein, enjoying the company of common “cruisers” or prostitutes in the last hours ashore before an extended voyage or immediately upon his return. By way of contrast, we find a Royal Navy officer taking leave of his wife or lady in this fine ‘conversation piece’—a popular 18th century British informal group portrait that featured a couple or small group engaged in conversation or some other activity. In his left hand, he holds Admiralty orders for sea duty that are docketed “On His Majesty’s Service/Portsmouth”. His determined features and right hand pointing to his ship in the harbor below, demonstrate his readiness for an ensuing, arduous voyage in His Majesty’s service, perhaps of some years’ duration. His genteel spouse’s sad expression and gentle hold on his shoulder, however, seem to silently plead that he stay with her at least a few moments longer. Unfortunately, their identities and that of the artist, clearly studio-trained and probably working in Portsmouth, are now unknown to us). Provenance: J. Welles Henderson Collection until 2008; Northeast Auctions, 17 Aug 2008, lot 399; private collection until present. Published: J. Welles Henderson and Rodney P. Carlisle. Jack Tar: A Sailor’s Life, 1750-1910 (Suffolk, England: Antique Collector’s Club, 1999), 43; James L. Kochan. Iron Men in Wooden Ships (Frederick, MD: Mars & Neptune Press, 2013), pp. 14-15.
32 SIR JOHN WILLIAMS (English, fl. 1760s-1780s), 1775 A Draught for Building a Sloop of 14 Carriage Guns [HMS Hornet]
Ink and pencil on laid paper (two heavy sheets joined), 13 ½ x 38 in.; inscribed in upper right: “Navy Office/ 13th Novr. 1775/A Draught for Building a Sloop of 14 Carriage Guns/By Messrs. Perry & Co. in pursuance of an Order/from the Right Honble. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 30th. Octr. 1775/ [with breakdown of ship dimensions...and signed] “Williams”; conservation-mounted in gilded, custom-made, reproduction frame. The HMS Hornet was one of 25 ship-sloops built between 1766 and 1780 of the form now known as the “Swan Class” (named after the first sloop launched in 1766) and designed by shipwright (later Sir) John Williams, who became Surveyor of the Navy in 1771. She was authorized to be built by Messrs. Perry and Company of Blackwall on 30 October 1775; the keel laid the following month and vessel launched on 19 March 1776. Her dimensions and tonnage were as follows: length of upper deck, 96 ft. 7 in.; length of keel, 78 ft. 10 in.; beam of 26 ft. 9 in.; and 300-ton displacement. Swan class sloops-of-war were armed with 14 (later 16) sixpounder cannon and 14 swivel guns and had a crew of 125 men and officers (full complement). Only three sloops of this class had been authorized prior to the outbreak of hostilities with the American colonies in 1775, the remainder were all of wartime construction and expediency. A successful design, these sloops fulfilled the Admiralty’s urgent wartime need for warships of relatively shallow draft, maneuverability and speed, capable of effectively dealing with the typical enemy cruisers and privateers encountered along the North American coast and in the West Indies. The HMS Hornet served on the West Indies station during her first commission, taking a number of American vessels, and later served on the North American and European stations. After a successful career of fifteen years, she was sold out of service in 1791. This draught of her lines and profile is the only surviving plan of the Hornet, although a few plans for other Swan class sloops can be found in the Admiralty Plans Collection at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich (copies of which accompany the original). $8000-10,000
33 A FLINTLOCK TOWER PATTERN 1715/1778 SEA SERVICE PISTOL Round, plain, smoothbore 12 in. L barrel of 0.58 caliber bore, with centered Ordnance view and proof marks near breech and crown on tang; a plain, flat, beveled lock with plain, flat, reinforced cock, and unbridled pan, with ‘crown/GR’ before cock and inspection stamp under pan, with ‘TOWER’ across the tail; figured walnut, full stock with regulation brass mountings of butt-cap, triggerguard, sideplate and ramrod pipe, with original(?) brass-tipped ramrod and iron belt-hook attached to sideplate. Setup marks inside ramrod channel, ‘WB’ behind sideplate, and “crown/6” inspection stamp on right side of butt above tail of triggerguard. All iron parts with pleasing, dark ‘attic’ patina and wood with use dents and marks, a small chip to molding before lockplate, a one inch crack from rear barrel pin on right side of forestock and another at front barrel pin on left. Lock in good working order. A very nice specimen of Revolutionary War pistol that is becoming harder to find. $3500-4500
34 1781 NAVAL BATTLE OF DOGGER BANK [inscribed in legend below scene] “To HYDE PARKER Esqr. VICE ADMIRAL of the BLUE SQUADRON of HIS MAJESTY’S FLEET. This Representation of the Action between the Squadron of Ships under his Command & a Dutch Squadron Commanded by Rear Admiral Zoutman, on the 5th August 1781, on the Dogger Bank. Is (by Permission) most humbly Inscribed by his most obedient humble Servant, Richard Paton.” Copperplate line engraving, 19 ½ x 23 ¾ in. platemark, with margins (view), by Daniel Lerpiniere after Richard Paton, published by John Boydell, London, May 6, 1782. Matted and framed, 27 ½ x 31 in. Light uniform toning, 2 small marginal tears in llc, not affecting plate; not examined out of the frame. $400-800
35 1780 NAVAL BATTLE OF CAPE VINCENT [inscribed in legend below scene] “To Sr. G. B. RODNEY, Bart., ADML. of the WHITE & Kt. of the Most Hon: Order of the BATH &c. This Representation of the Defeat of a Squadron of Spanish Ships under the Command of Don Juan de Langara, Rear Admiral, by a Squadron of His MAJESTY’S Ships under his Command off Cape St. Vincent on the 16th of June 1780. Is (by Permission) most humbly Inscribed by his most obedient humble Servant, Richard Paton.” Copperplate line engraving, 18 ¾ x 23 ¾ in. (view), by Daniel Lerperniere after Richard Paton, published by John Boydell, London, May 6, 1782. Matted and framed, 27 ¼ x 31 in. Light foxing in legend, not examined out of the frame. $400-800
36 PROFILE OF LIEUTENANT WILLIAM LIMBERLY, ROYAL NAVY, 1781 Unknown artist, 18th c. British School. Watercolor on paper, 4 x 3 in. oval (view), within period 6 7/8 x 5 ¾ in. oval, carved and painted frame; inscribed on laid paper label on recto: “Wm. Limberly / Lieut. RN / 27th April / 1781 / For my Niece / Maria Rains / 1 May 74 /Sarah Rains”. $900-1500
37 GOVERNOR JOHN HANCOCK GIVES NAVAL ORDERS, 1782
Hancock, John (1737-1793), President of the Continental Congress; Governor of Massachusetts. ALS initialed “J.H.” and dated 8 July 1782 at Boston, with docketed integral address leaf; two 12 ¼ x 7 in. pages plus the integral address leaf. Governor Hancock’s retained copy of his manuscript operational orders to Captain George Little, commanding the Massachusetts State Navy’s sloop Winthrop. When Hancock drafted these orders the Revolutionary War was entering its final year, and although peace negotiations between the U.S. and Great Britain were being held in Paris, many Americans (including George Washington and John Hancock), were suspicious of further British incursions by both land and sea. Hancock orders George Little to protect Massachusetts’ ships engaged in maritime trade and to engage any hostile ships threatening the coastline: “Having Appointed & Commissioned you to the Command of the Arm’d Sloop Winthrop belonging to this CommonWealth...you are hereby Order’d to Embrace the first favorable Weather and proceed with the Sloop under your Command to Sea upon a Cruise for the protection of the Sea Coast against the Enemies of these United States, whose Vessells if not Superior to you in Force you will use your best Endeavours to Take, Sink or Destroy, & should you be so fortunate as to Take any Prizes you will Send them into the Port of Boston...You will Take under your Convoy any Vessells that are ready & bound to the Eastward, particularly the Schooner bound to Machias with provisions for the Garrison, also the Sloop Roxbury Cap’n Bosworth with Provisions for Kennebeck River, & a Vessell bound to Frenchman’s Bay, those Vessells you are hereby order’d to Take under your Convoy & See them safe to the Several Destin’d ports....You will be careful that the Regulations of the Common Wealth with respect to Arm’d Vessels be strictly adher’d to, & that good order & proper Discipline be preserv’d on board the Winthrop. I wish you an Agreeable & Successful Cruise, & am Your Friend & H…Serv’t. J.H. The Winthrop’s first lieutenant was none other than Edward Preble, who would later gain fame commanding the U.S. Mediterranean squadron in the frigate Constitution during the Barbary Wars, 1805. Fifteen years earlier it had been as a shipmate of George Little that he received his introduction to war at sea on the Massachusetts frigate Protector, which was captured in 1781. 1st Lieutenant Little later escaped from captivity and Midshipman Preble was exchanged, but neither realized they were just starting their career together on the sea. In 1782 Massachusetts fitted out the 12-gun sloop Winthrop, appointed Little to command her and Preble his first lieutenant. John Hancock penned the orders above sending the Winthrop to convoy coastal trade while hunting for British quarry along the Maine coast. When she returned to Boston nearly a month later she brought with her three prizes, the Defiance of 180 tons, the 90-ton brig Isabella and privateer sloop Swallow of Portsmouth, NH (earlier taken by a mutinous crew that was steering for the British settlement at Bagaduce [Castine]. In a second cruise, Little, with the help of a boarding party led by Lieutenant Preble, cut out the privateer brig Merriam moored directly under the guns of Fort George at Castine, later returning to Boston with four prizes. On 23 September 1782, the Boston Gazette printed: “Much praise is due to the Bravery and good Conduct of Capt. Little and his Crew for this spirited Enterprise and for the great Service they have rendered this Commonwealth in capturing these Privateers, that have for a long Time infested this Coast and taken many valuable Vessels from us.” The Winthrop made two further cruises in late 1782 and early 1783. When the war ended, she was the last of the Massachusetts Navy’s vessels in commission. She was sold at public auction on the 4th of June of that year. Provenance: Swann Auctions, 12 May 2005; private collection to present; document conveys with notarized affidavit attesting to authenticity of Hancock document.
38 1772 REGULATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS: THE BASIS FOR AMERICA’S FIRST NAVAL RULES (British Admiralty Office). REGULATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS RELATING TO HIS MAJESTY’S SERVICE AT SEA. ESTABLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY IN COUNCIL. THE ELEVENTH EDITION. London. 1772. 4to; half title, title, (1)-158, (3), 158 (p. 158 used twice)-232. Modern rebinding of calf spine with red morocco label and gilt lettering, with marbled paper boards; a near-fine copy. Pages 158-185 comprise forms accompanying the instructions; pp. 187-188 contain an index; pp. 189-232 are Additional Regulations and Instructions, the last three pages of which are forms accompanying those additions; p. 232 is a folding printed form. The text is adorned with exquisite engraved head and tailpieces. Inside front cover bears annotation “C. N. Robinson, R Navy”--a noted early naval historian and collector, while the front end paper bears the 18th century inscription “Capt. Fox” within a wreath, in iron gall ink--almost certainly William Fox I (Lieutenant and Commander in 1759; Post Captain in 1780). First issued in 1731, these are the fundamental regulations governing the organization and discipline of the British Royal Navy vessels at sea. All of the 18th and early 19th century issues are uncommon; this specific edition, the 11th (for which OCLC lists only 12 copies), guided the Royal Navy during of the American Revolution and was also the basis for John Adams’ A Set of Rules for the Government of the American Navy set before Congress on 23 November 1775. Many of the American rules are copied almost verbatim from this 1772 edition. It includes the duties of the commander-in-chief, the captain or commander on down to carpenter, surgeon and cook. The regulations also include rules for discipline and good government, for courts martial, for observing proper respect and ceremony, for the daily allowance of beef or pork and beer or wine, for convoying merchant ships, and the wages to be paid to officers and seamen. Not in Bibliotheca Nautica. $1000-3000
39 TREATISE ON THE CULTIVATION OF HEMP AND THE FABRICATION OF NAVAL CORDAGE, 1747 DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, Henry Louis. Traité de la Fabrique des Manœuvres pour les Vaisseaux ou l’Art de la corderie perfectionné. Par M. Du Hamel du Monceau, de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, de la Société Royale de Londres, Inspecteur de la Marine dans tous les Ports & Havres de France. L’Imprimerie Royale, Paris, 1747. First Edition. Large quarto. Full contemporary calf with gilt titles and decorative spine with raised bands. 2 folding plates; engraved and woodcut initials, woodcut diagrams and head- and tail-pieces. Internally fine, very good overall. Inside front cover with the bookplate of William Henry Bernard and the title page bearing his inscription at top, along with the signature ‘R. Digby’ [Admiral Robert Digby] in iron-gall ink. An exhaustive and highly influential work on the fabrication of hemp rope for naval use, from raising and processing the plant to manufacturing various types of cordage. Although never translated into English, it was highly sought out by Royal Navy professionals, English and American rope and sailmakers, and those involved in the cultivation of hemp. In 1781, Rear-Admiral Richard Kempenfelt wrote to a peer that it was written by the “celebrated Du Hamel..with the assistance of several ingenious sea officers and experienced artists in that business” and showed “how attentive the French are to improve everything that relates to their marine, and affects one with concern at our negligence in these things.” One of the earliest treatises on the commercial cultivation of cannabis, it includes two lovely and detailed fold-out plates of the male and female plants. Robert Digby entered the navy aged twelve or thirteen and made post captain at the age of 23 in 1755, rising to Second-in-Command of the Channel Fleet in 1779. He was appointed in 1781 as Admiral of the Red and given the command of the North American Station. King George III had a very high opinion of Digby and entrusted his second son, William Henry (later King William IV), to his care as the young prince began his naval career as a midshipman aboard his flagship. Prince William Henry was the first member of the Royal family ever to visit North America. After the evacuation of New York City in 1783, Digby helped to organize the relocation of some 1,500 Loyalists to the small port of Conway in Nova Scotia, which in 1787 was renamed Digby. He was recalled to home waters in 1787, was promoted to Admiral of the Blue, retiring in 1794. $3000-4000
40 EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT OF JOHN PAUL JONES AND THE BATTLE OF FLAMBOROUGH HEAD, 1779 THOMAS DE RUSSY, DS, partially-printed, folio sheet, bifold, 2 pp. New York, 18 Sept. 1820; framed with a copperplate line engraving, The Engagement of Captain Pearson in His Majesty’s Ship Serapis, with Paul Jones of the American Ship of War called the Bon Homme Richard: in whch Action the former was taken, while the Countess of Scarborough was also captured by the Pallas frigate. R. Collier after Hamilton, orig. published in Barnard’s History of England (1783); matted and framed together. Thomas De Russy’s account of his naval service under Commodore John Paul Jones in 1779, written when he was 59 and filing for a pension for his wartime service in the a Revolutionary War, in which he writes that “he embarked in the sloop of War Pallas, Dennis Cottineau Commander in the capacity of Lieutenant early in the Spring of ….whence they sailed for L’Orient where they Joined commodore [sic] Paul Jones commanding the U.S. armed Ship Bonhomme Richard and hoisted American flag & pennant, and having received commissions from Doctor Franklin then American Ambassador at Versailles they made several cruises round the British Isles in company with and under the command of Paul Jones and at the end of September fell in with a British fleet from the Baltic and attacked them and took the two principal men of war Serapis and Countess of Scarborough…” De Russy was second lieutenant aboard the 30-gun Pallas (a frigate, not a sloop), which took the latter prize while Jones was engaged in his epic battle against the Serapis. He was a merchant in New York at the time he wrote this account, but died in Point Comfort, Virginia on 21 February 1821; his widow eventully secured his pension. $900-1500
41 WYOMING VALLEY ‘MASSACRE’ RELIC: THE WALLET OF LIEUTENANT COLONEL GEORGE DORRANCE George Dorrance (1735-1778) was born in Voluntown, Connecticut, but relocated to the Wyoming Valley, a region in present-day northeastern Pennsylvania that had been in dispute between Connecticut and Pennsylvania as to ownership. In October 1776, Connecticut established the county of Westmoreland County, which encompassed the Wyoming Valley settlements of the Connecticut Yankees. The 24th Regiment of Connecticut Militia was authorized to be raised from this county and Dorrance was appointed lieutenant in one of its companies, then promoted to major in May 1777, and lieutenant colonel in October of that year. Forty-Fort was the headquarters for the regiment and rendezvous point for the Patriots when a large British-Indian force invaded the valley in the summer of 1778; the American unfortunately, made the error of marching out to engage the enemy in open battle on July 3rd. The 24th Regiment was on the left of the American line and Dorrance was mortally wounded in the ensuing battle. This 18th century, 3 3/8 x 6 5/8 in. leather wallet or “pocketbook was on the person of Lt. Col. George Dorrance…[and] was taken from his body by Daniel Finch as he was fleeing from the battlefield after the defeat”, per the 2 November 1889 note of descendant Benjamin Tubbs that accompanies the wallet. Daniel Finch, however, was killed in the action and it is more likely that the first name was misremembered over time and it more likely that it was survivor Samuel Finch of Hewitt’s Independent Company or Rangers (formed from the 24th) who carried it off the field. The full provenance after Finch’s return of the wallet to Dorrance’s daughter is related on the note, which is written in ink on a sheet of laid paper, with full separation at the two folds. With two early titles on the Wyoming Massacre, one dedicated to George Dorrance and authored by descendant Charles Tubbs: The Wyoming Military Establishment: A History of the Twenty-fourth Regiment of Connecticut Militia: An Address before the Tioga Point Historical Society Delivered December 3rd, 1903. Athens, PA: 1903, 44 pp. and The Massacre at Wyoming. Wilkes-Barre, PA: 1895) 85 pp; both books also from Dorrance-Tubbs family. 4 pieces. Provenance: George Dorrance; Samuel Finch(?) to Sarah Susannah (nee Dorrance) Tubbs and from thence in the Tubbs family to note author Benjamin Tubbs; to his son Charles Tubbs; Ken Murray Collection to 2009; private Pennsylvania collection to present.
42 THE ONLY EXTANT REVOLUTIONARY WAR JAEGER RIFLE OF THE HESSE-HANAU FREICORPS Overall length: 43 3/4 in.; barrel: 28 5/8 in.; caliber: 0.575; weight: 8.2 pounds
This Hanau-made military rifle is the pattern carried by the rifle company of the Hesse-Hanau Freicorps or Chasseurs, as they were commonly called in America. Only two German rifle corps during the American Revolution were known to be armed jaeger rifles fitted for sword-bayonets, the Hesse-Hanau Freicorps and the Brunswick Jaegers. This jaeger rifle was one of those carried by the former corps and is the only extant example of a jaeger rifle with bayonet mount known from that conflict. It was fabricated by A. Schwalbach, whose working dates are recorded as c. 1730-1780. In overall form, it closely resembles the jaeger rifles carried by the jaeger corps of both Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Hanau, an example of the former being in the West Point Museum and examples of the latter are known in a few private collections in the United States. It differs in having a side-bar brazed to the right side of the barrel, over which the brass-handle of the sword bayonet was mounted by means of an open channel cast into its left side, the notch in the side-bar locking it into place by means of a steel spring set within the handle’s channel. The rifle bears the engraved name of its maker on the lock-plate: ‘A. SCHWALBACH / A. HANAU’. It is in superb condition for its age and service and lock mechanism in very good working order. Still surviving within the patch-box are the original tools, including ball-pull, worm and powder measure. Short, light, accurate, and well-balanced, it was a dangerous weapon in the hands of a skilled German marksman. At the beginning of 1781, a new corps of light infantry was raised by the Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Hanau for British deployment in America. This corps consisted of one company of four companies of light infantry and one company of riflemen. In April, they were described by their British inspector as a “much better Corps than I expected to see, & surprisingly set up, & dressed--Their Clothing is Green, with a red Cape & Cuffs upon the Coat… [The jaeger or rifle company]...wears leather caps & carry Rifle-Barrel Guns with Bayonets to them; the other four have Hats, & are armed with the common Firelock.” When they arrived in New York in summer 1781, it was similarly described by an officer of the 23rd Foot, who noted remarked that the rifle company is “armed with a rifle with a bayonet on it”, as this was something he had not observed before. He further stated that the jaeger company was “a very fine wine, and well appointed.” Literature: Dewitt Bailey. British Military Flintlock Rifles, 1740-1840 (Mowbray Publishers, Lincoln, RI: 2002), pp. 61-62, 64-68, and 202; this rifle is illustrated on p. 65.
43 AMERICAN SHORT SABER, 1760-1785 This short saber is a form which appears to have been produced as early as the French & Indian War and through the Revolutionary period by some currently unidentified swordsmith in New England, probably from Massachusetts or New Hampshire, based on where most surviving examples have been located. All swords by this hand share the same, heavy brass, slotted guard pattern with two side branches and elongated quillon, as well as a spiral-grooved wooden grip (usually of cherry, as in this example), with 2-strand, twisted brass wire set in the grooves. Examples differ in two respects: form of the pommel and length of the blade. Some are made for horsemen, with imported, 3-fullered, horseman’s blades of 31 3/8 in. L x 1 ½ in. W at ricasso, while others are a short saber variety (seen here), with a 26 ½ in. L x 1 1/4 in. W blade. The pommels vary from a large ovoid capstan type as on this short saber, to a cast-brass lion-head of rudimentary detail, and finally, a hand-chiseled, “grotesque” lion-head. The form of pommel would apparently depend on both one’s taste and pocketbook. Examples are known with etched blades, including “God Bless the Province of New York” and “God Bless the Province of Massachusetts Bay.” This short saber (less its outer side branch--long since broken off), is identical to another saber once in the late George Neumann’s collection; both have traces of bluing running halfway down the blade’s length from the ricasso. $2000-3000
44 NEW ENGLAND CLUB BUTT FOWLER The first guns made by colonial American gunsmiths were fowlers, arms that could provide for the table, but also used for defense when necessary. As with most early American arms, this club-butt fowler, c. 1755-1780, utilizes a mix of imported, locally produced and/or salvaged components in its fabrication. The beveled, flat lock and iron side plate (bearing an ‘S’ stamp upon it) both reflect French form, although possibly American-made; the 43 ½ in L barrel of 0.70 caliber is a continental European piece, possibly from the Low Countries (touchmarks are indecipherable), as is the figured brass triggerguard and faceted ramrod pipes, while the stock is American maple. There is no buttplate. The original ramrod is hickory, with an iron worm affixed. As observed on other New England fowlers, the gun has a 2 ¼ inch-long, brass nose cap fastened to the barrel with a pin through the barrel lug. Outside of its drum conversion to percussion, this fowler has survived with little change since the 18th century. Exhibited: “A Revolution in Arms: Weapons of the War for Independence,” The Society of the Cincinnati, 10 Oct. 2018-24 Mar. 2019
45 BRITISH (TOWER) PATTERN 1757 ‘MARINE & MILITIA’ MUSKET Overall length: 57 ¾ in.; barrel length: 42 in.; bore: 0.75
As the Royal Navy put itself on a war footing in 1755, a permanent “Corps of Marines” was authorized and by 1756, the Tower of London armory had designed a new pattern arm specifically for these sea soldiers, which began issue the following year. Essentially, it was a streamlined version of the Land Pattern Musket, with a barrel four inches shorter and with simplified brass mountings, including a flat sideplate, shorter buttplate tang with a screw attachment, and no thumbpiece on the wrist of the stock. During the French & Indian and Revolutionary Wars, these were also issued out to Provincial troops in America. The Marine and Militia Pattern musket ceased production in 1776 when it was determined that the Marines would be armed in future with Short Land muskets (once existing stocks of the various patterns were worn-out in service). Most Marine muskets were altered to take iron rammers in 1759, which included a long trumpet forepipe with spring, but this reconverted example remains in the original 1757 configuration with three, short brass pipes for a wooden rammer (latter now missing). $2000-3000
46 AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR ‘ESSEX’ CARTRIDGE BOX AND BELT American Revolutionary War cartridge box of the pattern known to some collectors as the “Essex” box, due to a few identified examples either found in Essex County, Massachusetts or identified to Continental Army soldiers from Essex County (notably one in the Cape Ann Historical Society in Gloucester, MA and another in a private Pennsylvania collection), all three still bearing their original alum-tanned, buffed leather strap of horsehide. These boxes were copies of British light infantry/Highland type cartridge pouches, which were fitted with 18-hole wooden cartridge blocks and the flap is secured to the bottom of the box by a brass hook and clasp arrangement. It has an implement pocket for flints and gun tools on the front of the box, covered by the flap. These boxes were furnished to both Continental and state troops from Massachusetts during the Revolutionary War. The original 18-hole block of this block was replaced with a 24-hole block of pine—probably done by a wartime veteran in order to render his box suitable for post-war militia service, following the adoption of a national militia act that required all cartridge boxes to be capable of holding 24 rounds. The original wooden tray remains below the box. Box dimensions (not inclusive of flap): 5 ½ in. H x 8 ½ in. W x 2 in. D; crossbelt (not incl. tab ends) 48 in. L x 2 in. W. Leather condition very good and relatively supple for age of artifact. Exhibited: “A Revolution in Arms: Weapons of the War for Independence,” The Society of the Cincinnati, 10 Oct. 2018-24 Mar. 2019
47 MID-18TH CENTURY BRITISH REGIMENTAL DRUM
With wooden shell painted with a dark blue (almost black) shield bearing the cipher ‘IR’ and edging in gold, surrounded by a wreath of gold and green and to its right, a patterned application of brass tacks at the lapover of the shell; with red-painted upper and lower hoops, strung with its original hemp cording and buff leather, tension adjustors, and a braided cord sling; a printed trade label is viewable inside the shell; 19 in. H x 17 ½ in. D. This is a rope-tension, snare drum produced for a now-unidentified unit Herbert Higgins (fl. 1740s-1774), who in partnership with Samuel Newton were “DrumMakers to His Majesty’s Office of Ordnance” until the partnership was dissolved in 1760, Higgins continuing in that capacity through the 60s on his own and taking a new partner a few years prior to his death in c.1774. The blue shield indicates that the unit had blue facings, reserved for “royal” regiments in the regular army, but popular among various volunteer and militia corps, both in Britain and its overseas colonies. The cipher ‘IR’ could be the initials for numerous corps, such as ‘Independent [or Irish] Rangers’ or “Jamaica [or Jersey] Regiment’, and so on. While it has been suggested that the shamrocks and wheat found in the wreath signify an Irish regiment or corps, a survey of all known Irish volunteer corps for this period has failed to produce one whose initials correspond to ‘IR’. A rare example of a French & Indian War period military drum. $4000-5000
48 BRITISH DRUM SLING, CIRCA 1775 This rare example of a British drum sling or belt is of a form used to support a field or snare drum during the 18th century. It consists of a 2 ¾ inch-wide strap of buff leather, 49 inches long overall, with one end lapped over the other and sewn-down to form a frog. The frog is pierced by three holes, which would accommodate the cord or thong used to tie the snare drum to the belt (this method would be replaced by a metal hook system in the 19th century). It is possible that the drummer’s belt may have been created in the field from British cartridge pouch belt, as the width is the same as that prescribed during 1768-1784. The belt has been shortened at least one time in its history; this alteration is evident from the empty stitch- and rivet holes left behind when the brass-reinforced keeper for the pair of drumsticks was reattached further up the belt. The associated drumstick is of a turned hardwood, possibly ebony, and is 16 ¼ inches long. $500-750
49 BRITISH OR AMERICAN SPONTOON, C. 1775 A spontoon dating from the 2nd half of the 18th century of classic British form, although it may be an American copy, having a 7 7/8 in. L, leaf-shaped blade to the spear or head that is threaded for occasional removal from its combination socket/side-straps attached to the wooden haft. The straps of the latter are now only 3 in. L on each side, with one iron rivet point down their lengths to secure them to the wooden haft. However, they may have been shortened, as they are cut square at the ends, while the base of the haft—now only 55 in. L, bears evidence that a head was originally attached at what is now its base, which has vacant holes for rivets running up one foot on each side. $1000-2000
50 AMERICAN SPONTOON, C. 1778 Spontoon or “espontoon” of American-make, c. 1778, with 10 in. L x 1 ¾ in. W blade (clear of socket) set on a 75 ½ inch-long, wooden haft or staff stained or painted a reddish or ‘Spanish brown’ caste, the inserted tang of the blade reinforced at top by 1 in. L x 13/16 in. dia., brass ferrule. It has the classic slender lines and relatively light weight expected of such an officer’s polearm as used during this period. At Valley Forge on 22 Dec. 1777, Gen. George Washington ordered that all company officers in regiments be furnished with a spontoon or “half pike” of uniform length and the following January, it was specified that said spontoons were to have staffs of 6 ½ foot length and 1 ¼ in. width at its thickest point, with a spear of one foot length—nearly identical to the size and form of this specimen. Anthony Wayne repeated the same requirements for the officers of the US Legion in 1792. It was common practice to paint the hafts of spontoons with the facing color of the regiment and red was one of the most common facings in use in the Continental Army at that time, later standardized for the troops of the Mid-Atlantic states in 1779, and adopted for the entire postwar US Army in 1784. $2000-4000
51 REVOLUTIONARY WAR BRUNSWICK SPONTOON
Overall: 78 in. L; Spear: 13 ¾ in. L x 2 13/16 in. W length (w/o straps); Crossbar: 4 1/2 in.; Side-straps: 18 ¼ in. L; Haft: 64 in. L In a treaty between Great Britain and Carl I, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg, the majority of the Brunswick Army was hired for service against the rebelling American colonies. Arriving in Canada during 1776, the Brunswick Corps, under the command of Major General von Riedesel, served as a major part of the British Army under General John Burgoyne. The Brunswick Corps fought with great merit during both the 1776 and 1777 Northern campaigns. All company-grade, commissioned officers in Brunswick infantry regiments carried a polearm of this form. Known as a spontoon, it served not only as a weapon, but also as a badge of rank (and furthermore, a convenient tool to adjust the alignment of rank and file within a company on parade or in battle line). This example has its original wooden haft, but is missing approximately 6 inches of its bottom, including the iron shoe. The obverse face of its spear blade bears the inverted double-C cipher of Carl I (who ruled Brunswick from 1760-1780) and the running horse of Brunswick is etched on its reverse face. Engraved on the stem of the head is ‘N. 2’ and ‘Deck:’, apparently issue markings, as similar ones have been noted on a documented Brunswick partisan captured at Saratoga. The blade is threaded, allowing it to be unscrewed from the socket of the iron stem of the head and stowed in a valise or pack when on the march. $2500-3500
52 ROBERT POLLARD (1755–1838) Lady Harriet Ackland
Aquatint and line engraving, “Drawn and engraved by Robert Pollard. London, Pubd. Novr. 15, 1784”; platemark: 17 5/8 x 22 inches, sight: 19 x 23 ½ inches (not examined out of frame).
