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For Private Circulation Only S C R I B B L E S

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Director’s Message New Lecturers Join PF Also in this issue   

Secondary Language Vocabulary Instruction Learning Difficulties Problems in Spelling

More student Articles!


Dear Teachers and Students, I am very proud that the fifth edition of “Scribbles” has been published. This is a great achievement, which would not have been made without your hard work and sincere efforts. So,

Contents 

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Secondary Language Vocabulary Instruction p. 7 Learning Difficulties p.8 Questions about nuclear power p.9 Comparing yourself with others p.10 Global Tourism p. 11 It’s your choice p. 12 Problems in Spelling p.1315 Hiccups p.16 Take A Smile p. 17 The Secrets of Water p.18 College Life p.20 Summer Thoughts p.21 Dignity of Labor p.22 Hostel Life p.23 Should students be allowed to choose a specialization? p.24 Car Accident p.25 The Magic of Musandam p.26 Just Buckle Up p.27 Helen Keller p.28 The Lesson to be learned p.29 Lessons from the Private School system p.29 Ban Against Animal Testing p.31 What We Need to Know about Ethical Hacking p.33 Advertisement: Information or Manipulation? p.34 “To catch the reader's attention, place an

thank you all very much and keep up the good work.


Dr. Nasrin Al-Lawati

interesting sentence or quote from the story

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A Thank You Note from the Editor Finally we managed to bring out the latest number of our journal and on this day I must write a special thank you note for all of you who were involved in this endeavour. Alan brought his excellent desktop publishing skills and Balan contributed his infectious enthusiasm to this project and Sam kept on flogging the proverbial idle beast. I must also thank all our contributors including Imad, Dr. Afif and others. Thank you guys, have a great summer!




Greetings. I am extremely happy to learn that our SCRIBBLES is stepping up on the fifth rung in its ladder. My hearty congratulations to you all! This itself is a proof that “Together we can do so much”. As you all know, I, being a strong advocate and an ardent supporter of ‘team work’, believe that in the long history of humankind, those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively, have only prevailed. Yea, we should not only use the brains we have, but all that we can borrow. I hope, our SCRIBBLES has just done that. I am immensely pleased to learn that a lot of student-writers have contributed for this issue of SCRIBBLES too, and I take this opportunity to extend my heartfelt wishes to all these young writers. I always trust that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Let me take this opportunity to extend my sincere thanks and greetings to Dr. Nasrin Al Lawati, the Academic Coordinator, Post Foundation Program, Mr. Sam Victor, Program Coordinator, all the testing coordinators, Mr. Ashraf, editor of this issue, and all the teachers, for their wholehearted continuous support and encouragement for this great venture. Finally, a simple reminder to you all ‘It is not what is poured into a student that counts, but what is planted’ So, let’s strive hard to bring changes in the life of the younger generation who have been assigned to each and every one of us. You have not lived until you have done something for someone who can never repay you. The miracle is this – the more we share, the more we have. Friends, we may have all come on different ships, but we're all in the same boat now. Wish you all, all the very best!

Ahmed Al Dissi, Director, ELC

“We are not the same as I hope to show. There is a better way if we just let go”.

My beloved friends,

I am greatly delighted to meet you all again via the pages of the 5th issue of our Scribbles. As it is well known and it has been our constant practicing concept at the Post Foundation of the English Language Centre, I am very proud to vouch for my colleagues here, because we, as teachers, have never tried to fix the students but we always try to fix ourselves first. We are all very well aware of the fact that the good teacher makes the poor student good and the good student superior. When our students fail, we, as teachers, too, have failed. Our Scribbles is just a humble attempt to fix our poor students to make good and the good ones to make superior. Writing is a skill and its inevitable importance is particularly stressed at higher education settings. As you all know, a new writing center has been functioning since last semester and a team of teachers headed by Dr. Anwar have been helping those students who need help to improve their writing. I sincerely advise you all to encourage the students to make use of this writing center.

No one can whistle a symphony. It takes a whole orchestra to play it. No matter what accomplishments you make, somebody helped you. So, let me take this opportunity to thank Mr. Ahmed Al Dissi, Director, ELC. Mrs. Elaine Cockerham, Head of Section, Curriculum and Teaching Methods, Ms. Faiza Nasser Al Hasni , Head of Section, English Language Program, Dr. Nasrin Al Lawati. Academic Coordinator, Mrs. Inez Lobo, Coordinator, Quality Assurance. and Mr. Francis Rajendran, Registrar, for extending their valuable support, guidance and encouragement. I thank all the Post-Foundation Testing Coordinators and teachers for their excellent support and co-operation. I also congratulate and thank Mr. Ashraf Hyderose for this great job in bringing out the fifth issue of the “SCRIBBLES”. My special thanks to Mr. Alan Basmayor for sharing his desktop publishing skills with the editor of Scribbles. Let’s not forget, friends, teamwork divides the tasks and multiplies the success. I wish you all, the best.


Sam Victor



New Lecturers Join PF

Ruhina has been teaching English for more than six years. She has a CELTA and Masters in Teaching English as a Second Language from English and Foreign Language University, Hyderabad, India. Currently, she pursuing her Doctorate in Education (Tesol) at the University of Exeter.

Jacquiline Orlanes graduated Magna Cum Laude in her Bachelors Degree in English from University of Cebu and finished her Master of Science in Teaching English from University of the Visayas, Philippines. She also completed her PhD in Development Education from Cebu Technological University of the same country. She had been a graduate school professor and a higher education consultant in pedagogy and curriculum development.

Tahira Fida Hussain Al Lawati is an Omani English Teacher. She got her Bachelors Degree from Leeds University, UK and her M.A. from SQU. She had been teaching since 1986. She taught in Elementary school and private colleges in Oman. She is also a leading artist and got her MA in visual from the University of the Arts, London.

Parameswary Ganapathi is from Malaysia. She graduated with M Ed(TESL) from University Sultan Idris and B Ed (TESL) from University Putra Malaysia. She obtained a certificate from University of Maryland Baltimore County in (TEYL) Teaching English to Young Learners. In 2009 she was nominated by the US State Embassy to represent Malaysia for Material Design in Hawaii Pacific University. This is her 25th year of teaching and she is enjoying every moment of it. ‘Not all of us can do great things, But we can do small things with great love’.

Anwar Mourssi is from Egypt. He Caption received his MA in TESL/TEFL from describing Birmingham picture or University/UK in 2006 and his PhD in Applied Linguistics from University of the West of England, graphic. Bristol/UK in 2012. His major field of study is Second Language Acquisition. Dr. Mourssi is now on the editorial board of some language journals in Norway, Canada and the UK.

Kamal Salah Balloumi finished his MA in Applied Linguistics from Tunis- Tunisia. He has 16 years of TEFL at secondary schools (4years) and tertiary level (12 years). He had been involved in Material evaluation, design and related workshops at various levels. He had also been active in local and regional ELT and TESOL conferences and workshops.





