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PHYSIOLOGY OF TRAINING 1 SHL 5332/SHN 5672 Academic Year 2012-2013 Semester 1

Mark Hopkins (Module Leader). Room: AG98.  m.hopkins@leedstrinity.ac.uk.  0113 283 7100 (Ext 362)


MODULE OUTLINE Module Coordinator: Mark Hopkins Additional Teaching Staff: Paul Harlow

CONTACT DETAILS. Mark Hopkins. Room: AG98.  m.hopkins@leedstrinity.ac.uk.  0113 283 7100 (Ext 362). Paul Harlow. Room: Sport Science Lab  P.Harlow@leedstrinity.ac.uk  0113 283 7100 (Ext 435)

INTRODUCTION This module examines the human responses and adaptations to different forms of exercise. Key physiological adaptations in the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems will be examined in order to gain a better understanding of how appropriate training can lead to enhanced performance. Students will also be given the opportunity to develop commonly used laboratory skills to monitoring and test athletes within a sport science laboratory. The module builds upon L4 Anatomy and Physiology, in which the basic structure of the underlying physiological systems was discussed. The knowledge/skills gained during this module will be useful at Level 6, with foundations being built for modules such as ‘Physiology of the Elite Athlete’, ‘Nutrition and Performance’ and ‘Physical Activity and Health Trainer’. Furthermore, this module will give you an opportunity to practice and develop many of the skills needed to conduct an independent research project/dissertation at L6. As such, this module aims to: 1) Develop an understanding of how the human body responds to different forms of exercise and how these physiological adaptations lead to enhanced performance. 2) Develop practical skills and basic competencies in relation to a variety of exercise physiology laboratory tests, and be mindful of any health and safety or ethical issues that surround these.

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3) Communicate scientific information in a clear and coherent fashion using a variety of techniques, including written and verbal methods. 4) Develop an increased awareness of scientific research articles and the research design process (hypothesis generation, data collection, critical interpretation of data and scientific writing).

LEARNING OUTCOMES On successful completion of the module, you will be better able to: 1)

Describe and explain how the human body responds to different forms of exercise using either written or oral communication skills.

2)

Design and run a variety of exercise physiology protocols in a safe manor using specialized equipment in a sport science laboratory.

3)

Work effectively in small groups to design and deliver oral presentations that communicate scientific information in a clear and organized fashion to an audience of peers.

LEARNING AND TEACHING METHODS There will be a 2-hour lecture on Monday 9-11am (SBLT). Practical sessions will be held on either Tuesday 11-1pm, Wednesday 9-11am or 11-1pm (Sports Science Lab). To see which group you have been allocated to, please check the L5 notice boards.

LEARNING RESOURCES STUDENT SUPPORT Support is available from the following areas:     

Module tutor (M.Hopkins) Study Skills Guide SHN Teaching Assistant (Paul Harlow; Sport Science Lab, tel 435) Writers in Residence (Susan Barker and Peter Guttridge- contact Karen Scott to make an appointment: k.scott@leedstrinity.ac.uk) Disability Support (Deborah Altman)

ONLINE SUPPORT This module has Moodle online support page. You will need to register for the module (SHL5332/SHN5672 Physiology of Training 1) using the pass key 5332. A variety of

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material will be provided, including course information, lecture and reading material and assessment guidelines. Additional material concerning generic academic skills can also be found on Moodle by accessing the ‘Academic Skills for Sport, Health & Nutrition’ page. Here you will find useful information concerning writing academic essays, referencing guidelines and tips to avoid plagiarism.

LIBRARY RESOURCES The below list identifies books contained within the Leeds Trinity library that are specifically relevant to Physiological Aspects of Training. However, this list is not exclusive and there are other books available that will be useful. 

Baechle, T. & Earle, R. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. 3rd Ed. National Strength and Conditioning Association. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Birch, K. MacLaren, D. & George, K. (2005). Instant Notes: Sport & Exercise Physiology. Garland Science, Taylor & Francis.

Bompa, T. (1999). Periodization. 4th Ed. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Carling, C. Reilly, T. & Williams, M. (2009). Performance Assessment For Field Sports. London, Routledge.

Delavier, F. (2006). Strength Training Anatomy. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Ed) (2008). Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data: Volume One: Anthropometry. 3rd Edition. Routledge.

Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Ed) (2008) Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data: Volume Two: Physiology. 3rd Edition. Routledge.

Fleck, S. & Kraemer, W. (1991). Designing resistance training programs. 2nd Ed. Human Kinetics.

Gleeson, M. (eds) (2006). Advances in Sport and Exercise Science: Immune Function in Sport & Exercise. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.

Hoffman, J. (2006) Norms For Fitness, Performance and Health. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

McArdle, W, Katch, F. & Katch, V. (2007). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition & Human Performance. 6th ed. Baltimore, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Powers, S. & Howley, J. (2009). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. 7th ed. Mcgraw Hill.

Richardson, S. Anderson, M. & Morris, T. (2008). Overtraining Athletes: Personal Journeys in Sport. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Williams & Wragg (2004). Data Analysis and Research For Sport and Exercise Science. Oxon, Routledge.

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Wilmore, J. & Costill, D. (2008). Physiology for Sport & Exercise. 4th ed. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Winter, E (eds) (2007). BASES Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines: Sport TestingVolume 1. Oxon, Routledge.

Winter, E (eds) (2007). BASES Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines: Exercise and Clinical Testing- Volume 2. Oxon, Routledge.

Whyte, G. (eds) (2006). Advances in Sport and Exercise Science: The Physiology of Training. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.

Ebooks: 

Birch, K. MacLaren, D. & George, K. (2005). Instant Notes: Sport & Exercise Physiology. Garland Science, Taylor & Francis.

Brooks, G. (2005). Exercise Physiology Human Bioenergetics and its Applications. 4th ed. McGraw Hill.

Calder, P. (2002) Nutrition and Immune Function. CABI Pub. in association with the Nutrition Society.

Cooper, C. & Storer, T. (2001) Exercise Testing and Interpretation: A Practical Approach. Cambridge University Press.

Ehrman, J. (2009). Clinical exercise physiology. 2nd ed. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Ed) (2008). Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data: Volume One: Anthropometry. 3rd Edition. Routledge.

Eston, R. & Reilly, T. (Ed) (2008) Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data: Volume Two: Physiology. 3rd Edition. Routledge.

LeMura, L. Duvillard, S. (2004). Clinical Exercise Physiology: Application and Physiological Principles. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

McArdle, W, Katch, F. & Katch, V. (2007). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition & Human Performance. 6th ed. Baltimore, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Powers, S. & Howley, J. (2009). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. 7th ed. Mcgraw Hill.

Tipton, C. (2006). ACSM's Advanced Exercise Physiology. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.

Wilmore, J. & Costill, D. (2008). Physiology for Sport & Exercise. 4th ed. Champaign, Human Kinetics.

Winter, E (eds) (2007). BASES Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines: Sport TestingVolume 1. Routledge.

Winter, E (eds) (2007). BASES Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines: Exercise and Clinical Testing- Volume 2. Routledge.

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Whyte, G. (eds) (2006). Advances in Sport and Exercise Science: The Physiology of Training. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.

ASSIGNMENT DEADLINES. You will be given deadlines and details of what is required by your module tutors for all your work. It is important that you realise that you are responsible for: (a) ensuring you know what the deadlines are; (b) submitting your work by the deadline. ASSIGNMENTS FOR ASSESSMENT MUST BE HANDED IN BY THE DEADLINE; the only exceptions allowable are medical problems, supported by a doctor's note, or major personal disruptions supported by written independent verification (see ‘Late Submission Procedures’ below). You may have different deadline times depending on which Department you are submitting for. Please check.

PROCEDURE FOR HANDING IN ASSIGNMENTS. Please check the list of assignment deadlines on the Departmental Office noticeboard or intranet site (http://intranet.leedstrinity.ac.uk/AcademicDepartments/dohps/default.aspx) to determine:  Whether your assignment should be submitted in hard copy or via MOODLE If your assignment is to be submitted via MOODLE only, you should not submit your assignment via the Departmental Office but should do so electronically. However, if you need further instructions on this, the office will be happy to help. If your assignment is to be submitted in hard copy, you should submit via the Departmental Office (AF44). For work submitted via the Departmental Office 1. Please complete the ‘non-anonymous’ (blue) submission sheet. 2. Ensure that you have entered the correct module number and title and signed the declaration of integrity. Module numbers are listed on the Departmental Office notice-board. 3. Post your assignment in the appropriate box

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4. If you are submitting an assignment that will not fit into the box (e.g. poster, artefact, tapes etc.) please hand it into the Departmental Office.

