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ALAUTOR: MARLON ALVAREZ Aテ前: 2011

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INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL DRAWING……………………………………………………………..4 OBJECTIVE:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 CONTENIDO: The Technical Drawing……………………………………………………………………………………… .7 Types of technical drawing……………………………………………………………………………… .8 Types of instrumens of technical drawing………………………………………………………… 12 Which is a format……………………………………………………………………………………………… 23 Alphabet of lines……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Types of projections………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Section or sections……………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

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The technical drawing is one that is represented on a flat surface(such as paper), all kinds of objects, with the goal of providing the information necessary for the construction of it, either real or conceptual. Parts or objects are usually represented on the ground (or ceilingview or top view), (auxiliary views, mainly frontal or earlier, and at least one side), clearly indicating its size (dimensions), usually a minimum of two projections (views of the object) are needed to cover the information presented by the object. (See also:Orthogonal projection). Technical drawing includes work from sketches or drawings, sketches, architectural drawings, diagrams, electrical and electronic drawings, and performances of all kinds of mechanical elements, to courts of such objects, use of geometric figures andconcepts, where Euclidean geometry, math, scales, and variousperspectives are applied.

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Technical Drawing is a language of communication indispensable both in the development of scientific processes, such as graphicalunderstanding of technology projects whose ultimate purpose isthe development and manufacture of a product. Its essentialfunci6n these processes is to help formalize and visualize what is being developed or discovered, and helps provide from a first realization of possible solutions to the final stage of development where the results are definitely flat finishes.

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The technical drawing IS system a graphical representation of various types of objects,in order to provide sufficient information to facilitate analysis,design to help develop and enable the future construction andmaintenance. Usually performed with the aid of computerized or directly on the paper or other media plans. Is a graphical representation of an object or a practical idea. This representation is guided by fixed and predetermined rules to describe accurately and clearly, dimensions, shapes, features and build what you want to play. Objects, parts, machines, buildings, urban plans, and so on., Are usually represented in the plan (top view, top view, ground floor, deck, etc..), Elevation (front or front and side, at least one ) andsections (or short break), clearly indicating its dimensions through dimensions, are needed at least two projections (views of the object) to provide useful information about the object.

Features: Forms of expression Technical drawing includes work such as sketches and / or diagrams, schematics, diagrams, blueprints, electrical and electronic representations of any kind of mechanical, architectural plans, town planning, etc.., Determined by the help of geometric concepts, which are applied the mathematics, Euclidean geometry, different types of perspectives, scales, etc..

Media and Media The drawing can be expressed in a variety of materials such asvarious types of paper, linen or acetate (mylar), also can be projected on screen, displayed on monitor, graphic animationsrecreate the volumes, and so on.

Tools and instruments For technical drawing using various tools or instruments: rules of various kinds, compasses, pencils, set squares, bevel, chalk, markers, etc. Currently, the computer is preferably used in itswatershed through programs aided design (CAD, 3D, vector, etc.) with optimum results and continuous improvement process

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Types of technical drawing With industrial development and technological progress has increased the design field. The main ones are: architectural Drawing mechanical Drawing electrical drawing electronic drawing drawing geological topographic drawing drawing urban Technical design of sanitary facilities

Architectural Drawing: The architectural design encompasses a range of graphical representations with which we carry out the plans for the construction of buildings, houses, villas, roads, churches, factories and bridges among others. Draw the project withaccurate instruments, with their respective details, adjustments and corrections, which shows floor plans, facades, sections, perspectives, foundations, columns, and other detail

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mechanical Drawing: The mechanical design is used in the representation of objects ormachinery parts, machinery, vehicles such as cranes, motorcycles, planes, helicopters and industrial machines. The plans represent a simple mechanism or a machine consisting of a set of parts, assembly drawings are called, and it represents a single element, flat piece. They represent a set of pieces withgraphic indications for placement, and assemble a whole, are called assembly drawings.

electrical drawing: This type of drawing refers to the graphical representation ofelectrical installations in industrial, office or house or any architectural structure that requires electricity. By correspondingsymbols represent connections, meter box, main board, linecircuits, switches, sockets, lamps and other outlets.

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electronic drawing: It represents the circuits that provide precise performance to various devices that currently constitute a technological breakthrough as computers, amplifiers, transmitters, watches, televisions, radios and others.

Drawing geological: The geological picture is used in geography and geology, he wasrepresenting the various layers of the earth using a symbolic and conveys the minerals in each layer. It is widely used in mining andoil field exploration.