Imad Bougherra

An important factor underpinning certain learners’ poor vocabulary retention pertains to the type of instruction those learners are exposed to in the EFL classroom. Vocabulary instruction, or lack of it, is very important in making it possible for learning and retention to occur. L1 as well as L2 research has not been conclusive as far as the utility of vocabulary instruction, whether for reading comprehension or for vocabulary learning in general. However, the general trend seems to favour instruction by reiterating assumptions such as Dale et al.’s (1973, in Blachowicz et al. 2006) that “some vocabulary instruction is usually better than no vocabulary instruction” (p: 526). Similarly, Stahl and Fairbanks (1986) contend that “any instruction appeared better than no instruction” (p: 73) after considering some studies (e.g. Beck et al, 1982; Kameenui et al, 1982; Stahl, 1983) that offered evidence for comprehension improvement through vocabulary instruction. With regard to L2 vocabulary instruction, Coady (1997) identifies “four main positions on the continuum of literature dealing with vocabulary instruction” (In Coady & Huckin, 1997: 275). On one end of the continuum, the ‘Context Alone’ position assumes that instruction is neither needed nor justified, and that students can learn the vocabulary when they rely on context. The next position on the continuum is ‘Strategy Instruction’ which acknowledges the role of context in vocabulary learning, but suspects the ability of the learners to explore context on their own, and suggests giving learners some direct instruction as well as equipping them with specific learning strategies so that they can cope with context. Advocates of the third position on Coady’s con-

tinuum, ‘Development plus Explicit Instruction’ (e.g. Nation, 1990; 1993) suggest “explicit teaching of certain types of vocabulary using a large number of techniques and even direct memorization of certain highly frequent items” (Coady, In Coady & Huckin, 1997: 279).The fourth position is labeled ‘Classroom Activities’ and advocates the teaching of vocabulary “along very traditional lines [emphasizing] practical classroom activities” (Coady, In Coady & Huckin, 1997: 280). Advocates of the ‘futility’ of vocabulary instruction (e.g. Nagy & Herman, 1984, 1987; Nagy, Herman & Anderson, 1985), to cite a few, support their argument with figures indicating the huge size of words in the language as well as the amount of time needed for the direct teaching of those words, for example McKeown et al. (1985) spent about 15 minutes per word. Conversely, proponents of the ‘fertility’ of vocabulary instruction (e.g. Beck, McKeown, & Omanson, 1984; Paribakht & Wesche 1997; Zimmerman, 1994) suspect contexts to be “tricky” and lacking “appropriate information for deriving word meanings” (McKeown & Beck, 2004: 14). Given the assumption that vocabulary instruction is beneficial even for native speakers, Coady (1997) argues that “L2 learners [as well] would benefit even more since they have so much less natural and incidental exposure to language” (p: 281). Additionally, vocabulary instruction is very useful especially to those learners who have not yet crossed the threshold that would enable them to rely on contexts for guessing word meaning, which is the case with most of our learners who need direct and explicit vocabulary instruction. This also reflects my own beliefs supporting the idea that L2 learners will always benefit from any type of vocabulary instruction provided that it suits their level.



Wafa Ahmed Al-Busaidi

(Dyslexia). Children with this condition usually have problems in reading, writing, spelling and speaking. The second type is learning problems in math (Dyscalculia). Here, children have troubles in solving math problems, telling time and they face problems when using money. The third type is difficulties in writing (Dysgraphia). Children with this type have problems with handwriting, spelling and organizing ideas.

Certain people who have high degree of intelli-

As mentioned before, even people who have high ability may usually have a disability. Famous peogence may also have a sort of disability. One such ple suffering from learning difficulties include Aldisability is learning difficulties. Learning difficul- bert Einstein, the great mathematician and physicist. Some research shows that he didn’t say any ties are problems that affect the brain’s ability to word till the age of 4. Also, he was failed in math receive, process, analyze, or store information. These problems often affect children of normal or subject at school. Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, faced troubles in reading. Some other faabove average intelligence. Around 1.5 million people in UK have one of these disabilities. In this mous people who suffered from learning difficulties are Tom Cruise, Whoopi Goldberg, Leonardo essay, I will cover causes and effects of learning da Vinci, Thomas Alva Edison and Agatha Chrisdifficulties, their signs and symptoms, their types tie. and famous people were suffering from learning difficulties. “To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”

The causes of learning difficulties remain unknown but in some cases there may be psychological factors, inflection, brain injury or damage at birth or after birth. The learning difficulties in children usually affect their ability to understand and communicate and consequently, they feel lonely and no one can understand them. There are different signs and symptoms of learning difficulties. You can distinguish children with learning difficulties by the way they pronounce some words. Usually they have troubles in learning alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes and days of the week. Also they face troubles in math concepts and they dislike reading and writing and they avoid reading loudly. Actually there are three types of learning difficulties. The first type is learning difficulties in reading





Faisal Khamis Al-Toubi

What is nuclear power? Nuclear power is energy which is produced with the use of a controlled nuclear reaction. Many nations use nuclear power plants to generate electricity for both civilian and military use. Some nations also utilize nuclear power to run parts of their naval fleets, especially submarines. Today politicians and others favour an expansion of nuclear power plants. They believe this form of energy is considered cleaner than fossil fuels such as coal although nuclear power comes with a number of problems which must be addressed, including the safe disposal of radioactive waste products. The process of generation nuclear power starts with the mining and processing of uranium and other radioactive elements. These elements are used to feed the reactor of a nuclear power plant, generating a reaction known as fission which creates intense heat, turning water in the plant into steam. The steam powers steam turbines, which generate electricity and feed the electricity into the electrical grid. Reasons in favour of nuclear energy: 1. Environmental Safety: The process to generate nuclear energy is one of the cleanest processes, and makes lowest impact on the environment. It is due to the fact that nuclear plants do not emit any harmful gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide, produced from the conventional electricity power plants that threaten atmosphere by increasing global warming. The energy can, hence, be termed as 'emission-free energy'. They require little space for the production, thus, promoting land and habitat preservation. There is absolutely no effect on land, water, and air resources. 2. Clean Water: The water discharged from nuclear power plants is very safe, is free of radiation or harmful pollutants, and meets all regulatory standards. Hence, it helps in protecting the aquatic life and conserving wildlife. 3. Reliable: One of the most important advantages of nuclear energy is its reliability. The energy doesn't have to depend upon weather conditions, unpredictable costs, or foreign supplies. It's a reliable source of energy, even during extreme weather changes. The plants can run for about 500 to 700 days continuously, before they are shut down for refueling. 4. Health Care: One very common application of nuclear energy is in the treatment of cancer - radiotherapy. Also, small amounts of radioisotope tracers are used for diagnostic and

research purposes. These techniques have helped in monitoring the levels of toxic substances in food, air and water. Nuclear Power Plant Accidents and Terrorism: According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, regulated safety procedures are not being followed to ensure that nuclear power plants are safe. Even if all safety precautions are followed, it is no guarantee that a nuclear power plant accident will not occur. If a nuclear power plant accident occurs, the environment and surrounding people could be exposed to high levels of radiation. Terrorism threats are another concern that needs to be addressed. A satisfactory plan to protect nuclear power plants from terrorism is not in place. Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons: There is an increasing number of people in the world today who are standing up and speaking out against the dangers of nuclear weapons. At the same time a large number of these people are in favour of the use of nuclear power as a means of generating electricity. They believe, perhaps correctly, that the threat from the former is greater and more imminent, and further, that there is no connection between nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The facts, however, seem to point to a different conclusion. Advantages of Nuclear Power: Nuclear power plants don't take up much space. This allows them to be placed in already developed areas and the power does not have to be transferred over long distances. It doesn't pollute in a very direct way. It is cleaner than many other forms of energy production. Another advantage of nuclear power is that nuclear energy is by far the most concentrated form of energy, so it can be produced in large quantities over short periods of time. While oil reserves and other fossil type fuels are likely to run out at some point, there is also a possibility for long term production of nuclear power generation.



Omyma Al Kharusi “Enjoy your own life without comparing it with that of another.” Marquis de Condorcet

If you took the strengths of others, and compared them to your weaknesses, how do you think you would size up? And do you think this would make you feel good? In this short piece, I will discuss how people feel about comparing themselves to others and how to stop comparing yourselves to others. In our culture, a lot of times people advise us to compare ourselves with others. "You should be like your father," "You can win; the others aren’t as good as you," "You must be the best of your class," etc., and this is not always the best way of thinking. There are many reasons to change this way of thinking and begin to compare ourselves only with ourselves. “To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”

Comparing yourself to others, especially celebrities, is a fine way to throw your self-esteem down the drain as there will always be those who are 'better' than you, and those who are 'worse' than you. Realize that everybody is different, because we are.