LATE SUBMISSION PROCEDURES. Unless you have prior permission to hand in your work late, you will incur penalties as follows: A deduction of 5 marks will be made for assignments which are submitted in the 24-hour period immediately after the prescribed deadline. Subsequent deductions of 5 marks will be made for assignments submitted during subsequent 24-hour periods, down to a mark of 40% for work of a pass standard and 0% for work of a fail standard. Work submitted more than 5 working days after the published deadline will not be marked and a mark of zero will be returned. Please note that the 24-hours periods referred to above do not include weekends and bank holidays. The penalty starts immediately after the deadline time. If you cannot submit your assignment by the due date because of properly documented illness or personal problems, you must obtain prior permission from the Head of Department concerned by completing an Application for Extension form. Extensions will normally only be granted for up to 5 working days. If further time is required, a DFO (deferred first opportunity) should be applied for. A DFO is a formal application to the Academic Registrar for assessment at the next available assessment opportunity (see regulation 5.6 in the student handbook). You may collect an Application for Extension form from the Departmental Office, AF44 or on the intranet. Fill in the form and submit or e-mail it to the Departmental Office (dohps@leedstrinity.ac.uk), who will present it to the Head of Department for approval. You will be informed of the outcome of your request by the Departmental Office via e-mail. If you require a DFO, you should collect a DFO application form from Student Administration, Departmental offices or on the intranet. You should then submit it, together with your supporting evidence to the Student Administration office

ATTENDANCE AT EXAMINATIONS. If you fail to attend an examination without good cause, the consequences are severe. You will fail the exam, get a mark of “0” and lose credits. If you fail to attend an exam with good cause, you have to provide documentary evidence to the Student Administration and complete a request form for a Deferred First Opportunity (DFO). This would normally be a doctor’s note specifying the illness with dates. If the evidence is accepted and circumstances warrant it, you are allowed a DFO – that is you are allowed to sit the assessment at a later date, normally during the resit period. Talk to your Progress Tutor if you wish to apply for DFO.

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REFERENCING STYLE You should adhere to the Harvard referencing format throughout as outlined to you both in the Student Handbook and your Study Skills Guide. A detail guide can also be found at on the Moodle page for this module (used with permission from Anglia Ruskin University).

PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is considered to be the passing off of someone else’s work (thoughts, writings, and results) as your own. It commonly occurs where a student fails to acknowledge the use of material from a book article, journal or from the internet. It also occurs when a student appropriates the work of another student.

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ASSESSMENT Students must make a serious attempt at all elements of assessment.

Form of assessment

Details

Weighting

Timing

Oral

Group presentation (30 mins)

20%

Week beginning 19th November, 2012

Exam

Essay Style (1 hour)

30%

Week beginning 10th Dec, 2012.

EXAM. There will be a 1 hour, essay style exam during the week beginning the 10th December, 2012. This examination will constitute 30% of your overall mark. You will be asked to answer 1 essay style question from four questions. The examination will draw from all areas covered in the module.

EXAM EXPECTATIONS. You will be asked to answer one essay style question during the examination. You will be given a choice of four questions to answer and these questions will be based on any of the topic areas covered in the module. As such, you will have to have in-depth knowledge of all areas covered in the module. It is anticipated that you should be able to write a minimum of four sides of A4 on any given topic. It is strongly advised that you do not revise a limited number of topics in the expectation that these will come up. Furthermore, it is very important that you use appropriate scientific language in your answer, General ‘everyday’ terms such as the ‘heart gets stronger with exercise’ are not appropriate at this academic level.

PRESENTATION. In groups of 3-5 people, you will be allocated to one of the four statements listed below on which you will do a 30min presentation (25 minutes plus 5mins for questions). All presentation should include scientific evidence to support your answers. For each statement, some possible areas of focus are provided. However, these lists are not exclusive and you should look to include any areas that you feel relevant when attempting to discuss the statement.