Lady Harriet Caroline Fox-Strangways Acland (1749-1815) was the wife of John Dyke Acland, 7th Baronet (1746-1778), then major in the 20th Regiment of Foot. Unwilling to be a stayat-home, she accompanied her husband to Canada and down the Hudson River corridor during the campaigns of 1776 and 1777. During the latter, Major Acland was wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Bemis Heights, 7 October 1777. The now-pregnant Lady Harriet, accompanied by a chaplain, her maid and the major’s servant, bravely crossed the Hudson and made her way to the camp of the American army. Per the narrative below the title of this print, “night coming on before she reached their outpost the guards on duty refused to receive her & threatened to fire upon her if she moved till morning. In this dreadful situation for 7 or 8 dark & cold hours, she was compelled to wait on the water half dead with anxiety & terror.” The following morning, she entered the camp and so impressed General Horatio Gates that she was allowed to care for him and after his health returned, he was paroled and they were allowed to return to England. $750-1500
53 WILLIAM NUTTER after JOHN GRAHAM The Burial of General Fraser
Stipple engraving by W. Nutter, published by John Jefferys, London, 1 Nov. 1794; 19 x 24 in. (plate-mark) Brigadier General Simon Fraser commanded the Advance Corps of “Gentleman Johnny” Burgoyne’s army and distinguished himself in combat during the 1777 Northern Campaign. While leading his troops during the “2nd battle of Saratoga” on October 7th, he became a conspicuous target for American riflemen and was mortally wounded. He died the following morning and, according to his wishes, was quietly buried that evening in the British lines attended only by his military family and a few senior army officers. One of the latter, Burgoyne himself, observed that the funeral--held under enemy fire-- “would make one of the finest subjects for the pencil of a Master.” Scottish-born artist John Graham rose to the challenge and sought and received the patronage of that general and other surviving officers, who agreed to sit for portrait studies and provide information on the event. In 1791, Graham exhibited the above painting at the annual Royal Academy exhibition to great notice and a subscription was taken for an engraving, which was completed in 1794. Although this original work had been lost to public view for more than 200 years, the tragic and poignant event is one of the most indelible images of Revolutionary War iconography, due to its popular print, which has been published in nearly every illustrated book on the war. Unlined and only recently cleaned, the vividness of Graham’s important depiction can now be fully appreciated. $1200-1500
John Cleves Symmes by Charles Willson Peale; courtesy of the Miami U. Art Musuem
54 SILVER-HILT SMALLSWORD BY JACOB HURD, CARRIED BY COLONEL JOHN CLEVES SYMMES AND LATER BY GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON Silver and steel, 34 1/2 inches long overall; with slender, tapering blade of triangular section, the silver hilt with double-clamshell guard and globular pommel, the grip wrapped with 2-strand, silver wire; marked on guard with Hurdâ€™s touch-mark (Kane mark C); original scabbard of black leather with silver throat, middle band and drag (the middle band a modern replacement); the hilt and scabbard mountings engraved at various periods to successive owners: Col. J C Symmes 1776 (on outside of the outward lobe or shell, with and J M Symmes 1933 on inside of same; Col C Symmes 1798 on outer face of inside clamshell and Maj[or] A B Symmes 1904 on underside; with W W Symmes 1916 on knuckle-bow; and Genl W H Harrison / 1812 and Capt. Benj. R. Symmes / 1826 on the throat of the scabbard. John Cleves Symmes (1742-1814) was educated as a lawyer and married Anna Tuthill on October 30, 1760. They had three daughters; the youngest, Anna Tuthill Symmes, was to become a First Lady, marrying William Henry Harrison. Symmes supported the Patriot cause, becoming chairman of the Sussex County, New Jersey Committee of Safety in 1774. When the Revolutionary War began in earnest, he served as Colonel of the 3rd Regiment of the Sussex County militia from 1777 to 1780. The unit was called into active service with the Continental Army on several occasions, during which he carried this fine silver-hilt smallsword by Jacob Hurd. In 1776, he was elected to the New Jersey Legislative Council, serving again in 1780. Symmes served on the New Jersey Supreme Court in 1777 and 1778. He later represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress (1785â€“1786) and in 1788 moved to the Northwest Territory, settling in what later became North Bend, Ohio. He served as a judge of the Territorial Court from 1788 until Ohio became a state in 1803. He also pursued an active career as a land developer and seller in the Symmes Purchase of 1788, when he purchased 311,682 acres in present-day western Ohio from the United States for $225,000. He died on February 26, 1814 at Cincinnati, Ohio, and is buried at Congress Green Cemetery in North Bend, Ohio.
His son-in-law, William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), lived nearby and was given this sword, reputedly carrying it in the War of 1812 as major general in the U.S. Army. He commanded the Northwestern Army of regulars, volunteers and militia during its campaigns on the northwestern frontier during 1812-1813, culminating in victory of the British and Indians at the Battle of the Thames 5 October 1813. After his untimely death in 1841 shortly after becoming the 9th President of the United States, the sword passed successively in the Symmes family to the eldest male in each generation that had seen military service. Jacob Hurd (1702-1758) was an important Boston silversmith and noted sword-maker, of which approximately ten swords are known, including a sword for Col. William Prescott, commander of the Revolutionary forces at the Battle of Bunker Hill (now at the Massachusetts Historical Society) and the sword of Colonel Richard Hazen, the only other example that still survives with its original scabbard (now at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). Examples of Hurd’s swords are illustrated and discussed in Jeannine Falino, Silver of the Americas, 1600-2000, 2008, pp. 91-93, and Ian M.G. Quimby, American Silver at Winterthur, 1995, no. 85, p. 130 and John D. Hamilton’s seminal article, “Jacob Hurd and the Boston Smallsword”, American Society of Arms Collectors Bulletin 70 (Spring 1994), 8-15. Provenance: John Cleves Symmes and thence by descent in the Symmes-Harrison family to the 20th century; from thence to the late Eric Martin Wunsch.
William Henry Harrison by Rembrandt Peale; courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery
55 REVOLUTIONARY WAR HANOVERIAN PATTERN 1776 RIFLE One of two surviving examples, this one numbered ‘184’ (the other, in a private American collection, numbered ‘196’) of the 200 rifles ordered from August Heinrich Huhnstock of Hanover by the British Board of Ordnance on 4 January 1776 and upon which the Birmingham-made, British Pattern 1776 rifles were modeled. All 1000 rifles purchased by the Board of Ordnance (200 from Hanover and 800 from Birmingham makers) were shipped to America later that year. These rifles were initially issued to the provisional rifle platoon organized in each of the two battalions of British light infantry, as well as Provincial rifle-armed corps, such as Emmerick’s Chasseurs and the rifle company of the New York Volunteers, and later to Ferguson’s American Volunteers and the rifle company of the Queen’s Rangers. German jaeger-style rifle with 27 ¾ in. L octagonal barrel of 0.68 caliber bore (for 0.625 cal. carbine ball), key-fastened, with rear sight (one pronounced standing and one hinged leaf, with vacant holes on each side near muzzle that once supported ramrod swivel, rifled with seven grooves, brass-bladed, fore-end sight, and plain breech with tang bearing an engraved, ‘184’. Flat beveled lock terminating in a point at tail, unmarked, with flat, goose-neck cock, faceted, bridle-less pan, and feather-spring with teardrop finial. Figured European walnut, full stock and bearing Ordnance storekeeper’s stamp on left side of butt behind raised cheekpiece, with brass mounts including spur trigger-guard with trefoil finial ends, buttplate with trefoil end to its tang, three wide ramrod pipes (a steel ramrod spring between the fore-pipe and middle pipe), rounded “tailed” sideplate, and the 1 7/16 in. L nose-cap is indented ¼ in. from its top edges for ½ in. from the front and inlet below to allow the swivel (now missing) to function, with sliding wooden patch-box, sling swivels and original iron ramrod. 43 ¼ in. Overall length: 44 in. Lock in very good working order. Literature: Dewitt Bailey. British Military Flintlock Rifles, 1740-1840. (Lincoln, RI: Mowbray, 2002), this exact rifle is discussed and illustrated on pp. 22-25 and 199.
56 A VOLUNTEER’S RIFLE BY MORRIS MODELED ON THE BRITISH PATTERN 1776 RIFLE An early volunteer’s rifle, c. 1795, almost completely modeled on the British Pattern 1776 Rifle, with rear sight (one fixed and two hinged leaves), 28 in. L octagonal barrel of 0.68 caliber bore, key-fastened and with false- or hook-breech, with vacant holes near muzzle that once supported ramrod swivel, rifled with seven grooves, sighted fore-end, and tang bearing an engraved, stringed bugle horn, with Tower private proof marks near breech on left side. Flat beveled border, engraved lock with crowned GR before the cock and ‘MORRIS’ across the tail, flat, goose-neck cock with edging, double-fence (water-less), teaspoon-shaped pan, and feather-spring with roller. Figured walnut, full stock (slight brusing) with brass mounts near-identical to those found on the Pattern 1776 rifle, including spur trigger-guard with acorn finial, three wide ramrod pipes (a steel ramrod spring between the fore-pipe and middle pipe), flat “tailed” sideplate, and nose-cap indented at top edges for missing swivel; and heavy, iron ramrod. The butt has a hinged patch-box cover similar to that found on the Pattern 1805 Baker, which is believed to be a later addition. Overall length: 44 in. Light pitting to barrel from original browning and slight bruising to wood, otherwise in very good condition and lock in excellent condition and working order. $8000-12,000
57 A SERVICE PATTERN 1800 BAKER RIFLE AND SWORD BAYONET An early (1802-1806) issue rifle with leaf-sighted, 30 ¼ in. L barrel of 0.625 caliber with bayonet-bar on the right side at the muzzle and rifled with seven grooves, sighted fore-end, and plain tang bearing crown/5 inspection mark and Crown inspection and proof marks on barrel near breech, along with maker’s touchmark ‘B&S’ (Blair & Sutherland). Flat beveled border, engraved lock with crowned GR and ‘I.GILL’ before the cock and ‘TOWER’ across the tail, walnut full stock (some bruising and stablized crack near swell at bottom) with cheekpiece, regulation brass mounts including spur trigger-guard and early type, hinged patch-box cover, vacant brass escutcheon and ‘T.C’ stock maker’s mark behind sideplate, (sling swivels missing), and original ramrod. An accomplished reconversion, with barrel retaining traces of its original browning and nice patina to all metal parts; 46 in. L overall. With an associated Type 2 issue bayonet with single-edged, 22 7/8 in. L (well sharpened) blade with 5 in. false edge towards the point, regulation brass hilt with side-guard, langet and knuckle-guard all in one piece, and ribbed grip with sprung button-catch, crown/19 inspection mark on right face of blade, with maker’s name, ‘WOOLEY’ on the other. 2 pieces. $5500-8500
58 PATTERN 1800 BAKER RIFLE SWORD BAYONET Designed by Birmingham cutler Henry Osborn, the P1800 sword bayonet for Baker P1800 rifles (also called First Pattern or Type I by collectors) had a short period of production. This example is 27 in. L overall and features a 22 ½ in. L x 1 ¼ in. W straight blade with a “spear-point” tip, with a false edge to the front of the blade measuring 5 ½ in. It has a brass stirrup-hilt, with a square shape to the knuckle-guard rather than the rounded or D-shaped one found on Pattern 1801 bayonets. The cast-brass grip is grooved or channeled and has a slight swell in the center, with three thinner grooves running down its length on both sides, creating a cross-hatch pattern. The left side of the grip has a deep slot cut into it for mounting it to the bar of the rifle, while a steel spring is screwed into a similar notch cut into the top of the grip, its release button protruding from the bottom. The right face of the blade has as ‘crown/2’ inspection mark stamped on it just clear of the side guard or langet of the hilt, while the contractor’s name is stamped on the spine of the blade near the ricasso: ‘DAWES / BIRMM’. It has been stated (Bailey 2002) that the first Ordnance contract for sword bayonets with S&J Dawes was in 1805, so it is most likely that this hilt had a replacement blade added to it at some time in its service period and no later, as the peened tang of the blade bears an engraved “issue mark upon it: ‘R / 285’. Very good condition overall. $1000-2000
59 PATTERN 1801 PORTUGUESE BAKER SWORD BAYONET The Cacadores, hard-fighting Portuguese rifle troops in Wellington’s Peninsular Army, were also armed with Baker rifles and bayonets and continued to use these arms well into the 1830s. This Pattern 1801 or Second Pattern sword bayonet, has no British inspection or contractor markings on it, but does have an Portuguese crowned cypher on the left face of the blade. It is 27 ¾ in. L overall, with a 22 ¾ in L x 1 ¼ in. W blade. The bayonet is good-VG condition, although the quillon or upper part of the crossguard of the brass hilt is bent slightly inward. $500-1000
60 RICHARD HAVELL after GEORGE WALKER Rifleman of the North York Militia Regiment, c. 1814 (detail)
Hand-colored, aquatint engraving, 14 ¾ x 10 ¾ in., published as ‘Plate XXXI. North York Militia’, in Walker’s The Costume of Yorkshire. London, 1814. From page 73 of this work, the text accompanying the plate states that, “This fine Light Infantry Regiment is commanded by Lord Dundas; the uniform is red, with black facings. There are two companies of riflemen, or sharpshooters, attached to it….The dress, we believe, does not differ in any respect from that of the rifle corps of the lines, except in having black buttons instead of white.” This rifleman is shown loading what appears to be one of the volunteer rifles modeled on the Pattern 1776 rifle and he has a brass-hilted hanger as sidearm, since his rifle is not setup to mount a bayonet. His horn is carried in a slash pocket on the left breast of his jacket. $250-450
61 ORDNANCE POWDER HORN FOR LIGHT INFANTRY AND RIFLE TROOPS, 1771-1784 Cow’s horn body closed by a turned oak, butt plug with threaded, oak stopper in the shape of a handle, for replenishing gunpowder supply. The tip of the horn fitted with a conical charger formed of sheet-brass, with a cast-brass lever and steel spring. The rear suspension loop is broken off. 15 ½ in L overall (incl. stopper) x 3 ¼ in diameter at plug. A smaller version of the artillery priming horn, this pattern of horn was issued to regular light infantrymen by the Board of Ordnance beginning with the reestablishment of light companies in British infantry regiments in 1771-1784. It was also the horn issued to British and Provincial (Loyalist) rifle troops raised during the American War, including Ferguson’s Corps of Riflemen, Emmerick’s Chasseurs, and other corps. $500-800
62 BRITISH MILITARY HORN FOR LIGHT INFANTRY AND RIFLE TROOPS, 1772-1798 Many regimental commanders opted to provide superior-quality horns for their light infantry and rifle troops than the Ordnance-issue horn above, such as Lieutenant Colonel John Biddulph, who purchased horns with “brass chargers and ends” for the 3rd Foot’s light company in 1772, the “end” or cap of brass fitted with a brass screw for reloading with powder, less subject to cracking, splitting or swelling, as found with the wooden butts or caps. Also popular for use by the early volunteer light infantry and rifle troops raised with threat of French invasion of Britain beginning in 1778 and through the French Revolutionary Wars. 9 ½ in. L x 2 ½ in. diameter at brass end or base. $650-950
63 A RIFLEMAN’S HORN OF THE PERCY TENANTRY VOLUNTEERS, 1798 A Rifleman’s Horn with a “scoop” or “Irish stopper”, as issued to the Percy Tenantry Volunteers, 1798. Similar to the horn above, the spring-charger of the tip end of the horn is replaced with a stopper that also served as a powder-measure, allowing the rifleman to measure the exact grain load of powder for each round when firing with loose ball and powder. This horn was issued to one of three companies formed by Lord Percy that were initially armed with imported Prussian rifled muskets when first formed to oppose anticipated French invasion in 1798 and its large size reflects the powder capacity needed for a musket-bore rifle. 16 ¾ in L overall x 2 7/8 in. diameter at brass base. The brass base of the horn is engraved with the regimental device, being a ducal coronet over a crescent, while the stopper is engraved with the company letter and issue number: ‘H / 14’. $750-1000
64 HENRY EDRIDGE, ARA (1769-1821) Colonel Coote Manningham of the Rifle Brigade, 1808 [and]
Lieutenant Colonel Boyd Manningham of the 81st Foot
A pair: both graphite and watercolor wash on paper, with touches of body color; the former signed and dated in llc: ‘H. Edridge 1808’; each 16 ½ x 11 5/8 in., on early 19th c. mounts, within original gilt, composition frames. Coote and Boyd Manningham were career British Army officers who both distinguished themselves in combat at the head of light infantry troops while serving in General Charles “No Flint” Grey’s Expedition to the West Indies in 1793-95. Boyd, a captain in the 39th Foot, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the 81st Foot in 1794, but died while serving with his regiment in the Saint Dominique campaign. His younger brother Coote survived the battles and pestilence in the Caribbean and returned to England. Coote, a pioneer of British light infantry tactics, was the founder of the Experimental Rifle Corps in 1800 (which was later numbered the 95th Foot) and which eventually became known as The Rifle Brigade, one of the most famous and hardest-fighting regiments of the British Army. Coote’s portrait Henry Edridge was made just prior to his departure on Sir John Moore’s Expedition to Portugal and he is depicted wearing the green jacket with black facings that he designed for his corps.* His brother Boyd’s posthumous portrait, probably done at the same time, was taken by Edridge from an earlier life portrait by an unknown artist done in the West Indies, c. 1794 (now in the Royal Green Jackets Museum at Winchester), which depicts him in a fort overlooking Port Royal Harbor, Martinique. Edridge was famous for his fulllength portraits rendered in pencil and wash, but with highlights of watercolor, always exquisitely rendered in great detail despite their small size. This pair was almost certainly commissioned by the Manningham family, perhaps Coote himself. The battles and privations of Peninsula campaigning wrought havoc on this gallant officer’s health. Manningham, now a major general, died at Maidstone, Kent on 26 August 1809 from a “severe illness, since his return from Spain.” Provenance: by descent in the Manningham family until 2000. 2 pieces. *Lord Minto commissioned Edridge to make a copy of the Coote Manningham portrait, also signed and dated 1808, which was sold for L 10,000 pounds ($15,700) by Lowell Libson Ltd. of London in 2003.
65 PELTRO WILLIAM TOMPKINS (1759-1840)
[Dedicated to The Rifle Corps, Attached to the Sixth Regiment of Loyal London Volunteers: Ded. to Robert Wigram, Esqr., M.P. Lieutenant Colonel Commandant 1 Oct. 1804]. Line and stipple engraving proof state, 17 x 12 in., for the colored aquatint published by Elizabeth Walker as part of her Loyal London Volunteers series, London, 1803-1804
Another version of this print of the same date is dedicated to “the Volunteer Rifle Corps of the United Kingdom” in the legend below in the finished state. A highly-detailed and extremely rare print showing a private of the London Rifle Corps armed with what appears to be a Baker Volunteer’s Rifle, with cartridge pouch and horn slung over the left shoulder, and ball bag and sword bayonet and scabbard affixed to the waistbelt. Tompkins was an English engraver who specialized as a draughtsman and aquatint engraver. He studied under the great Francesco Bartolozzi working in the dot and stipple genre. He was renowned for his skill and was hired as drawing-master to the daughters of King George III and later appointed historical engraver to the queen. Provenance: Collection of the Ogilby Army Museum Trust (AMOT) until deaccessioned and sold, 1999; James L. Kochan Study Collection until present.
66 J. H. BELL, Irish School (fl. 1804) Sir John Jervis-White-Jervis in the Uniform of the Somerset Rifles, 1804
graphite on paper, 15 x 10 ¼ inches, within original eglomise mat and gilt, composition frame Sir John Jervis-White-Jervis (1765-1830) depicted in the uniform of the Irish rifle corps that he raised and organized in 1803. Jervis was the eldest son of John Jervis-White of Bally Ellis, County Wexford, was born 10 June 1766. He graduated B.A. as a fellow-commoner at Dublin University, became barrister-at-law and LL.D. He was also a noted writer of miscellanies. By royal license he assumed the name of Jervis in addition to that of White, and was created a baronet of Ireland 10 Nov. 1797. This was probably a reward for having in the previous year raised an earlier corps of volunteers, whom he equipped at his own expense, during the French Revolutionary Wars. Jervis died in 1830. $2000-4000
67 THOMAS GEORGE, BRITISH (1790-1840) Portrait of 1st Lieutenant Henry Llewellyn, 3rd Battalion Rifle Brigade, 1822
Watercolor with gouache highlights, 8 ¼ x 6 ¼ in. (sight); signed and dated “T. George Fecit, H[averford]. West 1822”, within period rosewood frame with gilt slip. Henry Llewellyn was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the Rifle Brigade on 10th April 1809 without purchase, from his earlier lieutenancy in the Royal Denbigh Militia. He served in the Walcheren expedition of 1809-10 and later in the Peninsula campaigns, during which he was badly wounded defending the bridge at Vera in the Pyrenees in 1813. Following the invasion of France in 1814, Llewellyn and the rest of the 3rd Battalion sailed for America, fighting at the battle of New Orleans and later in the taking of Fort Mobile in 1815. Llewellyn retired on half pay in 1819 and died (apparently from the lingering effects of his wounds) in 1822, the same year that this portrait was painted. His health may explain his seated pose. Aside from his 1816 pattern shako, his uniform and saber appear to be the same patterns as worn by Rifle Brigade officers during the latter part of the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. $1500-2500
68 A SILVER GORGET PRESENTED TO INDIAN “GORGET CAPTAINS” DURING THE WAR OF 1812
engraved silver, 5 1/8 x 4 5/8 in.; bearing London touchmarks of 1813-14 and the mark of silversmith Crespin Fuller. A fine example and rare example of a hallmarked silver gorget of a type known to have been presented to Native American “Gorget Captains”, essentially as emblems of diplomatic and military alliance between the Crown and the various native nations in North America. There are two similar examples in the Royal Ontario Museum collection also by Crespin and another in the Scottish War Museum. Crespin Fuller married Hester Bateman’s granddaughter Sarah, and most of the Indian trade silver made under contract for the Indian Department in the 18th and early 19th century was made by this family. A British list of Indian presents required in 1813 included 5,000 common guns, 5,000 chief’s guns, 200 gun locks, 1,000 pistols, and 300 silver gorgets. The size of this gorget order was perhaps responsible for the cursory nature of the engraving, which is competent but quickly done, and the use of simple vertical lines in place of the Garter and Royal mottoes was done either to provide a technical distinction between British officers and the locally-commissioned, Indian captains or simply as an expedient for production purposes. The retention of the form, decoration and large size found on gorgets given by the Crown during the 18th century was probably done to satisfy a native American preference for the same symbolic tokens of joint cooperation between the Crown and the Indian nations as received by their fathers and grandfathers. Provenance: noted gorget collection of the late Major General Patrick Bogert, Canadian Army; Eugene Ursual Collection to 2010; private collection
69 AN INDIAN DEPARTMENT PRESENTATION RIFLE FOR WARRIORS, 1816
With a 31-inch long, browned, key-fastened, octagonal sighted barrel of 0.56 caliber cut with ten grooves, with royal arms in platinum within a raised rectangular panel or cartouch between two platinum lines at the breech, platinum-lined vent or touchhole, blued two-leaf back-sight, and blued tang engraved with martial motifs; case-hardened, flat beveled lock with safety-catch, stepped tail, roller, blued steel-spring, raised pan, and bearing engraved maker’s name ‘TATHAM’ between cock and hammer; and figured walnut stock with checkered wrist and blued iron mounts, including patch-box cover decorated with a martial trophies, a case-hardened trigger-plate with pineapple finial, platinum thumbpiece, horn fore-end cap, original horn-tipped ramrod, and much original finish to barrel, lock and mounts. Proof and inspection marks on underside of barrel near breech, along with the ‘WF’ mark of William Fullerd; inverted ‘Broad arrow” strikes on of barrel near breech, indicating release from Crown ownership. There is a repaired crack to the stock opposite the lock. A near-fine example of one of full-stocked,’warrior’ rifles produced by Henry Tatham, Sr. (1770-1835) under contract with the Board of Ordnance in 1816. Major John Norton of the Indian Department recommended such arms be presented to Canadian Indian chiefs and key warriors in recognition of their valorous service as allies of the British during the War of 1812, which was approved in the Prince Regent. Subsequently, Tatham exhibited three patterns of rifles to the Board of Ordnance, who approved and contracted with him to produce such on behalf of the Indian Department. Tatham, appointed Sword Cutler and Beltmaker-in-Ordinary to King George III in 1798 and Gunmaker to the Prince of Wales in 1799. William Fullerd (fl. 1808-1834), was a London barrel and lock maker. The largest surviving collection of these Indian presentation rifles is in the collection of the Royal Armouries at Leeds. Literature: Robert W. Band, “Tatham’s Indian Guns, A Gift For Mohawk Warriors”, The Canadian Journal of Arms Collecting, vol. 37, no. 1 (February 1999), pp. 3-7; Dewitt Bailey. British Military Flintlock Rifles, 1740-1840 (Lincoln, RI: Mowbray, 2002), 180-187, 210.
70 FIGHTING DIRK OF WAR OF 1812 NAVAL HERO WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE
Overall length: 15-1/2 inches; blade: 11-3/8 in. L x 1 1/6 W at forte A unique American naval fighting dirk associated with War of 1812 naval hero Commodore William Bainbridge (1774-1833) that is both highly decorative, yet extremely practical and lethal as a combat weapon. By the beginning of the 19th century, preference among naval officers shifted from a long, straight-bladed dirk to one with a curved blade--far more practical for the frenzied “hack-and-slash” fighting that typified boarding actions. By the War of 1812, the typical American fighting dirk featured a long, curved blade without fullers that ended in a “trail-point” or “trailing-point” tip to it, in that the blade has a back edge that curves upward to end above the spine. This allows a relatively lightweight dirk achieve a larger curve on its edge and indeed the whole of the knife blade was curved in an upwards arc. Such a dirk is optimized for slicing or slashing, providing a larger cutting area or “belly”. Close study of the blade of this Bainbridge dirk reveals that it probably was originally of this form and an inch or so longer, but that the original tip was probably altered to a spear-point. While a spear-point did allow for more effective stabbing with this dirk (and it may be why it was so altered), the more likely reason is that the tip had been snapped off in use, so grinding down the blade to achieve the original trail-point tip would have resulted in loss of at least an additional inch or two of blade length, and thus, a spear-point tip was the logical choice in order to preserve the maximum blade length. The hilt of the dirk consists of a ribbed grip with two strands of fine, twisted, copper wire in the channels, with a gilt-brass, backstrap that is faceted for its first 2/3ds length, then feathered before its terminates in an eagle-head pommel. The shape of the eagle-head is an uncommon form and closely resembles two other naval examples known to this researcher. The first is that found on the sword presented to by the City of New York to Captain Jacob Jones of the U.S. Navy (for his gallantry during the 1812 capture of the British sloop-of-war Frolic by his sloop, the Wasp) made by New York gold- and silversmith John Targee; the second is a c. 1810 silver-mounted eagle-head pommel saber sculpted by New York silversmith Christoper Giffing. All three pommels feature an uplifted head without top crest, open beak, and a pronounced brow above the eyes, all clearly influenced by a similar “pigeon” headed (or Type 4) eagle with open beak that has been attributed to noted London cutler John Salter. The Bainbridge dirk’s eagle, however, holds a ring within its open beak, from which a brass chain extends, joining another loop attached to the lower quillon or finial of the open S (or “reversed-quillon”) crossguard, also of gilded brass. Both of the finials or quillons are shaped like circular medallions, bearing sculpted floral devices in their centers, nearly the same as the decorative medallions found on the knuckle-bow of the Jones sword. The crossguard has shield-shaped langets sculpted with oak leaves. While the overall form of the dirk closely resembles known examples made for the American market by London and Birmingham cutlers, the rather austere etching on the blade suggests that, although influenced by English design, both the blade and hilt may actually be the product of American artisans, as with the Targee and Giffing eagle-head swords noted above. It is the etched decorations of the blade, however, that make this dirk a unique and important historical piece. The obverse face of the blade bears a long, central scroll upon which is inscribed, ‘BAINBRIDGE and ye. NAVY’, perhaps commemorating Commodore William Bainbridge’s 29 December 1812 victory over the British frigate Java while in command of the U.S. frigate Constitution. The reverse bears a central panoply of arms with an American flag rising from its center, flanked above and below by floral sprays. These etched decorations, blued and gilded, originally extended approximately 2/3ds of the blade’s original length on both sides. In the collections of the New York Historical Society is another, a dress dirk with a shorter, straight blade of diamond profile, but etched by the same hand and in a similar manner: the obverse scroll in this case the motto, ‘LAWRENCE and ye. NAVY’. It was donated by a descendant of Captain James
Lawrence, mortally wounded during the Chesapeake-Shannon battle of 1 June 1813 and almost certainly relates to Lawrence’s earlier exploit in the war, in which his sloop-of-war Hornet fought and sunk the British sloop Peacock on 24 February 1813. The Bainbridge dirk, when originally sold in 2009, came with other Bainbridge memorabilia (since dispersed) and with a family association. The Bainbridge and Lawrence dirks are the only ones known to exist that bear blades naming War of 1812 American naval heroes and appear to be unique blades, probably intended as presentation pieces to the two respective heroes, through whom the maker anticipated receiving the patronage of other naval officers by virtue of this visual publicity mechanism. Whether or not the instance of the Bainbridge dirk’s fabrication and commission can be fully identified in future, it remains a unique and important artifact associated with one of the most important naval heroes of the War of 1812, as well as the most famous ship in American history, ‘Old Ironsides’, the USS Constitution. Provenance: William Bainbridge and by descent in Princeton, NY branch of family; private collection, 2009-present. Condition: the brass mounts of the hilt retain approximately 90% or more of its original gilding, but there is a small chip to the grip at the juncture with the pommel on each side, as well as a tiny one at the juncture of the backstrap and the ferrule on the obverse, just behind the crossguard; the remnants of the bluing now appear as bluish-grey ghosting upon the blade, now darkened with age, although most of the gilding within the etched blade decoration remains.