People are born to be different; no two of us are the same. We have different experiences, we feel different emotions, we look different, some are prettier than others. Even identical twins are different from each other. We all will always have room for improvement; nobody is flawless, whether it is on the outside When we compare ourselves to others, we might be tempted or on the inside. As much as some people may want to believe to copy them, to do the same things, and to act and think like otherwise, nobody is perfect. them. The problem with this is that if we copy someone, we Stop being afraid to be yourself. will never know who we really are and what we really want. When a person compares oneself with others and he will never be satisfied. Each person has different abilities and skills, if we tried to copy someone at something and we couldn’t accomplish it because we have lower abilities we will be devastated.

How to stop comparing yourself to others? Recognize that comparing yourself to others is a bad habit.

Whatever size, color, religion, or gender, don’t be afraid to be yourself. Nobody but you has the right to tell you what to do, what you think, and what you believe in. There is only one you. Everybody comes into the world the same way; we all age, feel, analyze, and eventually die, so nobody is more special than the other. We are all different. If you've forgotten who you are, find yourself again. Forgive and learn. Learn to recognize that holding a grudge only ties you down from what you really want out of life. Untie the knot and set yourself free. Better yet, analyze and learn what actually hurts you, and prevent it from happening again in the future. To sum up, I think we are unique by being us. We don’t have to copy others to be better. We will live happier and have more confidence.




Travel for the sake of travel has become a new trend these days and it has firmly caught the attention of people of all ages. In olden days, travelers were generally merchants who crossed the mountains and the seas for trading and not for sight-seeing. Then there were ambassadors and scholars who left their countries to others with a purpose. They returned back with amazing stories


compared to the past. The Airline industry has grown a lot and the skies are filled with planes from every part of the world. In fact, tourism is the world’s largest industry today. Today, every Omani is looking out for the holidays to come. There was a time in Oman when very few people traveled. Probably some would just visit their neighbors like UAE and Qatar. But today, our people are eager to explore the world. Many take advantage of medical tourism offered by many countries. A good number of young Omanis go to far off countries to get themselves educated. They travel all over the world as tourists. On the other hand our lovely country of Oman itself is attracting many overseas visitors. Now all this has become possible because air travel has become much more affordable for today’s generation. So the next time the thought of travel bugs your mind,

Manal Al Balushi of their travels. Their travels have been saved as history of the past. Today the tourist has come a long way. She can pick and choose a destination that would suit her budget. She also has the option of choosing a vacation package. Travel companies and tour operators offer a range of places that people could visit. All the arrangements for the trip would include the mode of travel, tickets, stay and sight seeing. Do you know what is responsible for this sudden rise in tourism? If you think for a while, you will come out with many reasons. Leisure is one of the reasons. People are trying to find time that can be spent with family and friends. Taking a vacation to a place which is their favorite or to a new place gives them a chance to relax and come across new experiences. Another reason is that people have lots of money and travel is a way to spend it. Furthermore, today travel has become cheaper when

just pack your bags and go. Just say to yourself that you have got a holiday and you need a break from your daily routine. July-August is almost close and it’s time for you to take off for your choice destination!



By Maryam Al Hasmi


rowing up in my house

was sometimes hard because Dad made me responsible for almost everything in my life. Whenever I’m mad or in trouble, my Dad comes and says “come on Maryam, no one can make you mad unless you let them; it’s your choice, and you chose to be mad.” When I go home and complain about anything in college he would ask me to check all my options and if I don’t learn anything, it’s because I did not exert more effort. He never let me off the hook. Dad’s idea that I have to take responsibility for everything in my life was a hard capsule to swallow at my early age. But after a while, I saw the wisdom in what he was doing. He wanted to teach me that there are two types of people in this world: proactive and reactive. The first means the ones who take responsibility and the second are those who blame others. Firstly, being proactive is the key to open all the good habits and the proper mindset like saying “I am the power”, “I am the leader”, “I can take responsibility in my actions”, “I am responsible for my happiness and sadness”, “I am the driver of my life not the passenger”. To be proactive is indeed the first step in achieving personal victory. Everyday in our life, we have moments of being proactive and reactive. The weather can be bad anytime, your best friend may talk badly behind your back, people may call you names, and your parents wouldn’t let you go out for dinner with your friends without a reason. Will you get mad? Scream? Or stay cool and calm? It’s up to you. It’s your choice, you don’t have to react the way people expect you to react . Your daily life is full of surprises. You maybe driving peacefully listening to the music relaxed and suddenly someone passes in front of your car out of the blue that you suddenly step on your brakes hard and leaving a sign of your tires in the road ? What will you do? Get angry? Stay mad the whole day? Lose your control? Or let the incident just go? Smile at what happened and continue your day as usual. You always have a choice. Reactive people are like coca-cola. When you shake them a little bit, the pressure gets high and suddenly BOOM! They explode. On the other hand, proactive people are like water, shake them as

much as you want and nothing will happen. They are cool, calm and can control their temper. For example, if your friend talks badly behind your back and he doesn't know that you heard him, it makes you feel hurt and betrayed. If you behave like a reactive person does, you will tell him straight in the face and hit him, stay sad and broken hearted. However, if you were proactive you would forgive him, tell him that you heard everything and let him know about your feelings; then, forget about the story and give him a second chance because you know he has some weak points like you. Being proactive there is not just to make people appreciate you. It’s about sending out a positive signal to the universe so that the same positive energy will be reflected back to make your life better and happier. The following poem is a great summary of what it means to take responsibility for one’s life and how a person can gradually move from reactive to proactive frame of mind. It’s from the poem “there is a hole in my sidewalk” by Portia Nelson:

I walk down the street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I fall in. I am lost… I am helpless. It isn't my fault. Its takes forever to find a way out. I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the side walk. I pretend I don’t see it. I fall in again. I can’t believe I am in the same place. But, it isn't my fault. It still takes a long time to get out. I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the side walk. I see it is there. I still fall in, it’s a habit . My eyes are open. I know where I am. It is my fault. I get out immediately. I walk the down the same street. There is a deep hole in the side walk I walk around it, I walk down another street





To start with, we must say that our students face problems in spelling- a case which constitutes a challenge in learning English as a second language. What are these problems? To what extent are they serious? How can they overcome such problems? This is what this article is about and this author aims to tackle in this article. First, the students need to have a clear idea of the distinction between vowels & consonants. Vowels are: a e i o u Consonants are b, c, d, f and the rest. Now, let us see some of the rules that can be useful for our students which might help in avoiding some of the spelling mistakes, with some exceptions of course, as it is difficult sometimes to find a rule with no exception. These can be explained as follows: 1. Doubling the consonant: Words of one syllable having one vowel and ending in a single consonant: double the consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel : Hit + ing =hitting, knit + ed = knitted, Run + er = runner But: keep = Keeping (two vowels) help =helped (two consonants) Love=loved (ending in a vowel) b. Two or three syllable words ending in a single consonant following a single vowel, double the final consonant when the stress falls on the last syllable: Begin + er =beginner Deter + ed = deterred Recur+ ing =recurring But : murmur + ed = murmured answer + er = answerer orbit + ing = orbiting c. The final consonant is also doubled in: Kidnap kidnapper, handicap handicapped



Worship worshipping. But Refuel refueling , dial dialed (consonant preceded by two vowels). d.Words ending in “l” preceded by a single vowel, usually double the “l”: Quarrel quarrelling, appal appalling Signal signalled , model modelling Distil distiller , repel repellent For the purpose of the above rule qu is considered as one consonant: Acquit acquitted Omission of the final e: Words ending in e preceded by a consonant drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel: love + ing = loving believe + er = believer move +able =movable But: Like can be likable or likeable b. Final e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant : hope hopeful , engage engagement Sincere sincerely , immediate immediately Fortunate fortunately “To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”

