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THE MILL

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health + beau¡ty noun

the state of being free from illness and a combination of qualities that pleases the aesthetic senses


a TMM T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

E D I T I O N 9 N O . 4

Health+Beauty PUBLISHER MarketStyleMedia EDITOR IN CHIEF TraceyRoman COMMUNITY EDITOR AubreyDucane CONTRIBUTING WRITERS JoelCraddock LaurieEssig CandaceMattingly Dr.CaraMcDonald Dr.YasineProbst PHOTOGRAPHERS JackAntal SarahComeau BrookeLark DaniRendina Daniel Apodaca AnaFrancisconi Lum3n LarmRmah EdgarCastrejon LeslieJones PlushDesignStudio CaiqueSilva CourtneyClayton AllefVinicius ADVERTISING ad.sales@themillmagazine.com 803-619-0491 ©2019 THE MILL MAGAZINE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN CONSENT OF THE COPYRIGHT OWNER. THE MILL MAGAZINE DOES NOT NECESSARILY ENDORSE THE VIEWS AND PERCEPTIONS OF ADVERTISERS.

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eatures F T

p.18

nose job

SAYING NO to a

FEWER AMERICANS ARE FIXING THEIR NOSES

p.30 VITAMINCure p.58 plant p.44 is makeup bad based FOR YOUR SKIN?

DIETS: GOOD FOR IMMUNITY

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nose job

SAYING NO to a

FEWER AMERICANS ARE FIXING THEIR NOSES

A

Te x t b y L a u r i e E s s i g

mericans love cosmetic surgery. Last year in the U.S., there were 1.8 million plastic surgeries and nearly 16 million nonsurgical procedures, like Botox – about one for every 20 Americans. The $8 billion industry now has entire beauty magazines devoted to cosmetic procedures, along with TV shows like “Nip/Tuck” and “Botched” that explore plastic surgery in all its gory glory. There are apps for your phone that let you see your face or body modified by surgery and even children’s books to explain why mommy looks so different now.

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Photo by Courtney Clayton [@courtneyrclayton].


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Photo by Allef Vinicius [@seteales].

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THEMILLMAGAZINE.COM•EDITION 9 NO. 4•HEALTH + BEAUTY


As someone who’s written a book about the economics of plastic surgery, none of this comes as a surprise.

Recently, however, I ran across a statistic that stopped me in my tracks: Americans are no longer obsessed with fixing their noses. In fact, the number of nose jobs, or rhinoplasties, has gone down 43 percent since 2000. Over a decade ago, nearly 400,000 Americans were having their noses made smaller, thinner and more symmetrical; now only about 225,000 Americans are doing so each year. What might explain the overall decline in nose jobs, even as breast implants and tummy tucks are more popular than ever before? WHY PEOPLE GET PLASTIC SURGERY IN THE FIRST PLACE This decline is happening despite the fact that rhinoplasty procedures – which cost, on average, around $5,000 – have become less painful and more convenient. In the 20th century, rhinoplasties were usually performed with a hammer and chisel – a bloody, bruising affair. Now noses can be reshaped with a vibrating crystal that’s able to cut through bone but avoid damaging soft tissue – a method that decreases the pain and recovery time quite significantly. But pain has never really been part of the equation. If there’s one thing I learned from interviewing over 100 cosmetic surgery patients for my book, it’s that they’re willing to suffer for what they believe will lead to a better life.

