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Animal Tissues Rubie Maranan-Causaren, M.S.


EPITHELIAL TISSUES


Classification of Epithelium 1. Number of cell layers – Simple - one – Stratified – more than one – Pseudostratified – one layer but varying heights of cells make it look stratified


Classification of Epithelium 2. Shape of cells (in apical layer) – Squamous – flat, width > h i ht height – Cuboidal – width = height – Columnar – height > width – Transitional – rounded vs. squamous depending on how much the tissue is stretched


Classification of Epithelia I. Covering or lining epithelia Arrangement of layers simple

stratified pseudostratified d t tifi d

2 Glandular epithelia 2. a. exocrine b. endocrine

Cell shape squamous cuboidal columnar squamous cuboidal columnar columnar l

Classsification simple squamous simple cuboidal simple columnar stratified squamous stratified cuboidal stratified columnar pseudostratified d t tifi d columnar l


General Features of Epithelium 1. Closely 1 Cl l packed k d cells ll 2. Continuous sheets 3. Polarity – Apical – free upper surface f – Basal – lower surface

• C Connected t db by cellll jucntions • Adhere Adh fifirmly l tto connective tissue • Avascular A l • Regeneration


Apical Surface Features „

„

Microvilli – extensions of cell membrane on apical epithelial cells „ Increase surface area for absorption or ion transport Cilia – hair-like extensions of apical surface membranes „ Push mucus over epithelial surface „ Flagellum – single, long cilium of sperm


Covering or Lining Epithelium


Figure 33 33.1a 1a


Figure 33 33.1b 1b


Figure 33 33.1c 1c


Simple Epithelia


Figure 33 33.1d 1d


Figure 33 33.1e 1e


Simple Epithelia Stratified cuboidal • Location: ducts of adult sweat glands »Part of male urethra • Function: protection


Simple Epithelia (Stratified columnar) • •

Location: male urethra » Large excretory ducts of some glands Function: protection and secretion


Simple Epithelia Transitional


Glandular Epithelium • Exocrine – Secrete products onto t body b d surfaces or into body cavities – Ducts carry secretions to epithelial surface – Unicellular – goblet cell secretes mucin

• Endocrine – Secrete products into the bloodstream – No ducts – Messenger molecules l l called ll d hormones carried to target organs


CONNECTIVE TISSUES


Connective Tissue • Most abundant and widely distributed • Characterized by large amount of extracellular matrix between cells • functions – Form skeleton, store & carry nutrients, fight infection, support other tissues and organs, protects and insulates organs, stores energy, provides immunity

Pg. 89


General Features of Connective 1. 3 basic elements 2. Cells part apart • Do not occur in free surfaces • Has H nerve supply l • Highly vascular • Matrix maybe semifluid, g gelatinous, fibrous or calcified


Figure 33 33.2 2


Mature Connective Tissues • • • • •

Loose ct Dense ct C til Cartilages Bone blood


Loose C.T.


Figure 33 33.3b 3b


Loose C.T. Reticular Tissue


Dense C.T.


Figure 33 33.3c 3c


Dense C.T. • Dense irregular g – Fascia, perichondrium, periosteum


Cartilage


Figure 33 33.3d 3d


Cartilage


Cartilage


Pubic symphysis y p y

Intervertebral disc


Bone


Osteon


Bone


Blood

(1%)

solutes

(N K (Na, K, C Ca))


Blood (RBC)


Blood (WBC) Granulocytes

neutrophil

eosinophil

Agranulocytes

lymphocyte

monocyte

basophil


Platelets (blood clotting)


Muscular Tissues


Skeletal Muscle Tissue


Cardiac Muscle Tissue


Smooth Muscle Tissue


LOCATION SHAPE NUMBER OF NUCLEUS/1 LOCATION OF NUCLEUS

STRIATIONS NERVOUS CONTROL SPECIAL CHARAC.


Nervous Tissue dendrites

1.neuron

Cell body/ y perikaryon axon

2. Neuroglia g (supporting tissue)


窶郎UN NA!


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