But the e in able/ ible is dropped in the adverb form: comfortable comfortably incredible incredibly The final e is also dropped in the following words : True – truly , due duly , whole wholly (notice also double “l” here ) Argue argument , judge judgment or judgement c. words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix : Foresee – foreseeing, foreseeable, agree – agreed – agreeing – agreement. Words ending in ce or ge retain the e before a suffix beginning with a, o, u: Courage – courageous, peace – peaceable, manage –manageable, trace – traceable, outrage – outrageous, replace – replaceable. This is done to avoid changes in pronunciation, because c and g are generally soft before e

and i but hard before a,o,u. words ending in ce change the e into i before ous: Vice – vicious, grace – gracious, malice – malicious, space – spacious. The suffix ful: when full is added to a word , drop the second l: Beauty + full = beautiful, use + full = useful . Double the I when making adverbs: Beautiful – beautifully, useful – usefully. Also drop one I when making adjectives like: Skill + full = skilful , full + fill = fulfil words ending in y following a consonant, change the y into i before any suffix except ing: Carry +ed = carried , sunny +er = sunnier Happy +ly = happily , but: carry +ing = carrying. y following a vowel does not change: obey +ed = obeyed , play +ed = played. ie and ei The normal rule: is that i comes before e except after c believe, sieve, achieve But: receive, receipt, deceive. Exceptions: Being foreign neighbor weigh Counterfeit forfeit neither weight Deign freight reign weird Eiderdown heifer seize Eight height sleight Feign heinous surfeit Feint heir veil leisure vein Negation of modals(shortcut): Can cant can’t Does doesnt doesn’t I am Im I’m Will + not wont won’t Shall + not shant shan’t Can + not can not cannot Some systematic rules don’t apply. Die dying lie lying Adding ed Ask +ed asked, end + ed ended, but hear will be heard (irregular verb).



Some techniques to overcome such difficulties: 1. Correcting mistakes: Here, we need to identify and correct mistakes, encouraging the students to monitor their own mistakes as follows: PROCEDURE: Write up a few sentences on the board which have deliberate mistakes in them. If you wish ,tell the students how many mistakes there are in each sentence. Correct them with there help. Some examples of such possible sentences can be given in their order of difficulty, together with their corrected forms, or you can use anonymous examples taken from their own assignments. 2. Erasing words PROCEDURE: Write about ten words on the board which are difficult to spell. Give the class a minute to photograph them. Point to one word, and then erase it; the students write it down from memory, and so on until the words have been erased. Then check the spelling. 3. Memorizing: A- Divide the board into two halves. Write in one half vocabulary which students only just encountered and which you would like them to remember. Ask the class to pick one of the new words and to suggest a word they know which the previous one reminds them of or give the same meaning in some way. Write the reminding word on the side of the board, after that erase the original one. Do this with each of the original words until they have all been replaced by “reminding words�. Now, ask the students what each reminding word was linked to. Write the original word again and erase the reminding ones. B- Follow the strategy (L S C W C) which means: Listen, say, cover, write, check. C.Homophones: which means words with similar pronunciation but different spelling like? (See --- sea) (hour--- our) (write --- right). D.Homonymy: Words having the same spelling with different meaning also can help, like: sea: sea ; book: book ;bar: bar; bank: bank E. Rhyming words: such as: (Look-book), (fairy-diary). F.Repeating the right forms of the mistaken words



for many times. To conclude, there are some rules that might be helpful when given to students, but we need to remind them that there are always exceptions, a case which requires more practice in writing, repeating and memorizing efforts. You as teachers can always invent your own way aiming at overcoming such chronic problems encountered by students. To conclude, I must say that spelling has been one of the problematic areas for students learning English here and every where. In the above pages, you are exposed to a variety of problems related to spelling, some rules of spelling, some exceptions with regard to these rules, in addition to some techniques which might help to avoid spelling mistakes. I hope this will be helpful for our students in their endeavor to improve their English language skills together with spelling. REFERENCES: Murphy, Remond (1994) English grammar in use. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. Thompson, A.J. & Martinet A.V. (1969) A practical English grammar. London: Oxford university press. Ur, Penny & Wright, Andrew (1992) : Five-minutes activities. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.



Sakhia Hamed Khalfan Al Qurini

Have you ever thought about the sounds coming from your body? Is there anyone playing bad music inside us? Our bodies are full of secrets and unknown things. Sounds like coughs and hiccups are coming from our bodies. These sounds indicate that something wrong is going inside-these sounds play as an alarm bell. Hiccup is one of one of the sounds. It comes from our stomachs. “To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”

Hiccup is a myoclonus of the diaphragm that repeats several times per minute. The term "hiccup" derives from the sound of the event, "hiccough". In medicine, it is known as synchronous diaphragmatic flut-

ter (SDF), or singultus. It occurs when a spasm contracts the diaphragm, a large sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. This spasm causes an intake of breath that is suddenly stopped by the closure of the vocal cords. This closure

causes the characteristic "hiccup" sound. There are many causes of hiccup and here are some of them:

A very full stomach. Eating too much food too quickly. Swallowing too much air.  Smoking.  A sudden change in stomach temperature, such as hot or cold drinking.  Emotional stress . Hiccups usually stop within a few minutes to a few hours. Hiccups that last longer than 48 hours are called persistent hiccups. Hiccups that last longer than a month are called intractable. To stop hiccup there are few simple steps to do: Holding your breath and counting slowly to 10. Breathing repeatedly into a paper bag for a limited period of time. Quickly drinking a glass of cold water. Eating a teaspoon of sugar or honey. My advice for everyone is when you hear any sound coming from your body try to know the reasons of it because your body may be screaming for something. I wish good health for everyone.   



Khulood Khalid Al-Raisi

smile to the world! It will smile back at you. Smile….. It’s a small exercise that leads you to forget your problem and difficulties in life. Most exercises that we follow are very complicated. But “to smile” is just the easiest exercise that anyone can do. It is a small word that consists of 5 letters only. But if you go deep into the meaning of this word, you will realize that it has one of the greatest meanings.

Smile makes you happy and it changes your life. Smile changes sadness to happiness, form from nothing to everything. It transforms a person from being pessimistic to being optimistic. Smile adds joy to your life as well and it makes you live life to its fullest. So, we should all smile and everything will be alright.

Smile: Sharing My Inner Light Everyday...... Just smile to forget everything negative in life. Smiling makes life easier and more comfortable. The person who continuously smiles, not only helps himself, but also helps others by making them feel more optimistic. When people smile they become optimistic. When they become optimistic they become happy and after becoming happy they enjoy their life and continue living it without any problems or getting disturbed by something negative. So,

Let your smile change the world but don’t let the world change your smile.

So my advice to all of you is to smile.

Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn a life around. -Leo Buscaglia -



Suhaila Sami Al-Saidi

Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at normal conditions. There are three main points to be mentioned in this article: the structure of water, the correct way to drink water and the health benefits of water.

This picture shows water molecule First of all, Why should we care about the structure of water? Water's bonds are formed by everything that surrounds it — including human thoughts and emotions. Researcher Dr. Masaru Emoto has demonstrated that our words, thoughts, emotions and music all have an effect on water. Through photos of frozen water droplets, he was able to illustrate how positive thoughts and words influence water molecules

to make beautiful crystals, while negative thoughts have the opposite effect, transforming water molecules into formless shapes. The second main point of the secrets of water is the correct way to drink water. The correct timing to drink water, will maximize its effectiveness on the human body. Everyone must drink two glasses of water after waking up that helps activate internal organs. Also, drinking one glass of water before taking a bath that helps blood pressure. Moreover, everyone has heard the advice, "Drink eight glasses of water a day." That's about 1.9 liters. Although the "8 by 8" rule isn't supported by hard evidence, it is popular because it's easy to remember "Drink at least eight glasses every day".




No. of glasses of water




After waking up

Helps activate internal organs


30 minutes before meal

Help digestion


Before taking a bath

Helps lower blood pressure


Before sleep

To avoid heart attack


This table shows the correct way to drink water.