71 PRESIDENT JAMES MADISON PROMOTES SAMUEL WOODHOUSE TO MASTER COMMANDANT, USN JAMES MADISON as President, DS, dated Washington, DC, 27 April 1816 and countersigned by William Crowninshield, Secretary of the Navy; partially printed on vellum, 17 x 12.5 inches (view) within 8-ply window mat under UV glass, conservation-mounted and framed. Philadelphian Samuel Woodhouse (1784-1843) began his naval career on 1 May 1799 as a midshipman during the Quasi-War with France. He served under Captain Truxtun on the USS Constellation, participating in that ship’s famous victory against the Insurgente. During the Barbary Wars, he sailed with the Philadelphia in the Mediterranean in 1801-1802. Furloughed for six months in May 1803, he then served on recruiting duty in Philadelphia, returning to the Mediterranean during 1805-1806 aboard Gunboat No. 3 and later the Essex. With little opportunity for advancement or even duty assignments, now-Lieutenant Woodhouse seems to have spent the next five years on intermittent furlough status, mostly on merchant marine service. On 13 October 1813, Woodhouse notified the Secretary of the Navy of his “return to the U States after an absence of more than two years, having been employed all the previous time in the Merchant service in command of a Ship—and having been detained in South America for the best part of the time since the commencement of the war in Rio Jenirio [sic]...I hold myself in readiness to receive your orders for Service....” Lieutenant Woodhouse was ordered to the Lake Erie Squadron under Commodore Arthur Sinclair as its second-in-command, joining it on 17 April1814. The following month, he was placed in command of an expedition to Lake Huron, taking the Caledonia, Scorpion and Ohio, and later took part in the successful amphibious campaign against Michilimackinac in August, remaining with Sinclair’s squadron until the end of the war. In 1815, he was back in Philadelphia and ordered to the USS Constitution as 1st Lieutenant. On 27 April 1816, Woodhouse was promoted to Master Commander and made captain on 19 May 1827, resigning his commission a few months later. $1000-2000
72 [KING GEORGE III] RAISING AN IRISH REGIMENT, 1793
His Majesty’s Warrant” with “George R” heading the top page and countersigned by George Yonge; DS, 34 pp., folio, St. James, 11 September 1793. An original manuscript copy of the Royal Warrant enacted as “necessary for the good of Our Service, that our Corps of Fencible Men Should be governed by the like Regulations as the rest of Our Army...”, probably sent to Sir Edward Leslie, Colonel Commandant of the Tarbert Fencible Infantry, a corps raised in Ireland. Fencible Regiments were provisional, regular regiments raised for the defence of the British Isles, thereby relieving the “standing” old regiments from such duty so that they could be deployed overseas during the war with France. An incentive for enlisting in a Fencible Regiment was that a recruit “taking the King’s shilling” was guaranteed freedom from overseas service, that is, in continental Europe. The warrant discusses in great detail the pay, clothing, terms of service, and allowances for officers and men serving in such corps. $500-1000
73 [GENERALS WILLIAM HARCOURT AND DAVID DUNDAS] ARMY CLOTHING, 1801
Ratification of Clothing Inspection for the Tarbert Fencibles, bearing the signatures of General Earl William Harcourt, and Lieutenant Generals George Hotham and Sir David Dundas, DS, 1 p. folio, to the Paymaster General, 17 October 1801, Horse Guards [with] Assignments for Offreckonings for the same, William Dickenson, DS, 2 pp. folio, 22 April 1801, bearing seal and tax stamp, entered with Auditing Office, 25 September 1801. Two documents, the first being the report of the Board of General Officers “appointed to Inspect and Regulate the Clothing of the Army” in which they “viewed and found agreeable to His Majesty’s Instructions” the uniforms of the Tarbert Fencibles and desiring the Paymaster General to reimburse the regimental agent of Sir Edward Leslie, Colonel Commandant.. This document is signed by General (later Field Marshal) William Harcourt (1743-1830), who had signalized himself during the American Revolution while commanding the 16th or Queen’s Light Dragoons (see lot 27). Also bearing the signature of Sir David Dundas (1736-1820), celebrated tactician and author of the 1788 infantry regulations used by the British Army throughout the Napoleonic Wars; Dundas later became commander-in-chief upon the temporary resignation of the Duke of York. The other document being the Assignment of Off-Reckonings to the amount of L 1,967.19.9 for said clothing provided by William Prater and Son, Military Clothiers, bearing the signature and wax seal of William Dickenson, regimental agent and London Banker. $500-1000
74 BRITISH ORDNANCE BRASS-HILTED HANGER, C. 1790 This hanger pattern was a generic form contracted from various cutlers by the Board of Ordnance from the mid-18th century until its close. It was primarily intended for issue to militia regiments, independent companies and other corps directly dependent on the Crown for sidearms and accoutrements, as opposed to regimental colonels’ agencies. It has a knucklebow of brass cast integral to the dished, heart-shaped counterguard with teardrop-shaped quillon, and two applied side branches. The grip is cast-brass with spiraling grooves, ending in a ball pommel with pronounced capstan. The curved blade is 25 in. L x 1 ¼ in. W at ricasso and has a single, narrow fuller. A running fox is stamped on both faces of the blade and that of the maker ‘WOOLEY’ (this stamp in use c. 1787-1800) on the left near ricasso. A very good example with undisturbed tang, 31 in. L overall. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati
75 IDENTIFIED 15TH US INFANTRY OFFICER’S SILVER CAP PLATE, C. 1812 Plate of engraved sheet silver, 5 ¾ x 3 ¾ in., convex in profile, with four attachment points on recto, one intact, with soldered wire loop still in place (but bent inwards) and the other 3 with soldered bases, but now missing wire loops. A beautifully engraved officer’s cap plate first worn by Zachariah Rossell during his service as captain of the 15th US Infantry during its campaigns on the Canadian border during 1812-1813. The 15th Infantry was raised and commanded by Colonel Zebulon Pike, already famous from his exploration of the Southwest frontier during 1805-1806. Pike was an innovator and introduced numerous changes to his various commands, in terms of uniforms, arms, tactics and drill. The 15th always formed in a 3- vs the usual 2-rank formation, the rear rank furnished with 12-foot pikes and cut-down, slung muskets. Rossell’s officer’s plate is probably a regimental pattern approved by Pike, as well. The style and method of engraving is similar to that found on a number of early 19th century, New York and New Jersey militia cap and belt plates. Both the officers and men of the 15th were largely from these two states and it stands to reason that the officers’ plates were made by some talented New York area silversmith. This oblong plate with clipped, curved corners, features an eagle with ‘Pro Patria’ streamer in beak superimposed over a panoply of arms, including drum, shield, standards, and muskets, below which is found the officer’s initials in monogram; in this case, ‘ZR’ for Zachariah Rossell. Underneath the sunburst is a scroll or ribbon bearing ‘15TH. REGT. INFY.’ The plate is edged all around with four, stipple-engraved lines, the two outer lare straight and the other two are wavy. Plate is convex in profile when viewed from top or bottom, as it was fitted to the front of a tall cap or shako. There are 2 small holes punched in the lower left corner of the plate, probably a expedient mode of reattachment in the field after the soldered eyelet in that corner broke off. There is a small separation in plate along the deeply-engraved line defining the left standard pole, but it does not detract. Zachariah Rossell was from a prominent New Jersey family and was first commissioned in the 15th on 12 March 1812. He was promoted to major in the 25th Infantry on 31 December 1813, but returned to the 15th on 27 April 1814. While in the 15th, he led his troops in numerous actions, including the attack on Fort York in 1813, during which Colonel Pike and many soldiers from the 15th were killed by the explosion of a magazine following the American capture of the fort. He was honorably discharged following the close of the war on 15 June 1815. He was subsequently appointed brigadier general and adjutant general in the New Jersey militia on 1 May 1816, resigning on 13 July 1842. The plate is currently untouched as found, with a dark patina-tarnish and some brightened areas in its center; a digitally enhanced photograph is placed alongside the other, to allow for a clearer understanding of the engraved devices on its face and original appearance. Provenance: purchased by consignor from a Long Island estate.
76 1808 US LIGHT DRAGOON CAP LETTERS
Cast-brass, with small clinches on recto, each 1 ½ in. H The leather helmet adopted for the newly-raised Regiment of Light Dragoons in 1808 had a vertical front-plate of leather, horsehair crest and imitation leopard-skin turban. Messrs. George Green & Son of Philadelphia were awarded a contract to provide 800 sets of brass letters “USLD” which were to have “good pliable brass tongues to bend and clinch” on the reverse, by which they were mounted to the cap fronts. The letters continued to be worn on the caps during the first year of the war, although the helmets were replaced, beginning in winter 1812-13, by different pattern caps bearing plates in lieu of the letters. One spectator who viewed a troop of dragoons on the march in 1812 speculated that ‘USLD’ referred to “Uncle Sam’s Likely Devils”. $1000-1500
77 MODEL 1812 UNITED STATES LIGHT DRAGOON CAP In anticipation of renewed hostilities with Great Britain, the 2nd Regiment of Light Dragoons was authorized in the United States Army on January 11,1812. The Model 1808 dragoon cap with its ‘USLD’ lettering was continued as the pattern headgear and by July 8, 1812 Colonel James Burn was able to inform the Secretary of War that the “caps that are making for the 2d Regt of the U S Light Dragoons are nearly finished.” Burns went on to request permission to use white metal letters and mountings on the caps of his regiment, “being uniform with the plate and Buckles of the sabre Belts”—noting that they “can be had in Philada. at the same price as brass.” Permission was granted, but it appears that Burn used this authorization to acquire trimmings of an entire new form, as an October 16 contract for additional caps called for ones “with plates in front per pattern” and the cap pattern appears to have been modified at the same time. By March 1813 there were 1238 “new Pattern” caps on hand, as opposed to 37 of the “old plan with brass mounting” suggesting that Burn may have influenced the Commissary General of Purchases to change not only the mountings, but the entire cap form by late 1812. The regulations for the light dragoon uniform circulated in December 1812 vaguely describe a “Helmet: according to pattern, blue feather with white top.” This new light dragoon helmet or cap was another American adaptation of European military wear, resembling the crested helmets worn by both French and British heavy dragoons. It was described in December 1813 as having a “Skull 6 Inches in depth the helmet in front to be 3 inches higher than the top of the Scull forming the half Semi to the back part.” It differed from the 1808 cap by having a comb blocked integral with the crown and there was no longer an applied front. Instead a pewter cap plate, bearing a “mounted dragoon in the act of charging”, was affixed directly to the crown’s front. Caps plates of this form were already in store by January 1813. Instead, the comb was edged with white metal reinforcement strips, with additional bands running down the crown. Made of thin, tinned sheet iron, the strips had more decorative than protective qualities, as did the cap’s leather chinstrap, covered with scales made of same metal. A flowing white horsehair crest was set into the comb, stepped back about ½ inch to allow space for the feather, which by 1814 had been replaced with a white/blue pompon or tuft. By June 1814, fears that there would be “great difficulty in procuring white hair” without excessive costs led to approval of “black hair instead of the white”, although all surviving examples have white horsehair crests. Thus, the ‘supply and demand’ crisis must not have been as critical as first imagined. That same year, the two understrength regiments were merged and were later dissolved in 1815. This helmet was part of the 1813 contract with cap and accoutrement maker William Cressman and bears a “CRESSMAN’ stamp on the greenpainted underside of the helmet visor; it is the finest example of this cap pattern in private hands. Provenance: found at Fort Snelling, MN, c. 1960; William Guthman Collection, c. 1960-2006; purchased at William Guthman Collection Sale, Northeast Auctions, 12 October 2006 as lot 687 ($22,250); James L. Kochan Study Collection to present.
78 JOHN WESLEY JARVIS (1780-1840) Colonel James Burn, c. 1814
oil on canvas, laid down on rockered panel, 20 1/8 x 18 ¼ in., within a carved and gilded, reproduction frame James Burn (1768-1831) of South Carolina began his military career in 1790 as a cornet (2nd lieutenant) in the Charleston Light Dragoons, being promoted to 1st lieutenant, in which capacity he served until the outbreak of the Quasi-War. Burn obtained an appointment as captain of light dragoons in the regular army on 5 March 1799 and was honorably discharged on 15 June 1800 with the reduction of the army on the peace establishment. During his brief regular service, he came to the attention of Brigadier General James Wilkinson, under whom he served briefly as aide de camp. Shortly after the outbreak of war with Britain, Burn received a commission as colonel of the 2nd U.S. Light Dragoon Regiment on 25 August 1812. Burn’s appointment to the colonelcy seems to be due, in part, to the patronage of both Wilkinson and Charles Jared Ingersoll of South Carolina, an influential Republican politician. Immediately after accepting the command, Burn (then residing in Philadelphia) busied himself in organizing, equipping and training his regiment. He took great interest in the martial trappings of the dragoons and designed the new uniform adopted for both regiments in summer 1812. It is in this distinctive “hussar” jacket of dark blue with silver trimmings, that the handsome, dragoon officer sat for his likeness by the nation’s leading portrait artist, John Wesley Jarvis. By spring 1813, the “brave and modest” Burn and four troops of his regiment were serving on the Niagara frontier of New York. Temporarily dismounted and serving as light infantry, his command participated in the attack and capture of Fort George on May 27th. With the capture of Brigadier Generals Winder and Chandler during the British surprise of the American camp at Stoney Creek, Burn (who had commanded the American reserve during the battle), found himself the senior field officer onhand and convened a quick council of war that decided the small army should retreat to its former position at Forty Mile Creek, concluding that campaign. The 2nd Light Dragoons, largely broken up into smaller detachments for service, left Burn relegated to staff duties for the balance of his wartime service. When the two regiments of dragoons were merged into one regiment during 1814, Burn retained command as senior field officer. He was a member of the board that convened for the court martial of Major General Wilkinson, who was acquitted of charges of incompetence for his handling of the disastrous St. Lawrence campaign of 1814. Wilkinson family tradition is that the Burn portrait was commissioned by the general, although it may have been given to Wilkinson by Burn as a token of his esteem. After the close of the war, Burn returned to Pennsylvania and died in Frankford on February 28, 1831. Provenance: Major General James Wilkinson to 1827 and by descent to George C. Coulon of New Orleans until 1905; William Macbeth of New York to 1915; The Brooklyn Museum, 1915 until 2002; James L. Kochan Study Collection to present. Exhibited: The Brooklyn Museum, 1917-1938; Art League of Nassau County, 1939; The New York Historical Society, 1940; The Brooklyn Museum, 1941-1988. Published: Early American Paintings (The Brooklyn Museum, 1917), p. 44; Harold E. Dickson. John Wesley Jarvis: American Painter (The New York Historical Society, 1949), p. 346; H. Charles McBarron and Frederick P. Todd, “The 2d U. S. Light Dragoons, 1812-1814”, The Military Collector & Historian V (1953). pp. 45-46; American Paintings (The Brooklyn Museum, 1979), p. 70; John C. Fredriksen, ed., “Colonel James Burn and the War of 1812: The Letters of a South Carolina Officer”, South Carolina Historical Magazine v. 90, no. 4 OCT 1989), 299-312 [p. 300]; Rene Chartrand. Uniforms and Equipment of the United States Forces in the War of 1812 (The Fort Niagara Association, 1992), p. 29.
79 FRENCH ‘MONTMORENCY’ SHORT SABER WITH FOLDING SIDE-GUARD, C. 1785-1800 A slotted-hilt, short saber with stirrup-shaped guard of brass, with brass backstrap ending in a flat-capped pommel with diamond capstan for blade, and spiral-grooved, wooden grip wrapped with leather and twisted wire in the channels, commonly called “les Montmorency” form. It has a slightly-curved, 30 in. L blade with single, wide fuller most of its length, and a 15 in. L narrow fuller or blood groove, centered on the blade just below the spine, ending in front where the 7 in. false edge begins. This form of hilt had become popular by c. 1780, but the folding, slotted side-guard as seen on this specimen seems to have been an addition to the original form beginning c. 1785-1790. The folding-guard saber was a very popular among French infantry and naval officers during the Revolutionary and Consular period and copied by other European makers. The blade has moderate to heavy pitting from the tip inwards some four inches, while the folding guard is missing about ½ inch of its scallop-edged, outer bar near the counterguard. The spring-locking pin for the side-guard’s open position is now missing from the inside of the counterguard. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati
80 ROSE U.S. CONTRACT SABER OF 1807 Length: 40 3/8 in.
Blade: 35 in. L x 1 3/8 in. W
The Rose family of Philadelphia’s Northern Liberties had a history of supplying edged weapons to the United States dating back to the Revolutionary War. Following the wake of Chesapeake-Leopard Incident of 1807, the Federal government let new contracts for arms to fill its depleted arsenals in anticipation of future wartime needs and contracted with William Rose & Sons for 2,000 cavalry sabers with scabbards at the price of $5 apiece. These iron-mounted sabers had stirrup-shaped hilts with leather grips and were inspired by those carried by British, Prussian and French hussars. In 1808, 592 of these sabers were furnished to the Regiment of Light Dragoons, with the balance largely kept in store until 1812, when issued out to arm volunteer troops raising for active service against the British on the Ohio and New York frontiers. A good example, retaining 100% of the original leather, grip wrapping, but missing the twisted wire in the grooves, with light pitting to the iron of the hilt and blade; stamped (faintly) ‘W. Rose & Sons’ on spine of blade near ricasso. $1500-2500
81 MODEL 1812/13 STARR-CONTRACT CAVALRY SABER WITH SCABBARD Length: 39 in.
Blade: 34 in. L x 1 3/8 in. W
A nice example of one of the 10,000 sabers with iron scabbards produced in the modified contract of 1812 between the United States and Connecticut cutler Nathan Starr, delivered between 1813-1817. Sabers of this pattern were used by both the 1st and 2nd US. Light Dragoons and were also issued out of Federal arsenals to arm the volunteer troops of horse of the states’ militia that went on Federal service during the War of 1812. This saber has a wide, unfullered blade with a clipped point, well-stamped at the ricasso of the obverse face with the inspection and maker’s initials: ‘P [proved] / HHP’ [Henry Perkins, US inspector] / N.STARR [maker] and a iron scabbard that nearly all of its japanning. $1000-1500
82 A PAIR OF BRITISH P1796 LIGHT CAVALRY SABERS WITH SCABBARDS (2) 1)A Pattern 1796 saber for an enlisted trooper, iron-mounted hilt with reverse-P guard, the wooden grip with most of its leather wrap intact, although now brittle. The sharply-curved blade has a single, wide fuller and the blade is cracked about 1/3d of the way down from the tip. Overall length is 38 in., with a 32 ¼ in L blade; with japanned iron scabbard, with integral upper and lower bands with rings and drag at tip, 34 in. L., with: 2) A similar trooper’s pattern, hilt with reverse-P guard and backstrap/pommel of iron, with fragmentary wooden grip devoid of leather wrapping. The single-fullered, curved blade is 32 3/8 in. L x 1 3/8 in. W; overall saber length is 38 in. Japanned iron scabbard with some oxidation to surface and the integral upper and lower band devoid of their hanging rings. Relic condition. This saber descended in the Green-Chewning family and was traditionally (but incorrectly) said to have been owned by Colonel John Green (1730-1793) of the Virginia Continental Line. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati (1947 and 1979 donations, respectively)
83 SCARCE WORK ON WAR OF 1812 AMERICAN RIFLE TACTICS Duane, William. A Handbook for Riflemen; Containing the First Principles of Military Discipline, Founded on Rational Method; Intended to Explain in a Familiar and Practical Manner, The Discipline and Duties of Rifle Corps: Conformable to the System Established. 1st ed., octavo, vi, 108 pp. (incl. 6 pp. of bugle calls and whistle signals) ,12 plates, in original printer’s boards (loose), within marbled slipcover with spine label. Text browned, else good. The plate numbering is haphazard, as in all known copies. Text includes the manual of arms with the US Model 1803 rifle and plates focus on skirmishing drill and tactics. Extremely rare work, the first published on rifle and light infantry tactics for the U.S. Army, a compilation by William Duane, erstwhile editor of The Aurora, and colonel of the U.S. Rifle Regiment, 1808-1812, who served during part of the War of 1812 as the Adjutant General. Duane compiled and published a number of manuals, but this is the scarcest (American Imprints 25298—1 copy). The title page bears the original owner’s inscription on urc: ‘George Gay/1814’; $700-1000
84 A SILVER 1813 OFFICER’S WAISTBELT PLATE OF THE 42ND U.S. INFANTRY In May 1813, the new U.S. Army uniform regulations abolished the shoulder belt for all infantry, artillery and rifle officers, which was to be replaced with a waistbelt of “white leather” and the infantry officer “buckles and trimmings, [to be] silver or plated”. This rather vague description left a great deal of latitude and imagination to officers with regard to their waistbelt closures. In a study of wartime portraits of regular infantry officers, the use of silver open-framework buckles, imported French plates of silver plate bearing eagles (devoid of the Imperial crown) and plain oblong plates have all been observed. The 42nd U.S. Infantry, raised in 1813, had a “silk stocking” officer corps drawn from the ranks of New York society and spared little expense in their uniforms, swords and accoutrements, judging by extant artifacts including the recently-sold saber of COL Totterral and this austere, but finely-worked example of an 1813 waistbelt plate made by New York silversmith John W. Forbes (fl. 1800-1819) and bearing his touchmarks on the recto. The front is engraved with a centered ‘42nd. Regt.’ and edge bordered with an engraved band rendered in squiggle-work. The back of the plate shows evidence of the original attachment methods, now filed off, which consisted of a soldered, flat fastening hook of silver approximately 3/8 in . W, with belt loop made from 3/16 in. dia. silver rod, soldered near the upper and lower edges of the plate, approximately 1/ in. from the side edge of the plate. The plate is slightly convex in side profile and measures 2 3/16 x 3 in. $8000-16,000
85 VOLUNTEER MILITIA EAGLE CROSSBELT PLATE,1810-1830 An interesting early American crossbelt plate for some unknown volunteer militia corps, with an engraved eagle with wings upraised, talons resting on a stylized cloud or scroll below. Oblong plate with clipped corners, made of silvered copper plate, with a lead filled back, 3 ¾ x 3 in., convex in profile. On recto are eight 7/8 in. L hooks (of hook & eye form), the scroll-formed ends set in the lead fill around the edges of the plate, with the balance serving as posts that would be pushed through a leather belt, then clinched down to secure it, a technique observed on other early 19th century American plates. The silver plating has worn away at the high points in the center, principally the eagle body and wings. $750-1500
86 INDIA PATTERN MUSKET OF 1797
Overall Length: 55 ¼ in. Barrel Length: 39 ¼ in. Bore: 0.75 caliber The workhorse of the Napoleonic British Army, the India Pattern musket was first taken into service during the arms emergency of 1793, when stocks of arms intended for the East India Company were pressed into service. By 1797, the arm was in production by the Tower as a wartime expedient in lieu of the more expensive (and slowerto-produce) Short Land Pattern and Duke of Richmond muskets. Robustly stocked, with simpler furniture and with a shorter barrel, the India was still a well-made arm and saved the life of many a soldier on battlefields around the world and was indeed the quintessential “Brown Bess.” A skillful reconversion, with crisp lock mechanism; the stock in superb condition and the barrel and brass mountings very good, with a pleasing patina. $2000-3000
87 INDIA PATTERN MUSKET OF 1809
Overall Length: 54 ¾ in. Barrel Length: 39 ¼ in. Bore: 0.75 caliber In 1809, the “ring-neck” or reinforced cock was introduced to replace the earlier goose-neck form, along with a few other modifications, including a simplified trigger; these minor improvements to the India Pattern musket remained unchanged through the balance of its production period. This was the standard issue arm for most British Army foot soldiers and Royal Marines during the Napoleonic period and well into the 1830s. This Pattern 1809 musket has been restocked in walnut and is missing its ramrod, but the original lock, barrel and brass mountings are all complete and in very good condition, the lock in good working order. $1500-2500
88 FLINTLOCK BRITISH NAPOLEONIC VOLUNTEER’S MUSKET Napoleon’s planned invasion of the United Kingdom at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out, was a major influence on British plans for homeland defense and led to the rebuilding and mobilization of militia units, as well as the formation of a multitude of volunteer corps of horse, foot and artillery. Britain essentially remained an armed camp, except during brief intervals of peace in Europe, until 1815. The gentlemen who joined such “white glove” infantry corps wanted lighter arms than the heavy Land and India musket patterns furnished the militia and various patterns were produced by British gunmakers to supply the demand. This fine volunteer’s musket has a 39 in. L barrel of 0.78 caliber (unmarred) bore with double-struck Tower private proofs near breech, but the lock and brass mounts slighter and the walnut stock less robust than with an India musket. This musket is in VG condition, bright finished with some light surface rust to iron parts and a few handling marks in the wood. The edged, round lock is excellent working order, with a ‘crown/GR’ before the cock and a flat ‘S’ sideplate opposite it. $1500-3000
89 VOLUNTEER SERGEANT’S CARBINE OF INDIA PATTERN, C. 1814 This carbine conforms in most respects to those furnished flank company sergeants in British regiments, with India pattern lock, brass mounts and handrail-butted, walnut stock. It has Birmingham proof and view marks on the left side of the breech of its 39 in. L barrel of 0.68 bore and the rounded lock bear’s the maker’s mark ‘KETLAND’ on the lock before the cock. Dark patina to the metal parts, with moderate-heavy pitting around the vent of the barrel, a good reconversion in working order. $1000-2000
INTRODUCTION AND USE OF NEW LAND PATTERN MUSKETS Incorporating some of the improvements first introduced with the experimental Duke of Richmond muskets, the ‘New Land Pattern’ muskets were introduced following the Treaty of Amiens (1802) to supplant the India Pattern musket temporarily adopted as an expedient arm during the 1790s. However, production was just underway when conflict renewed and the New Land muskets were never produced in sufficient quantity to replace the India Pattern muskets army-wide, despite their obvious superiority. There were two versions: the “New Land Pattern Musket” and the ‘New Land Pattern Light Infantry Musket’. Both featured key-fastened, browned barrels, bayonets with springs, and discarded the handrail butt of earlier Tower muskets. The former had a 42-inch barrel, while the light infantry musket had a browned one of 39 inches with rear sight (the first British musket to incorporate this feature in production), in addition to a trigger-guard of “pistol-grip” form--similar to that on the Baker rifle. It has been previously asserted by experts (Blackmore: 1961 and Bailey: 1971) that the New Land Pattern series were but little produced or used during the Napoleonic period. However, documents discovered by this researcher in Ordnance and other War Office records prove otherwise. By 1808 sufficient quantities of the New Land Musket had been produced to rearm the entire Brigade of Guards and other elite corps, while the New Land Light Infantry Musket was in production by at least 1803 (not 1811 as earlier believed) and the first corps to be armed with it were the 52nd and 43rd Foot of the famed Light Brigade, then being retrained as light infantry regiments at Shorncliffe under Sir John Moore. The 85th Foot of Bladensburg fame was issued the same arms when they, too, were converted to light infantry in 1809. Other British troops during the War of 1812 known to have been armed with the light infantry version included the Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles (Canada 1812-15), the 43rd Foot (New Orleans 1815), the Independent Companies of Foreigners (Norfolk 1813), the Newfoundland Fencibles (Canada 1813-1815), and the 7th Battalion/60th Foot (Canada 1814-1815) . The New Land Pattern series saw only limited postwar production, due to the massive stockpile of India Pattern muskets on hand and most that remained in Ordnance stores were cut-down and altered into sergeant’s carbines, so complete originals are extremely rare today.
