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LESSON’S OBJECTIVES • Define and describe Earth Science as a general field with many branches. • Identify the field of geology as a branch of Earth Science that deals with the solid part of the Earth. • Name some noted contributors and tools used by the earth scientists. • Differentiate rotation from revolution. • Discuss the special features of the Earth.

OVERVIEW OF EARTH SCIENCE Earth is the mighty planet upon which we all live. It was only a few hundred years ago that we discovered that Earth was just a tiny part of an enormous galaxy, which in turn is a small part of an even greater universe. Earth Science deals with any and all aspects of the Earth. Our Earth has molten lava, icy mountain peaks, steep canyons and towering waterfalls. Earth scientists study parts of the Earth as big as continents and as small as the tiniest atom. In all its wonder, Earth scientists seek to understand the beautiful sphere on which we thrive (Figure 1).

GEOLOGY AS A DICIPLINE • Two Areas of Geology 1. Physical Geology- The study of materials composing the Earth and the processes and phenomena that operate beneath and upon its surface. 2. Historical Geology- deals with the study of the evolution of the Earth.

GEOLOGY • Geology is the study of the solid matter that makes up Earth. Anything that is solid, like rocks, minerals, mountains, and canyons is part of geology.

• Geologists study the way that these objects formed, their composition, how they interact with one another, how they erode, and how humans can use them.

Geology and Earth’s processes

BRANCHES OF GEOLOGY MINERALOGY Studies the composition and structures of minerals such as halite (rock salt) quartz, calcite and magnetite.

Oceanology Oceanology is the study of everything in the ocean environment. More than 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Most of that water is found in the oceans. Recent technology has allowed us to go to the deepest parts of the ocean, yet much of the ocean remains truly unexplored.

Meteorology and Climatology Meteorology don’t study meteors — they study the atmosphere. It includes the study of weather patterns, clouds, hurricanes, and tornadoes.

Climatology study of gases in our atmosphere that have found dangerous to humans putting an amount of carbon dioxide into the air by burning fossil fuels.

ASTRONOMY ASTRONOMY is the study of heavenly bodies It uses resources on the Earth the study of physical things beyond the Earth. They use a variety of instruments like optical telescopes and radio telescopes to see things far beyond what the human eye can see.

STATIGRAPHY Stratigraphy is another area of Earth science which examines layers of rock beneath the surface. This helps us to understand the geological history of the Earth.

ECOLOGY Ecology is the study of ecosystems, the complex relationship of all life forms and the environment in a given place . Ecologist try to predict the chain reactions that could occur when one part of the ecosystem is disrupted.

OTHER BRANCHES OF GEOLOGY • Geochronology- study of how old rocks are and determination of how different rock .

• Climatology is the study of understanding the climate and how it will change in the future in response to global warming.

OTHER BRANCHES OF GEOLOGY • VOLCANOLOGY- field of geology that deals with the study of high temperatures. • SEISMOLOGY- study of earthquakes and the forces. • PALEONTOLOGY-study of fossils. • PLANET GEOLOGY-study of comparison of other planets' geologies to that of the Earth.

NOTED CONTRIBUTORS PythagorasA Greek philosopher And mathematician who suggested that the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun on its orbit.


Nicholas CopernicusPolish astronomer who revived the Heliocentric Theory.


Cladius PtolemyAn astronomer and mathematician who advanced the Geocentric System.


Tyco BraheDanish astronomer who strongly opposed the Heliocentric System


Isaac NewtonA physicist, mathematician and astronomer who was famous for his laws of motion


Galileo GalileiFather of Modern Science who played a major role in scientific revolution.


Telescope Kinds: Refracting Telescope Reflecting Telescope Radio telescope

Tools Used by the Earth Scientist


Tools Used by the Earth Scientist


AGE OF THE EARTH • The age of the Earth is said to be not more than 10 billion years and not less than 4.6 billion years.

SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE EARTH • GEODESY- science discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth.

SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE EARTH Erasthostenes estimated the size or the circumference of the earth was about 43,200 km wide. The shape of the Earth is oblate spheroid which means the earth is flat on the equatorial region.

MOTIONS OF THE EARTH • Rotation- the Earth makes one complete rotation on its axis in 24 hours or the so called solar day.The Earth spins toward the east which makes the sun appear to move in different direction, east to west. • Revolution- The Earth’s movement on its orbit or revolution around the sun. It takes the Earth 365 and ¼ days to travel around its orbit also called solar year.

THE Earth's Rotation The Earth is rotating around an axis (called its rotational axis). Some objects rotate about a horizontal axis, like a rolling log. Some objects, such as a skater, rotate about a vertical axis. The Earth's axis is tipped over about 23.5째 from vertical.


INTERIOR OF THE EARTH Earth has a diameter of about 12,756 km (7,972 mi). The Earth's interior consists of rock and metal. It is made up of four main layers: 1) the inner core: a solid metal core made up of nickel and iron (2440 km diameter) 2) the outer core: a liquid molten core of nickel and iron 3) the mantle: dense and mostly solid silicate rock 4) the crust: thin silicate rock material

Chemical Composition of the Crust


LITHOSPHERE The solid part of the earth


HYDOSPHERE The liquid part of the Earth

SURFACE OF THE EARTH ATMOSPHERE The gaseous part of the Earth

MAP READING • Maps are basic tools used in the study of the Earth. • Basic Features 1. Grid 2. Lines of Latitudes 3. Scale 4. Color and Symbols


Topographic Map Maps that show landforms


POLITICAL MAP Shows national and local boundaries


Navigation chart Shows route and distances


Hydrographic Map Map that shows depth of water and the topography of the ocean floor

TIME Time is a part of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects.[1 The temporal position of events with respect to the transitory present is continually changing; future events become present, then pass further and further into the past.

STANDARD TIME Standard time is the result of synchronizing clocks in different geographical locations within a time zone to the same time rather than using the local meridian as in local mean time or solar time.

INTERNATIONAL DATELINE • The International Date Line (IDL) is a generally north-south imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, passing through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, that designates the place where each calendar day begins.

HOW A YEAR IS MEASURED? • Scientifically, a year is determined as the time it takes for the Earth to make one full orbit around the sun. Our best calculations, to date, figure that as being 365.25 days.

EARTH TRIVIA • Jellyfish have been on Earth for over 650 million years, before sharks and dinosaurs. • Sharks have survived on earth for about 400 million years. • There are more than 50,000 earthquakes throughout the world every year.

EARTHS TRIVIA • Approximately 70 percent of the Earth is covered with water. Only 1 percent of the water is drinkable. • A neutron star is the strongest magnet in the universe • The deepest point on Earth surface is the Pacific Ocean located at Marianas Trench.

EARTH TRIVIA • Pigeons and hummingbirds have tiny magnetic particles in their heads that are used for navigation. • The Atlantic Ocean is saltier than the Pacific Ocean. • Of all known form of animals life ever to inhabit the earth, only 10% still exists today.

REFERENCES • Braganza, Earth Science Rex Book Store Manila latest ed. • Bernard, Raymond W. The hollow earth, the greatest geographical discovery in history New York, Distributed by Fieldcrest Pub. Co. [1964] 116 p. illus., ports. • Gardner, Marshall B. A Journey to the Earth New York Reinhart Publishing Company


Earth Science