The third main point of the secrets of water is the health benefits of water. There are some powerful reasons to drink water. Water is one of the best tools for weight loss because water has no fat, no calories, no sugar. Also, drinking a good amount of water could lower your risks of a heart attack and skim problems. Another symptom of dehydration is headaches. In fact, often when we have headaches it's simply a matter of not drinking enough water. Our digestive systems need a good amount of wa-

ter to digest food properly. Related to the digestive system item, drinking a healthy amount of water has also been found to reduce the risk of cancer. In conclusion, water is the most important thing for life. Everyone must drink water at least two liters every day. The positive and negative thoughts have an effect on water molecules. Also, the correct way of drinking water protects us from many diseases like cancer and heart attack.



By Rahma Saif Suleiman al Rawahi

I still vividly remember my first day in college. I was extremely excited to experience a new life. College felt like a liberation for me since it was my first time to be far away from my family. At the beginning, it was difficult because I knew no one there but then things started to go smoothly especially when I met my incredible friends. But this is defiantly not only about finding new lovely friends.

Every second minute and hour is valuable when I start my day in college. Each second of my time is There are several things that changed my life. College is a training ground on how to be successful and counted and this reminds me of the importance of become responsible people. Developing a good study managing my time effectively. Time management habit was the first thing I learned when I started stud- skills that I have developed in college such as setting ying what I really wanted. Unlike high school where priorities, planning my studying timetable and having a balance between my study and social life have we just sat and listened to learn, as a college student you are expected to participate verbally and share your thoughts, ideas, opinions, questions and findings with others. You are also expected to figure out things on your own. Of course, the college provides a well prepared learning environment for us. “To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.�

In College, the freedom to make my own choices and decisions has increased more than when I was in high school. Certainly, this has added to my confidence and independence and has made me more mature and responsible for all my actions. Moreover, positive and negative experiences we go through in college prepare us to be more aware of, and responsible for any consequences of any decisions we take.

helped me to organize my work, accomplish goals and reduce stress. Getting involved in different events in college like ceremonies, competitions, exhibitions and other activities has helped to motivate us and develop our skills. It has also helped us to establish effective relationships with local and international students. Being a student in a college is not only about getting a certificate and holding a recognized degree. The time you spend there will be filled with anticipation and wonderful discoveries. Experiencing lot of things will leave a great impact on your personality and life in general. To me, college is more about discovering yourself and your future. It can open your eyes to all the potentials you have got and what you are capable of as an individual in this big world. Therefore, I would like to enjoy it and make the most of it!





morning till dawn. The mandatory summer noon break is a sort of consolation for them. Those who find pleasure in the sweltering heat are the guys who love baking on a beach all day. Ibtisam Khamis Awlad Thani Many of us dread the summer in our region, the Middle East. The weather is just too hot. We hate stepping out because we feel like being thrown into an electric grill every time. It’s like the sun is literally burning through our skin. Global warming, we know. Keeping the air conditioners on round the clock is the most common method that we adopt to keep ourselves comfortable. However, this is not a sustainable way especially when you are concerned about saving the planet by reducing the carbon footprint. Are there any smart and sustainable ways to beat the powerful sun in summer. Take the case of Japan. After the Fukushima Nuclear disaster, and resulting energy crisis in that country, the government asked workers to not wear neckties and other formal clothing to work. The obvious lesson here is that wearing weatherappropriate clothing makes it a lot easier to keep comfortable inside while dialling back the air conditioners. Even in the Gulf countries where mercury levels sore up to 50 degree Celsius in summer, we see lots of people relishing the sweltering heat. The people who have to work outdoors have no option but dare the scorching Sun from

But for the people who don’t, summer heat can become truly oppressive. You may start spending every weekend hiding out in your airconditioned bedroom, watching television until your eyes ache. You may begin to skip your usual before-dinner walks because of the humidity. You may rely on unhealthy takeout because it’s just too stifling to cook. But beware, any of these things can contribute to summer depression. Why do seasonal changes cause depression? Experts aren’t sure, but the longer days, and increasing heat and humidity may play a role. Specific symptoms of summer depression often include loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, weight loss, and anxiety. The ideal way to follow is to enjoy the positive traits of summer and translate the negatives into positives.



DIGNITY OF LABOUR Suad Said Said Al Alawi (Pharmacy)

God sent every one into this world with two hands, a will to serve others and in addition to earn his livelihood. He expects everyone to work hard and contribute to the progress of the country and for the good of others by working continuously with joy. And this is the essence or spirit of labour. Those who love it, rise in life, while those who do not care about remain the same and are left behind to shed tears.

result in your examinations if you do not work hard.

Abraham Lincoln once said that if God did not want us to work, he would have given us no hands. It is true that only through hard work and sweat man can get things done. We would have no food if farmers did not work hard in the sun and rain. We would not have had houses if construction workers had not carried heavy loads to build them. So work is necessary for any good thing that is achieved. You cannot expect a good

Having servants at home should not prevent us from doing simple tasks or treating them with dignity. There is a false belief that laborers should be looked down and that work is only for the unfortunate. In fact this is wrong. The reality is that God has given us hands and so we must all work hard – no matter what the type of work may be. Through work we can gain mental peace and physical health.

So my point is, never look down on a laborer or at someone’s job. We have to treat workers with dignity and do any type of work with our whole heart. At the same time we should not be ashamed to perform little tasks. Helping your mother in the kitchen, dusting the house, fetching things A laborious man is honest from the shop or the car and never gives up. He are all simple things that lives a hard life and may we can do as part of our not earn a lot of money. daily routine. Here at our But he can look at any college, we should not be man on the face, because ashamed of keeping our he does not owe anyone own classes clean by doanything. He may not be ing just some simple rich and may be forced to tasks. Sometimes many struggle every day to surof us shy away from vive; but he is a real hero because he will be helping others because we think it is below fully satisfied in life. our dignity. “To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”





Today we live in a world where many teenagers have to leave their homes to study, to work or for something else. When we study, we have to stay in hostels. Like many others of my generation, I too live away from my hometown, in a hostel here in Muscat. I would like to describe my hostel life here. I think most students of my age also share my views.

I left this “paradise” to live in a place called “hostel” near HCT. I did not leave home out of my choice. I wanted to study higher and so I had no choice. I’m sure the feelings I have are also the feelings of those sisters with whom I stay. First of all I feel home-sick. I miss all that I have told you before. I feel lonely, self dependent and there is not a single person to advise me. Back home, my parents are always there to advise Before I take you to my hostel, let me first take you to me. Who can I go to here for advice? the life I lived in a sweet place called “My home”. Life at home was sweet and it is sweeter when I think I have come here to study; but it is very difficult to about it now. First of all the food, prepared with great focus on my studies because six students share one care has the love of my mother in it. When I came room. It’s a comedy for someone who reads this. home from school, my loving mother was waiting When I want to study, someone shouts, someone sings there, ready to take care of me. I never had to worry and someone screams. When I want to sleep, someone about washing my clothes or getting ready for the next wants to study with lights switched on. I do not want day. Everything was taken care of. I could focus on to explain anything more because it is easy for anyone my studies at home in peace. Sometimes I used to to imagine how difficult it would be for me or for anyshare my time with my closest friends who lived near one in my place. I am a pharmacy student and I am my house. Whenever I felt upset or sad, I could share taught by my teachers about good health and hygiene. my feelings with my family. When I got high marks at Unfortunately when I return to my hostel, what I studschool, my father, mother and the whole family would ied is only a dream. As girls, we do not go out to eat congratulate me and it was a nice feeling. due to many reasons. So we cook our own food. Can you imagine a dozen girls using one kitchen at the same time? More than all these, sometimes I feel so lonely, especially when I am sick. Well, I can go on telling you a lot of my experiences. I would have written a good essay if my teachers had asked me to write a compare and contrast essay on life at home and life in the hostel. But when I see the sufferings in this world, what I have mentioned is nothing. Life is not always filled with pleasant times. Sometimes we have to face hard times. But there is nothing that is as sweet as a place called home. by Buthaina Hamad Rashed Al-Kalbani (Pharmacy)



Should students be allowed to choose their specializations? Dana Mohammed Ali Al Farsi (Pharmacy)

choose their subjects, they will be more regular in attending classes. As lthough the system of education in a result they will get better marks. Higher College of Technology has When they get better marks, they are been changing for many years, one happy, their parents are happy and requirement has remained unthey walk about with a relaxed feelchanged – the compulsory subjects. ing. Students complain that they cannot choose subjects they are interested Secondly when students study the in and have to spend much time on subject of their choice, their absorpdoing things that they really don’t tion of the content will be more and need. I personally feel that college its retention will be greater. This in students should have more influence turn will help them a lot later in their on their study programs, and should life when they embark on their cabe allowed to skip some courses. reers.