90 NEW LAND PATTERN LIGHT INFANTRY MUSKET OF THE ‘ROYAL AMERICANS’ Overall Length: 54 3/8 in.; Barrel Length: 39 in. Bore: 0.75 caliber
The 7th Battalion of the 60th Foot or ‘Royal Americans’ was formed on the Isle of Wight in 1813, largely from German prisoners of war. They were sent to Canada and stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Detachments were drawn from the battalion for the 1814 British expedition against Maine and they serviced with great merit in the capture of Freeport and Castine. This musket is one of two examples that bear unit markings for the battalion, the other is in the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa. The tang of the buttplate is engraved ‘7 B 60 R’ and ‘C / 80’, signifying that this is musket 80 issued to Company C of the 7th Battalion of the 60th Foot. $10,000-14,000
91 NEW LAND PATTERN MUSKET OF THE ‘COLDSTREAM GUARDS’ Overall Length: 58 in. Barrel length: 42 ¼ in. Bore: 0.75 caliber
The elite Brigade of Guards, composed of the 1st Regiment of Guards, the 2nd or ‘Coldstream Regiment” and the 3rd Regiment or “Scots Guards’ were among the first troops to be armed in the 42-inch barrel New Lands designed for general infantry use. The Guards Brigade carried these in both the Peninsula and Waterloo campaigns. This example is marked on the tang of the buttplate: ‘1: BN: CM: GDS:’ and ‘348’, indicating musket 348 issued to the 1st Battalion of the Coldstream Guards. The ramrod appears to be a later replacement. $10,000-14,000
92 NEW LAND PATTERN LIGHT INFANTRY MUSKET WITH HANOVERIAN PERCUSSION CONVERSION Hanover and Brunswick, as German allies to Britain in the war against Napoleon, were the recipient of New Land Pattern Light Infantry Muskets for arming the elite light troops of the King’s German Legion and the Brunswick Oels Corps. This Hanoverian example, still in very good working order and condition, was probably converted to percussion (c. 1850), during which refurbishment, its original rear and front barrel sights were removed and replaced with a large, fixed rear sight set on a new tang/breech plug, and a new corresponding blade-style front sight of brass. The stock bears the ‘crown/FW’ cipher of Fredrich Wilhelm behind the sideplate, a ‘D’ on the left butt, and a ‘D/1850’ stamped on the left side of the barrel 3 in. forward of the breech. $2500-4500
93 A FRENCH MODEL 1766/1792 PISTOL (PISTOLET M1766 REVOLUTIONAIRE) Round, plain, smoothbore 9 in. L barrel of 0.69 caliber bore, a plain, beveled lock with flat, reinforced cock, faceted and bridled pan and feather spring with finial tip missing, with indistinctly engraved ‘MN/Gosuin/d’Charleville’ before cock; full walnut stock with iron mountings, consisting of butt-plate, sideplate, noseband, and ramrod. Indistinct stamps in wood behind the sideplate. Metal a dull, dark ‘attic’ patina throughout, with light-moderate pitting on lock and moderate-heavy on the rear of the barrel near vent; wood with dents and usage marks. Lock in good working order. This is essentially the same pistol as used by the Ancient Regime French Army during the period of the American War of Independence, but part of the 2nd production of this arm during the French Revolutionary period, beginning in the year 1792 and continuing through the Year III; the Revolutionaire version differs from the earlier in that all stock mounts are of iron, as opposed to brass in the original 1766 configuration. $1200-2000
94 A FLINTLOCK TOWER LIGHT DRAGOON PISTOL OF THE YORK HUSSARS, C. 1794 Round, plain, smoothbore 9 in. L barrel of 0.685 caliber bore, indistinctly engraved ‘YORK HUSSARS’ along the top, with Ordnance view and proof marks to the left near breech; a border engraved, flat bevelled lock with ‘crown/GR’ before cock and ‘TOWER’ across the tail; figured full stock (fore-end with minor split and repair on one side) with apron around the barrel tang, and stamped with inspector’s marks and Ordnance Storekeeper’s mark above the tail of the lock, regulation brass mounts including triggerguard engraved ‘F / 53’ on the bow, and later brass-tipped ramrod (barrel and tang lightly pitted overall). The York Hussars were raised in 1794 from Germans and taken on the British establishment. They were sent to Haiti, 680 arriving in the spring of 1796. They fought and campaigned well, but a year later only 240 were fit for service, the rest either dead or debilitated from yellow fever and other casualties. It was evacuated in 1798 and returned to England, where it was disbanded in 1802. A rare survival from West Indies campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. $2500-3500
95 A NEW LAND PATTERN LIGHT DRAGOON PISTOL OF THE 8TH OR ‘ROYAL IRISH’ LIGHT DRAGOONS Round, smoothbore 9 in. L, key-fastened barrel of 0.66 caliber; marked on left side of breech with Ordnance proof and view marks and with a crown/10 on the right; crown stamped on tang. Flat lockplate and reinforced cock with no borders; marked ‘TOWER’ on tail and in center with crown/GR cypher and small ordnance mark; sprig engraved at tail and on bridle. Standard brass New Land Pattern furniture; triggerguard bow marked inside with small crown and stamped outside with ‘8/14/B’. Steel swivel ramrod marked with a crown. Walnut stock; marked on grips with undated storekeeper’s mark and two small crown/4 markings on each pistol. Condition: Very good; barrel and lock retain a grey patina with scattered light pitting and marks from use and have crisp markings and lock mechanism. Stock with scattered dents and use marks and a 1 in. horizontal crack at barrel key. $2000-3000
96 A FLINTLOCK US NAVY MODEL 1813 BOARDING PISTOL Round, plain, smoothbore barrel of 9 in. L and 0.69 caliber bore, with “P/US” on left side near breech. Flat beveled lockplate with rounded tail, brass pan, and rounded, reinforced cock, with worn stamp “S. NORTH/U. (eagle) S./ MIDDLN. CON’ before cock; a well-executed reconversion, the metal parts with good definition, lock in good working order and wood with only minor dents or marks. Walnut half-stock with iron mountings, including banded nose-cap, and (replacement) wooden ramrod; the belt hook was removed sometime during its historic usage and the hole plugged with wood, as observed on other examples. Only 1000 of these pistols were contracted with Simeon North and subsequently delivered to the Navy between 1813-1815, making it one of the rarer and more desirable early US marital pistols, especially due to its wartime usage. $2500-4500
97 [GREAT LAKES NAVAL OPERATIONS, WAR OF 1812] Remarks &c on the Navigation of the Lakes Erie, St. Clair, Huron & Ontario By Henry Kent Lieut[enant] RN
Undated, but from contents can be assigned to c. 1816]; large folio with paper cover or wrap made from a blank Royal Navy “Slop Muster” form with an 1815 watermark An unpublished manuscript report, possibly intended as a guidebook for Great Lakes navigation, with special consideration given to naval operations. Written by Lieutenant Henry Kent, Royal Navy, it describes and locates the various harbors, sheltering places, British and American military and naval establishments on the Great Lakes during the early 19th century, with numerous cross references to past naval operations on the Lakes during the recent War of 1812. This incredibly detailed guide to sailing and navigating the oft-treacherous waters of the Great Lakes is divided into two parts: “Sailing directions &c for Lakes Erie & Huron” and “Sailing Directions for Lake Ontario” and was originally probably intended for publication. It is perhaps the earliest written guide on this important subject and much of the information found in it would probably prove invaluable to Great Lakes sailors to this day. However, its primary value lies in the detailed descriptions and soundings of the various harbors and navigational landmarks, with special reference to their past (and possible future) use in time of war. For example, Kent mentions that “Chippewa Creek is situated about a mile and a half above the Falls on the River Niagara and from the mouth of it being a military post during the War was considered a secure place for sinking the small Vessels after the Fleet on Lake Erie was captured by the Americans…”, noting that “to this place I was dispatched in 1815...to assist in the construction of two large Schooners, taking 120 Artificers with me and a Guard of Thirty Marines...we lay up the Keels and on the [ ] of August launched them, the one named Tecumseh and the Newark & former I obtained Command of.” Henry Kent entered the Royal Navy in 1800 as a First Class Volunteer and served aboard various ships until securing a midshipman’s appointment in March 1804 and three years later, a Master’s Mate. In 1809 he was promoted to Acting Lieutenant and on 14 March 1811 he was confirmed as Lieutenant aboard the HMS Fantome, a sloop of war which was part of the British squadron operating in the Chesapeake Bay during 1813 “where, in different attacks made upon the enemy’s works, he distinguished himself as a brave and meritorious officer.” The January of following year, “with a degree of zeal highly creditable to him, Lieut. Kent started from Halifax…at the head of upwards of 100 officers, seamen, and marines” to join Sir James Yeo’s Lake Ontario squadron, “traversing a distance of nearly 1,000 miles across an uninhabited country, covered with snow and woods” and reached Kingston in March. This daring feat was celebrated by the publication of Kent’s official report in the Naval Portfolio. Kent was appointed 1st Lieutenant aboard HMS Princess Charlotte, which he commanded with great merit during the attack and taking of Oswego. In June 1814, he was placed in command of a division of the Ontario squadron and was later appointed Superintendent of the Naval Depot at Penetanguishene. In 1819, “in consequence of a severe attack and fever and ague …[that] reduced him to a mere skeleton”, he removed to the Lake Champlain establishment, where “he remained until Oct. 1822, when he returned home with his officers and men after an absence of 10 years” [Naval Biography, ]. With: Lieutenant William Robins, USN to Lieutenant Silas Duncan, USN at “Kingston, Upper Canada” on 2 August 1819; ALS, 1 p. Written by a veteran of the battle of Plattsburgh to a former comrade in arms, now an officer aboard the USS Washington at New York. Robins introduces and recommends Lieutenant Henry Kent “of his Majesty’s Navy” preparatory to a intended visit to New York City and the eastern United States by the latter. He notes that the Kent’s “general deportment to our Countrymen has given him a Sincere reception by the Navy Officers on the Station at Sackett’s Harbor Where I am at present Station’d.” $7500-10,000
98 ATTRIBUTED TO JOHN COMERFORD (1770-1832) Miniature of Lt. William Rhodes 19th Light Dragoons, 1810
oval watercolor, 2 7/8 x 2 3/8 in. oval, within original gold case bearing the following engraved description on recto: “Wm. Rhodes / 19th. Light Dragoons/ 1810”’ William Rhodes of Kirskill (near Otley, Leeds in Yorkshire) entered the 19th Light Dragoons as a cornet in 1810, serving with it in England and Ireland. On 12 March 1812, he was promoted to lieutenant and a year later, Lieutenant Rhodes embarked for Canada aboard the HMS Majestic, part of a convoy carrying the 19th Regiment of Light Dragoons and other corps as a vital reinforcement to the North American station, being the only regular cavalry stationed in Canada during the War of 1812. The regiment’s first three squadrons arrived at Quebec City in May 1813 and were mounted on horses procured in Lower Canada. Two squadrons were sent to Upper Canada where they were involved in the blockade and re-capture of Fort George, and the destruction of Black Rock and Buffalo in New York State. Elements of the two squadrons participated in Colonel Thomas Pearson’s delaying action against Brigadier General Winfield Scott’s brigade during the American invasion of 1814. They subsequently fought at the Battle of Chippawa in July 1814, the Battle of Lundy’s Lane later in the month and the Siege of Fort Erie in August 1814. Another troop pursued American raiders who had struck at Battle of Malcolm’s Mills in November 1814. For these actions, the regiment earned the battle honor of “Niagara”. The other squadron had been stationed south of Montreal at The Halfway house (Saint Luc area as well as Fort Lennox and The Block houses along the Lacolle border) and participated in the Battle of Plattsburgh in September 1814. In the autumn of 1814, the two squadrons serving on the Niagara rejoined the other squadron. The regiment served south of Montreal until the end of the war. They were sent back to England in August 1816. Rhodes rose to the rank of captain, but later retired on half-pay. He married Ann, the eldest daughter of Christopher Smith of Bramhope Hall, near Leeds. When her father died in 1846, the property passed to them and Rhodes lived here until his death in 1869 at age 77. Provenance: by descent in the Rhodes of Bramhope family until c. 1930, whence sold at auction.
99 OFFICER’S SABER OF THE 19TH LIGHT DRAGOONS, c. 1813 Regimental pattern saber of the 19th Light Dragoons, 36 in. L overall, with curved, unfullered blade of 31 1/2 in. L with bright finish, etched with the regimental badge of a crown over an Indian war elephant and its corresponding battle honor for “ASSAYE”, as well as regimental number: “XIX LD” flanked by laurel branches. Steel-mounted, stirrup-hilt guard and unified pommel and backpiece, with shagreen-wrapped grip (minor loss), with twisted silver wire in the channels. Steel scabbard with two reinforcing bands ending in suspension rings, with lower portion of the scabbard showing period repair by applied iron reinforcement, probably due to damage on campaign. corresponding reinforced drag. Throat bearing the sword cutler/maker’s name of “PROSSER / CHARING CROSS”. $4000-6000
100 MAIL BAG PLACARD FROM HMS QUEEN CHARLOTTE—1813 BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE RELIC This early 19th century placard, 7 x 11 3/4 inches, is fabricated of a piece of hempen or flaxen sailcloth folded upon itself and hand-worked in sailmaker fashion, with the side and upper edges whipped close with hemp or linen twine and two, small eyelets set along the upper edge, from which the original suspension cord (also of hemp or flax, now separated into two ends) still remains. It is painted with the colors usually found aboard a naval vessel and features a verdigris green ground on its face and reverse (the latter with black bordering, probably composed of lampblack and white lead paint), with yellow ochre edging and bearing the following in yellow ochre lettering on its face: ‘BRIT[IS]H. - SHIP / QUEEN CHARLOTTE / COMMODORE BARCLAY / LAKE ERIE’ . Per catalog notations in the hand of the late Dr. C. Keith Wilbur, a noted author and collector of early American naval and military artifacts (died in 2009 at age 86), this sign was “Commodore Barclay’s wardroom sign, removed before HMS Queen Charlotte...by a U.S. sailor” who “traded sign to an innkeeper, Jasper Brown of Brown’s Inn, Oxford, Massachusetts.” While the provenance is solid, it is more likely that this was the placard or chit attached to the official mail bag of the Queen Charlotte, rather than a wardroom sign, based on its similarity to other Royal Navy examples observed in British collections. The Queen Charlotte served as the flagship of Commodore Barclay’s British squadron on Lake Erie until just before the battle at Put-in-Bay, when he transferred his flag to the newly-launched HMS Detroit. The ship Queen Charlotte was launched in late 1810 at Amherstburg, Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) and was between 92-100 feet long (deck) by 26 feet abeam and ship-rigged. During the 1813 battle, she was armed with fourteen 24-pounder carronades and three long 24-pounders. She suffered much damage from the USS Niagara’s broadsides in the latter part of the battle and her captain and many of the crew killed. Provenance: unknown U.S. sailor to Jasper Brown and by descent in family to grand-daughter Ethel Connel of Northampton, Massachusetts and from thence to C. Keith Wilbur; acquired from Wilbur Estate, 2010.
101 ‘BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE’ FEDERAL GILTWOOD AND EGLOMISE MIRROR The reeded cornice with outset corners mounted with acorn spherules, above the frieze carved with inset leaf tip panels centering a flower head and flanked by rosettes, the eglomise panel painted with a view of six ships and inscribed “LAKE ERIE” within a border of grape clusters and leaf tips, over a rectangular mirror plate, all within a gilt molded fruit and floral surround and applied baluster and ropetwist columns, the bottom with rosettes at each corner. 49 ¾ x 28 ¾ inches. Provenance: lot 948 of The William Guthman Collection at Northeast Auctions, Portsmouth, NH, 12 Oct. 2006; sold: $2,340.00
102 COMMEMORATIVE CANE OF THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE, C. 1836 During the 1830s, wood salvaged from the Perry’s flagship during the battle, the brig USS Lawrence, was used to fabricate various souvenirs, including presentation canes. This fine example is carved from white oak taken from the ship’s timber framing and features a head of buck horn, with silver-inset hole for a carrying loop (now missing) and an inlet, silver escutcheon plate, bearing an engraved extract from Commodore’s famous message to General Harrison after capturing the British squadron at the Put-in-Bay, 10 September 1813: “We have met the enemy and he is ours”. Overall length: 33 3/4 inches. $1500-2500
103 THOMAS LUNY (British, 1759-1837) A Frigate Reefed Down, Passing the South Foreland Light Off Dover
oil on canvas, 15 x 20 inches; signed and dated ‘Luny 1818’ on lower left; in giltwood frame Provenance: with Rutland Gallery, London; Sotheby’s London, Marine Sale, 25 September 2001 (lot 19)
104 WILLIAM WILSON (flourished 1800-1820) Action between H.M.S. Phoebe and the American Frigate Essex off Valparaiso, Chile, 28th March 1814
watercolor and ink on paper, 18 x 25 1/2 in.; signed llc and inscribed on recto by the artist: ‘Willm. Wilson... London / ae 1815 July 18th’ One of the greatest naval feats of the War of 1812 was the devastation of the South Seas whaling industry of Britain by the USS Essex under its captain, David Porter. Slipping his 32-gun frigate out of Delaware in October 1812, Porter decided to strike out for the Pacific and after rounding Cape Horn, he captured a British packet purportedly “bearing eleven thousand pounds in specie” enroute to Valparaiso, Chile, which he reached March 14, 1813. Refitting and provisioning there, the Essex set sail for the South Pacific where she captured twelve whalers, approximately 60 percent of the industry in that sphere, arming one of the captured whalers and naming her Essex Junior. Sending Essex Junior with three prizes to Valparaiso, he set sail for the Marquesas, where he repaired Essex and, after being rejoined by Essex Junior, returned to Valparaiso in January 1814. In the meantime, a British squadron had been sent out to hunt the Essex down. On the morning of February 8th, 38-gun frigate HMS Phoebe and ship-sloop HMS Cherub arrived off Valparaiso and found Essex and her consorts in the neutral waters of the harbor. Over the next six weeks, Porter made a few attempts to slip past the British blockade, but his efforts were thwarted. Finally, amidst a gale on March 28th, Porter made another attempt, but Essex lost her main topmast and was cornered by the enemy. After a valiant, but unequal action (the Essex’s carronades could not reach the Phoebe, while the latter’s long, 18-pounder cannon pounded the American ship), Porter struck his colors. This striking battle painting is one of the only surviving works by British marine artist William Wilson known to us today, although he exhibited 75 “Sea Pieces” at the Royal Academy between 1800-1820. It is also one of only two contemporary paintings that depict the famous last battle of the Essex against Phoebe. Painted shortly after the return of Captain James Hillyar’s small squadron (including Essex with Porter and his captured crew) to England, the details of the action between the two frigates, down to their distinctive battle flags, are carefully delineated and clearly reflect the first-hand information given to the artist by the officer who commissioned the work. $15,000-20,000
105 LOUIS-PHILLIPE CREPIN (1772-1851) Study for the ‘Battle of the Bayonnaise against the Ambuscade’, c. 1800 pastel, charcoal and watercolor on laid paper, 28 3/4 x 21 3/4 inches, within frame
At dawn on December 14, 1798, the French 24-gun corvette Bayonnaise encountered a 32-gun Royal Navy frigate cruising off Oléron. HMS Ambuscade assumed the French ship was her expected consort, while the latter correctly identified the stranger as a superior British warship and fled, Ambuscade then giving chase. Around noon, she had closed to cannon range and the action commenced. Within an hour, the British had gained the upper hand and Bayonnaise attempted to escape, but the frigate gave chase again and caught up around 3 p.m. As Ambuscade was overtaking the corvette, sailing on a parallel course, Bayonnaise slacked her sails and turned hard to her port (left), ramming the Briton. The bowsprit of Bayonnaise brought down Ambuscade’s mizzen, wounding many on her poop and entangling the two ships. Both ships fired final broadsides, Bayonnaise losing many men and her captain, his arm. However, the French cleared the deck of the frigate by well-aimed grapeshot and musketry from her fighting tops and, using the bowsprit as a bridge, boarded the larger ship. After a bloody, 30-minute melee, purser William Beaumont Murray, last British officer still standing, surrendered Ambuscade. The hard-fought battle left the corvette a leaking and rudderless wreck, while Ambuscade, despite damage and the loss of her mizzenmast, was otherwise intact and towed Bayonnaise into Rochefort the following day. Casualties were high on both sides, with 15 killed and 39 wounded aboard Ambuscade and 25 killed and 30 wounded on Bayonnaise, her captain and lieutenant among the latter. The defeat of a British warship by an inferior French ship was a rare occurrence during the French Revolutionary War and this battle was celebrated with numerous painting commissions, the most famous being the large and magnificent work by Louis-Phillipe Crepin titled Combat de la Bayonnaise contre l’Ambuscade (now prominently displayed in a main gallery of the Musée national de la Marine in Paris). This pastel on paper is one of the artist’s studies for that work, considered by many to be Crepin’s finest piece. It is a conceptual drawing for the dramatic, central element in the painting: the boarding of the larger British frigate from the bow of the smaller French vessel. In the completed oil painting, the scene is very much as rendered here, although the artist has removed the British ensign that dominates the upper portion of the drawing. Crepin studied under Regnault, Hubert Robert and Joseph Vernet and his paintings are very much in the romantic style of these French masters. He painted in oils, but also worked in watercolor and gouache and was also an accomplished aquatint engraver. He is considered one of the greatest of the French marine painters and the first such artist to receive the honorary title and appointment, in 1830, as Peintre de la Marine to the French government. $3000-6000
106 LIEUTENANT THOMAS YATES (1760-1796) Royal Navy Frigates and a Cutter in a Stiff Breeze off Dover
watercolor, ink and graphite on paper, 16 1/2 x 24 ins, within later frame Thomas Yates passed for a lieutenant in the Royal Navy in 1782 and a number of engravings after original drawings by him were published during the 1780s and 90s, although it is unclear when he gave up the sea for a career as a professional marine artist. He specialized in battle paintings and marine views of fine quality, exhibiting nine works at the Royal Academy between 1788 and 1794. A talented artist, his career was on the rise when his life was cut short on August 29, 1796. Yates and his wife shared a house in London with a Miss Jones, ownership of said home (which had belonged to his great uncle, the comedian Richard Yates) being in dispute. After dinner, Yates took a stroll in the garden and Miss Jones locked him out. As Yates attempted reentry via a kitchen window, he was shot and killed by a Mr. Sellers, called in by Miss Jones to protect her. At the subsequent trial, the jury returned a verdict of manslaughter; Sellers was fined one shilling and imprisoned for six months. Works by Yates are extremely rare, due to his short working life. $1200-2500
107 THOMAS LUNY (British, 1759-1837) HM Frigate Endymion, 1803
Oil on canvas, 21 ¼ x 33 ½ in., s/d ‘T. LUNY 1803’ on llc; in giltwood and composition frame. HMS Endymion was a 40-gun fifth rate that served in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, the War of 1812 and during the First Opium War. She was built to the lines of the French prize Pomone captured in 1794. Endymion was known as the fastest sailingship in the Royal Navy during the Age of Sail, logging 14.4 knots sailing large, and nearly 11 knots close-hauled. When war broke out again in 1803, she was part of the blockading squadron off Brest until 1805. During that year, Endymion took a number of French and Spanish prizes, mainly merchants and privateers, but also some warships of up to 20 guns. She was then commanded by Captain Charles Paget and perhaps he is the party that commissioned Luny to paint Endymion—certainly she had earned him prize money sufficient for such a purchase. Endymion first arrived on the American station during the War of 1812 in late 1813 and successfully captured a few privateers and merchants. From 7–8 April 1814, the boats of a British squadron, including Endymion, attacked Essex, Connecticut, where they destroyed a great deal of shipping. In August 1814, together with Armide, she captured the American privateer Herald of 17 guns and 100 men. In late 1814, Endymion joined the blockading-squadron off New York. In August, Endymion took part in an expedition up the Penobscot River in Maine. On the evening of 31 August, the smaller ships and a boat embarked marines, foot soldiers and a detachment from the Royal Artillery, to move up the Penobscot to capture or destroy the U.S.frigate Adams, which had taken refuge some 27 miles upstream at Hampden, Maine. Here Adams had landed her guns and fortified a position on the bank with fifteen 18-pounders commanding the river. Moving up the river took two days, but eventually, after the Battle of Hampden, the British were able to capture the American defenders at Bangor, though not until after the Americans had burnt the Adams. The British also captured 11 other ships and destroyed six. $8000-12,000
108 THE LAST FRIGATE ACTION OF THE WAR OF 1812: USS PRESIDENT VS. HMS ENDYMION JOHN HILL AFTER ‘AN OFFICER OF H.M.R.N’ To The Captain, Officers and Brave Crew of His Majesty’s Frigate Endymion as a Humble Record of British Skill and Valour, This Representation of the Gallant Action on the 15th day of January with the United States Ship President commanded by Commodore Decatur is Respectfully Inscribed by ....Thomas Rickards. Published by Rickards, London, 1 May 1815. Hand-colored aquatint, 17 3/8 x 22 in. (view), with margins. Not examined out of frame, but not laid-down. With the cessation of hostilities in Europe in 1814, the Royal Navy was able to allocate more resources to the war in America and by the close of that year, held tight control over much of the coastal waters of the United States. Bottled up in New York for months, Commodore Stephen Decatur despaired of getting his small squadron to sea and, as a fierce blizzard raged on 14 January 1815, he broke out with his flagship, USS President and a storeship, leaving orders for the sloops Peacock and Hornet to join him at a South Atlantic rendezvous point. The British blockading squadron off New York, blown off station in the same storm, soon was in hot pursuit. Its commander had anticipated Decatur’s course and the following morning, President found herself the prey of a hunting party that consisted of 56-gun raisee Majestic, frigates Endymion, Pomone and Tenedos. Decatur crowded on all sail and wet them to catch more wind, meanwhile having his crew throw overboard boats, spare anchors, stores, etc., in order to lighten ship. But the Endymion, who had outpaced her consorts, could not be shaken. Finally, Decatur determined upon a new course of action. Before closing with Endymion, he had his cannon loaded with dismantling shot (double-headed, star and bar shot) in order to cut Endymion’s rigging and shred her sails. Endymion fired two broadsides into the American, but as she came alongside, President responded with a devastating fire, literally ripping rigging and sails to pieces. Thinking that he could now escape, Decatur found that it was too late, as Endymion’s consort Pomone had arrived and was now firing on him, with Tenedos close behind. He struck his colors, rather than needlessly sacrifice his crew. $900-1500
109 TROPHY FROM THE 1815 CAPTURE OF USS PRESIDENT: A BRONZE 1-POUNDER SWIVEL GUN OR ‘PERRIER’ Although carried on most ships, the small-bore cannon mounted in swivel or yoke mounts (hence the term swivel gun) are often unlisted in surviving ship armament records as they were supplemental to the main broadside or carriage-mounted cannon. Relatively mobile, they could be moved from ship to boat for landing parties or cuttingout expeditions. Aboard ship, they were usually mounted on the forecastle- or quarterdeck of the ship to sweep boarders and in the “fighting tops” (the platform at the doubling of the upper and lower masts), where they were used to clear the tops of opposing ships and to fire on the decks below. There was little uniformity of design in these guns among the various nations during the 18th century. However, in 1786 the French introduced a standardized pattern of swivel gun or perrier made of bronze that fired a solid iron shot of 1-pound weight (French measure, which was slightly heavier than the English pound) or grapeshot. It was essentially a half-scale version of the French 6-pounder gun and was mounted on an iron swivel mount, with a pointing arm or “monkey tail” of iron mounted to the knob or cascabel behind. When the USS Constellation captured the Insurgente in 1799 during the Quasi-War with France, eight of these bronze swivels were aboard and were so admired by Commodore Truxtun that he took them with him when he left for a different command. Additional cannons of this pattern were acquired during the capture of other French ships in the West Indies during the conflict, and others may have been purchased for Navy use from various European arms factors during the Napoleonic era. This particular gun composed part of the President’s armament when she was taken by the Endymion in 1815. The President was brought as a prize first to Bermuda, then to Halifax, Nova Scotia for more repairs before sailing to England, where she was later commissioned as HMS President. This swivel gun was kept as a trophy piece by the Halifax Dockyard command and in 1900, the Canadian Department of National Defence or DND, donated it to the Niagara Historical Society at Niagara-on-the-Lakes, Ontario. The cannon, still on its original, American swivel mount of forged-iron, was displayed outside of the museum until 1939, when it taken inside for fear that it might fall victim to a patriotic war drive for valuable metals and melted down. In 1976, museum management determined that the President’s swivel gun did not fit within the scope of its collections, having nothing to do with regional or Great Lakes history and it was deaccessioned and traded to an antiques dealer. The gun was subsequently sold to an American collector, in whose collection it has remained until consigned to this sale. The cannon conveys with the original deaccession and trade document prepared by the Niagara Historical Society, signed and dated 30 November 1976. Length: 40 ½ in. Bore diameter: 2 1/16 in. Trunnion diameter: 2 in. Markings: ‘ P/170’ on right- and ‘352’ on left- trunnion faces.
