The mediaeval history of Jerusalem is primarily connected with the tribe of Israelites. According to mentions from Bible, King David made it the capital city of his tribe already in the 10th century BC. Although archaeological researches show Jerusalem was rather a less significant mountain village in that era, who would argue against things written in Holy Scripture, right? Together with King David, the king of Israelites, even the mythical Ark of the Covenant was brought into the City of David, which is today’s nickname. The necessity of respectable sanctuary for this most sacred religious relic of Israelites, where might be stored the Ten Commandments from God Himself, understood even David’s son, King Solomon, and had the first Jerusalem temple built. The following eras are characterised by flourishing and the prosperity of the city, which repulsed various sieges and attacks, but it wasn’t able to resist powerful Babylon and was captured in 598 BC. Israelites revolted soon against Babylonian hegemony, unfortunately, their rebellion was hard suppressed by King Nebuchadnezzar II, the Temple was demonstratively pulled down, and the population majority was taken into Babylonian captivate. It was terminated by Persian invasion in Babylon and religious freedom declared by King Cyrus the Great. Israelites returned back to Jerusalem and build a new temple at the place of the former one. This era is called Second Temple Period, but nor can this be rated among calm eras. Already in 332 BC, Jerusalem was conquered by Alexander the Great and started the era of gradual Hellenization which culminated in 167 BC, when a statue of Zeus was located in the sacred temple. This sacrilegious act, according to common non-Greek Jews, was the last straw. Following revolt of Maccabees they freed Jerusalem and entire Judea of foreign hegemony for almost a hundred years. Not even rebellious Judea wasn’t able to resist unstoppable Roman Empire and was conquered in 63 BC. In 37 BC, the ingloriously famous King Herod the Great assumed power. According to the Bible, this tyrant was responsible for massacre of innocent children, nevertheless, contemporary historians describe him as a judicious monarch who made Jerusalem thrive and let rebuilt the sacred temple. But all this was nothing in the contrary to events in Jerusalem around 33 BC. A firebrand, whose name was actually Jesus of Nazareth, entered in Jerusalem on a donkey during the greatest Jewish feast Pesah, which happened exactly in compliance with ancient prediction. News about teachings and miracles of Jesus were known already in the entire Judea and his arrival caused a stir, because many people considered it the arrival of the Messiah. The following story is famously known. Jesus crucified at Golgotha due his rabble-rousing rose from death, spread pearls of wisdom, removed the sins from all of mankind, left to a deserved rest at his father in heaven and definitely sealed his status as the first global superhero. For the city’s history, it’s very important that newly decorated temple by Herod tumbled down due to earthquake exactly in accordance with prediction of Jesus few days after his death. Jewish religion, which boasted itself with a patent of the worshipping of only one god, had a new powerful rival – Christianity.
podzim – autumn
Published on Nov 27, 2013
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