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Today, 92 percent are women, disproportionately white, and mostly members of the working and middle classes. They fervently believe that if they look younger, thinner or more attractive, then they’ll be more likely to keep their job or husband (or get a better job or a better husband). In the end, they’re motivated by a deep desire for a more secure future – which, somewhat paradoxically, compels many of them to take on large amounts of debt to pay for the procedures. A perfect nose, apparently, is less likely to be viewed as a path to a secure future. A HISTORIC AVERSION TO ‘ETHNIC’ NOSES While there’s probably no definitive way to explain the nose job’s decline, the answer could be as plain as the nose on my face. My nose, not coincidentally, is large, the genetic effect of my Jewish ancestors. Nose jobs were originally performed for people like me – immigrants who were not quite “white” because they didn’t look like Northern Europeans. In the 1800s, surgeons discovered that if they put their patients under with gas and sterilized their instruments, they could stop people from dying of sepsis. These surgeons soon realized that they could also earn a quick buck by making ethnic immigrants look more American – which really meant looking more like immigrants from Northern Europe. By the late 1800s, the cosmetic surgery industry had blossomed. According to historian Sander Gilman, cosmetic surgery was first used to help Irish and Jewish men. For Irish men, it

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Photo by Jack Antal [@capnjack].

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Photo by Larm Rmah [@larm].

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was their noses, which they viewed as a sign of their “racial degeneracy” and “syphilitic nature.” Jewish men were actually less concerned about their noses and far more worried that their detached earlobes “Africanized” them. Needless to say, the 20th century shifted which bodies and which parts needed repairing, and the focus turned to women – particularly young, white women. A kind of beauty capitalism was born, teaching women that if there was something wrong with their bodies, it could be fixed. All they had to do was buy the right lipstick, stick to the newest diet, or surgically alter their bodies – especially their noses. Breast implants, tummy tucks, buttock implants and vaginoplasty would eventually gain popularity. But for the first several decades of the 20th century, most of the women who filled the offices of cosmetic surgeons wanted their noses fixed. SHIFTING STANDARDS OF BEAUTY Today’s beauty industry is worth $445 billion dollars. It mostly teaches women (although increasingly men and even children) that they need to buy things in order to become beautiful. So why are our natural, imperfect noses all of a sudden more okay? It could be that the beauty industry has stopped selling us the idea that there is one racial standard for beauty. The sort of racial hierarchy that put Northern European features at the top – and everyone else scrambling to catch up – might be weakening due to demographic and economic changes within a globalized culture.

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According to the Pew Research Center, by 2055 everyone in the U.S. will be a racial or ethnic minority – there will be no clear majority. After centuries of worshiping a certain form of whiteness as beautiful, future beauty standards might look very different. It’s also possible that as other countries, particularly China, dominate the world economy, those countries will have more of a say in determining what’s beautiful. And popular media is increasingly depicting beautiful characters of all races. At this point, without interviewing those who go under the knife but refuse to reshape their noses, it’s tough to tell what’s inspired the change. What I do know is that if the beauty industry can sell us something, it will. In fact, it’s invented reverse nose jobs for people who are embarrassed that their noses have been modified – and want to make them look “real” again. So fear not: The industry’s ability to profit off of our anxieties is as strong as it’s ever been.

aM T M T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

Laurie Essig is Director and Professor of Gender, Sexuality & Feminist Studies at Middlebury College. She is a sociologist who teaches courses on Heterosexuality, White People, Freakishness and Feminist Blogging. Her first book, "Queer in Russia: A Story of Sex, Self and the Other" (Duke, 1999) considered how sexual others are imagined and thus imagine themselves in Russia. Her second book, "American Plastic: Credit Cards, Boob Jobs and Our Quest for Perfection" (Beacon, 2010) argued that cosmetic surgery in the US is the subprime mortgage crisis of the body, with corporations squeezing profit from working class Americans who hope a more perfect body will lead to a better future. Essig writes for a variety of publications including the Washington Post, the New York Times, and Psychology Today. Her current project is Love, Inc: The strange marriage of romance and capitalism. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

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JOHN H. WESSEL, DMD, MD

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VITAMIN

Cure T Photo by LUM3N [@lum3n].