110 PATTERN 1814 U.S. INFANTRY CAP PLATE An oval cap plate bearing an eagle device was first adopted for US regular infantry troops in January 1814. Initially struck in white pot metal, they were later struck from brass sheet and tin-plated, traces of such remaining on this plate. This example is one of three plates of this pattern currently known and was found in the historic Fellâ€™s Point neighborhood of Baltimore some 20 years ago by Mike Ling. The 3 5/8 x 2 11/16 in.plate has the remains of the soldered attachments eyelets on the recto. Provenance: Mike Ling Collection until 2007; James L. Kochan Study Collection
111 PATTERN 1815 U.S. INFANTRY CAP PLATE The oval pattern fell out of favor in 1815 and the tin-plating rejected at the same time for infantry plates in future, supplanted by one that was struck in brass, oblong with clipped corners, but bearing the same eagle device in its center; the new pattern remained in use until 1821. This example was excavated by James Hart and Duncan Campbell near Sacketts Harbor, NY in the late 1950s. Provenance: James Hart Collection to c. 2000; Dr. Albert Scipio Collection to 2015; James L. Kochan Study Collection
112 PATTERN 1815 U.S. INFANTRY CAP PLATE
This example, also in brass, appears to have been struck from the same die, was found on a military campsite in Florida associated with Jacksonâ€™s Seminole campaign of 1818. It appears that it was purposely pulled off of the cap front, during which process the attachment points were pulled away from the cap body. Provenance: James Baldwin to 2000; James L. Kochan Study Collection
113 FEDERAL SILVERHILT SABER BY JACOB SHAFFER OF WASHINGTON, PA., 1795-1805 An early and rather unusual Federal era silver-hilted saber by Jacob Schaffer (fl. 1795-1830) of Washington, Pennsylvania, one of a near-matched pair that came out of a Washington estate some years back, along with a silver-mounted dirk. Outside of this pair, only two other Schaffer swords are known, both bearing his later War of 1812 era touchmark (former Latimer Collection and Hartzler collections). This short saber has stirrup-hilt of silver, with a carved, spiral-grooved grip of ebony. The pommel cap is domed and without capstan, while the counterguard is marked ‘J. SCHAFFER’ in a cartouch. What is most unique about both this saber and its former companion is that they both have what appear to be early examples of American-made, blued and gilded blades of rather unique form—the blades not being etched or engraved prior to application of the bluing and gilt decoration. The bluing runs 12 ½ in. down the blade from the ricasso, and while 95% of the bluing remains, the gilded devices, which include a frog-legged eagle, panoplies of arms, wreath, shield, 8-pointed star and ‘E PLURIBUS UNUM’, are now faintly discernable unless viewed under raking light, as the gilded designs were applied sans etching and thus, more easily rubbed away over time. The blade itself is single-edged, with a narrow fuller and 30 1/4 in. L x 1 1/4 in. W at ricasso. The leather scabbard has silver mounts, consisting of ringed throat and middle-band, plus drag; the mounts are beautifully engraved in a distinct, Pennsylvania-German style, with floral and stars motifs reminiscent of designs seen in fraktur work, as well as a Federal shield over crossed laurels at the top of the throat. $9000-12,000
114 A MAGNIFICENT, PRESENTATION GRADE SWORD OF FRENCH MANUFACTURE, C. 1810-1830 An enigma, this ornate presentation-grade, statue-hilt sword of French manufacture (although previously ascribed by others to England), bears no inscription or any national or even service-related emblems. However, the motifs found on both hilt and blade are strictly martial in nature, so it is doubtful that this sword could be a diplomatic piece; if not presented as some high token of esteem or for an act of valor, it might be a sword that a high-ranking officer might acquire for court appearances and other ceremonies. 38 ½ in. L overall, with 32 ½ in. straight, single-edged blade of spadroon form, with wide fullers on each face, extending from the 1 ¼ in. wide ricasso to within an inch of the spearpoint tip. A truly exceptional sword, with a very dramatic gilt-mounted hilt with a pommel consisting of a full lion passant surmounting a tree stump and its sideguard formed of another lion passant in full relief, while the quillon represents a lion charging. The knuckle guard also incorporates a full lion spewing flame from its mouth. The four-panel, mother-of-pearl grip is decorated with ormalu mounts and large, gilded brass cartouches in relief of floral form, on both the outer and inner panels, the top and bottom panels with three grooves running parallel with the blade. The blade, which has a brilliantly blued ground extending 5/8s of its length from the ricasso, is profusely decorated with etched and gilded martial motifs, floral sprays, and on the obverse face the center device consists of a martial panoply of arms, with a shield at center bearing a lion passant. Below that is a figure of a helmeted warrior with shield, that appears to be a Goth or Gaul. On the recto is a central device of a figure that appears to be an armed and helmeted Athena, above which is a panoply of arms flanking a pike with banner, upon which is a Phrygian cap. The scabbard is made of leather covered in royal blue velvet, the pile of which is worn off to a large degree, with elaborate, figured mounts all bearing lions in various poses in gilded brass, consisting of throat, middle band and drag; there are suspension rings on the throat and middle band. The sword is reminiscent of some of the presentation swords of the 1st Empire, but more likely fabricated during the early Restoration period. The questions remain: for whom and for what purpose? Regardless, it was undoubtedly made for a major event, important purpose or personage, as the quality of craftsmanship throughout is exceptional. Provenance: donated to the Society of the Cincinnati in 1966 by Alexander F. Anderson. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati, Washington, DC
115 COLUMBIAN PRESS 1813 EAGLE COUNTERWEIGHT Spread-wing, full relief figure of eagle in cast-iron with traces of later paint, its talons grasping the thunderbolts of war, the olive branch of peace and the cornucopia of plenty, with original forged steel mounting post, with a separate, later concrete block base; eagle (not incl. post or base) 20 x 16 1/2 inches; The Columbian iron hand press was invented in 1813 by Philadelphia mechanic George Clymer (1754-1834). Clymer made several dozen presses before leaving Philadelphia in 1818 to manufacture presses in England by Ritchie & Co. The eagle counterweight balanced on the counterpoise lever on the top of the press. The eagle counterweight design appears to be directly copied from the eagle device found in various insignia of the War of 1812 era, including cockade eagles and cap plates, the dies of which were sculpted by Moritz Furst of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. Literature: An engraving of the press is pictured in The American Eagle by Phillip M. Isaacon, (Little Brown & Co., 1977), p. 50, taken from the Cyclopaedia (Philadelphia, 1813).
116 JOHN RUBENS SMITH AFTER JOHN VANDERLYN General Andrew Jackson 117 Admiral  Colored aquatint by J.A. Atkinson, pub. 1 January 1805 by Wm. Miller, London, 13 ¾ x 10 3/8 in., framed. John A. Atkinson (1775-1861) specialized in military and genre subjects and his colored etchings of naval dress are among the most prized, as they are accurate depictions taken from life by a talented observer, rather than stereotypical caricatures of ‘Jack Tar’ as found in most of the popular prints and cartoons of the period. $200-400
Copperplate line engraving, ‘Smith scul.’, nd. [c. 1820], np. [New York?]; 10 1/2 x 8 in. platemark and 18 x 11 1/2 in. overall; conservation-mounted in ebonized walnut frame A fine, proof state for an early engraving of the monumental portrait of Major General Andrew Jackson by John Vanderlyn (1775-1852), commissioned by the city of New York and completed during 1819-1820. No other example of this print has been located, nor is it mentioned in James G. Barber’s Andrew Jackson: A Portrait Study (Washington, DC: National Portrait Gallery, 1991). The project may have never proceeded beyond the proof state and this example may be unique. ‘Smith scul.’ almost certainly refers to John Rubens Smith (1775-1849), the noted, English-born artist and engraver who is known to have been working in Brooklyn and Manhattan from c. 1814-1820s, before relocating to Philadelphia in the 1830s. $900-1500
118 REGIMENTAL PATTERN OFFICER’S SABER OF THE 43rd LIGHT INFANTRY, 1803-1818 Overall: 35 ½ in. Blade: 32 in. L x 1 3/8 in. W
In 1803 a few regular infantry regiments were converted to light infantry regiments and put into special training at Shorncliffe under Sir John Moore, in order to provide the British Army with specialist troops capable of dealing with the voltigeurs of Napoleon’s army. Instead of adopting the light infantry variant of the 1803 saber for their officers, the colonels of the 43rd or ‘Monmouthshire” and 52nd Regiments fixed upon distinct regimental pattern sabers completely different from the regulation form. A newly-joined officer in the 52nd, writing in 1805, commented that he had to purchase “a regimental sabre (different pattern to the Line)” at the rather hefty sum of four guineas. The 52nd and 43rd sabers shared the same blade form, slightly curved and double-edged for the last ten inches to the ‘spear’ point. They both had similar stirrup-hilt forms, the 43rd’s with a reverse-P guard with lion-head pommel. 43rd officers wore gold trimmings to their uniform and the mountings to the hilt are similarly of gilt-brass. The grip is wrapped in shagreen or fishskin, with three gilt, decorative studs mounted on each side. The crossguard bears circular langets, upon which are mounted the light infantry bugle horn in relief. On the blade are etched the royal arms on the right or obverse face, with a crown surmounting a strung bugle over the regimental number, XLIII. As part of the elite Light Infantry Division, the 43rd fought in nearly all the battles of the Peninsular War. Following the fall of France in 1814, the 1st Battalion of the 43rd Light Infantry was sent to America, arriving off the mouth of the Mississippi River on 31 December 1814, where it joined the veterans of the Chesapeake campaign in an attack on New Orleans. In the assault against Jackson’s lines at Chalmette on 8 January 1815, MG Sir Edward Pakenham pushed forward three assault columns in the pre-dawn of early morning. The main assault column was intended to force the American left, but critical to the plan was taking the forward redoubt on the right of Jackson’s line. For, if held by the Americans, its cannons would enfilade the British troops as they attempted to cross the canal and mount the ramparts. To crack this tough nut, LTC Robert Rennie of the 21st Foot led a small column of light infantry. In the lead was the 43rd Light Infantry Regiment, followed by light companies drawn from the line regiments. Rennie and his men raced towards the redoubt with such speed that the waiting Americans were only able to fire a few rounds from the cannon before the British were already in the ditch and madly pawing and clambering their way up the walls and through the embrasures--the only troops to take their objective--but short-lived. A withering fire erupted from the American lines, killing Rennie and a score of his men. Those fortunate few still alive—most wounded--were forced out of the redoubt and into the ditch, flattening themselves against the outer walls or feigning death, until they were able to slip back along the levee to the safety of the British camp. Elsewhere on the battlefield, the story was very much the same. The valiant, but futile final attack had been broken and the attempt to take New Orleans abandoned. $3000-5000
119 WAR OF 1812 ‘PERRY & EAGLES’ SABER OF CAPTAIN DUTY SHUMWAY, NEW YORK MILITIA The sharply curved, single-edged blade is 32 ¾ in. L x 1 ½ in. W at the ricasso and has one wide fuller that terminates 6 ½ inches from the point, with a false edge that extends approximately 10 inches upward from the same. The obverse face of the blade is beautifully etched with three central devices consisting of a superbly-rendered American eagle, national shield on breast, and its beak bearing a ribband emblazoned with motto ‘E PLURIBUS UNUM’ ; on the shield are 15 dots representing stars, while the banner is encircled by 15 six-pointed stars. Below this is a large scroll with ‘PERRY & EAGLES.” Above and below the devices are decorative panels and cartouches of scrollwork and floral motifs. The recto face is similarly etched, the center device being crossed pikes and halberts supporting a liberty pole, above which is an elaborate urn or vase with plant and below is a banner bearing the word ‘WARRANTED’. The brass hilt, bearing traces of gilding, has a reverse-P guard with floral finishing to the quillon on obverse side only; with shield-shaped langets to the crossguard, the recto one plain and the obverse one cast with Federal eagle. The backstrap has cast floral motifs and basket, from which the head of an eagle emerges forming the pommel. The grip is unusually plain but well-shaped. The ferrule behind the guard is now split at top, while there is a period braze to the knucklebow one inch in from the crossguard; the tang of the blade is rather amateurishly soldered to the pommel just behind the eagle’s head. The saber has a leather scabbard devoid of mounts that may not be original to the sword. 2 pieces. The hilt is very much in the French style and the eagle-head pommel is almost identical to the “Standish Barry” eagle (Mowbray 1988: 138), while the etching on the wide and handsome blade seems to be of English workmanship of the highest order. While some have argued that ‘Perry & Eagles” is a patriotic slogan, it is more likely that it is some New York mercantile firm that was importing blades or completed swords to the United States before the war. A search of New York and Albany directories have not yet revealed this firm or working dates, but Bedzek states they were working in New York City, c. 18051806 (no citation given). Duty Shumway (1782-1870) was born in Massachusetts but living with family in Granville, New York by 1793. He was commissioned a captain in the militia of Washington County and during the War of 1812, commanded various companies mobilized for Federal service in different regiments and detachments, including Kingsley’s Regiment, Pliny’s Regiment, the 7th Regiment, and the “13th New York Volunteers” when mobilized for Federal service between 1812-1814, although on wartime state militia lists, he is registered as captain, and later major, in the 154th Regiment, eventually reaching full colonel post-war. Provenance: Duty Shumway and by descent in family to Stedman Shumway Hanks; donated to the Society of the Cincinnati in 1958. Literature: John Brewer Brown. Sword and Firearm Collection of the Society of the Cincinnati (Washington: SOCI, 1965), pp. 93-94.
Property of the Society of the Cincinnati $3000-5000
120 AN UNPUBLISHED JOURNAL OF THE CHESAPEAKE AND NEW ORLEANS CAMPAIGNS OF 1814-1815 WATSON, GEORGE. Quarto with contemporary, marbled boards (covers loose), with 181 numbered pages of text, written in ink. Manuscript journal or diary in two parts: the first a fairhand “Copy of the Revd. G Watson’s Journal” describing life with Wellington’s army in France during February-April 1814 (original now in the Dublin Public Record Office); the second part is the unpublished “Journal of the Revd. G. Watson’s Voyage to America” records Watson’s service with the British expeditionary force to America and is believed unique. George Watson (1787-1815) sought more than a quiet ministerial life in Devon and became a military chaplain. He was made chaplain general to the British expeditionary force under Major General Ross prior to its voyage to America. Watson, an educated and astute observer, had the luxury of being unencumbered with official duties, yet still had the advantages associated with being attached to the headquarters staff--one perk of which was having a horse. This afforded Watson unbounded opportunities to both observe and interview both fellow Britons and the Americans he also encountered. All of this culminated in his private American journal, one of the most important, balanced and detailed accounts of the invasion of the Chesapeake and the battle of New Orleans and to date, both unpublished and heretofore uncited. His description of the forced march to Bladensburg, during which “our men ... travelled about twelve miles under a burning sun by which some men were so much oppressed, as to drop down and die in the road” and the resulting battle, are vividly related: “As the head of our column advanced down the hill upon which the town is built, the enemy opened fire from a battery of three guns; upon our nearer approach, batteries on the right and left were opened. The 85th Regiment…. was in advance.... After driving the enemy from his first position, they retreated to another, occupied by Commodore Barney, with five guns and five hundred sailors to work them....Commodore Barney, was severely wounded... and the regular troops perceiving that the militia were flying in all directions immediately following their example....” The army continued its advance and on “the morning of the 25th [June 1814]... the troops entered Washington. It consisted of about three hundred houses in general well built but without much appearance of streets....All private property was respected except one house at the entrance of Washington in which a barber of the name of Galatin* had placed himself by whom the general’s horse was shot under him; this house was burnt the first. The Capitol was before its destruction by our army, a building of stone scarcely finished, with two substantial square wings and a dome in the middle all of the Grecian architecture.... The president’s house was a very handsome building in the centre of the City. At the time our troops reached it, they found a table spread for dinner or perhaps for supper the preceding evening.” From there, the chaplain accompanied the army in its ill-fated attempt on Baltimore on September 12th, during which “...we landed our troops on the east side of the Patapsco, at a place called north poin…after proceeding about five miles from the shore, the enemy commenced a firing upon our advance, and as General Ross was reconnoitering he was shot through the arm and lungs by an American Rifleman, and died in about an hour afterwards. He was universally lamented by the whole of his army.” Abandoning the Chesapeake, the British reappeared before New Orleans in December and commenced operations against that city, which culminated in a final assault against General Andrew Jackson’s earthwork lines at Chalmette on 8 January 1815, “during which we had about 2000 men killed, wounded & missing in the short space of half an hour: General Pakenham as well as General Gibbs, was shot under the trenches while rallying the troops.” The journal concludes with the subsequent withdrawal from New Orleans, the attack on Fort Bowyer (Mobile) and the subsequent occupation of Dauphin Island, during which one officer noted that Chaplain Watson conducted his first service of the campaign. While in the South, Watson’s health deteriorated and he embarked for England on March 12th, but died at sea sixteen days later. * “barber” was an English derisive term for a Frenchman and Watson clearly directed it towards Albert Gallatin, the French-born Secretary of the Treasury, from whose home it was believed the shots had come; however, no sharpshooter was found inside before the structure was put to the torch.
121 (WASHINGTON IN 1814) “OUR GOVERNMENT IS COMING TO PIECES…” Congressman Elijah Brigham to his wife Sarah in Westborough, Massachusetts, dated Washington, DC, September 29, 1814. ALS, 2 p., free franked, partially separated fold between two pages and with light toning on cover.
Brigham, a Federalist, apprises his wife of the political upheavals taking place in the nation’s capitol, one month following the British capture and burning of the capitol, noting that “Our Government is coming to pieces. It is like an Old tub with the last hoops falling off [while] Monroe is Appointed Secretary of War And the Office of the Secretary of State is Vacant, George W. Campbell has resigned and the office of Secretary of the Treasury is vacant [and] The Secretary of the Navy must go out…. I have not seen [President] James Madison [since the sacking and burning of the White House] the saying here is, that both he and his Wife are depressed [because] One of the British Officers took Her Velvet Cushi[o]n from her Sofa before they put fire to the house, and carried it thro’ the Street on his Horse and said in the hearing of the Inhabitants that Dolly’s Cushin was a charming soft thing.” It was Rear Admiral George Cockburn who put one of Dolley’s cushions on the saddle of his horse and rode upon it, following the sacking of the White House. Brigham then relates that Congress “is not well accommodated “ in its temporary quarters and that it had been invited to relocate to Philadelphia “where every circumstance would be provided for it” and that a ‘large Majority of the House would be in favor of removing” to that city. Elijah Brigham (1751-1816) was born in Westboro (now Northboro), Massachusetts on July 7, 1751. He attended Dartmouth College, graduating in 1778, then studied law but did not practice, choosing initially to follow mercantile pursuits until becoming a member of the State house of representatives 1791-1793. On 16 December 1792, he married Sarah Ward (1756-1838), daughter of General Artemas Ward (his fellow Congressman and political ally). He continued in public service for the remainder of his life: justice of the court of common pleas 17951811; State senate in 1796, 1798, 1801-1805, and 1807-1810; State councilor in 1799, 1800, and 1806; and finally, elected as a Federalist to the Twelfth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth Congresses and serving without interruption, despite poor health, from March 4, 1811 until his death in Washington, D.C. on February 22, 1816 (subsequently interred in the Congressional Cemetery). $3000-5000
122 [TREATY OF GHENT] “PEACE PEACE AFTER ALMOST THREE YEARS WAR OF WASTE AND FOLLY”
Elijah Brigham to his wife, Sarah Brigham, Washington, DC, February [blank] 1815, ALS, 1 p. So Congressman Elijah Brigham writes to his wife, noting that “we are favored with the preliminaries of peace [The Treaty of Ghent officially ending the War of 1812, not yet ratified], which cheers the countenance of every good Man, though no doubt but many of the leeches and vultures that have been preying on the vitals of the Country will be disappointed, for now instead of living on the earnings of Others at the rate of two or three thousand dollars per Year, they must labor and provide for themselves or Starve.” He hopes that “the people of these United States will truly Appreciate the blessings of peace” and “that the nation may enjoy good days according to the days in which they have seen evil.” $1000-1500
123 AN AMERICAN HERO OF CHIPPEWA AND LUNDY’S LANE, 1814
Ephraim Shaler [or Shaylor], ALS, 2 ½ pp, folio, to U.S. Senator Thomas Ewing from Ohio, Tallmadge, Portage County, Ohio, 9 June 1834. Massachusetts native Ephraim Shaler received a commission as ensign in the 25th U.S. Infantry in 1812 and was twice promoted during the war for bravery and merit. He served with distinction, participating in the battles of Stoney Creek, Chrysler’s Field, Chippewa (also sp. Chippawa) and Niagara (or Lundy’s Lane). The War of 1812 hero writes to his senator two decades later, asking for Ewing’s help in securing a military pension, noting that the House has already passed a bill for this purpose, but soliciting his assistance in seeing it through the Senate. Among his wartime experiences, he notes that in “the Battle of Bridgewater/ or Lundys Lane...I received two Musket Shotts, one of which deprived me of the use of an Arm, the other passed through my side....” He then discusses his hardships during postwar duty as a captain at Council Bluffs, on the Missouri River, and other remote frontier posts. He closes, noting that “I do not wish to boast of my duty...I make the statements merely to enforce my claim” of disabilities received in the service of his country. [with] Thomas S. Jesup, affidavit signed, 1 p., folio, np, 7 June 1834. A detailed narrative of Shaler’s 1814 services as written by Thomas Sidney Jesup, his former commanding officer during the 1814 Niagara campaign. Jesup was then major commanding the 25th Infantry and he and his regiment immortalized themselves by their stellar performance during the battles of Chippewa and Lundy’s Lane. Jesup himself received two brevet promotions as the result of his gallantry and skill during the two actions and went on to become Quartermaster General in 1818. He describes the battles in great detail (including the regiment’s capture of General Riall, the British commander, during the fierce night-fighting of the latter action) and emphasizes Shaler’s critical role as regimental adjutant, noting that at “a particular crisis of the battle of Niagara his services were of the utmost importance.” Jesup, “in feeble health, wounded, and dismounted, was compelled to impose upon Adjutant Shaler very important and dangerous duties...and he considered that the efforts...contributed in a considerable degree to the success which attended the operations of the regiment.” Jesup closes, noting that “Shaler continued for some time after he was wounded to encourage the men, and did not leave his station until positively ordered....” Shaler, “as worthy an old soldier...as ever drew battle blade” subsequently received some relief in terms of a small Federal pension and an appointment as the lighthouse keeper at Fort Howard, Wisconsin, where in 1844 it was noted that “the parsimonious Government of this Republic, permits him, though in mutilated condition, to languish on the very confines of poverty”--a sad commentary on the twilight years of a veteran and hero that had sacrificed so much in the service of his country. 2 items. Literature: John C. Fredriksen, ed., “Memoirs of Captain Ephraim Shaler: A Connecticut Yankee in the War of 1812,” New England Quarterly 57 (1984), 411-420.
124 BRITISH OFFICER’S FUSIL, LATE 18TH CENTURY
Overall Length: 53 ½ in. Barrel Length: 37 ½ in. Bore: 0.67 caliber Key-fastened, octagonal to round, hook-breech barrel with Birmingham proof-marks, with some decorative, engraving at breech, including an acanthus on tip of tang. Flat, border engraved lock with roller, bearing an engraved sunflower (?) on face in front of cock. No internal maker’s marks found on inside of lock or on underside of barrel. Brass trigger-guard with front ending in a pineapple finial, with brass sideplate and buttplates both engraved with a Britannia shield and panoply of arms. Silver front sight near muzzle, with bayonet lug on the underside and a small, vacant, oval, silver thumbpiece on the small of the stock. Fusil is in very good working order. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati (David A. Taulman bequest, 1978)
125 A DOUBLE-BARRELED, FLINTLOCK SPORTING GUN BY KETLAND, C. 1790
Overall Length: 54 in. Barrels: ea. 38 in. Bore: ea. 0.56 caliber With 28-guage, twist barrels retaining their original browning and silver-lined vents, engraved ‘London’ near the breech, and engraved tang decorated with foliage and with a starburst in the sighting groove, border engraved flat locks each signed ‘KETLAND’ before cock and tails engraved with a game bird ad foliage. Walnut half-stock with checkered grip, border engraved steel mounts comprising butt-plate with floral motifs on the tang, trigger-guard with Britannia shield and panoply of arms on the bow and floral spray on the scroll, with large pineapple finial in front, rear ramrod-pipe en suite, vacant silver escutcheon and barrel-bolt escutcheons, and original, wooden ramrod with horn tip and brass threaded end. Some wear and rust patination to steel mountings, notably the buttplate and rear pipe, wood very good and locks in crisp working order. Property of the Society of the Cincinnati (David A. Taulman bequest, 1978)
126 SIR ROBERT KER PORTER (1777-1842) Portuguese Troops before Santarem, 1808
Watercolor and graphite on paper, 13.5 x 17 in., conservation mounted in carved and gilded, reproducton frame Porter determined at an early age to become of painter of battles and by 1800, achieved fame and success with his monumental, 120-foot work, The Storming of Seringapatam. Traveling to Russia in 1804, he was appointed historical painter to the emperor and was also knighted by the King of Sweden. At the request of General Sir John Moore, Porter accompanied the British expeditionary force during its 1808 Peninsula campaign, until Moore’s death at Corunna in January 1809. Porter never produced any battle paintings based on such first-hand experience and this striking view of Santarem is perhaps the finest extant, finished drawing from his Peninsular travels. Porter produced aquatint engravings from some of his other Portuguese views, which were published in his anonymous account of the campaign, Letters from Portugal and Spain by an Officer (London:1809). In a letter written on 7 November 1808 and published on pages 74-75, Porter described the scene which inspired this watercolor: “The country is extremely hilly; and the appearance of the city [Santarem] from the last height we mounted before we reached it is beautifully picturesque. It is built on a high and commanding situation, proudly overlooking the far-stretching plains beneath, through the bosom of which rolls the Tagus....while the blue heads of lofty mountains in the distance raise a majestic boundary to the landscape.” The two Portuguese soldiers in the foreground represent a mounted irregular in traditional Iberian dress, while the infantryman to his right is wearing one of the brown uniforms provided by their British allies. $5000-8000
127 PORTER’S ANONYMOUS ACCOUNT OF MOORE’S 1808 PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN [PORTER, SIR ROBERT KER]. Letters From Portugal And Spain, Written During The March of The British Troops Under Sir John Moore. With A Map of the Route and Appropriate Engravings. By An Officer. Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, London., 1809. 1st edition. Quarto. Very good but in later, cloth binding. (15) 320 pp. with a folding map: Plan of the Battle fought near / CORUNNA, Jany.16th.1809. The British Army commanded by Lt. GENl. SIR INo. MOORE. and 6 sepia engraved aquatints of scenes: (1) Salamanca. (2) The Field of Battle at Vimeira. (3) Vale of Tancos in Portugal. (4) Trajans Bridge over the Tagus at Alcantara. (5) Mountain of Nogallis leading to Lugo. and (6) Corunna and the Heights on which the Battle was fought. Sketched on the morning of the Explosion. Porter’s graphic and unvarnished account of Sir John Moore’s expedition, culminating in the latter’s death at Corunna, followed by the Dunkirk-like withdrawal of the allied army. $300-600
128 MATHER BROWN (American-British, 1761-1831) Smugglers Pushing Off Their Boat, c. 1805
oil on canvas, 37 x 30 ½ inches; signed ‘Mather Brown’, within later, carved and gilded frame Mather Brown was a portrait and historical painter, born in Boston, Massachusetts, but active in England. He was the son of Gawen and Elizabeth (Byles) Brown and descended from the Rev. Increase Mather on his mother’s side. He was initially taught by his aunt and around 1773 became a pupil of Gilbert Stuart. He went to London in 1781 to further his training under Benjamin West and entered the Royal Academy schools in 1782. In 1784, he painted two religious works for St. Mary’sin-the-Strand, which led him to form a partnership with the painter Daniel Orme for exhibition of paintings and the sale of engravings from the original works. Among these were large scenes from English history and Shakespeare’s plays. However, despite their success he began to concentrate on portraiture. His first successes were with American sitters, among others his patron John Adams and family in 1784–85 (this painting is now in the Boston Athenæum). In the spring of 1786, he began painting the earliest known portrait of Thomas Jefferson, who was visiting London, and also painted Charles Bulfinch the same year. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1798. His 1788 full-length portrait of Prince Frederick Augustus in the uniform of Colonel of the Coldstream Guards led to appointment as History and Portrait Painter to the Prince, later the Duke of York and Albany. In search of new patronage, Brown left London in 1808 for Bath, Bristol and Liverpool. He eventually settled in Manchester, returning to London almost two decades later in 1824, where, even after West’s death, he continued to imitate his teacher’s style of painting. Provenance: exhibited at the Society of Artists, London, 1824; catalog no. 294; likely “Smugglers Launching a Boat,” no. 39 in Edward Foster’s July 14, 1831 sale; sold to “Heath”; Property of a Private Collection, Goethenburg, Sweden; with Vose Galleries, Boston, 2002; The Boston Art Club, 2002-2015 Literature: Evans, Dorinda, Mather Brown, Early American Artist in England (Middletown, Connecticut, Wesleyan University Press, 1982), cat. no. 303.