“To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”

First of all, if college students have the opportunity of choosing their subjects they will be more eager to attend classes. They will attend classes with a lot of interest. Here at our college, we hear of many students skipping classes quite often. In case they are asked for the reason of their absence, they will coin out some excuse or the other. I personally feel that this is because they have no interest in these subjects they were forced to take. On the other hand if they are given the freedom to



by Sumaya Al Balushi (Pharmacy)

Throughout the world car accidents occur everyday. It can happen to drivers anytime and anywhere. The world health organization (WHO) estimates that more than 50 million people worldwide are injured or permanently disabled every year. In fact Oman is ranked among one of those countries that has the highest number of traffic accidents. And this has become one of the most important problems of the country because it drains financial resources and above all results in loss of precious lives. One of the main causes of accidents in Oman is due to the erratic nature of some drivers who never obey or respect traffic rules. Some of them are also ill mannered. When you read about the number of victims of traffic accidents in Oman you will feel that there is a war going on the streets led by a group of young joyriders. Most of them consider the car as a toy on to play with. They just think about their lives. They also forget the fact that they have parents and family members at home who are deeply concerned about them. Above all, due to their reckless and crazy driving the lives of other drivers on the road are in danger. Using cell phones is another major cause of car accidents in Oman which lead to hundreds of deaths annually. If you look at the drivers on Oman’s roads today, one in every two drivers would be using his or her mobile as he or she drives. This is a fact and if anyone would like to see this, you do not have to go to the roads. Just take a look at the cars being driven by the students of our college. Probably it will not be one in two, it would be everyone. These drivers very well know that using phones will affect their focus on driving, but still they don’t bother. They can kill themselves and perhaps injure or cause death on others too. Nowadays traffic safety has become one of the most important issues in this country. You can notice that the government is continuing to take measures to avoid accidents. They are building lots of flyovers and are widening the streets to help ease traffic, but still it is not very effective. They are also conducting awareness programs. But I personally feel that the heavy fines and punishment should be strictly implemented on those crazy drivers who rule our roads.




the Magic of

By Maryam Abdullah Al Kamsari (Pharmacy|)

Musandam is a magical place in Oman which has a lot of special and beautiful spots that could attract people from all over the world. It is a mountain village near Hurmuz Strait. It is a nice tourist attraction for mountain safaris because it has great and breath taking landscapes. The waters of the sea are blue and clear where dolphins can be seen. There is also a small fishing village where the population is small. There are lots of villages on the mountaintops. You still can find stone houses and caves used by the Bedouins. Some are still used as winter accommodation. Ancient stone dwellings provide a glimpse of the life of the people of the mountains. There are also prehistoric cave paintings on the rocks at Tawi which are more than 2000 years old. Musandam has also a rich and colorful underwater world. The Telegraph Island and underwater adventures account for a truly memorable holiday. It will be really amazing if you just try and visit Musandam to see these magical places. Regarding the people who live in this wonderful place, there is a section of people in Musandam who speak a very different language which is not Arabic and it’s a special language called "Kamzari". It is a mixture of seven languages like Arabic, English, Urdu, Hindi, Farsi, and French. For example to mention the word 'come', in Arabic they say "thaal". On the other hand, in Kamzari language we say, "Byo". The population of the Kamzaris is around 30,000 and the communities are very traditional. Musamdam is indeed a rare jewel because of its stunning beauty. If you do not believe what I just said, please come and visit this beautiful place. You will realize you have visited a paradise in Oman.




Bareera Hamood Al Alawi (PS Sec.1)

tor vehicle safety dramatically reduces the risk of death by 45% verybody makes choices everyday . It could be something and cut the risk of serious injury by 50.4% . Seatbelts prevent drivers and passengers from being ejected during a crash. basic like what color of suit should you wear. All of these choices More than 3 out of 4 people who are ejected during a crash have impacts on our lives . This is true even every time we get die from their injuries. into our car to drive anywhere we want to. Driving safely requires our full attention and compliance with safety rules. Con- We can visualize the benefits of seatbelt by knowing the reaforming to safety regulations is more of a necessity rather than a sons why people don’t use seatbelts . A driver says ; “ I don’t need a seatbelt when I’m traveling at low speed or going on a choice as this issue impacts greatly not only on the driver but short trip . According to Kansas Department of Transportation, also on other people on the road. 80% of all crashes occur at speed less than 40 mph and 75% of There are many reasons why we should use seatbelts while all crashes occur within 25 miles of home . driving which are: preventing death and following the law itself. Someone people think seatbelts are designed to allow you to A safety belt helps you by holding you in place . Newton’s law reach necessary driving control. During an accident, the safety of inertia says, ” An object in motion continues to be in motion belt that holds you in place is a lot more comfortable than a with the same direction unless acted upon by an external force. hospital bed. When a car stops suddenly due to a collision with object or In conclusion , you will never know when or how an accident another car, the acceleration decreases very quickly in a short will occur. So, it is best to buckle up every time, wherever you period time . When this happens the passenger is not being acted upon by a force to slow down them. As the person con- go . You maybe a good driver but you can’t control other drivtinues in the same direction and speed that the car is going, the ers on the road. The law of seatbelt is not about freedom , its’ about our safety . I encourage you to wear seatbelts when you seatbelt catches him. drive to save a life. The life you save, maybe your own. Firstly , not using seatbelt while driving a car , increases death rates in about half of car accident cases. Forty thousand people die each year due to car accidents. This is also the leading cause of death of people under age of 35 . Moreover, according to Royal Omani Police, the second cause of death after speed is not buckling up their seatbelts .


“To catch the reader's attention, place an

interesting sentence or quote from the story here.”

Research has proven that people who do not follow the law on seatbelt contribute to the increasing deaths on the road. Royal Omani Police studies show that about 3 in 7 people in Oman don’t buckle up. According to the motor vehicle safety, in 2009 alone , crashes killed over 33,000 people and injured another 2 million, and more than 70% of these were in passenger vehicle and trucks . Using seatbelt and following the law is the most effective way to prevent death and serious injuries in a crash . A study on mo-