Te x t b y C a n d a c e M a t t i n g l y

here is no question we need vitamins in our diet to live. And, there is evidence that our diets can be deficient in necessary micronutrients. When disease is knocking on our door, exploring holistic options and the benefits of mega dosing vitamins could bring us closer to a cure. HEALTH + BEAUTY•EDITION 9 NO. 4•THEMILLMAGAZINE.COM

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VITAMINB-17 A compound naturally available in more than 1,200 edible plants and seedbearing foods, vitamin B-17 or amygdalin is a powerful phytonutrient. “It is found in the highest concentrations and with the most effective accompanying enzymes in apricot seed kernels,” says Dr. Veronique Desaulniers, a natural health pioneer in Bio-Energetics, Homeopathy and Chiropractic. Apricot kernels have been consumed for their nutritional and healing properties for hundreds of years, most notably by the Hunzas tribe near Northern Pakistan. Amygdalin or vitamin B-17 contain two potent compounds that fight cancer, benzaldehyde and cyanide. Many healthy foods like millet, sprouts, lima beans, spinach, bitter almonds, bamboo shoots, and apple seeds also contain cyanide and are still safe to consume because the cyanide remains locked within other molecular formations. Cancer cells contain an enzyme called beta-glucosidase which unlocks the cyanide and benzaldehyde in the amygdalin molecules. This toxic synergy specifically targets cancer cells and leaves healthy cells unharmed. Dr. Antonio Jimenez, a board certified licensed physician, a holistic protocol pioneer, and founder of Hope4Cancer treatment centers, uses vitamin B-17 intravenous therapy with his cancer patients. “Because of the enzymatic differences between cancer and healthy cells, B-17 can selectively target and destroy cancer cells, making B-17 an effective non-toxic anticancer agent,” states Dr. Jimenez.

Photo by Dani Rendina [@dani_r_photos].

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VITAMINC With wide-ranging properties that neutralize all toxins and resolve most infections, vitamin C is truly an amazing cure. A strong antioxidant, vitamin C can strengthen your body by boosting your immune system. Consuming more vitamin C increases your blood antioxidant levels to help fight inflammation. Vitamin C helps to lower blood pressure, reduces LDL cholesterol, and lowers triglycerides. It reduces uric acid in the blood associated with gout. Interestingly, vitamin C also helps improve the absorption of iron, an important nutrient essential for making red blood cells and transporting oxygen. By encouraging the production of white blood cells, lymphocytes and phagocytes, vitamin C helps protect against infection. It protects the cells against free radicals. Vitamin C is transported to the skin where it acts as an antioxidant strengthening the skin’s barrier. Oxidative stress and inflammation near the brain can increase the risk of dementia, but high vitamin C intake have been shown to protect cognition and memory with age. Dr. Thomas Levy, a board certified cardiologist and author of “Curing the Incurable: Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins,” began researching toxicity associated with dental work and how properly administered vitamin C could neutralize it. He found medical journals filled with studies and articles reporting dramatic results with a myriad of diseases. Vitamin C has been used successfully to treat poisonous snake bites, sepsis, viral infections like Ebola and Zika, as well as, heart disease and cancer.

Photo by Brooke Lark [@brookelark].

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VITAMINK Research indicates that vitamin K is vital to the healthy functioning of many tissues in your body and is known for clotting your blood. Prolonged vitamin K deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and cancer. Present recommendations for daily intake are based on what your body needs to prevent bleeding, but does not take into account what the rest of your body needs. Vitamin K intake of the general population is too low, and most people when tested show deficient in this compound. Vitamin K is not toxic at any level. It appears that your body uses all that it gets. With no recommended daily allowances, as there are no upper limits, you can take high doses without worry. Patrick Theut, a member of the International College of Integrative Medicine, is a process controls engineer with a solid background in biochemistry and bio-physiology. His groundbreaking work on vitamin K and heart disease began in 2002. He says, ‘most physicians focus on prescription medications and are not familiar with nutritional supplements that aid in disease prevention and disease reversal. It is not part of their medical education typically, hence they rarely suggest it or recommend it for your health.” In the last decade, research has expanded to show vitamin K is associated with reversing cardiovascular disease, strengthening bones, interfering with the growth of cancer cells, benefiting those with chronic kidney disease, and helping to regulate insulin in diabetics. Vitamin K is a key regulator of calcium in the body. Without vitamin K, calcium is misplaced and becomes part of a disease process. Vitamin K triggers a modification in some proteins in your body, making them carboxylated and involved in disease prevention. Though vitamin K can be found in green leafy foods, it’s in very small quantities and is poorly absorbed. It is impossible to eat enough fresh vegetables on a daily basis to get the necessary amount of vitamin K. “Your body has many ways of making things happen,” explains Patrick Theut, “but at a terrible long-term price to your health and length of life. By making certain that you have more than enough vitamin K to benefit from the protection, you are ensuring that your body will not make compromises that could lead to a disease process beginning.”