129 DISPLAY MODEL OF REVENUE CRUISER HMS BADGER Revenue cruisers were commissioned by the British Crown to intercept smugglers in British-controlled waters; named as such because they protected the country’s revenue. This model represents the revenue cruiser HMS Badger, launched in 1842, as she appeared circa 1844. Formerly part of the noted Lawrence Langford Ship Model Collection (London). Modeled by D. Taylor. Presented in wood and glass case. Overall measurements: 30 x 30 x 10 in. $2000-3000
130 THE CAPTURE OF THE SPANISH SLAVER FORMIDABLE BY HMS BUZZARD, 17 DECEMBER 1834 Colored aquatint & etching, 18 ½ x 24 ½ in. (view), engraved by Edward Duncan after painting by painting by William J. Hugggins, published by P.S. Crawley, Leadenhall, London, n.d. (probably 1835). [Inscribed:] “To Rear Adml. Sir Patrick Campbell, K.C.B. This Plate Representing H. M. Brigantine “BUZZARD”, Lieut. Anthony W. Millward, engaging the Spanish Slave Brig “EL FORMIDABLE” off the Old Calebar River, Dec. 17th 1834, which she captured after a chase of 9 hours with her Sweeps and close action of 45 minutes when they ran her on boad, Is most respectfully dedicated.” Not examined out of the frame. $400-800
131 PERUVIAN NAVY ATTACKS GUAYAQUIL 1828 UNKNOWN ARTIST, ANGLO-AMERICAN SCHOOL, c.1830 The Bombardment of Guayaquil, 24 November 1828
oil on canvas, 17 x 22 3/4 in; within reproduction carved and gilded frame In 1828, war broke out between the Republic of Peru (which had gained its independence from Spain in 1821) and the Republic of Gran Colombia (Colombia, Ecuador and Panama being the successor states at its dissolution in 1831) over conflicting land claims over territory that is now part of present-day Ecuador. The first engagement took place on August 31st when the Peruvian corvette Libertad (seen to the left in this painting) fought off an attack by two Columbian ships while on blockade duty near the port of Guayaquil. Both the Peruvian and Columbian navies were largely manned by Anglo-Americans, the former commanded by Admiral Jorge Martin Guise (Martin George Guise, a former British Royal Navy officer). Guiseâ€™s squadron opened the bombardment of the cityâ€™s defenses on November 22 and had successfully silenced most of the defending naval vessels and land batteries until his flagship, the frigate Presidente, ran aground on the night of the 23rd and the defenders began to counterattack. The following morning, the Presidente was refloated and, as seen in this painting, was forcing her way into port when Admiral Guise was mortally wounded. The Peruvian forces withdrew, although continued the siege until the city capitulated on January 19, 1829. This is the only known contemporary painting of this important battle, one which helped shape the political borders of South America today. $3000-6000
132 SILVER ‘REGIMENT OF NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS IN MEXICO’ MEDAL PRESENTED TO CALIFORNIA VETERAN
Silver. Choice About Uncirculated. Semi-proof-like. 51.7 mm. 952.5 grains. Named to Thomas Dooley, Company H. An attractive piece, toned in coin silver gray, with a good deal of light iridescent blue and pale rose on both faces. A very good example, with only a few superficial marks on either side and no really distracting rim marks. In 1848, the Common Council of the City of New York voted the following year to authorize a special medal for the returning Mexican War veterans of the Colonel 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers. The Council awarded the engraving of the dies to Charles Cushing Wright, who had submitted the winning design by Paul Duggan, Jr. The Council further decided that all medals were to be struck in silver and to have the recipient’s name engraved on each. Presentation was made to those 1st Regiment veterans who were present at a special ceremony in Castle Garden. The exact number struck, named and presented is unknown. The obverse of Wright’s medal shows New York City’s arms after Chapman’s design, with an inscription around the rim recording the reason for its manufacture. There is space above and below allowed for engraving the recipient’s name and company, as in this specimen: ‘THOMAS DOOLEY’ and ‘COMPANY H’. The recto shows America hurling a thunderbolt towards Vera Cruz, with a fleet of US Navy vessels in the harbor, and the list of battle honors for the regiment around the rim: VERA CRUZ, CERRO GORDO, CHURUBUSCO, and CHAPULTEPEC. Thomas Dooley, although a Mexican War veteran and a recipient of this silver medal, never served in Mexico with the 1st Volunteers. Rather, he had enlisted in New York City in Stevenson’s 7th Regiment of New York Volunteers, which was part of the force that invaded and took California in 1846. More commonly known as “New York Legion” or “Stevenson’s California Regiment”, the War Department later ordered to be renumbered the 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers, creating a great deal of post-conflict confusion, in that the second regiment raised by the state for the war (which is the one that actually did fight in Mexico and for which the medal was struck), had been numbered the 1st Regiment in 1847!! Dooley is described during his reenlistment in California on 7 October 1847, as having gray eyes, sandy hair, fair complexion and 5 ft. 8 in. tall. Originally from farrier from Cork, Ireland, Dooley is apparently the only member of Stevenson’s California Regiment documented to date who was (mistakenly) presented this medal. Dooley was originally a private in Company G, so he must have transferred to Company H while serving in California. $2500-4500
133 PORTRAIT OF HORATIO NELSON, VICTOR OF THE NILE AND TRAFALGAR AFTER WILLIAM BEECHEY (1753-1839) Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) Oil on canvas, 50 x 40 in., within later frame. Probably British School, 19th Century, a ¾ length portrait of Britain’s greatest naval hero. $2000-4000
134 RARE MEXICAN WAR VIEW OF MONTEREY WHITING, LIEUTENANT COLONEL DANIEL POWERS (1808-1892)
Monterey, from Independence hill, in the rear of Bishop’s Palace. New York: G. & W. Endicott, 1847. Lithograph engraved “on stone” by F. Swinton after Whiting. In very good condition, apart from light overall toning and a small loss of ¼ x ½ in. from llc that has been infilled by a conservator. Image size (not incl. text): 12 ½ x 18 3/8 in.; sheet size: 15 7/8 x 20 7/8 in.
“The rarest lithographs of the war” (Tyler). According to Whiting family tradition, the work was limited to no more than 24 sets (quoted by Goodspeed’s of Boston: “The Month at Goodspeed’s Book Shop” vol. XXI, nos. 2-3, Nov-Dec. 1959, p. 43). The above lithograph is Plate No. 4 from om Whiting’s “Army Portfolio,” a very scarce series of five Mexican War views published during the war, which is not only one of the primary visual records of the conflict, but also a fine topographical work that accurately recorded the area at a crucial turning point in its history. In late 1845, General Taylor’s army was camped at Corpus Christi, Texas. By January 1846, they advanced to the United States side of the Rio Grande, where they remained until May, and then marched on to the strongly fortified city of Monterey, which was taken in September. Whiting’s work documents this campaign. Although he originally intended to continue the series beyond five plates, the original drawings for the additional plates were lost aboard a steamboat that sank in the Mississippi. Daniel Powers Whiting was born in Troy, New York, and graduated in 1832 from the U.S. Military Academy, where he received formal training as a topographical artist. He was assigned to the 7th U.S. Infantry, with which he served in various garrisons before being promoted to captain in the spring of 1845. During the Mexican War, he was on the staff of General Zachary Taylor and was promoted to major “for gallant and meritorious conduct” in the battles of Fort Brown, Monterey, Vera Cruz, and Cerro Gordo. Sources: America on Stone, p. 175; Eberstadt 162, 910; Streeter Sale 275; Tyler, The Mexican War, pp. 24-45.
135 A FLINTLOCK US MODEL 1836 PISTOL BY JOHNSON A fine example of the Model 1836 pistol from the midpoint of its production period, with round, plain, smoothbore barrel of 8 ½ in. L and 0.54 caliber bore, with ‘N.W.P/P’ stamped on left side before breech; brass bladed front sight and swivel for ramrod mounted on underside. Flat beveled lockplate with rounded tail, brass pan, and rounded, reinforced cock, with ‘U.S./R. JOHNSON/MIDDN. CONN/1839’ before cock. Walnut half-stock with bright iron mountings, including front band, sideplate, butt-capbackstrap, triggerguard and ramrod. The lock and cock retain most of their original case hardening finish, and all metal very good, less a small dent on the cock face and some light pitting around vent; the wood of the stock is nearly unblemished—a superior specimen. $2000-3500
136 ANTEBELLUM LOUISIANA COLONEL’S EPAULETTES WITH PELICAN BUTTONS A fine pair of epaulettes for a Louisiana colonel of the antebellum period, in pattern and form a style that was in use from just prior to the Mexican War through the Civil War. Each of the matching epaulettes is composed of a gold lace shoulder strap edged with gold bullion, 7 in. L, the strap 3 in. W and ending in a 5 in. W crescent of die-stamped, gilt brass, from which hangs on outer row of 22- 3 ¼ in. L bullion fringes of 3/8 in. dia., with an inner row of 3 in. L bullion fringe of ½ in. dia. The other end of the strap is oblong with clipped corners and set on each strap is a state of Louisiana, gilt “Pelican” button of 9/16 (15mm) diameter, back-marked ‘H.E. BALDWIN & CO / NEW ORLEAS’ (TICE type LA220As1). The buttons were made by Scovill Manufacturing for Horace E. Baldwin, who operated a jewelry store in New Orleans from 1844-1852. Centered between the button and crescent on the strap is a silver, embroidered, spread-wing eagle on with gold bullion highlights, denoting the rank of colonel. The underside of each epaulette is lined with yellow silk, appx. 1 ¾ in. is missing from one strap, with the cardboard stiffener exposed, the other complete, both with their silk lace attachment ties. Extremely rare. 2 pieces. $2500-3500
137 (A WAR OF 1812 KNICKERBOCKER HERO) L. TRONDLE (c.1790-1860?) Major General Garrit Hopper Striker, c. 1850
Oil on canvas, 31 x 25 in., signed in red, ‘L[?] TRONDLE’ on outer bullion fringe of right epaulette; in original, gilded, composition frame. Garrit Hopper Striker (also spelled ‘Strycker’) was descended from Jacobus Van Strycker, who came to New Amsterdam in 1640 and served as one of the Alderman of the Dutch colony. The family farm for nearly 200 years is now Dewitt Clinton Park on Manhattan’s West Side and Garrit was born on 29 March 1784 in a large stone house built on that property in 1752, near the junction of 53rd St. and 11th Avenue today. The house, altered and expanded numerous times until it became known as the Strycker Mansion, remained his home until his death on 16 April 1868 (the house was demolished in 1897). Garrit was apparently a gentleman-farmer and became quite active in the state militia, beginning in 1810 when he received a lieutenant’s commission in the 5th Regiment (New York County) in 1810, then promotion to captain in the 4th company of same in 1812. During the War of 1812, his command built and occupied the fortifications built on Bloomingdale Heights, near Blockhouse 1 (at the northern end of Central Park)—the sole remaining vestige of the northern defenses of the city erected in 1814. Further promotion came swiftly following the end of the war, in 1816 a majority in the 82nd Regiment of Infantry (New York County), then lieutenant colonel in the same two years later. That same year, he married Eliza Bella Oceanica McDougall, the daughter of a Royal Navy captain and the pair raised a family of five sons and two daughters. Militia service continued to be important to Garrit and he enjoyed promotions to brigadier and later, major general for his dedication and service. In 1862, Eliza passed away, followed by the major general four years later. This portrait of Major General Striker was probably painted in the 1850s, and his uniform reflects that which he would have worn during the War of 1812, although the epaulettes are that of a major general and of 1840s-50s form. The original pair of epaulettes that appear in the portrait also convey with it, as well as two unframed portraits, the older sitter being his wife Eliza, c. 1850 and the other likely an unnamed daughter. 5 pieces. Portrait relined and restored by Old Print Shop for Museum of the City of NY, c. 1952; frame has some edge losses and there is some light flaking to canvas in the left background. Provenance: Major General Garrit Hopper Striker to 1868; his youngest son, Ambrose Striker, to 1883; Ellsworth Striker and thence through the family until 2017, whence sold. On loan to the Museum of the City of New York, 1952-1974, where the portrait was on almost continuous exhibition until c. 1968.
138 AN EAGLE FLASK FOR A COLT BABY DRAGOON OR 1849 POCKET REVOLVER WITH A SINGLE-CAVITY BALL MOLD Flask is 4 3/8 x 2 in. and in VG condition, less part of spring for charger missing. A single-cavity mold of iron for a 0.39 caliber ball. Very good condition, with some marks and light surface rust in spots. 2 pieces. $250-450
139 AMERICAN VOLUNTEER MILITIA COAT, LATE 1820S TO MID-1830S A handsome uniform coat that, unlike most volunteer militia uniforms, shows long and strenuous field service. The uniform has a body of scarlet, plain-weave cloth of domestic manufacture and is faced with buff cassimere (a twill-woven worsted) on its collar, integral “plastron-front” lapels, indented “dragoon” cuffs, and skirt turnbacks. The body is lined with glazed, twilled serge of buff. The cape or collar is edged or framed with ¼-inch gold lace, and it trimmed with a centered, twisted, gilt wire, chain of interlocked loops running from the front edge on one side across the back and to the other front edge. Each side of the cape has two ¾ inch, gilt buttons and gilt, twisted wire holes. The lapels each have seven similar buttons with gilt wire loopings running down them, set horizontal, while four chevron loopings are set on each sleeve, two on the cuff and two above, each with a gold button at the center of the chevron. The skirts have similar “dragoon” false pockets consisting of 4 chevron loopings and gilt buttons, with similar gilt buttons set at the hips and on the skirt plaits. All of the buttons are ¾ inch-diameter and are backmarked: ‘HAYDEN & CO. / DOUBLE GILT’. The coat has one scarlet shoulderstrap of one inch-width, with buff innerfacing, and it is edged with twisted gold wire, ending at a button fixed on the lower portion of the cape. There is no sign that an epaulette was ever affixed to either shoulder of the coat. This strap was clearly intended to secure a swordbelt worn across the body, the hilt resting on the left hip. This uniform coat is probably that of a volunteer cavalry trooper; a number of volunteer light horse or light dragoon units in numerous states favored scarlet and buff uniform combinations during this period. $3000-5000
140 TRANSLATED WORK BY FRENCH EXPAT ON GRIEBEAUVAL SYSTEM ADOPTED FOR AMERICAN ARTILLERY, 1820 LALLEMAND, HENRI DOMINIQUE (1777-1826. A Treatise on Artillery: to which is added, a Summary of Military Reconnoitring, of Fortification, of the Attack and Defence of Places, and of Castrametation. Translated by James Renwick. 1st. edition. 2 vols. Published by C. S. Van Winkle, New York. Mismatched bindings. Vol. I: Modern green cloth binding , viii, -391, 10 lg. folding plates; Vol. II: original printers’ boards with spine label, title page inscribed in ink urc: ‘Wm. S. McNeill’. 368 pp. 8 lg. folding plates. Both 8vo (9 x 5 in.), pages untrimmed, some foxing and toning, but otherwise very good. Scarce work, only 4 copies listed in OCLC. Henri Lallemand was a skilled Napoleonic officer who had significant influence on the development of artillery systems and practices in the United States, his adopted home after seeking exile following Napoleon’s 1815 defeat. After study at the Ecole Polytechnique, he became an artillery officer, distinguishing himself in combat in numerous campaigns: Egypt, Germany, Spain, Russia and ultimately, Waterloo. Henri did not accompany his fiery older brother, Baron Charles to the Champ d’Asile on Galveston Island in Texas, but was keenly involved in planning and equipping the ill-fated expedition. His much younger wife Henriette was the niece of America’s richest man, Stephen Girard. From 1818, Henri occupied himself with writing a two-volume Treatise on Artillery, which War Secretary John C. Calhoun helped him publish in 1820. The following year the US army adopted the treatise as its standard manual and it remained so for more than a decade. When the Marquis de Lafayette visited the United States in 1824, he was surprised to see artillerists near Boston using French field artillery of the Griebeauval system and drilling in the French manner. $750-1500
141 A NEWLY DISCOVERED WILLIAM WILLIAMS PORTRAIT OF A COLONIAL AMERICAN OFFICER WILLIAM WILLIAMS (1727-1791) Portrait of a New York or Pennsylvania Artillery Officer, 1772
Oil on canvas, 30 x 25 inches, signed and dated lower: ‘Wm. Will[iams] / 1772’; in later carved and gilded frame One of only two known portraits by William Williams of colonial American soldiers, this painting was hiding in plain sight in an exhibition gallery of the Fort Ligonier Museum for the past 45 years. It had been donated to the museum as an Allan Ramsay portrait of Arthur St. Clair, executed prior to his departure from Scotland to America as a young subaltern in the 60th Foot or Royal Americans, with even a spurious version of the artist’s and sitter’s names painted to the upper right background of the portrait—something often found in actual Ramsay portraits from the 1750s. The portrait as then identified would have been an invaluable addition to the collection, as Scottish-born St. Clair had served at the post during the French & Indian War and later lived in Ligonier, Pennsylvania (both prior to, and following his public service as major general in the Continental Army and again, after his term as the first governor of the Northwest Territory). However, over the years, the identity of the sitter, artist attribution and details of the uniform have all come into question. In 2007, this cataloger sent a 3-page letter to the then-director of Fort Ligonier documenting the dress to be that of a Royal Artillery officer (a corps in which St. Clair never served) and also to a postwar window of 1768-1770, based on specific details of the uniform and equipage depicted. Falling outside the museum’s scope of collections, the portrait was eventually deaccessioned and consigned to this sale. Permission was granted by Fort Ligonier to have conservation work done on the portrait prior to the sale, including the removal of the spurious identification painted on the canvas. During the cleaning and removal of old inpainting, the remains of the original signature and date were discovered “bottom left, wrought in a fine, detailed hand, [that had] been worn away probably by the inevitable attempts to make it more legible by saliva coated fingers” (Mosorjak 2019). Later examination determined it to be ‘Wm. Will[iams] / 1772” and comparison of it with signatures from other known Williams paintings of the 1760s-1770s, as well as painting technique and composition, confirmed the cataloger’s initial reaction that this was indeed a work by the hand of William Williams. William Williams is perhaps best-known today as Benjamin’s West’s original instructor in drawing and painting, as well as being the author of the anonymously and posthumously published, but semi-autobiographical novel, The Journal of Llewellyn Penrose, a Seaman (1815). He was born in Bristol, England and has been said to have been self-taught as a painter, but study of this and documented paintings by Williams suggest that he also benefited from professional instruction. As noted by conservator Michael Mosorjak in his condition report on the painting: “The prepared canvas was underpainted in a traditional, academic technique…utilized for centuries in western Europe…consisting of a mixture of a black (lamp or bone), a white lead (oxide), a red (ferrous oxide) and a yellow (ferrous – either yellow ochre or raw sienna), and termed ‘verdaccio’. The design layer (‘abbozzo) is applied atop and colors are laid, glazed, or scumbled in. The underpainting is often left and incorporated into the design layer to serve as middle to high dark values and shadows. This technique indicated that the artist had some or extensive formal training or instruction, probably in the studio of another artist, and his applications are closely associated with British painting of the 18th century.” Williams was clearly an “artist of talent and facility”, as noted by art historian Edgar P. Richardson, receiving payment of 100 pounds for at least one work—no small sum in that period. Ellen Miles (1987) notes of the delicate coloring employed in his works, the middle ground placement of the subject, and the stagelike settings of his backgrounds, no doubt influenced by his past work as a scenery painter for theatrical productions. Williams worked in Philadelphia from 1747 until c. 1769 (incl. a 3-year hiatus to the West Indies, 1760-1763), after which he relocated to New York City in search of new commissions, working primarily in that city until 1776, when he returned to England. Most of the surviving American portraits by Williams are full-length, whether painted in larger or smaller format. A portrait from his New York period that appears closely related to this work is a smaller oil (23 ½ x 17 1/8 in.) of “Private McKinney”, signed and dated 1773 (formerly in the Warner Collection, Tuscaloosa, AL). Both subjects are citizen-soldiers, McKinney a member of the elite New York Grenadiers, a volunteer company formed in c. 1765 and our subject dressed in a uniform based on that of the Royal Artillery. At least two colonial units are known to have modeled themselves on the Royal Artillery: Samuel Tudor’s “first Royal Artillery Independent Company” of New York City and Benjamin Loxley’s Artillery Company of the Philadelphia Associators (expanded to four companies by 1776, one of which—Moulder’s) can be seen wearing a near-identical uniform in the foreground of James Peale’s painting, The Battle of Princeton). However, unless Williams did occasionally return to Philadelphia after moving to New York, the most likely candidate is Tudor’s New York Company, described wearing blue coats, faced red and white smallclothes. Our officer holds a fusil (abolished for Royal Artillery officers in 1770), and has the badges of rank of an officer, including epaulette, sash and sword. The artillery piece that he stands before is one with an iron barrel—those used by the British Royal Artillery were of bronze. The company’s four officers: CPT Samuel Tudor, CPT-LT James Seagrove, and LTs Nicholas Bogert and Francis Lewis, Jr. were all from well-to-do New York society families and certainly able to afford not only their military kit, but also a possible portrait by Williams. Property of the Fort Ligonier Association. $40,000-60,000
142 Tower Pattern 1776 Artillery Carbine and Bayonet This is one of the earlier extant examples of the Pattern 1776 Artillery Carbine produced under the oversight of the Small Arms Office of the Tower Armoury. The enlisted men in the Royal Regiment of Artillery had been armed with heavy muskets akin to those carried in infantry regiment, but in 1756 a carbine was adopted that had a 37-inch barrel of 0.65 inch bore--essentially a shorter and lighter version of the Pattern 1742 musket, having similar brass mountings, profile, and wooden ramrod. In 1772, the colonel of the 4th Battalion of the Royal Regiment of Artillery requested that his unit’s carbines be furnished with iron ramrods rather than wooden ones, the latter of which were all too frequently apt to break in use. The Board of Ordnance approved this measure and their battalion’s carbines were altered to this configuration prior to their transfer to North American service in 1774. This was achieved by the removal of the short fore-pipe, which was replaced with a longer “trumpet-headed” pipe and the rear or tail-pipe of the ramrod channel had a spring fitted inside it to hold the narrowerdiameter, iron ramrod in place. The simple brass band at the end of the fore-stock was also replaced with a brass nose-cap. Between 1773-1776, the other three battalions of the regiment had similar alterations made to their carbines. However, with the outbreak of war in the American colonies in 1775 soon led to the depletion of all remaining stocks of the P1756 carbines in Ordnance stores. By 1776, there were no artillery carbines in store and more than one-third of the artillery troops in America were deficient of these arms. A new pattern carbine, the Pattern 1776, was rushed into production. Essentially, it was an improved version of the P1756, configured for a steel ramrod and furnished with an improved lock and an overall length of 52 1/8 in. The ramrod was held in place with four ‘pipes’, consisting of a long trumpet-headed, fore-pipe, two middle pipes (as opposed to one on the P1756) middle pipes and a tail-pipe--all of smaller diameter as suited for the iron ramrod. This particular carbine is probably from the first year or two of production, judging by the position of its proof and inspection markings on the barrel, which are stamped on top of the barrel near the breech; barrels of later production have such markings stamped to the left side near breech; the inside of lock bears the maker’s mark ‘SGS’ for Samuel Grice & Son. An exceptionally fine and unaltered example, with lock mechanism in crisp, working order and an old patina to lock, barrel and ramrod. Its associated 16 inch-long, bayonet is an unmarked British carbine bayonet, but period appropriate and well-fitted to the barrel, with a 3 ¼ inch socket and a 11 7/8 in. L x 1 1/8 W blade (not illus.). 2 pieces. $9,000-12,000
143 18TH C. AMERICAN SIDE BOX FOR FIELD ARTILLERY CARRIAGE This is the only ammunition box for an 18th century American field artillery carriage currently known. It is closely patterned on the type of paired ‘side ammunition boxes” used by the British Royal Artillery in the 18th century for their light field pieces, the boxes being mounted, respectively, to a board fitted on each side of the axle at its juncture with the side cheeks of the carriage. Each board was fitted with iron plates and pins, by which the boxes (each fitted with corresponding iron plates on their underside) could be locked into place when the carriage was traveling, but could be easily unfastened and removed to the rear of the gun when it was being serviced. In the case of this American-made box, the locking plates on the underside consist of a Y-shaped, forged iron plate with the stem of the Y jutting out 1 5/8 inches at one end of the box, while 3 ½ inches inward from the other end, a 9 ½ x 1 inch plate is affixed across the box’s base, with 3/8 inches on each end clear, beveled slightly on the upper face, for sliding into locking plates on the board. This box is 18 in. L x 9 in. W x 8 in. D and made of ¾ inch-thick pine planks or boards, the sides and ends dovetail-joined and the base lap-joined to the same. The 19 ¾ L x 9 ¼ wide lid, also constructed of the same board, is attached to the box by forged iron strap hinges, with a corresponding forged iron clasp and loop in front for closure. The ends are each fitted with heavy, forged iron handles with oval backing plates of sheet iron. The entire box is painted “lead” color, a mixture of white lead, lampblack and linseed oil, as commonly used by both the British and Americans in painting their field carriages (beginning in c. 1800, the US Artillery switched to a light blue color for field artillery carriages, the pigments being white lead and Prussian blue—which aids in the dating of this box). The front face of the box is marked ‘No. 13’ in its center with white lead paint (now a yellowish caste) and the entire base perimeter of the box is trimmed with a one inch-wide band of white lead paint. The lid of the box was originally covered with a waterproofing layer of hemp canvas, also painted a lead color, tacked down to the lid by rose-headed, iron tacks nailed around the edges; fragments of the canvas still remain in place around many of the tacks. Based upon its size, it is believed that this side box was used with either a light 3-pounder cannon or a light howitzer (possibly a King howitzer as used by Wayne’s Legion during its Indian campaigns of 1792-1795). Provenance: William Guthman Collection to 2006; James L. Kochan Study Collection to present.
144 BRITISH ROYAL ARTILLERY PRIMING HORN
Overall length: 8 1/2 in.; length of spout: 2 5/8 in.; diameter of base: 1 1/2 in.; length of base: 7/16 in. This style of artillery priming horn was worn on the cartridge pouch crossbelts of Royal Artillery gunners and bombardiers through the 1st quarter of the 19th century, commencing in the year 1772 when it was first adopted to replace a more archaic pattern. It features a brass spout and base, the former with simple spring-stopper, while the body is made from the tip of a bullock’s horn. The base is embellished with engraved concentric rings, two at the edge spaced close together and four at the center, forming a bulls-eye. Between them is engraved RRA/9B/955, signifying horn number 955 of the 9th Battalion of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. The 9th Battalion was established on 1 June 1806. Detachments from the 9th served in North America during the War of 1812, including the Canadian and New Orleans campaigns, while others fought in the Peninsula and at Waterloo. Similar engraved horns are found attached to the extant Royal Artillery pouch belts in the collections of the National Army Museum, London and the Firepower (formerly the Royal Artillery Regiment) Museum at Woolwich, respectively. $1000-1500
145 LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID MASON’S GUNNER’S PERPENDICULAR AND CASE, C. 1776 A gunner’s perpendicular, possibly made in Massachusetts, dating to the 2nd half of the 18th century, engraved on the lower portion of its front with its original owner’s name and rank: ‘LT. COL. / D. MASON’. The brass instrument, 4 3/4 x 4 ¾ in. (not incl. slide or plunger on recto), with brass level tube on recto missing its glass; some staining to metal and one tip missing; with original, tinned iron with hinged lid, , 6 x 5 x7/8 in. A perpendicular (sometimes called a level) enabled a gunner to establish the center line of an artillery piece and thus its direction of fire. The instrument was placed transversely on the gun’s barrel and, once leveled using the spirit level, the steel-tipped slide was depressed. Marks were made at the muzzle and breech of the gun and joined by a chalk line. Perpendiculars incorporating spirit levels were first purchased by the British Board of Ordnance in 1757 and replaced earlier versions in which the leveling was carried out with a plumb bob and line. David Mason (1726-1795) was born in Boston, where he apprenticed to a painter and gilder, later studying portrait painting with John Greenwood, a career he hoped to pursue. Although he worked as a painter and gilder, he began to focus more on the mechanic arts and also developed an interest in military science. During the French & Indian War, he was an officer in the Massachusetts Provincials and was attached to the artillery at Fort William Henry, when it was surrendered in 1757. He raised a company of volunteer artillery and was also a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. He was a major in Gridley’s Artillery in 1775 and in 1776, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of Knox’s Artillery Regiment. Too old for active field service, Mason resigned this command and instead, accepted an appointment as Commissary of Military Stores at the Continental armory at Springfield, Massachusetts, resigning due to poor health on 26 July 1780. Mason was an ardent patriot and highly esteemed for its knowledge and abilities in artillery and engineering. Provenance: Collection of William Guthman until 2006; sold at Bonham’s Guthman Collection Sale, 12 Oct. 2006 as lot 344 ($16,380).
146 AN AMMUNITION CHEST OR BOX FOR AN AMERICAN CAISSON OR AMMUNITION WAGON, C. 1800-1830 Iron-bound box or chest constructed from wide planks of ¾ in. pine, painted light Prussian blue, and bound with forged iron straps, 18 ¾ H x 64 ½ in. L x 19 ¾ W overall. Found in the mid-Hudson River Valley, it is believed that this is a chest for an ammunition wagon or caisson for a volunteer or militia artillery unit. It is well-made, with sides composed of single planks as recommended in period manuals and guides, dovetail-joined at the corners. The top of the lid is bent to form a slightly domed top. Three sets of forged 1 3/16 in. W iron straps run around the chest and the two outer ones terminate as strap hinges, connecting the top or lid to the body; the center strapping of both lid and body flare out towards the juncture in front, where the remnants of the lock are in place. The ends have forged carrying handles, each with an iron D-shaped backplate mount 3 ¾ in. x 6 in. There is evidence of a solid plank center divider board, but the supports have been removed, leaving vacant nail holes. The ends of the lid are reinforced with sheet iron edging, as are the chest end, protecting the dovetail joins. All nails are hand-forged rose type. On the front of the box is hand-lettered in white: ‘1 C / No. 20’ (1st Company, Number 20?). There are a total of four other early American boxes or chests from ammunition wagons or caissons from the War of 1812 era known to this cataloger. All of them are in museums in the United States or Canada, two being of the English system of ammunition wagon and two being derived from the French “wurst” wagon for flying artillery. This one, although it has a domed top like the wurst wagons, was probably never intended to support riders—the doming merely allowed for more effective shedding of water. In form, it closely matches the types of ammunition wagons used by British and French foot artillery units. $5000-10,000
147 JAMES PEALE (1749-1831) American Captain of Artillery, 1789
oval watercolor, 1¾ x 1½ inches, initialed and dated: ‘IP/1789’; within original rose gold case A superb Peale miniature of an American artillery officer, wearing a scarlet-faced, blue uniform featuring gilded buttons and a “rise-and-fall” cape or collar, with gilt bullion epaulette. The single epaulette on the right shoulder denotes the rank of captain, while the cut of the uniform is that at the peak of military fashion for the year 1789. The unidentified sitter is most likely an officer in the US Battalion of Artillery, although possibly a militia artillery officer from one of the thirteen original states. He might also possibly be a former Continental Artillery officer, who chose to have himself painted in artillery dress, updated in fashion from the Revolutionary War as commonly done by the Peales and Trumbull during this period; however, the lack of a Society of the Cincinnati eagle on the left lapel makes this a less likely option. James Peale, a former Continental Army officer himself, was the younger brother of artist Charles Willson Peale and an accomplished artist in his own right, specializing in portrait miniatures. $5000-10,000
148 “FLESH FORK” OR “HOT SHOT” LADLE? Among the items supplied by the British Quartermaster General for the barracks of enlisted men were simple kitchen utensils, including large, forged-iron “flesh” or meat forks used for preparing the soldiers’ rations. However, this 22 ¼ inch-long fork, is much larger and thicker in gauge than any before encountered. Moreover, the tines have pronounced curves and their points are quite dull, rendering it of questionable use for cooking and as such, it may not be what it first seems. A few artillery collectors have claimed that this is a fork or ladle for handling “hot shot” for smaller artillery, using it to remove a heated cannonball from a furnace and place down the muzzle of a light piece. It has been experimentally used with an original 6 pounder ball and the tines fully conform to the curve and set of the ball diameter. That said, no firm documentation has been found to support or deny this contention. It bears on a broad arrow/BO stamp at the juncture of the handle with the two tines, which is an ownership mark of the Board of Ordnance in use from c. 1820-1840. Provenance: William Guthman Collection to 2006; James Kochan Study Collection to present.