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topographic drawing: The picture we plotted topographic features of a certain tract of land, by conventionally established signs. It shows natural and man-made accidents, dimensions or measures, horizontal curvesor contours.

drawing urban: This type of drawing used in the organization of cities: the location of urban centers, industrial areas, boulevards, streets, avenues, gardens, roads, playgrounds and more. Are drawnblueprints, plans, assembly drawings and detail.

Technical design of sanitary facilities: It aims to represent the position of each piece sanitary ware: shower, sink, toilet, etc. Including the location of internal and external pipes.

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TYPES OF TECHNICAL DRAWINGINSTRUMENTS

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The rule T. The rule T gets its name from its resemblance to the letter T. It has two perpendicular arms. The cross arm is shorter. They are made of wood or plastic. It is used to draw horizontal parallel lines quickly and accurately. It also serves as a support to the squads and to align the format and proceed to fixation.

The parallel rule. An instrument for measuring and drawing straight lines, its shape is rectangular, flat and has at its edges recordings decimeters, centimeters and millimeters. They are usually wood or plastic. Although clear plastic preferred to see the lines to be drawn. Their lengths vary according to usage, ranging from 10 to 60 inches The most common is 30 centimeters.

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The squads. The brackets are used to measure and draw horizontal, vertical, inclined, and combined with the rule T lines are drawn parallel, perpendicular and oblique. Graduates can carry centimeters and millimeters. The brackets that are used in technical drawing are two: - The 45 degree which is shaped like an isosceles triangle with an angle of 90 ° and two of 45 º. - The squad of 60 ° bevel also called shaped like a scalene triangle, whose angles measure 90 °, 30 ° and 60 °

. Scaler To measure distances in a straight line scaler is used, which is graded on different scales pushbar, used to calculate distances reduced or enlarged. In this course we will use a scaler with the following scales: 1:20,1:25, 1:50,1:75, 1:100, 1:125. There are several types of scaler: - Scaler for architects - Scaler for civil engineers

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The compass. It is a precision instrument that is used to draw arcs, circles and transport measures. It consists of two articulated arms at the top which houses a cylindrical piece which called mango drink and drive with the index finger and thumb. One arm has a adjustable steel needle with a screw and a nut on a wheel. The other arm has a device that allows the placement of pencils or other accessories.

Compass Classes are: - Compass Part: the normal rhythm that may be placed accessories like pencil or pen. - Compass dry ends: it has sharp points on both ends of steel and serves to take action or move. - Compass mustache, is characterized by maintaining fixed aperture radii. The opening of this bar is graded by a screw or threaded shaft. It is used to draw small circles of equal radius and circumference. - Compass pump: used to draw arcs or circles very small. It consists of an arm that serves as a vertical axis so that the pencil holder revolves around him.

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Pencils. The pencils are essential for writing and drawing. They consist of a graphite mine and a sheath of wood. They can be round or hexagonal cross section. To draw a hexagon are better because they facilitate the attachment between the fingers and prevent it from rolling to leave them on the drawing board. The pencil leads has several degrees from the hardest to the softest. Hard lead with fine lines are drawn in gray and bold lines and softer black color. They are classified by letters and numbers. The H comes from the word meaning hard drive, the F means firm and black B which means black. The hardest are: 4H, 3H, 2H and H. The intermediates are: HB and F. The softer are: B, 2B, 3B and 4B.

Eraser. The erasers are used to get rid of bad strokes, bugs, stains or traces remaining. They are usually soft, flexible and light colors to avoid stains on the paper. Before deleting make sure it is clean and if we delete small parts, surplus lines or lines close, we use the auxiliary staff cleared of steel sheet. To eliminate the role of graphite particles using a spray rubber pad inside called smudging.

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Pencils or pens. The pencils are metal or plastic housing inside the mine or mines by a spring slide out, which will be used to write or draw. The mines are of different hardness. Leads to sharpening pencils for the mine and its guard.

Brush drawing - Brush for drawing, which drafts shake waste and powders, without risking hands to remove stain or damaging the work. - Flannel or cotton cloth, very useful for cleaning tools and China ink stroke, and to shake waste rubber and talc in the absence of brush.

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Delete template Use a square with holes to erase a drawing precise areas also serves to protect the surface of the drawing will be erased with an electric eraser.

Drawing board. It is a drawing tool on fixing the paper for drawing. It is usually constructed of wood or plastic smooth and flat, straight edges allowing the displacement of the rule T. The size depends on the format to be used. The format is sufficient school size of 40 inches tall and 60 inches wide. In the workshops, technical drawing, instead of boards, built tables are used only for this activity, the size and angle required.