aM T M T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

Photo by Plush Design Studio [@plushdesignstudio].

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Makeup IS BAD FOR YOUR .

skin?

Te x t b y D r . C a r a M c D o n a l d

M

akeup is an everyday item for many people and non-negotiable for some. Is it bad for our skin? As always, the answer is not clear-cut and depends on the individual, their skin type, and the products they use.

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Photo by Sarah Comeau [@sarahfaithcomeau].


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Photo by Caique Silva [@caiqueportraits].

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THEMILLMAGAZINE.COM•EDITION 9 NO. 4•HEALTH + BEAUTY


With an overwhelming choice of cosmetic products available, most people don’t even know where to start with makeup. Organic? Natural? Fragrance free? Hypoallergenic? Non-comedogenic? Paraben free? What does this all mean, and are they any better? The term makeup generally describes the group of cosmetics that are used for beautification. Other cosmetics include products that are used to cleanse, treat or protect the skin and hair. These days, though, we commonly see all-in-one products, such as BB or CC creams, which combine makeup for coverage together with other ingredients to provide sun protection and skin benefits. Reducing the total number of products can be helpful for those with problematic skin, but may complicate things for some. WHAT DOES MAKEUP DO TO OUR SKIN? While in most cases makeup is harmless, certain products may cause problems for some individuals. It’s very important to use makeup and cosmetics that are suitable for your skin type or skin condition. Skin types are broadly classified into four groups: • oily - excess oil production, large pores, blackheads and acne prone • sensitive - tight, stinging, intolerant to many products and prone to redness • dry - dull, rough or flaky and prone to itchiness • normal/combination - may be oily in the T-zone, forehead, nose and chin, but problem-free elsewhere Although most people have a good idea of their basic skin type, they may fail to recognise the existence of an underlying skin disorder. Conditions such as eczema,

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contact dermatitis, rosacea and sun damage may cause inflammation and disruption of the skin barrier. Inflammation causes itchiness or tenderness, redness, lumps and bumps, while barrier disruption results in tight, sensitive, dry and easily-irritated skin. These symptoms can be identical to those caused by reactions to cosmetics, and therefore should be considered before assuming makeup to be the cause. Conversely, an ongoing reaction to products being applied to the skin may explain why the skin is not responding to regular treatment. SKIN PROBLEMS CAUSED BY COSMETICS Acne cosmetica is a form of acne triggered by the use of certain cosmetic products. It is linked to certain ingredients that cause comedone formation, a blockage in the pore, and typically presents as small, rash-like, bumpy pimples. A common misconception is that the makeup physically blocks the pore, whereas actually the block is made of dead skin cells. Mild inflammation results in excess skin turnover and clogging of the pore, with mineral oils being the most common culprit. It’s not always possible to determine makeup is the cause simply from the ingredient list, as it may be influenced by formulation, quantity and delivery methods. Irritant dermatitis accounts for the majority of reactions to makeup and other cosmetic products. It can occur in anyone but is more likely in those with pre-existing sensitive skin or in those with underlying barrier disruption caused by a condition like eczema or rosacea. It typically causes an itchy, scaly red rash but can even blister or weep. Symptoms can occur immediately but may take weeks or even months to develop with weaker irritants, making it difficult to identify the cause.