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PRESENTATION TOPICS 1. Research has shown that overtraining in athletes is characterised by poor performance and impaired immune cell function. Using scientific evidence to support your answer, discuss this statement. You may wish to consider some of the following areas when preparing your presentation (although other areas can be included):   

Susceptibility to illness. Acute effects of exercise on immune cell function. Chronic effects of exercise on immune cell function.

2. Using scientific evidence to support your answer, discuss the potential causes of overtraining in athletes. You may wish to consider some of the following areas when preparing your presentation (although other areas can be included):     

Training structure The central fatigue hypothesis The Glutamine hypothesis Suppression of immune function Alterations to the Neuro-endocrine system

3. Discuss the role of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of overtraining, using scientific evidence to support your answer. You may wish to consider some of the following areas when preparing your presentation (although other areas can be included):    

Role of nutrition in overtraining Nutritional deficiencies and immune cell function Nutrition and the neuro-endocrine response to exercise Acute and chronic nutritional strategies to prevent and treat overtraining

4. Discuss the central fatigue hypothesis with reference to overtraining and outline the scientific evidence that supports/refutes this theory. You may wish to consider some of the following areas when preparing your presentation (although other areas can be included):   

Chain of events involved in the central fatigue hypothesis Scientific evidence linking the central fatigue hypothesis to exercise performance and the overtraining syndrome. Potential nutritional strategies to minimise central fatigue

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PRESENTATION MARKING CRITERIA The allocation of marks for the oral presentations are detailed below: Overall group presentation Individual presentation Answering questions Asking questions

40% 40% 10% 10%

The marking scheme for oral presentations is also shown below: /60

1. Content (60%) 

Excellent background to topic area 80+

70-79

60-69

50-59

40-49

<40

Clear analysis of scientific theories and ideas

Well support with relevant research

Use of appropriate scientific terminology and depth.

2. Planning and Timing (10%)  Precise timing of group presentation (25mins)  Excellent individual contribution  Evidence of preparation  Group organised

3. Use of Visual Aids (10%)  Excellent use of visual aids  Use of diagrams/graphical data to support ideas

4. Presentation (20%)  Excellent presentation, clearly spoken  Overall professional appearance  Handouts/reference list given

80+

70-79

60-69

50-59

40-49

<40

  

80+

70-79

60-69

50-59

40-49

<40

 

 80+

70-79

60-69

50-59

40-49

<40

 

-10-

Weak background to topic area Limited analysis of scientific theories and ideas No link to relevant research Superficial and nonscientific

/10 Over or under time Little individual contribution to overall presentation Poorly presented Poorly organised

/10 Poor use of visual aids Textual reporting of scientific data only

/20 Poorly presented Lacks professional appearance Handouts/reference list given

Physiology of Training I


SEMESTER 1 SCHEDULE. Week Lecture: Introduction.

Date Mon 1st Oct

Lecture: Basic Training Principles.

Mon 8th Oct

1 2 Lab A: Introduction to Direct Measurement of VO2 & VCO2.

Tue 9th or Wed 10th Oct Mon 15th Oct

Lecture: Overtraining in Sport. 3 Lab B: Direct Measurement of Aerobic Capacity during Exercise. Lecture: Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise.

Tue 16th or Wed 17th Oct Mon 22nd Oct

Lab C: Online Gas Analysis.

Tue 23rd or Wed 24th Oct Mon 29th Oct

4

5

6

Lecture: Respiratory Adaptations to Exercise. Lab D: Measurement of Energy Expenditure using Indirect Calorimetry. Lecture: Neuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Exercise. Lab E: Measurement of Anaerobic Power. Lecture: Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise.

Tue 30rd or Wed 31th Oct Mon 5th Nov Tue 6th or Wed 7th Nov Mon 12th Nov

7 Mon 19th Nov

Lecture: Ergogenic Aids in Sport. 8

Tue 20th or Wed 21st Nov

Group Presentations. Lecture: Recovery Strategies in Sport.

Mon 26th Nov

9 Tue 27th or Wed 28th Nov Mon 3rd Dec

Group Presentations. Revision. 10

Wk beginning 10th Dec

Completion Week- Exam. 11

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Physiology of Training- Semester 1 Handbook File