which led to her rampage and barbaric behavior injuring her self and others who are surrounding her. She even described herself in one of her books by saying “at the age of 6, I was less than an animal, speechless, sightless and deaf”. (PS Sec.1) After a couple of years her family sought the help of Professor Alexander Graham Bell who recommended Annie Sullivan to the ho is your greatest inspiration in life, role Keller family. But Annie’s job was not that easy to model or hero? It’s indeed true that we are influperform. Through nuenced, moved and even inspired by people whom merous trails she tried we may know or people that we never met, like to teach Helen, gained our parents, friends, fictional characters from her heart and trust books, people of great accomplishments and the but she wasn’t suclist goes on. John Quincy Adams once said “If your accessful. Until one day tions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do she took Helen to the more and become more, you are a leader.” In one water pump and she of my classes I heard the name Helen Keller’s name and for some reason I “If your actions inspire others to dream couldn’t erase it from my memory. As soon I reached more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” home, I instantly searched for any information about who is “Helen Keller” and her story and accomplaced her hands unplishments moved me. After knowing her life story der the water as she of struggle, perseverance and hard work, I realsimultaneously signed water in braille. At that moizethat her actions truly helped me to dream more, ment, Helen understood the connection between learn more, do more and become more. the sign’s and the symbols made on her hand. Helen Adams Keller was born on June 27, 1880 in With Annie Sullivan, she learned basic grammar Tuscumbia Alabama in the US. At first she was and vocabulary. She also learned Braille and perborn with all of her senses working perfectly until fected it. But that wasn’t sufficient for Helen as she she reached the age of 19th where she was diagsought higher goals in her life which has led her to nosed with a very severe type of fever. At that time be enrolled in Perkins Institute of the Blind. After it was believed to be Scarlet Fever, the illness that that, in a few years, she moved to New York to atleft her sightless and deaf. For several years, she tend Wright Humson School of The Deaf and then lived in this dark void of hers. Unable to communi- she finished her high school years in Cambridge cate she felt frustrated as any little girl would be School For Young Ladies. During all of her movements she was accompanied by Annie Sullivan. She completed her higher studies by receiving an honorary bachelor degree in arts from “Radcliff College”. And the reason why Helen specifically chose Radcliff is because they didn’t want her there. No matter how many Cont. to page 32.






Lessons to be learned from Sarah Al Harthy (PS Sec.1)

The school is our second home. It is a system of discipline and the start of our educational roots. All of us have different educational background, some graduated from government schools while others from private schools. Yet the journey might differ in the various obstacles that one may encounter, depending on the strong foundation provided by his education. Why is the learning process of some seems easy while for others it seems hard? The answer to this question lies in the essence by which government schools and private schools in Oman are founded. The educational system of Private schools should be implemented in government schools in this country to provide an equally strong foundation that will stand strong along the journey of becoming a sufficient national treasure, well-rounded Omani Professionals. Government schools are non-profit schools provided by the country and is controlled by the Ministry of Education. These schools operate under the rules and standards set forth by the Ministry. The educational system in government schools is the same system followed for ages. This might not seem an issue, but this system lacks many important values that are necessary for building a strong foundation. The first major issue is the environment adopted by govern-

ment schools. Government schools have a one gender environment. As there is an all-female government school from the staff, teachers all the way to the students. Same goes to the male government schools. This close environment might create and develop some unhealthy habits. For example, getting use to such environment for so long, may give learners a hard time adapting in a co-educational setting when going to college or studying abroad. For girls, this closed environment creates a false sense of security, which can lead to shyness. Moreover, this may lead to self-esteem issues and lack of confidence. Another major issue that is followed in government schools is putting the students’ needs last. Creating an environment where students feel comfortable and supported in is not one of the priorities in the system of government schools. The Ministry of Education emphasizes on discipline and education only, which creates an intense formal environment. Since school is the longest adventure for students, creating an environment of excitement and support is definitely needed. The system should allow students to discover themselves and their potentials should be taken into consideration. The second most important problem is the curriculum. The level and intensity of knowledge and education is constantly developing as fast as the development of technology.



Yet still in government schools the system followed years ago is still applied. Not to mention, all the subjects undertaken in Governments schools are in Arabic. Also math, physics, chemistry, biology are taken in Arabic. This will definitely create a major issue in the future when these students study in colleges or universities where most subjects are taught in English. Government schools do not give the required attention in delivering and teaching core English courses, in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. The English courses taught in government schools are completely shallow. After graduating high school, the student must have a high level of English enough to understand all the subjects taught using materials of hard core English. The solutions to these problems is actually adopted and implemented in the private schools. This leads to my assumption that private schools have a better educational system than government schools. First, private schools provide an environment that adopts or allows a mixture of gender from the kindergarten to high school. This environment allows students to learn how to interact and to communicate with other genders. It helps build strong confidence and self-esteem and establish a sense of equality. Those students will not be facing problems when transferring into a mixed environment and have fast adaptability. Aside from education, private schools believe in adopting the skills of student and directing into the right direction. For example, there are different clubs that a student might sign in to like drama club, English club, math club, art club, event club, school band, student board club, sports club and many others. These may help students discover their talents and abilities. It will help add fun and excitement in the school environment. They take pride in the accomplishment of their students and praise them, which encourages the students to work more and want more. As for the curriculum, compared to the government schools, private schools are English based. All the sub-

jects undertaken are in English except Arabic and Islamic. In addition, private schools provide courses of IGCSE (International General Certificate of Secondary Examinations). This is adopted in most private schools, according to national private school. This is at international system known as Cambridge IGCSE. It aims in developing the intellectual skills of the young minds and increases their level of understanding. The exams are prepared by the Cambridge association and marked in UK. The student taking IGSC are under a pressure similar to a college student. These students undertake two exams, one is the required passing exam and the other is for IGCSE. Students undergoing these intense and hardcore subjects are used to and can process high level subjects faster. Zeena Al-hijri is a 16 year old student in Durrat AlKhaleej private school. She recently passed grade 10, and went through an intense two months exam. Surprised? Yes, two months examination. It only took her 15 days of normal grade examination and the remaining one month and 20 days was for the IGCSE exams. I personally was blown away by that fact, why a 10th grade student takes such courses. Well, I got my answer. Zeena was able to do an entire assignment of mine, simply by giving her a brief headnotes explanation! She did a 3rd year college student assignment and was surprised how easy it was. If a 15 year old can process a subject taken by a 3rd year college student, imagine the path awaiting such student. Aristotle said “the roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet”. Every educational institution should have the same level of bitterness, to harvest the sweetest fruit of them all. These fruits shouldn’t be bought or paid for. Excellent education is the right of every citizen and must be distributed equally. The foundation defines the strength of a building, everything depends on the foundation. According to Jack Scalia, “if you have a strong foundation, then you can build or rebuild anything on it”. But if you’ve got a weak foundation you can’t build anything”. It is our right as part of this country to ask for the best to give the best. We should assure a strong foundation to our children, for a better tomorrow for our country.



by Salha Al Muqbali (PS Sec.1)

After World War II, animals were commonly used for testing the safety of consumer products such as cosmetics to observe the potential harm of these product on humans and animals. After a long time these practices were under scientific criticism. Many consumers have raised serious concerns about the ethics of using animals to test product safety especially for cosmetics. When buying a product like mascara, you probably consider whether it will lengthen or thicken your lashes, but you might not take into account whether the product was tested on animals. And even if animal testing for cosmetics comes to mind, the first image you think of could be almost comical a bunny’s eyelashes delicately being coated with makeup, or a monkey painting her nails. Today you will understand how the cosmetic products that you or your loved ones used come about as a result of cruel animal testing. You will learn three factors that will help you agree that animal testing for cosmetic purposes is wrong: first, the tests being conducted on animals is cruel and unusual punishment; second, the cosmetic companies are attempting to deceive the public into believing that they are avoiding animal testing; and, third, these tests are unnecessary and pointless when you understand that chemical tests can accomplish the same objective. First, you need to understand how cruel these experiments on animals are. The following three tests were defined in a Los Angeles Time article on December 3, 1989. One test commonly referred to earlier is the Draize Eye Test. As mentioned earlier, rabbits are held down and lab technicians drop a variety of harsh chemicals into their eyes to determine how the chemicals will influence the eyes. Rabbits are used because they don't have tear ducts. They don't have the ability to wash away the chemicals with tears, and so the

chemicals stay in their eyes until damage can be determined over a matter of days or even weeks. A second test is called the LD50 test. For this test, animals are force-fed certain substances to determine how toxic they are. Some animals are force-fed child consumes a product that the company can predict what physical reaction the child might have. A final test commonly performed on animals to test these products is the skin irritation test. For this test, dogs and rabbits have portions of their bodies shaved and are exposed to harsh chemicals to determine whether or not they will break out as a result of their exposure to the substance. The second thing you need to understand is that the cosmetic industry is attempting to fool the public with smoke and mirrors. In 1981, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing was established by the cosmetic industry to look for alternatives to animal testing. Mr. Rich of the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) stated in the July 2, 1989, issue of St. Paul Pioneer Press Dispatch that "the center is dragging nothing more than expensive public relations. It's foot-dragging, an attempt to buy time with the public by the cosmetics industry." Third, these cruel practices are unnecessary and pointless when you consider that we already have chemical tests which achieve the same end result.