149 A RARE SET OF TABLES FOR BRITISH ARTILLERY AND SMALL-ARMS, C. 1790 A set of twelve, numbered and titled tables of memoranda in the form of, review or “cheat” cards, each approximately 2 7/8 x 4 1/2 inches, neatly handwritten in black and red ink with gilt edges on cardstock, all contained in a red morocco leather, 2-piece case with gilt ornamentation in the form of a small book, with the title ‘ESSAY ON ARTILLERY’ on the spine label, and ‘GENERAL VYSE’ on front cover in gilt letters. Very good condition (minor wear to case edges). Eight cards provide the respective dimensions, weight, caliber, ammunition and powder loads for the various artillery pieces and small-arms produced by the Board of Ordnance and in use by the British Army during the era of the American War for Independence. The four remaining cards are similar memoranda on entrenching tools and other artillery matters. This particular set was bound and presumably prepared, circa 1790. The approximate date was calculated from the service history of its original owner, coupled with the contents of the cards (such as omission of artillery and small-arm patterns known to have been introduced into the Army by 1793 and the inclusion of types removed from field service in the 1790s). On the lower, left-hand corner of card No. 12 is inscribed ‘Geo: Allioti Serjt.’, a non-commissioned officer with some calligraphic talent, possibly of the Royal Artillery or his own regiment, the 1st Dragoon Guards. Richard Vyse (1746-1825), general, born on 11 July 1746, was the younger son of William Vyse (1710-1770), canon residentiary and treasurer of Lichfield and Catherine, daughter of Richard Smalbroke, bishop of Lichfield. He was appointed cornet in the 5th dragoons on 13 Feb. 1763; captain, 28 Nov. 1771; major, 18th Light Dragoons, 4 Nov. 1777; lieutenant colonel, 4th Horse, 7 January 1781; lieutenant colonel, 1st Dragoon Guards, 28 May 1784; colonel and acting brigadier general in the army, 7 Nov. 1790. During the French Revolutionary War, he commanded a brigade in Flanders under the Duke of York. He distinguished himself on several occasions, particularly at the battle of Cateau on 25 April 1794, where, at the head of two brigades of heavy cavalry, he materially contributed to the victory, and at the evacuation of Ostend, which he superintended on 1 July. Vyse was promoted to major general on 2 Oct. 1794, and lieutenant general on 1 Jan. 1801. He was returned to Parliament in 1806 for Beverley, but in the following year made way for his son. He attained the rank of general on 1 Jan. 1812 and died at Lichfield on 30 May 1825. An impressive memorial to him is in the Lichfield Cathedral. $1500-2500
150 RECRUITING FUNDS FOR THE 2ND CONTINENTAL ARTILLERY REGIMENT DS, One page, folio. Partially-printed bond, co-signed by Captain John Miles and Captain-Lieutenant Henry Waring of the 2nd Continental Artillery, dated 8 May 1780, in which Waring is appointed to recruit men for their regiment in the state of Connecticut and whereby they pledge a “penal sum” of One thousand pounds to the state should they default in proper expenditure and accounting of funds drawn by Waring for such purposes. $600-800
151 ATTRIBUTED TO LEMUEL FRANCIS ABBOTT (c.1760-1802) Portrait of Lieutenant General James Pattison of the Royal Artillery, c. 1785 oil on canvas, 30 x 25 in.; within giltwood and composition frame
The son of a London merchant, Pattison (1723-1805) entered the Royal Artillery Regiment in 1740 as a gentleman-cadet, being one of the first officer professionally educated in that arm by the newlyestablished Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. He served at Ghent in 1742 and at the close of the Seven Years War commanded companies of the Royal Artillery sent to serve in Portugal. In 1777, Pattison was appointed colonel-commandant of the 4th Battalion, then serving in North America. Arriving in New York, he assumed command of all artillery troops in America, with the rank of brigadier general, effective 24 September 1777. During the 1779 expedition that took Kings Ferry, he commanded the forces which took the western bank citadel of Stony Point, whose defenses he subsequently improved. Pattison’s “judicious exertions” led to his appointment as “Commandant of the City and Garrison of New York” on July 5, 1779 by Sir Henry Clinton, a position he held concurrently with his role as artillery commander until 13 August 1780 with the rank of major general. Pattison excelled in his new civil-military responsibilities, until ill health forced him to return to England on 4 September 1780. This half-length portrait was probably commissioned shortly after Pattison was promoted to Lieutenant General and Commandant of the Royal Artillery Regiment. He died at his house in Hill Street, London, in 1805. Provenance: with M. Bernard, London, 1961; anonymous sale, Sotheby’s, New York, 3 November 1983 (lot 184); private collection 2016.
152 AMERICAN LOYALIST JOHN KING APPOINTED CONDUCTOR OF ROYAL ARTILLERY, 1778 Ink on vellum, 10 x 16 in., with seal affixed on upper left edge; dated 2 October 1778
John King, Jr. was a brass and bronze founder working in New York City at the outbreak of hostilities in 1775. He may have been related to Daniel King of Philadelphia, who produced small bronze artillery for the Patriot military and naval forces during the war. During the occupation of New York City by the British, beginning in 1776, John King remained loyal to the Crown and through his work had contact with important British Ordnance officers, including Brigadier General James Pattison, from whom he accepted an appointment as Conductor of Artillery in 1778. John King served as Artillery Conductor through the entire war, seeing action in the Siege of Rhode Island. Captured at sea while enroute to Savannah in 1779, he was later exchanged and served in the Southern campaigns. He sailed for England upon the evacuation of New York in 1783 and was appointed a Founder at the Royal Brass Foundry at Woolwich in 1784 and was Foreman by 1789. In 1797, he was promoted to Master Founder and continued in this capacity until his death in 1813, overseeing the production of all bronze artillery for the British Ordnance Board. This sealed, vellum document dated 2 October 1778 is King’s original commission as Conductor, signed by Brigadier General Pattison and countersigned by Major General Sir James Grant, then serving as Commissary General in North America. It is one of only a handful of New York-dated, wartime commissions for officers that have survived. James Grant had earlier fought in America in command of Highland troops, including the taking of Fort Duquense and commanded the successful 1761-62 Expedition against the Cherokee Indians, as well as holding various key field commands during the first three years of the Revolution. Shortly after signing this document, he departed for the West Indies, in command of a British expeditionary force to take the French Sugar Islands. $1200-1800
153 THE BRITISH LIGHT SIX POUNDER CANNON OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR FAME ‘Light 6 Pounder brass length 5 ft. weight 6 cwt’, original measured drawing, dated RMA 1st Academy Novr. 1812’ in llc and signed ‘R. Wilson’ in lrc. Conserved and backed with Japanese tissue; repairs consist of mended tears in the title area and some infilling of paper loss (appx. 2 x 1 in.) in upper right margin. The opening of hostilities with the American colonists in 1775 led to increased production of cannon for the Board of Ordnance, specifically light field artillery, in anticipation of campaigning within the heavily wooded, hilly terrain of North America. During the French & Indian War, it was realized that the field artillery taken on campaign against both Forts Duquesne (1755) and Fort Ticonderoga (1758 and 1759) were too heavy and unmanageable for the rigorous service and difficult terrain encountered. Experiments were conducted following the Peace of 1762 by officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and a new, lighter version of the light 6-pounder cannon was introduced to replace that used in the late war. In 1775-1776, Captain William Congreve invented a new carriage for this cannon, which was modified by Lord George Townshend and rushed into production. The first of these new-invented carriages with the light 6-pounders, accompanied by their inventor, were sent to Sir William Howe just as he was evacuating Boston in early 1776, but were put into use with great success during the 1776 New York campaign. Burgoyne’s expeditionary force to Canada were similarly equipped with guns and carriage of this new design. Richard Goodwin Bowen Wilson made this 1812 copy from the 18th c. original deposited in the Royal Artillery Laboratory as part of his drawing curriculum while a cadet at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich in 1812, just prior to being commissioned as a lieutenant in the Royal Artillery later that year. He served in the campaigns in Holland, Belgium and France, and was present at Quatre Bras and Waterloo in 1815. He was near General Picton when the latter was killed and was the last survivor of Rogers’ Waterloo Battery, dying as a Major-General (ret.) on 24 October 1876. $750-1500
154 AN EXTREMELY RARE MANUSCRIPT COPY OF CONGREVE’S 1778 EXERCISE FOR THE LIGHT 6 POUNDER GUN Congreve, William (1742-1814), later 1st Baronet. Exercise and Manoeuvers For two Light 6 Pounders By William Congreve Captain of Artillery 1778. Original leather binding, black label on spine with ‘ARTILLERY EXERCISE’ and [volume?] ‘1’ within circle in gilt; covers separated from body, octavo, manuscript manual of 62 leaves (4 ½ x 2 ¾ in.); , 117 ]; front end paper, index (1 leave, other missing] and rear end paper separated, title page inscribed per above, hinges loose, pages general bright and clean, a few with light soiling. Equally important to the new light 6 pounder gun and carriage was a revolutionary new field exercise developed by Lieutenant William Congreve while serving in America during 17761777 designed to take full advantage of the improvements in the carriage and gun. Congreve’s improvements in carriage construction and artillery maneuvers earned him the appointment of Superintendent of Military Machines at Woolwich with the rank of captain. The exercise for the light 6-pounder gun was never published and instead, a Royal Artillery officer was expected to make his own fair hand copy from the original Congreve manuscript deposited at the Laboratory at Woolwich, or hire one of the Ordnance draughtsman to prepare such for him. The Congreve exercise was nearly forgotten until 1993, when Adrian Caruana published a transcription of the Laboratory original then at the Royal Artillery Institute at Woolwich. Since that time, this researcher has tracked down and examined two additional manuscript copies at the following institutions: a quarto presentation copy to the King George III now in The King’s Collection of the British Library and an octavo copy in the National Army Museum (London). This 1778-dated manuscript copy of Congreve’s manual, with 117 numbered pages of text and drawings, plus a 2-page index, is far superior to the NAM example in terms of the quality of the transcription and the exceptionally well-rendered diagrams of the deployment of the artillery pieces and their crews through the various, often complex exercises, which include advancing in battle, firing in support of battalion, flanking fire, amphibious landings, scaling precipices with guns, and so on. Each page is framed with an inked border and all drawings and text are beautifully rendered in ink by a skilled hand. $10,000-20,000
155 AN ENGRAVED HORN INSCRIBED ‘THE CONTINENTAL ARTIL[L]ERY’, C. 1777 17 ¾ in. overall, with a 2 ¾ x 2 ¼ hardwood butt-plug. Though the engraver applied an owner’s name or date he left behind a horn with rare subject matter, namely a large panel engraved closest to the butt titled ‘The Continental Artilery’ [sic], in which can be seen four cannon on field carriages and to their left, two on garrison or truck carriages. The uppermost gun on truck carriage has an “artillery” flag on staff to its rear. Artillery flags were small versions of the national color and used for maneuvering and signaling like cavalry guidons and were usually carried in the trail of a lead cannon, as seen on cast bronze Continental Artillery buttons. The Continental artillery flag was essentially a guidon-sized version of the Grand Union flag with a British union canton on a ground of 13 stripes (as used in the Continental Army from 1775-1778), the details of which are faithfully depicted on both the flag on this horn and on the artillery buttons. Perhaps the most interesting detail on the horn is found on the lowermost artillery piece in the panel, which is a siege mortar that has an interlocked ‘USA’ cypher on its bed, similar to that found on Continental Army buttons beginning in at least early 1777. The previously mentioned legend, ‘The Continental Artilery’, is situated immediately above the cannon and just beneath it is a drum and what appears to be a speaking trumpet. This panel is defined by a crosshatched surround measuring 3 1/2” x 2 5/8” and sets close to the butt-plug with a band of foliate engraving encircling the edge. Forward of the cannon there is another panel which has empty space followed by a buck with his legs stretched out before and to the rear and his head turned backward, with trees and bushes around him; his body overall is realistically formed, forward of this scene and in a much less accomplished hand there is another deer, this was not large and was long ago partially rubbed off. From another horn by the hand of the same engraver, we know that the buck’s head was turned to watch a hunter in the position of firing, not yet placed on this incomplete horn. Running the full length of the body of the horn, immediately above the cannon surround, is a 1/4” wide band of decoration comprised of two rows of opposing saw-teeth, the upper having a dot within each tooth, this carries out to the forward edge of the body of the horn when it meets a swag border encircling the horn. The spout on this horn is especially well designed, the ring below it is faceted, the former has been carved (when made) so that it is a series of opposing triangle-like facets, nicely done, and ending in a well-formed finial, or tip. This unfinished horn and the other (made for Lt. Michah Hoit at Brookline fort during the 1775 Siege of Boston) are the only ones currently identifiable to this engraver, which may indicate that he died or perhaps deserted service early in the war, leaving behind this handsome, albeit unfinished, piece of folk art. Provenance: Purchased by John S. DuMont from Bill Coakley in November 1984; John DuMont Collection to 2008; private collection to present.
156 GEORGE WASHINGTON-SIGNED DISCHARGE AND BADGE OF MERIT FOR ARTILLERYMAN Partially-printed DS, folio, 13 ½ x 8 ½ in., 2 pp., dated Newburgh, New York, 8 June 1783; conservation-framed, with a 19th c. miniature of George Washington (watercolor, 3 1/2 x 2 3/4 in.) and a limited edition print. Following the official cessation of hostilities preliminary to the treaty of peace, Congress authorized General George Washington to begin issuing conditional discharges for most of the Continental Army. The main army was then cantoned at New Windsor, New York and discharge certificates were printed in nearby Fishkill and delivered to Washington’s headquarters in Newburgh by the general’s express orders. Unlike earlier wartime discharges, which were typically signed by the regimental colonel or commanding officer, the commander-in-chief insisted upon personally signing the honorable discharges of all soldiers still remaining--his testament of their service and sufferings for the nation. Those few Continental soldiers who were entitled to wear the Badge of Merit for three- or six-years honorable service on their uniforms (one or two chevrons, respectively, on the left sleeve, as instituted by Washington in December 1782) were to have their Badge of Merit recorded on a certificate appended to their discharge paper. One such recipient of this rare, dual form, was Sergeant James Bright of the Second, or New York, Regiment of Continental Artillery. Bright enlisted from New Jersey in 1776 and rose steadily through the ranks, ending the war as a senior NCO in the elite artillery corps. The Washington-signed discharge is dated 8 June 1783 and countersigned by Colonel Jonathan Trumbull (Washington’s military secretary) and registered by regimental adjutant James Bradford, while the appended Badge of Merit certificate for six years honorable service is signed by Colonel John Lamb, Bright’s commanding officer. A poignant reminder of the economic plight faced by many returned veterans, on the reverse is the signature of the sergeant himself, applied to a transfer of his rights to 600 acres of bounty lands to a speculator “For Value Rec’d”, for which the certificate and discharge are to serve as proof of ownership rights. It is handsomely framed with an early 19th century portrait miniature of Washington after John Trumbull and a print by H. Charles McBarron showing the 2nd Artillery as they appeared during the final two years of the war, (including a sergeant wearing the Badge of Merit for six years’ honorable service). The reverse of the certificate with Bright’s signature is displayed in a window mount and copies of his military and pension records are affixed to an envelope on the frame’s reverse. Provenance: John DuMont Collection; Northeast Auctions Sale of 19 AUG 2007, as lot 745.
157 AMES MODEL 1835 BRONZE 6-POUNDER CANNON DATED 1837 In 1835 the US Army Ordnance Board recommended that the army change the metal used for future procurement of field guns from iron to bronze. The following year, the Secretary of War approved the Board’s proposed adoption of the French version of the British single-block carriage. COL George Talcott, Chief of Ordnance with a talented team that included MAJ R.L. Baker, Captain Alfred Mordecai, and Lieutenants Benjamin Huger and Daniel Tyler oversee the final pattern drawings and develop specifications for contracting both bronze cannon and their carriages. On 13 July 1836 two Massachusetts bronze foundries, the newly-established one of the N. P. Ames Company at Cabotville and Cyrus Alger & Company of Boston, each received a contract for the new bronze guns, Ames for 32 and Alger for 26. Under this contract, Ames ultimately delivered 31 that were accepted during 1837-1838. The Ames 6-pounder also impressed the Army of the Texas Republic, which ordered six from Ames to supplement their sword contracts with him, which were delivered to Galveston in the fall of 1840. This fine and rare example of an Ames Model 1835 of the First Production was produced and delivered in Ames’ first year of the contract and is so marked ‘1837’ on the face of the left trunnion, its right trunnion marked: ‘N.P. AMES. / FOUNDER / SPRINGFIELD’. At the top of the breech back is stamped ‘9/751/G.T., indicating that this was the 9th gun delivered under the contract with Ames, weighing 751 pounds and inspected and accepted by George Talcott. From the contract records, we know that this 9th gun was one of only 11 delivered in 1837. The vacant holes on the top of the barrel near the vent are for the Mexican War period “hammer” percussion primer in use prior to the well-known friction primers of the Civil War ear. The barrel measures 60 inches in length, not including the cascabel (knob) with a base ring diameter at breech of 9 13/16 in.; the bore length is 57 1/2 in. with a diameter of 5 13/16 in. The gun used by the famous U.S. “Flying Artillery” of Palo Alto fame and onwards to long and distinguished usage during the Civil War, our number 9 Ames is mounted on a reproduction of the Model 1841 No. 1 carriage, as used in both conflicts. $50,000-80,000
158 ALONZO CHAPPEL (American, 1828-1887) The Mortal Wounding of Major Ringgold at the Battle of Palo Alto, 1846
oil on canvas, 12 x 15 ½ in., within gilded composition frame
Samuel Ringgold (1796-1846) entered the U.S. Military Academy in 1814 and was appointed a second lieutenant of artillery in 1818, serving as the ADC to MG General Winfield Scott for three years. He then embarked on various engineering, ordnance and artillery assignments during his distinguished career, including seeing his first combat during the 2nd Seminole War. While on ordnance duty, Ringgold made improvements in the percussion “hammer” cannon lock that “brought his name before leading military officers and inventors throughout the world.” When light artillery companies were formed in 1838-1839 and armed with the new Model 1835 6-pounders, Brevet Major Ringgold’s Company C of the 3rd Artillery was the first to be mounted and trained by him as horse or “Flying Artillery” and he was instrumental in the development of a new system of artillery drill that was adopted by the army in 1845. Promoted to major in 1843, he was the senior artillery officer present during the first battle of the Mexican War, Palo Alto, fought on 8 May 1846. A resounding American victory largely credited to the superiority of the American light artillery, which was more mobile and effective in fire than that of their Mexican adversaries. Tragically, while heroically directing the fire of his battery on horseback, he was “struck by a cannonball at right angles hitting him in the right thigh, passing through the holsters and upper part of the shoulders of his horse, and then striking the left thigh….” Mortally wounded, he died three days later at Fort Brown, Texas. In 1858, the talented artist Alonzo Chappel was commissioned by Johnson, Fry and Company to do all of the illustrations for Henry B. Dawson’s 2-volume work, Battles of the United States (1858). The resulting paintings and drawings by Chappel became the property of the publishers, one of which was a small oil that was engraved by Thomas Phillibrown and printed in volume 2 as “The Death of Major Ringgold at the Battle of Palo Alto.” Lost to history except through the engraving, the original painting—which had lost its identity—was eventually and quietly sold to noted collector Jay Altmayer in 1965 as “US Dragoons” and went “underground”, eventually reappearing at auction many years later, where it recognized by this cataloger and purchased for his study collection. Art historian and Chappel biographer, the late (and lamented) David Meschutt wrote (1992) that “Chappel was an excellent draftsman and colorist, who researched his subjects before commiting them to canvas” and that is, indeed, an understatement with regard to this fine piece. Not only did he portray the event accurately, albeit with a modicum of blood, in terms of material details such as artillery and uniforms, but he also captured Ringgold’s slow fall from his horse, while LT Shover ran to his assistance (derived from eyewitness accounts). Moreover, Chappel’s battle painting is also a masterful portrait of the hero, even if post-mortem, especially when compared with known life portraits of Ringgold (including a Charles Frasier miniature, a Vanderlyn oil, and a John Plumbe daguerreotype, all in family hands at the time and almost certainly made accessible for Chappel’s study). Provenance: Johnson, Fry & Company, 1859; unknown; J.N. Bartfield Galleries, New York to 1965; Jay. P. Altmayer Family Collection; Christies. Palmetto Hall: The Jay P. Altmayer Family Collection, NYC, 19 January 2017, sold as lot 132 “US Dragoons”; James L. Kochan Study Collection until present.
159 AN IRON MODEL 1827 6-POUNDER ON CONFEDERATE NAVAL CARRIAGE On 12 December 1827, McClurg & Company (later Fort Pitt Foundry) of Pittsburgh accepted a U.S. Army contract for 100 6pdr iron cannon at $70 each” for which the first 20 were delivered in 1828 and a second batch of 22, averaging 776 pounds weight per gun, were delivered in 1829. The proof sheets kept by LT John Symington survive for these two years and in the second, dated 22 September 1829, we find the entry for inspections of guns number 21-48. In 1987, the consignor discovered and purchased this cannon in upstate New York. The gun was recovered from a sunk Confederate gunboat in the Mississippi River by troops of the 26th Massachusetts Volunteers under Colonel Edward F. Jones during the 1862 campaign. Until the appearance of this gun, the Model 1827 was known from archival records, but a definitive identification had never been made. Unlike the handful of other survivors which are largely unmarked, this Model 1827 still had a number of discernable markings, despite pitting to the barrel surface. From it, positive identification of not only the pattern, but the specific gun, could readily be made. On the top of the barrel, directly between the trunnions, a large ‘US’ can be seen. The left trunnion is marked ‘McC & Co.(with double-struck M) for its maker, while the right trunnion bears ‘1829’, the year of its manufacture. On the upper face of the muzzle is ‘IS’ for John Symington, Inspector, while on the lower face is ‘No. 30’, per the 1829 proof sheet noted earlier. On the cascabel of the breech ‘786’ is engraved, which matches the weight entry in the same sheet, and ‘786 Pds’ is stamped on the breech base below the cascabel. The barrel length is 57 inches, more than a foot shorter that the Model 1819 ‘Walking Stick’ 6-pounder it was designed to replace, but approximately 24 pounds heavier. Of equal importance to the superb condition of the tube itself, is its rather unique naval sliding carriage, which according to ordnance expert, the late Edwin Olmstead, “The well conceived and built marine slide is a skillful improvisation for shipboard use.” The cap squares, the cheek pieces for the trunnion and rear slider are brass alloy or bronze, while the light section T-rails forming the slide are wrought iron. The capscrew utilizes compression to influence recoil. A rare gun on an even rarer and most handsome sliding carriage. $55,000-80,000
160 THE BRAZILIAN CRISIS OF 1827: THE RIO DE JANEIRO CORRESPONDENCE OF COMMODORE JAMES BIDDLE AND MIDSHIPMAN THOMAS O. ELWYN, 1826-1827 A fascinating collection of five letters and documents relating to the naval and diplomatic affairs of the United States with the Empire of Brazil during the Cisplatine War, fought on sea and land between Brazil and the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (present-day Argentina). With the impressment of American seaman into the Brazilian Navy and the seizure of American ships by its government, the United States decided to bolster its presence on the coast of South America and appointed Captain James Biddle (1783-1848) to the command of a small squadron, consisting of the frigate USS Macedonian and two sloops of war. Commodore Biddle sailed from Newport News on 12 June 1826 and arrived off Rio de Janeiro, where he joined the sloops already on that station. Accompanying Biddle was a 15 year-old midshipman by the name of Thomas Octavius Elwyn (1811-1831). James Biddle, brother of financier Nicholas Biddle and nephew of Captain Nicholas Biddle, was an American naval officer and hero of the War of 1812. After the war, Biddle performed various duties in the Gulf of Mexico, the South Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Commodore Biddle was very adept in foreign diplomacy and assisted in the negotiation and conclusions of the first treaties with Brazil, the Ottoman Empire and China. Midshipman Elwyn was the youngest of nine children born to Thomas and Elizabeth Langdon Elwyn. Following the deaths of both her husband (1816) and father John Langdon (1819), Elizabeth relocated from Portsmouth to Philadelphia with her children. It was there that she developed a strong friendship with Nicholas Biddle and his younger brother, James, and through their influence, obtained positions for two of her sons in the armed forces. This small archive includes a letter written to Commodore Biddle by Secretary of the Navy Samuel L. Southward dated 17 November 1826 acknowledging the former’s private letter of September 1st, which he had “submitted to the perusal of Mr. Clay [Henry Clay, the Secretary of State] and should any communication on the subject be thought necessary to Mr. Raguet or other Agents of the Government, it will be made from that Department.” Southard thanks Biddle and notes that “such information to the Department [of State] from our Officers abroad is very valuable and reli[torn--relieves us?] from doubts and enables us to give satisfactory notices to the public.” This comment is probably referring to the controversial conduct of American Charge de Affairs Condy Raguet. Biddle later utilized this letter as a cover for a letter addressed to “Mrs. Elwyn/ Philadelphia” and upon which he pens a note of caution that “as paper is scarce I make use of this letter as an envelope, but You must tear it up.” Another cover, postmarked Philadelphia, September 1826, utilizes the reverse of a partially-printed invitation for Commodore Biddle to join the French minister to Brazil, Alphonse-Joseph-Paul-Marie-Ernest de Cadoine, the Marquis de Gabriac, and the Marquise, for dinner on July 22nd. Another envelope to Elwyn reutilizes a note from one J. M. [Jesse?] Jones accepting Biddle’s invitation to dine aboard the Macedonian, when “Under the American flag I shall fancy myself at home and for a while I will not fail to feel free and very happy.” A Biddle ALS to Mrs. Elwyn, care of his brother Nicholas, was written while aboard the Macedonian at Rio de Janeiro on 26 November 1826. In it, he notes that her son and Midshipman John A. Dahlgren were staying at the country estate of an English gentleman, “rambling to their great delight through the Coffee Acres.” He notes that he will send word to Thomas that there is a letter for him from his mother and see if that is enough to bring him aboard, but teases that he has his doubts, “for tho’ fond of the Ship, he is fonder of the country....” Biddle himself looked forward to leaving Brazil, confiding that “I am heartedly tired of these South Americans” and noting that “I have crossed the Equator thirteen times, & I hope I may never cross it more, except once.” Biddle also touches on the political situation in a postscript, noting that Condy Raguet (also of Philadelphia society) “has received a .... long letter from Wm. Tudor”, then consul at Peru but destined to replace the Raguet in Brazil). Midshipman Elwyn writes to his mother aboard the flagship on October 1th, 1827 that “Rio de Janeiro is not as agreable [sic] as it was when Mr. and Mrs. Raguet were here, for…their kindness was such that I will never forget it.” “Tomorrow”, he relates, “is the Emperor’s birth day and we will probably fire a salute, have I ever told about my meeting him when riding once in the Country....he was dressed in plain suit of black and her Majesty in a grey riding suit--very plain indeed, but to go on, he rode up to us asked us if we were American if we belonged to the frigate, which of course I answered in the most polite way that I could, the Empress looking sweet on us all the time....” He closes by asking his mother to have his sister Matilda tell “Miss Patty Willing that her brother is very well” and “has behaved since he has been aboard remarkably well, he is very much liked by the crew and thought a good deal of by the Officers, and [there?] is hopes of his being one day recovered to his friends.” As no Willing is carried on the list as either an officer or midshipman, it can only be surmised that some young member of the Willing family was engaged in some scandal that caused him to sign ship’s articles and go to sea as an enlisted sailor. $1000-2000
161 (WAR OF 1812 ORDNANCE). Instructions relative to the packing of Small Arms in boxes, for preservation and transportation. Published by the United States Army’s Ordnance Department, Washington, DC, 13 August 1814. Printed broadside, 10 x 8 inches, with integral blank leaf. Quarto, on a folded folio sheet. Fine. An informative handbill distributed during the War of 1812, with detailed and precise instructions on the construction and packing of musket cases of boxes for shipping arms. The text notes that “the boxes in which small arms have commonly been packed, have been experienced to be inconvenient and insufficient,” due to packing 25 stands of muskets per box, and using rough boards…open joints, from which causes many of the arms have been greatly injured. In eight paragraphs the text gives detailed specifications of the size and method of construction of boxes in future, which are standardized in dimensions and mode of construction and limited to 20 stands of arms per box. In addition, the text goes on to specify the methods for packing and sealing the boxes, as well as marking, with each box having “U.S. 20 MUSKETS, and just below with the name of the contractor or armory where made it, along with the name of the contractor or armory where the muskets where made.” Extremely rare, with no copies are listed on OCLC. $700-900
162 JOHN BENTHAM-DINSDALE (British, 1927-2008) Independence Day, 1815: Bainbridge’s Squadron Sets Out for Algiers
oil on canvas, 24 x 36 inches (61.0 x 91.4 cm); signed lower left: ‘John Bentham Dinsdale’; within carved, giltwood frame. At the conclusion of the War of 1812, the United States returned to the problem of Barbary piracy. On 3 March 1815, Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers and two squadrons were assembled and readied for war. The squadron under the command of Commodore William Bainbridge was ported in Boston, Massachusetts while Commodore Stephen Decatur’s squadron was at New York. Decatur’s squadron was ready to set sail first and departed 20 May 1815. Bainbridge’s command was still assembling and did not depart until July 1st. It included Bainbridge’s flagship, the newly-commissioned ship-of-the-line USS Independence, as well as the frigates USS Congress, USS Java and USS United States with eight smaller vessels. This masterful painting by the late master marine artist, John BenthamDinsdale, shows the squadron on the 4th of July, after it cleared the coast of North America bound for the Barbary Coast of Africa. $3000-6000
163 (RUFUS KING) “…AMERICA, WHICH, WITH ALL OUR ERRORS, I LOVE AND RESPECT THE LONGER I AM ABSENT, AND THE MORE I KNOW OF OTHER COUNTRIES.” KING, RUFUS, ALS to David Lenox in “Port Mary near Kirkindbright”, Scotland, dated London, 19 October 1799; bifold sheet, quarto, 2pp., with crease in upper margin. Rufus King (1755-1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution in 1787. While serving as first Minister to the Court of St. James from 1796 to 1801,King writes to David Lenox, the U. S. Agent to Great Britain (then on leave to settle a Scottish inheritance), “that I am happy you have not been disappointed in the succession to your uncles Estate, and that the acquisition of it does not change your intention...to return and spend the residue of your Life in america, which, with all our Errors, I love and respect the longer I am absent, and the more I know of other Countries.” Lenox (1756-1826) was Scottish-born citizen of Philadelphia, whose public life included service as a Continental Army officer, merchant, Federal marshal, diplomat, and president of the 1st Bank of the United States. King discusses news from American, including an outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelpia and Norfolk, as well as new political gossip, noting that “Genl. [William Richardson] Davie of No. Caro. the former Govr. we hear is named to succeed. P.H. [Patrick Henry] & that he and the Ch[ief] Justice were to sail Early last month.” As the Quasi-War with France was being fought in Caribbean waters by the U.S. Navy, President John Adams dispatched a peace commission to France that ultimately consisted of William Varns Murray, Oliver Ellsworth and Davie, rather than the rumored John Marshall and Patrick Henry. $750-1500
164 CONSTANTINE SMITH (American, fl. 1827) Representation of the United States ship ERIE in a Hurricane…
Mixed media on paper, 22 x 18 ½ inches, within original, glazed, carved frame The USS Erie was a three-masted, sloop-of-war of the United States Navy, launched 3 November 1813 by Thomas Kemp, Baltimore, Maryland. Unable to reach the open sea because of the British blockade, she remained in port until peace was declared in 1815. On May 8, she sailed to Boston, Massachusetts to join Commodore William Bainbridge’s squadron sailing for the Mediterranean. With peace concluded with Algiers before the squadron reached the area, Erie remained part of the naval force assigned to protect commerce and guard against any further disturbance of peace by the Barbary States. She remained on station for nearly 5 years, returning to New York in January 1820 and was laid up for repairs for 3 ½ years. Lengthened to 122 feet and with her tonnage increased to 611 tons, Erie sailed from New York in November 1823 to serve in the Mediterranean until 1826. From 1827 to 1832, she was based at Pensacola, Florida, returning north to New York or Norfolk, Virginia for necessary repairs. Erie patrolled in the West Indies and off the coast of Mexico, protecting American citizens and property, suppressing piracy and the slave trade, and convoying merchantmen. During this latter period, she was under the command of Captain Daniel Turner (1794-1850), whose long and distinguished naval career began prior to the War of 1812, and included valorous service in command of the Caledonia during the battle of Lake Erie, 10 September 1813, under his mentor, fellow Rhode Islander, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. Promoted to captain on 3 March 1835, Turner spent a long period waiting orders before returning to sea in 1839 in command of USS Constitution. He sailed the Pacific Squadron in “Old Ironsides,” until he was relieved in 1841. Constantine Smith, who presented this memento of the Erie’s successful weathering of a West Indies hurricane at sea during 3-7 September 1827, was most likely a warrant officer or sailor aboard Turner’s command. Provenance: Commodore Daniel Turner and thence by descent in the Turner family of Newport, Rhode Island, to 2015.