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Photo by Ana Francisconi [@anafrancisconi].

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Photo by Daniel Apodaca [@danielapodaca96].

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Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when a person has become sensitised to an ingredient that has been applied to the skin. A red, itchy rash sometimes associated with swelling or blisters develops 12-48 hours after exposure, and may become chronic with ongoing use. The allergen can be very difficult to identify, because in some cases the product is used for months or years before sensitisation occurs. ARE THERE INGREDIENTS WE SHOULD AVOID? Fragrances and preservatives are the most common cause of contact allergy resulting from cosmetics. There are over 5,000 different fragrances used in skin care products, many of which are natural plant extracts and essential oils. Other common allergens include preservatives, lanolin, coconut diethanolamide, a foaming agent, and sunscreen agents. Preservatives, such as parabens, formaldehyde and Quaternium-15 are required in all liquid products to stabilise them and prevent the growth of microbes. A common misconception is that natural and organic ingredients will not cause allergy or irritation, but in prone individuals these can in fact be quite problematic. Unless you have a known allergy or sensitivity, there are no specific ingredients that everyone should avoid. But looking for hypoallergenic, fragrance-free and noncomedogenic products is wise. Those with an oily skin type or a history of acne should also limit oil-based cosmetics. Those with a sensitive or dry skin type, an underlying inflammatory skin condition or history of contact allergy should try to avoid irritants and potential allergens. Foaming agents, astringent products, such as toners that remove oils, scrubs and acids, such as alpha hydroxy acids used in acne and anti-ageing, tend to be irritating. Hypoallergenic formulations and those targeting sensitive skin are a good choice.

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WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I THINK I MIGHT HAVE A REACTION? If you develop a new rash or skin irritation, the first thing to do is to try to confirm the diagnosis. If you suspect you are reacting to one of your cosmetics but not sure which, then ideally you need to stop using all your current products in the problem area. You should try to simplify your daily routine, choosing products that have been specifically formulated for sensitive and allergic skin. If the problem settles, you can reintroduce your cosmetics one at a time to see whether you can identify the culprit. It’s a good idea to test each one in a small localised area on the neck or face for a week or two before using it all over the face. This process is known as a “repeat open application test”. If you can’t get to the bottom of it or find cosmetics that don’t irritate your skin, you may need to seek professional help to rule out other skin conditions and formally test for allergies if warranted.

aM T M T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

Dr. Cara McDonald is a highly trained medical and cosmetic dermatologist. She is one of the directors at Complete Skin Specialists Dermatology located in Sunbury, and has been with the practice since 2010. Cara completed her medical degree at the University of Tasmania and has also been awarded a master of Public Health from the University of Melbourne. Her specialist training in Dermatology was completed through St. Vincent’s & The Alfred Hospital’s in Melbourne and also the Oxford Hospital in the UK. She continues to hold a public hospital consultant position at St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

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Photo by Leslie Jones [@les_elizabethj].

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pplant-based DIETS: GOOD FOR IMMUNITY Text by Dr. Yasmine Probst and Joel Craddock

T

he number of people who follow vegetarian or plant-based diets is growing rapidly. People might choose to be vegetarian for ethical, cultural or health-related reasons.

Photo by Brooke Lark [@brookelark].

While not all vegetarians are necessarily following a healthy diet, research shows vegetarianism can have many benefits for health. One we’re learning more about is its potential to strengthen our immune systems. HEALTH + BEAUTY•EDITION 9 NO. 4•THEMILLMAGAZINE.COM

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We’re still working out what aspects of a vegetarian diet may be responsible for this – whether it’s the lack of meat or the emphasis on plant-based foods. But, we think the higher volume of foods including fruits, vegetables and legumes seen in vegetarian diets is likely to have a lot to do with any associated health benefits. WHAT DO VEGETARIANS EAT? Vegetarian diets are comprised of combinations of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, legumes and, for some, dairy and eggs.