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The conveyor. It is an instrument used for measuring angles or transport. They are made of plastic and are of two types: in a semicircle divided into 180 degrees in a circle and full 360 ツコ. The numbers are arranged in two graduation so they can be read from right to left and from left to right, depending on where the opening angle.

Pencil or scraper Tuner After cutting the wood of a pencil sharpener with a knife or mechanical, should sharpen the pencil graphite rod and give a long tapered tip. on its surface has pieces of fine lines where the pencil scratch to tune.

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Irregular curves The contours of these are based on various combinations of ellipses, spirals and other mathematical curves. These are used to draw curved lines in which the radius of curvature is not constant, these are also called curve or curvテュgrafo gun.

INK DRAWING: The ink drawing is a finely divided coal dust in suspension, with added natural or synthetic rubber to prevent smearing mix easily with water. Standards for drawings facilitate the architect his ordination to theoffice and workshop for consult5as praise and referrals.

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FABRIC FABRIC OR PAPER DECALS: Use a finely woven clothand coated with a special starch or plastic for drawing eitherpencil or ink.

planes carrying

Drawing lamp Electric light bulb (incandescent lighting by filaments) in the glass bulb that has been evacuated and has inside a filament made of a material of high melting point, which becomes incandescent bythe passage of current power, producing light

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Rapidógrafo Rapidógrafo or stylus is called a drawing tool that works usingIndia ink or oil, similar to a fountain pen, which is special designfor use in architecture and drawing accuracy. Evolution is a profession in the field General composition of a rapidógrafo The modular version is mostly for extensive use and long life, butthere are disposable versions. Top: stock or ink cartridge (interchangeable). Bottom: head that fits the distributor has a vacuum principle asone of its sides has a small hole and can be unscrewed, endingin the part that will make contact with the substrate or drawing surface, formed by a small tube entre.7 and 1 cm long. Inside: distributor of ink, which aims to enable and assist thecapillary action and prevent the accumulation of surface tension and as a sort of manual motor allows it to operate the vacuum pump. It consists of a small weight which leaves a thin wire, whichfits into the head tube and varies in thickness depending on the thickness of the head turn of Rapidógrafo.

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Which is a format It is the box within which to perform all technical drawings. These boxes or forms are standardized, ie are subject to certainstandards or rules to be followed for processing. TYPES Tipo de

Formato en Bruto

Formato Final

Margen A

Formato

(Medidas mテュnimas en mm)

(Cortado)

mm

4A0

1720 x 2420

1682 x 2378

20

2A0

1230 x 1720

1189 x 1682

15

A0

880 x 1230

841 x 1189

10

A 1*

625 x 880

594 x 841

10

A2

450 x 625

420 x 594

10

A3

330 x 450

297 x 420

10

A 4**

240 x 330

210 x 297

5

A5

165 x 240

148 x 210

5

A6

120 x 165

105 x 148

5

What is a labeling The labeling is an integral part of a drawing as it explains some aspects, dimensions and notes form part of a presentation. So apoorly executed labeling lowers the quality of work in general. When work is done by hand, it is essential to use guide lines and lines of descent. The former are parallel to ensure a uniform height of the letters, both upper and lower middle parts. The latter are vertical or inclined or vertical indicating the inclination of the text. When working with pencil strokes should seek dark and crisp,smooth strokes produce a gray letters and imprecise. In the labeling to be taken care of ink strokes that have a uniform widthwith adequate food of the pen.

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Alphabet of lines EDGE PROFILE LINE OR VISIBLE: (It is normally usedFORMATS FOR RANGE) FOR USING THESE POINTSRAPIDOGRAFOS 5 or 6. ARTIST PROFILE LINE OR INVISIBLE: (used to project a FORM OR SOMETHING people can not see) FOR THIS LINE ITEM IS USED RAPIDOGRAFO 2. CENTER LINE OR AXIS (IS USED TO INDICATE THE CENTEROF CERTAIN DRAWING OR CINCURFERECIA) IS USED ITEM 2 RAPIDOGRAFO DIMENSION LINE EXTENSION OR (IS USED TO REFINE ORPUT SOME ACTION FIGURE OR A PLANT OR FLAT). Also uses the ITEM 2. CUT LINE OR PLANE: (used for switching a figure, PLANT, OR A FRONT) MAY BE USED RAPIDOGRAFO 5. SHORT interrupt line. (Used when a drawing is interrupted by anobject, but is interrupted by a short space) THIS WILL BE USEDIN THE No.5 O 6. LONG interrupt line. (IS USED WHEN THE PICTURE ISINTERRUPTED BY ENOUGH SPACE) FOR USE IT THIS LINEITEM 2 Section line (IS USED TO INDICATE WHERE THERE IS ASECTION OR CUT) can be used NO.2