Cont. from page 28 (Helen Keller ) obstacles and difficulties might stand in front of her she always managed to find her way out. Throughout her life Helen had so many accomplishments of which the first was publishing her autobiography at the age of 22 which is two years before her graduation from college. She influenced some of the most powered men at that year like Martin Twain a famous writer, Thomas Edison, the inventor of the light bulb and Alexander Graham Bell, the father of telephone. Alexander Graham bell himself envied Helen because he felt that she had unique task’s to fulfill in this world. Moreover, she published so many famous articles like “The Modern Women”, “What the blind can do” and “My Dreams”. In each book, you can feel her fighting for her beliefs and for the betterment of mankind. During her life she received numerous awards like the “The Presidential Medal of Freedom” and she was considered to be the first woman in history to receive an honorary doctorate degree from Harvard University. Helen is truly a symbol of hope, perseverance and struggle. She is a beacon of light for all of us who know her. She could accomplish so much in her life because she never stopped trying. Even at her last moments she visited 39 different countries across the globe inspiring and motivating people. Lastly, we must emulate Helen Keller by believing that we can make a difference. In her exact words she said: “Though I cannot see you world or hear it yet I’m of it. I can imagine it, sense it and believe in it”.



Shiarifa Khalfan Al Abri (PS Sec.1)

Most of the time when we hear the word hacker our mind initially starts thinking of a dark room filled with super computers and a man who controls all that . You've heard of "hackers", and you've seen sensationalized versions of hackers in movies. But what exactly is a hacker? Are hackers always bad? What is a hacker ? A hacker is someone who seeks weaknesses in a computer system or computer network. Hackers may be motivated by many reasons, such as profit, protest or challenge.[ There are three types of hackers black hat hackers, white hat hackers and grey hat hackers. Black hat hackers are mostly known by everyone. They are the bad guys and the criminals of computers. They have high computer skills and use their skills in bad way and for bad intentions. White hat hackers are the ethical hackers who use their skill for good reasons. Gray hat hackers are between white and black hat hackers. Hacking impacts businesses. We all think that hackers usually target small business because it’s easier to hack them. However, a few months back wasn’t a small fraud. According to local newspapers (Oman observer, Muscat daily, times of Oman etc.) and al Jazeera news, Bank Muscat faced one the biggest frauds in history of Oman. The bank lost about 15 million OMR on this fraud. Experts in bank card operations in Oman said the fraudsters must have bought the travel cards and duplicated them several times to use them from multiple locations outside the country. They might have managed to hack the database of the bank to use the cards from at least 10 to 15 locations on a single day. That was just an exam-

ple of what hackers are capable of doing when it comes to money and business. How does hacking impact government? Everyday when we listen to the news we hear that hackers tried to hack certain government sites and data. For instance, a group of hackers tried to hack Israeli government sites. These are hackers around the middle east called Anonymous. The group vowed to erase Israel from the Internet in a coordinated attack called OpIsrael on April 7. Very few Israeli websites were actually affected though. We all know when a government gets hacked. Many classified information and confidential documents once divulged can cause conflicts and even political crises. How does hacking impact our personal security? I can tell that 70% of people information online either thru social networking or banking records had been hacked. Even emails as an example are hacked as well. New official statistics from social networks have revealed that more than 600,000 Facebook accounts are hacked on a daily basis. Moreover statistics from the official hacker sites stated that more than 100 Hotmail emails are hacked per hour. Hackers are around us everywhere. And the problem is that we don’t have experts that are trained and certified to fight hacking. In defense of our online rights, I feel a sense of urgency to design measures to protect our privacy and security and even that of small and large enterprises. Ethical hacking is the answer. Businesses and the governments must train experts to protect themselves from hackers. E-Security is a luxury that every company must afford to protect it’s own interest.



Sabrina Ahmed Al Harthy



(PS Sec.1)

While you are in Carrefour to buy your shampoo, will you take an old brand that you have been using or will you be tempted to try the New L'Oreal Paris, THE BRAND used by BEYONCE? Let's be honest, you will take the L'Oreal! People are spending too much for products that they think effective. Are they really effective? Advertisements manipulate people to buy anything. People regrettably spend most for products they don't know and they don't need because of advertisements. Statistics from American psychological association has found that 75% of American buy products without knowing their effects and effectiveness. Many products found in the market can harm the consumers. Example cosmetics containing paraben are found in all corners. Unfortunately this chemical and its derivatives have been proven to cause breast cancer, supported by A 2012 article published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology . Many other harmful chemicals are found in daily used products. People inspired by advertisements buy products without knowing their compositions believing those products are the best in the market. People spend beyond their means. Advertisements are suitable for people that can afford. What about those who can't? They keep in mind the ideal lifestyle shown on media thinking it is the right one, believing that this is going to make them happy. This encourages them to take loans and living beyond their means which most of the time ends badly! Supported by Michael I. Norton, an associate professor at the Harvard Business

School. Advertisements affect all ages, children, teenagers and adults and in many aspects. Children are more affected by food advertisements according to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention more than one-third of all U.S. kids are overweight or obese, setting themselves up for health problems like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.. Teenagers are becoming materialists. In fact, 71 percent of teens are materialistic and said they’d be happier if they had “more money to spend on themselves,” according to a 2011 survey reported by Reuters. Adults are more affected by the ideal lifestyle, shown on Media. Having a house near the beach with a latest model cars and beautiful wife is the ideal life for men. Women are more affected by cosmetics. In fact the media has been found to cause women to feel unattractive. These women lacking in self-esteem are going to use adornments. This is supported by Cash & Cash’s (2010) study. Always do research about the product before buying them, make sure that you know the chemicals that have been used for cosmetics products. Try to know what are the ingredients used and how the food has been cooked before eating. While buying a gadget , make a small research about the options offered and see if you need them or not, if they are important or not! Same for cars. Imagine a world where people were doing research before buying anything, were saying no to all those products that affects their health, companies will be obliged to improve their products for the consumers. Be aware of advertisement. Know that you are the target of all companies!! They are working hard and spending a lot of money for making the best advertisements to manipulate you buying their stock of products that didn't succeed in the market!! Be critical while buying your products! At the end don't let somebody else tell you what you need? let companies designing products in accordance to your needs!









Director, ELC

HoS. Curriculum & Teaching Methods

Academic Coordinator

Programme Coordinator


Salim Al Yaroubi (Technical Writing 2)

Dr. Ramil Ecot (Technical Writing 1)

Retna Balan (Pharmacy)

Prithviraj Palakkadavath (Technical Communication)

Bahulayan Govind (Public Speaking)

Alan Basmayor Timetable/Registration& eLearning

Ameena Lambat Ashraf Hyderose Christopher Selvamani Dr. Afif Othman Dr. Anwar Mourssi Dr. Jacquiline Orlanes Humera Shujaat Imad Bougherra Kamal Salah Balloumi

Adeel Badar Attendance

Khalid Al Amri Naina Joseph Parameswary Ganapathi Ruhina Ahmed Sami Al Busaidi Shujaat Ali Sohail Khan Tahira Al-Lawati







Des ktop Publis hing Team ASHRAF HYDEROSE Editor

ALAN BASMAYOR Asst. Editor-Layout & Graphics Design

RETNA BALAN Photography & Student Advisor

ELC - Scribbles 5  

A publication of ELC Post-Foundation