165 DAGUERREOTYPE OF PASSED MIDSHIPMAN KIDDER BREESE, 1852 Kidder Randolph Breese was appointed a U.S. Navy Midshipman in November 1847 and served in the sloop of war Saratoga during the remainder of the war with Mexico. Sea duty continued until October 1852, when he was assigned to the U.S. Naval Academy to prepare for examination. Warranted a Passed Midshipman in June 1852, Breese took part in the Commodore Matthew C. Perry’s expedition to Japan for the next three years. This quarter-plate (4.25 x 3.25 in.) daguerreotype shows Breese wearing the undress frock uniform of a Passed Midshipman per the 1852 regulations and was probably taken just prior to- or following his return from Japan. He later distinguished himself during the Civil War in the capture of New Orleans, the Vicksburg campaign, land assault on Fort Fisher. After a long and distinguished career in the Navy, he died in the city of his birth, Newport, Rhode Island, on 13 September 1881. $700-1200
166 FRANKLIN D. BRISCOE (1844-1903) The Age of Sail and Steam, circa 1865
oil on canvas, 28 x 50 inches; signed lower right: ‘F. D. Briscoe’, in its original, carved and gilded frame (41 x 64 x 4.5 inches) Franklin D. Briscoe is best known for his masterful renderings of marine and historical works. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Briscoe moved with his family to Philadelphia in 1848 and at the age of sixteen, began training with eminent marine artist Thomas Moran. He later traveled to Europe to continue his studies and by the age of 25, was considered a most proficient landscape and marine painter. Traveling by ship on numerous voyages that covered the globe, Briscoe found many marine subjects suitable for his brush during such extended voyages. He established a successful painting career and was highly regarded as a marine painter during his lifetime. A versatile artist, Briscoe’s work also included portraiture and later, history paintings. During the 1880s, he received important commissions for Civil War battle paintings, one of which was a mural of the Battle of Gettysburg measuring 13 x 230 feet (in ten panels) that was exhibited throughout the country. Briscoe exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Brooklyn Art Association and his works are in the collections of the Butler Institute, the National Museum of American Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Independence Seaport Museum, and the Woodmere Museum, to name but a few. Although traveling frequently, Briscoe kept a home in Philadelphia throughout his life and died there in 1903. A longer, more descriptive title for the masterful ‘The Age of Sail and Steam’ might aptly be ‘Changing Tacks: The Sailing Navy Departs as the New Steam Navy Arrives’, as it rather poignantly reflects on the fading glory and traditions of the Old Sailing Navy in the wake of the mid-19th century modernization of the United States Navy. We see a sailing frigate (probably the USS Constitution, which so gallantly earned its laurels during three ship-to-ship battles during the War of 1812), on a starboard course that will eventually take her from the viewer’s sight, while one of the new steam frigates or sloops of war crosses the horizon in the center background. The slow demise of sailing power with the adoption of steam engines (prior to, and during the Civil War) is also symbolized by the setting sun. Its reflective light serves to starkly profile the new vessel (spewing coal-dust smoke into the sky) as it crosses the wake of the old, yet trim, sailing warrior. The departure of one is mourned, while the arrival of another is recognized, if not celebrated. This understated, yet powerful work is very much in the style of Moran, Briscoe’s first and most influential instructor. Although undated, it was likely painted during or immediately following the Civil War (if later, Briscoe would have more likely employed an ironclad ship under steam power alone as the new forerunner, rather than depict one of the hybrid warships built during the transition from sail to steam during the 1840s-1860s). $10,000-20,000
167 1841 PATTERN US NAVY SURGEON’S UNIFORM
This uniform is the only US Navy surgeon’s dress coat currently known from the Mexican War era. An extract from the 1841 uniform regulations of the United States Navy is appended below: “SURGEON’S FULL DRESS COAT. To be the same as directed for commanders, except that there shall be embroidered in gold round the collar a branch of live oak, and three rows of gold lace one and a half inch wide round the upper edge of the cuffs. The buttons to be between the two upper rows.” The double-breasted coat has two rows of nine large Navy buttons, while the cuffs have three large and two small buttons, the latter placed “slashed”; three large buttons are placed under each pocket flap, and large buttons are also placed on the hips and on the plaits of the skirts. The collar is trimmed with a branch of live oak embroidered with gold, while the cuffs are trimmed with three rows of 1/2-inch wide gold lace (the 1 1/2-inch width lace described in the printed regulations was an error, as 1/2-inch lace was the correct width). The coat has had minor conservation work done to it (principally patching of moth damage to the cloth, as seen), which was performed by Historical Costume Services of North Randolph, Massachusetts. The two-piece buttons are the upright eagle over anchor form (Albert NA101/McGuinn NA203), but bear the backmark of ‘BENEDICT & BURNHAM’ in scroll with eagle, previously not noted for this pattern by Albert or McGuinn. This form and backmark, as well as the cut of the coat, would likely date its manufacture between 1841-44. Provenance: collection of noted historical artist and collector Don Troiani to 2014; private collection
168 WILLIAM JAMES HUBARD (1807-1862) Lieutenant William Hindman Campbell of the United States Navy
oil on mahogany panel (an early 19th century door panel), 24 x 18 1/2 in., within gilded, carved frame Portrait of Baltimore native William Hindman Campbell (1795-1839) in his dress uniform as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy, probably to celebrate his promotion to that rank in 1826. Campbell was appointed Midshipman May 30, 1816 and had a promising career ahead of him, which was cut short when he drowned at Moses Comfort and was buried in Brooklyn, New York. William James Hubard, a noted British-born artist, came to the United States as a young man, where he studied under Thomas Sully and Gilbert Stuart, before establishing himself in Baltimore, where he became one of the leading artists in that city. His portraits of Jackson, Calhoun, Clay, Marshall, John Carroll and others are known to survive in institutions and private collections. Another portrait of Lt. William Hindman Campbell by William James Hubard is in the Maryland Historical Society. Provenance: Harry D. Berry, Jr. Collection to 1970s; private collection
169 UNKNOWN FRENCH ARTIST, AFTER GUDIN The Burning of the East Indiaman ‘Kent’, c. 1830
pastel on paper, 25 x 34 inches with inscription ‘L’Incendie du Kent/d’apres Gudin’ on a label attached to the reverse The saving of the passengers aboard the burning East Indiaman Kent was one of the most dramatic sea rescues recorded during the entire Age of Sail. The Kent, 1,332 tons, was built at the East India Company’s yard at Blackwall in 1820 and had already completed three voyages to India when she was chartered to transport the 31st Regiment of Foot and its dependents for service in the East. Leaving the Downs on 19 February 1825, the Kent made good progress until March 1st, when during a severe gale in the Bay of Biscay, a lighted lamp was accidentally dropped in the main hold and set spirits from a stove cask ablaze. As the fire spread, there seemed but little hope of escape and as if by a miracle, the brig Cambria hove into view (enroute to Vera Cruz with 36 Cornish tin miners aboard). Although to their great discredit, most of the Kent’s own sailors initially refused to make a return trip to the burning vessel to recover more passengers, all but 82 persons were rescued from the blazing ship by the two ships’ crews. The small, 200-ton brig, crammed with 553 survivors (including 48 women and 52 children) returned to Falmouth, England, where it was received amid great accolades. Several artists produced works commemorating this disaster at sea and the resulting rescue, including Thomas Buttersworth, William Daniel, Thomas Luny and Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin. Gudin (1802-1880), one of France’s greatest marine artists of the period, painted his version within two years of the event and this work (from which this 19th century pastel is derived) now hangs in the Musée national de la Marine in Paris. In the original Gudin painting, the Kent is depicted heeling over to starboard, but it is reversed to larboard in this striking pastel drawing by an unknown artist of the French School. Provenance: Christie’s Maritime Sale, London, 9 May 1996 (lot 435); private collection.
170 Attributed to GEORGE HATHORN (1803-1869) HMS Orestes cutting away her foremast in a gale off Barcelona watercolor on paper, 13 x 20 1/2 inches; conservation framed HMS Orestes was an 18-gun, ship-rigged, sloop of war launched in 1824. During the Carlist War of 1831-32 (Portuguese Civil War), she was the flagship of Captain William Nugent Glascock, Royal Navy, who had charge of a small British naval squadron station on the River Douro to look after British national interests, as well as to protect British persons and property in that war-torn country. It depicts the crew of the wave- and wind-battered sloop cutting down her foremast to prevent her being blown from her moorings and cast up against the docks of Barcelona or into another vessel. This drastic measure allowed the warship and her crew to safely ride out the hurricane without any further undue damage or loss. This well-rendered drawing, found in a 19th century scrapbook relating to the naval career of Vice Admiral George Hathorn, RN, then serving as a lieutenant in Glasscock’s command. Drawing was a course of instruction at the Royal Naval College and many talented amateur watercolorists (some who later became professional artists, such as Yates and Strickland) could be found in naval ship wardrooms. Provenance: George Hathorn and by descent in the Hathorn family; J. Welles Henderson Collection to 2008; private collection to present Literature : J. Welles Henderson and Rodney P. Carlisle. Jack Tar: A Sailor’s Life, 1750-1910 (Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Antique Collector’s Club, 1999), 231.
171 SCRIMSHAW POWDER HORN OF WHALER JAMES BATES, 1838 A handsome and whimsical horn inscribed ‘JAMES S. Bates / February 1. 1838’” in a rectangular cartouche above a vibrant coastal landscape and whaling scene that wraps around the circumference of the base. Scrimshaw base plate depicts a brig-rigged whaleship flying an American flag. Whaling scene includes a whaleship and two six-man whaleboats, one poised to harpoon a spouting surfaced whale. Coastline view of a lighthouse, with an arrow-shaped weathervane on its cupola, a large house that appears to be a tavern or inn with a fenced-in yard and a signpost at its corner, with a woman in front waving with a kerchief and a man firing at a large bird perched atop the signpost. Further detailed with trees, birds, a figure in the doorway of the tower, a long pennant flying from the ship’s mast, and lettering on the tavern sign--possibly a whimsical play on words: ‘ENTER INN’. Cartouche with rope and crosshatch border; crosshatch design near end of horn. 8 in. L with 2 ½ x 2 1/16 in. oval base. Missing brass charger and with 3 insect graze holes, 2 in. dark portion of horn and one just past whale’s tail, not obscuring engraving work. James Harvey Bates was born in Rochester, Massachusetts on July 1, 1822, the son of Captain Sylvester, Jr. and Melintha (nee Clark) Bates. Bates was listed as a mariner in census records and in his death certificate. Although he died November 2, 1846, his death was not entered in the town records until May 1, 1847, listing him as dying of consumption, aged 24 years, 4 months and 1 day. This date of entry would suggest he died at sea on a long voyage and his death could not be recorded until his ship touched land, or the news of his death was relayed via another ship. $2000-4000
172 MORTIER’S 1700 MAP OF THE FRENCH AND ENGLISH COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA PIERRE MORTIER (1661-1711)
Carte Nouvelle de l’Amérique Angloise Contenant La Virginie, Mary-Land, Carline, Pennsylvania, Nouvelle Yorck, N: Jarsey, N: France… copper plate engraved map with hand-coloring, 23 ½ x 35 ¾ inches; published in Amsterdam by Pierre Mortier,1700. This is one of the earliest maps of the English and French colonies in North America to be printed outside of Britain and was part of Pierre Mortier’s Suite de Neptune François , published in Amsterdam in 1700 and often incorrectly attributed to Nicolas Sanson. $1500-3000
173 CIVIL WAR UNION AND CONFEDERATE UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA
174 JOHN KELLY ( b. 1965) The Red Baron
Plate CLXXII from The Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, DC: GPO, 1895), color lithograph by Julius Bien & Co., New York, 18 x 27 in., within later frame. Very good condition. $200-400
Lithograph on paper, 16 x 20 in. (view) in contemporary mat and frame; n.d. (c. 1988)signed by artist in lrc; no. 346 in edition of 500 edition; not examined out of the frame. $100-300
175 MODEL OF THE USS CAMBRIA (APA-36) DURING THE 1945 OKINAWA CAMPAIGN This full hull, ¼ scale model of a Bayfield Class attack transport is mounted on two brass pedestal supports and presented in a custom fitted, glazed display case with mahogany baseboard, which is drop-mounted to a matched mahogany display table. Overall dimensions: 60 in. H x 70 ½ in. L x 19 ¼ in. W.
The USS Cambria was launched at the Western Pipe and Steel Company shipyard in San Francisco, CA in November 1942 and after she was commissioned in early 1943, Captain C. W. Dean of the US Coast Guard assumed command and she and her Higgins Boats were all manned by Coast Guard personnel through her service in the Pacific Theatre until the end of the war. During the early 1944 invasion of the Marshall Islands, she served as flagship for Majuro Attack Group during the landings. After overhaul at San Francisco and refresher training at Pearl Harbor, Cambria left 30 May 1944 for the Marianas invasion, again serving as flagship of an attack group. She took part in the assault on Saipan in June-July, then led the invasion of Tinian (24 July-1 August). Embarking Army troops and equipment at Honolulu, Cambria joined the Southern Attack Group for the invasion of the Philippines. On 20 October she landed troops at Dulag, Leyte, in the first assault wave, then remained off Leyte as a casualty evacuation ship.Cambria lifted reinforcements from Oro Bay, New Guinea, to the Leyte area, then returned to New Guinea for rehearsal landings at Huon Gulf. She landed troops at Lingayen Gulf during the invasion landings on 10 January 1945, and after a reinforcement mission, got underway for Tulagi to train for the invasion of Okinawa. Cambria staged at Ulithi, then put her troops ashore at Okinawa on 1 April 1945. This highly-detailed, scale model was commissioned by Marine Bank of North America (MBNA) for its corporate art collection, where it was displayed in the office of Senior Vice Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, General Charles C. Krulak (retired Commandant of the US Marine Corps, 1995-1999). The model honored the WWII service of his father, Lt. General Victor H. Krulak (also a former Marine Commandant), who commanded a Marine task force during the amphibious invasion of Okinawa in 1945 and for which USS Cambria served as his flagship. Victor Krulak was also seminal in developing both Marine Corps amphibious doctrine prior to- and during the war, as well as playing a seminal role in the initial design of the Higgins landing craft. Authentic research was provided to Master Modeler Stephen W. Henninger from the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, National Archives, Maps and Plans Division, and the U.S. Maritime Commission. This ship is painted in the splinter camouflage pattern she wore during the Okinawa campaign. The model’s hull construction was created via hallow-out laminated waterline basswood lifts, with superstructure built-up from a combination of holly, aircraft plywood, and brass. The models includes all essential deck gear, furniture, armament and fittings per this ships design and later modification, e.g. two single 5-inch dual purpose gun mounts, two quad 1.1-inch gun mounts, aft port and starboard, replaced by two single 40mm AA gun mounts, four twin 40mm AA gun mounts, 18 single 20mm AA gun mounts, directors, life rafts, gun tub mounts, radar antennae, railings, ship’s boats, anchors, winches, ladders, bitts, davits, funnel, masts, etc., all of brass or Britannia metal modified castings. All elements are authentically painted and camouflaged per naval practice.
Originally commissioned by MBNA Bank at a cost of $42,000 and appraised (2017) at the same value. This model was donated to the Mars & Neptune Trust by its founding president, James L. Kochan, and it is being sold without reserve, with all proceeds to benefit the Trust’s research, publishing and preservation programs.
176 A GROUPING OF FIVE VARIOUS POLEARMS Five polearms, consisting of a late 19th c. European steel-shafted (2-piece) cavalry lance; an Asian long-bladed lance (head loose, possibly Japanese?), an Middle Eastern lance, and two ethnographic spears or lances. $300-500
177 19TH C. OHIO FIRE COMPANY PARADE DRUM An 19th century American snare drum with period sheepskin heads, original hemp ropes and leather tensioners, 16 ½ in. H x 16 ½ in. diameter, and a pair of period drumsticks, presumably original to the drum. Probably made in the 1830s, based on construction and form, but later refitted (1860s?) with brass strainer and snares. Red-painted rims and varnished, natural wood shell decorated in front with a red and gold-painted 12-point star or sun, flanked by the letter ‘E’ and ‘C’, most likely for “Engine Company.” This drum has a Metamora, Ohio provenance and it is likely that it was used as the parade drum for a volunteer engine or fire company in that or some other nearby town. Although constructed in the same manner as military drums, this drum is a rare example of those used by fire companies when they paraded, often wearing the painted hats or helmets so coveted by collectors today. $1000-2000
178 FRENCH-MADE, MOUNTED OFFICER’S SABER, c. 1810 This pattern of French-import saber, with lion-head pommel, was highly popular among U.S. Army officers during the War of 1812 as seen in numerous portraits, including that of General Andrew Jackson. This example has seen heavy use and wear and its brass hilt and scabbard are now devoid of any gilding and the crosshatched, bone grips have lost 50% of their black finish. The single-edged, curved blade is 33 in. L x 1 1/8 in. at ricasso, with a single wide fuller and a 5 in. L false edge. The blade has been heavily cleaned over time and no traces of decoration are readily seen; finish is a mottled grey with light pitting. The scabbard has numerous dents, but the blade still fits well; the suspension bands for the rings are nicely decorated with a center band of oak leaves, flanked by beading. $600-900
179 FRENCH OFFICER’S SABER FOR LIGHT ARTILLERY, HUSSARS, LANCERS, AND CHASSEURS A CHEVAL, C. 1812 Brass hilt with D-knucklebow, quillon ending in ball, 2 side branches to guard and full langets. Leather wrapped grip with 3 strands of twisted brass wire set in the grooves. The single-edged, curved blade 32 ¼ in. (82cm) L x 1 1/8 in. (3.2 cm) W at ricasso with one wide fuller. The blade bears etched panoplies of arms and floral motifs. The spine appear to have had a marking purposely filed off near the ricasso. Good overall condition. $500-800
180 PRUSSIAN MODEL 1873 “BLUCHER” SABER WITH CAPTURED FRENCH BLADE The first of the new M1873 sabers produced by the Prussians for the mounted troops utilized French blades repurposed from arms captured during the FrancoPrussian War. Reverse-P, steel hilt with leather wrapped grips; the 29 ¾ in. L x 1 ¼ in. W blade has a single, wide fuller extending to the tip with French touchmarks and ‘2264’ at ricasso and bears ‘Manufre de Chatelerrault Fevrier 1851’. Steel scabbard with original finish. Very good overall. $300-600
181 PETER KNECHT SABER DATED 1848 Saber with reverse-P grip, steel mounted with brass plating over it, with shagreen-wrapped grips with two strands of twisted wire in the grooves. The single-edged, curved blade is 33 in. L x 1 in. W at ricasso and has a clipped point. The blade is etched with generic martial panoplies and floral scrolling, so it is likely one made for export to the American market. It is marked ‘P. Knecht’ on the obverse face near ricasso and ‘Solingen / 1848’ on recto. Some light wear to grip and the extreme tip is bent slightly upwards—easily corrected. $300-600
182 THE GOLD-MOUNTED, PRESENTATION WALKING STICK OF JOHN HANCOCK, C. 1755 44 ¼ in L overall, with a gold, embossed knob or head 3 1/8 in. L x 1 ½ in. diameter, set on a malacca wood shaft with two opposing gold eyelets for the hanger knot set 1 3/8 in. below the base of the head, the shaft terminating in a 2 ½ in. L brass ferrule with iron tip; the lower rim of the head engraved ‘The Gift of Coll: Littlehales to Thos. Hancock’, the top of knob mounted with a later gold disc engraved: ‘The Gift of Govr. Hancock to J. Avery Esq. [later re-engraved as] Jun.’; with later 19th century case. 2 pieces. In the 18th century the walking stick became one of the most important status symbols of one’s status as an aristocrat or gentlemen and one would never step out without such in hand. Sticks and canes, being high status objects, were frequently presented as a token of esteem and/or to honor some selfless act. In Benjamin Franklin’s last will, he noted that “My fine crab-tree walking stick, with a gold head curiously wrought in the form of a cap of liberty, I give to my friend, and the friend of mankind, General Washington. If it were a Sceptre, he has merited it, and would become it.” It has not yet been fully ascertained why or when Lieutenant Colonel John Littlehales (1702-1761) presented this fine, gold-headed stick to merchant Thomas Hancock of Boston. Hancock (1703-1764) imported and exported throughout the British empire and, thanks to lucrative military contracts with the Crown during King George’s War and the Seven Years’ War, was one of the wealthiest men in Massachusetts. The gift was most likely in thanks for Hancock’s influence in securing Littlehales, (a British officer who had been on half-pay retirement since 1749), an active appointment as major in Shirley’s 50th Regiment of Foot in 1754 or for his promotion to lieutenant colonel the following year. Clearly, Hancock valued the gifted walking stick highly, for it is predominately displayed on the table next to him in in John Singleton Copley’s portrait of Hancock (now in the Harvard Art Museum). Hancock’s junior partner was his beloved nephew and heir, John Hancock (1737-1793), to whom this walking stick was passed either as gift or bequest when Thomas died in 1764. It is almost certain that John Hancock carried this gold-headed stick with him to Philadelphia when he attended the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and was unanimously voted its president. It was likely witness to events such as the signing of the Declaration of Independence before Hancock left Congress and returned home in 1778. When the Commonwealth of Massachusetts organized a government under its new constitution, John Hancock was elected its first governor and John Avery, Jr, its first Secretary, both taking post on January 1, 1780. John Avery Jr. (1739-1806) was already a close acquaintance of Hancock’s. An ardent patriot, he earlier had been a member of “The Loyal Nine, nine Bostonians who met in secret to plan protests against the Stamp Act and later, a member of the Sons of Liberty with Hancock. Avery served as Secretary of the Commonwealth from 1780-1806, including Hancock’s two terms as governor, 1780-1785 and 1787-1793. The two men worked well together and developed a close friendship and, as Hancock’s health began to decline in his final years, Avery took on more of Hancock’s workload as governor. Before his death, Hancock presented his friend with this walking stick as a lasting memento. The Hancock walking stick remained a prized possession of the Avery family, being successively handed down from father to eldest son. In the early 1900s, John Avery VI placed the walking stick on loan to Philipse Hall Manor, where it remained on exhibit until 1988, when it was returned to the family and sold the following year. Provenance: Gifted to Thomas Hancock by Lieutenant Colonel John Littlehales, c. 1755; by gift or inheritance to his nephew and heir, John Hancock, c. 1764; presented by John Hancock to John Avery, Jr., c. ; and by descent in the Avery family to John Avery VIII; to Jonathan Trace, January 1989; Collection of Roy and Ruth Nutt to January 2015; private collection to present. Exhibited: on loan from Avery family and on continuous exhibition at Philipse Manor Hall State Historic Site, Yonkers NY from early 20th c. until 6 December 1988.
Thomas Hancock by John Singleton Copley; courtesy of the Harvard University Art Musuem
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Manner of C. E. Porter In our opinion, a work in the style of the artist and of a later date.
Attributed to C. E. Porter In our opinion, on the basis of style, the work can be ascribed to the named artist but less certainty as to authorship is expressed than in the preceding category.
After C. E. Porter In our opinion, a copy of a known work of the artist.
Studio of C. E. Porter In our opinion, a work by an unknown hand in the studio of the artist, which may or may not have been executed under the artist’s direction. Circle of C. E. Porter In our opinion, a work by an as yet unidentified but distinct hand closely associated with the named artist but not necessarily his pupil. Style of... Follower of C. E. Porter In our opinion, a work by a painter working in the artist’s style, contemporary or nearly contemporary, but not necessarily his pupil.
The term signed and/or dated and/or inscribed means that, in our opinion, a signature and/or date and/or inscription are from the hand of the artist. The term bears a signature and/or date and/or an inscription means that, in our opinion, a signature and/or date and/or inscription have been added by another hand.
CATALOG NOTES Unless otherwise noted, dimensions of original artwork, such as paintings or watercolors, are for the actual size of the work, not inclusive of frame or matting. The old English measurement system of feet and inches has been utilized for all dimensions, to ensure consistency of measures appropriate to the period under study (and to facilitate ease of comparison and reference with primary source records). Many of the individual works of art or artifacts come with their own object folders to ensure full documentation of such pieces, which are available for examination during the exhibition, copies of which convey to the new owner. If artwork or other objects have been conserved or otherwise restored, copies of the conservation records are included in the relevant object folders.
ALS Autograph Letter Signed ADS Autograph Document Signed BG brigadier general c. circa CPT captain D depth d. died (in) dia. diameter DS Document Signed ft. foot/feet fl. flourished during folio a large sheet in. inch/inches incl. included, including H height HMS His Majestyâ€™s Ship KB. Knight of the Bath llc, lrc lower left corner, lower right corner LS Letter Signed LT lieutenant LTC lieutenant colonel MAJ major MG major general nd. not dated, unknown date np. no place noted, unknown place pub. published (in) RA Royal Academy of Artists ulc, urc upper left corner, upper right corner USS United States Ship W width 4to quarto (about 8 x 10 in.) 8to octavo (about 5 x 7 in.) 12 mo a smaller sheet
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Rare and iconic artifacts and artwork from the French & Indian War, the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Napoleonic Wars and the Mexi...
Published on Sep 26, 2019
Rare and iconic artifacts and artwork from the French & Indian War, the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Napoleonic Wars and the Mexi...