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Projections: Types of projections There are several types of projections: Axonometric. It is one in which the object is represented byorthogonal projection on a trirrectテ。ngulo axis system, which in turn is projected onto the plane, allowing to associate a single drawing in three dimensions. Commonly, it is one in which the sole of the object is placed at an angle of inclination, keeping the values of their angles andmeasure preserving correspondence, lifting it vertically from the heights. In other directions also tend to keep the dimensionschanged and always left angle.

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Cylindrical. Which is made from an improper vertex, ie, in which the projecting lines are parallel.

Cylindrical orthogonal. I t is one in which beams of projecting linesare perpendicular to the plane. Any object can be viewed fromdifferent points of view that allows us to more objectivelydetermine its structure, knowing better each of its parts.

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Conic. It is one in which the figures project from a main point, this being a corner of their own.

Dihedral. It is that which is done by orthogonal projection onto twomutually perpendicular planes. To represent it in a plane (vertical plane) is rotated perpendicular (horizontal) 90 degrees aroundthe intersection line (land line). In addition to these two planes is often considered a third perpendicular to the preceding (flatprofile), whose representation is made by gloom on the vertical plane around the line of intersection.

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Isometric. Axonometric projection is in establishing a proportional relationship between the directions of the object itself and the object represented. It is usually one in which the three axes formprojection angles of 120 degrees.

These views are the following names: VistaA: Front View oalzado VistaB: Top view opla nta VistaC: Right View Right olateral View: Left view olateral VistaE left: Bottom view VistaF: Rear View

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Section or sections: It denominasecciテウn the intersection of the cutting plane with the part (the area indicated in red), as seen when representing a section, unlike a court, does not render the rest of the piece thatis behind it . Whenever possible, we prefer to represent the section as itbecomes clearer and simple representation.

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NDICATIONS OF CUTS All the general system of representation through established views on the UNE 1-032-82 is deaplicaciรณn to those seen in court. The different views of a part relative positions of the doldrums invariablesderivadas experienced by the planes of projection. In turn, the vistasseccionadas must occupy the same place they were not applicable if you cut a piece seccionadas.Cuando a cutting plane eliminates the part of the piece between elobservador and the plane. This approach is purely conventional, ie eliminaciรณnde the front of the piece takes place solely for the purpose of representing vistaseccionada on the projection plane parallel to the cutting plane, but not lasrestantes representation of views, in which, the whole piece will be performed.

As above, the section is obtained only at the hearing that is to project the piezasobre a projection plane parallel to the cutting plane to obtain a projection of the section enverdadera magnitud.Dos aspects to be considered in regard to how to stop the cuts defined in the drawing. Deuna hand, the way to make known the position of the cutting plane, otherwise, how to differentiate lasuperficie under section produced by this plane, the surfaces are primitive elcontorno piece, both exterior and flat interiores.El blotting produces cutting, is defined by its trace on one of the planes normal deproyecciรณn him. This trace is represented by a dashed line joint venture of long thin (0.2 mm. Thick) and points arranged alternately terminated at both ends by two trazoscortos thick (0.7 mm. Thick) said cutting plane isidentified by means of capital letters at the ends of the trace, accompanied by lines with arrows represent the direction and sense of observation

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TOTALES SecanteCorte cutting plane by several independent secant planes síCorte several successive secant planes paralelosCortefor several successive secant planes paralelosCorte no auxiliary Middle CORTESPARCIALES partial corteCorte SECTION SSección desplazamientoSección transverse sectiontransverse displacement ROTURAS Partial rupture following sections describe the characteristics of each of the types of corteenumerados above, showing, in turn, examples of each

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1. Is very important to study this type of theme as it covers barium stypes of issues that are important and interesting to the artist.because it relies heavily on interpretations of figures already inisometric or axonometric.

2. for an artist, must be very clear, that is technical drawing methodsare Menejador aprendisaje and the instrum ents used within the race.

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AUTHOR: MARLON RICARDO ALVAREZ BOOK OF TECHNICAL DRAWING YEAR:2011

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technical drawing  

technical drawing

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