There are many types of vegetarian eating patterns, from vegan (no animal products) through to lacto-ovo (some animal products such as eggs and dairy). But, each avoids eating meat. There are also a few semi-vegetarian approaches which include eating small amounts of some meats. People who primarily follow a vegetarian diet but include fish are referred to as pescetarian, while those who occasionally eat other forms of meat are considered flexitarian. Importantly, not all vegetarians follow a healthy and balanced diet. Many won’t eat the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and will consume too much junk food. But studies show that balanced vegetarian eating patterns could be good for our immune system and the related response of the body. DEFENDING FROM ATTACK Our bodies are faced with daily challenges such as getting rid of toxic chemicals and defending against nasty viruses. The immune system is

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“switched on” in response to these attacks. Having a healthy immune system is important, as it prevents us from becoming sick. A healthy immune system can be supported by a number of lifestyle factors including adequate sleep, healthy body weight and regular physical activity. It can also be substantially affected by the foods we eat and drink. People following vegetarian diets tend to have lowered levels of white blood cells, our natural defender cells. This is the case for vegetarian diets including vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo vegetarian. Having very low levels of these cells is not ideal as it can affect the body’s ability to fight infection. However, having just the right number of white cells within a healthy range may reduce your chances of getting sick. AN ADDED SHIELD OF PROTECTION As well as helping the immune system, vegetarian diets may also help our body with a related process called inflammation.

Vegetarian diets have been shown to prevent inflammation due to the antioxidant components within the foods. Inflammation occurs when the body releases cells to attack unwanted pathogens or respond to injury. It may result in redness to an area of the body or the release of certain chemicals inside our bodies. Inflammation is a protective measure that the body uses to stay as healthy as it can. People who follow vegetarian diets have lower levels of some of these

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chemicals (called C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) compared to people following a non-vegetarian diet. This means people maintaining a vegetarian diet long-term are at a lower risk of getting type 2 diabetes, heart disease or even some cancers. Each of these chronic diseases is associated with increased inflammation in the body. This is shown in blood tests by increased levels of C-reactive protein, as this is a signal of systemic inflammation. The reason why vegetarians have lowered levels of inflammation remains to be fully understood.

We suspect the high amount of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds are helping. These foods are full of important nutrients including fibres, vitamins, minerals and compounds called phytochemicals. All of these nutrients have been shown to improve levels of inflammation in the long term and may influence the body’s immune response as an added bonus. SHOULD I SWITCH TO A VEGETARIAN DIET? Going vegetarian may not be for everyone. And, it’s unwise to start a new eating pattern without understanding the potential impacts it can have on your health. Vegetarian diets that are inappropriately balanced can lead to an increased risk of iron, zinc and vitamin B12 deficiencies. This can be detrimental to overall health, particularly if followed for extended periods of time.

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The risks may be greater for certain groups of people who have added nutrient needs due to life stage, gender or for another health-related reason. So, vegetarian eating should always be undertaken carefully and under professional guidance, preferably that of a dietitian, to minimise these risks. But importantly, only 5.1% of the population eat the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables – five serves of vegetables and two serves of fruit each day. So whether you’re vegetarian or not, focusing on incorporating more plant-based foods into your diet is worthwhile. We’re constantly learning more ways this is good for your health.

aM T M T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

Dr. Yasmine Probst is a Senior lecturer at the School of Medicine, University of Wollongong. As a Research Fellow with the Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute and an Advanced Accredited Practising Dietitian, Yasmine holds Masters qualifications in both dietetics and in health informatics and has been the recipient of consecutive National Health and Medical Research Council fellowships. She is the current Honours Coordinator for Nutrition and Dietetics at the University of Wollongong and coordinator of the Visiting Researcher program for the Smart Foods Centre. Joel Craddock is a PhD Candidate at the University of Wollongong. He worked as a clinical dietitian in an assortment of hospitals across the Illawarra region before deciding to enroll in a doctorate degree exploring vegetarian-based diets and their relationships with immune function and the inflammatory response. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

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