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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement Introduction Journal entries: Molecular gastronomy! The Philippine pancit Pinakbet Welcome to the island of misfit toys. Toy story 4, maybe? Tumblr. Culture Photoshopped beauty Shadow art: “art na hindi mo inakala!” Kintsukuroi: “Being broken is beautiful” Ilocano music: an art The Philippine music UUP: Ukelele underground Philippines Art terms Sources


The Philippine Pancit

Philippine food culture has been influenced by other countries back then. These influences have helped to shape our culture. Examples of foreign brands adapted by Filipinos are burgers, paella, pizza, and Chinese food like siomai, siopao and noodles. Though noodles originated from China, most Filipinos like it and appropriated these Chinese noodles into our own ‘pancit’. Pancit has become a must have in many Filipino celebrations like fiestas, birthdays, Christmas, New Year and even merienda. Pancit, or commonly known as bihon, is said to be easier and more convenient to cook than other dishes. Ordinary pancit dish has vegetables, meat and calamansi( to enhance its flavor) in it. Our interest with this food has taken to another level as it caught the attention of the business people. Local ‘panciterias’ has been emerging and many companies are now using pancit as their product particularly, pancit canton. Truly, pancit has become a part of our food culture. But aside from pancit being introduced in business, adaptations of pancit nowadays are becoming a trademark of a certain place. Like Batchoy in Iloilo, Pancit Habhab in Quezon Province, Pancit Malabon in Malabon, Pancit Luglog in Central Luzon, Lomi in Batangas, and Pancit Batil-Patong in Tuguegarao. Other popular pancit in the philippines are sotanghon, molo, palabok and pancit puti.


Pinakbet

Philippines is an archipelago and a tropical country. It is no doubt that variety of plants has been able to grow fantastically. Trees, fruits, and vegetables can be gathered anywhere. With these, Filipinos have created a delectable veggie dishpinakbet. It is an indigenous meat-vegetable meal that includes Filipino style of cooking‘gisa’ and mixing of different vegetables like squash, string beans, eggplant, okra, ampalaya etc. Others prefer to add chicharon or malunggay in it. Usually, pork is used for this dish but sometimes shrimp is used instead.

It is believed that this dish originated in the northern part of the Philippines, specifically, Ilocos. Even its name is from an Ilokano term ‘pinakebbet’ which means ‘to shrink’. Ilokano pinakbet uses bagoong, particularly alamang, to enhance its flavor. However, some uses coconut milk instead. Ilokanos generally uses ‘dinengdeng’ for their vegetable dishes but what differentiates pinakbet from dinengdeng is its way of cooking and even its ingredients.


Welcome to the island of misfit toys. wallflower (n.) a shy or retiring person who remains unnoticed at social events, especially a woman without a dance partner I am writing an entry about “The Perks of Being a Wallflower” because in my opinion, it is one those novels turned to major motion pictures that are actually almost as beautiful as the novels. I first read the novel way back in third year high school and had no idea that it will have a movie adaption. Then it became mainstream when it was officially announced that Emma Watson and Logan Lerman along with Nina Dobrev of ‘The Vampire Diaries’ were to play the main characters for the movie. And the fangirls and fanboys were like ‘I’m gonna read the novel because Emma and Logan will be in its movie.’ It kind of pissed me off as a fan of the novel; I felt like people should read it because it is an eye-opening and an honest coming-of-age read that everyone can relate to. Of course, that was just me being selfish but Stephen Chbosky must be happy his novel got more recognition. Okay now, I will stop dissing the bandwagon riders. LOL. I love reading books, popular or not. To quote Elizabet Scott, “I love books. I love that moment when you open one and sink into it you can escape from the world, into a story that’s way more interesting than yours will ever be.” Yep, true story. Though “The Perks” tackled issues that are dark in a lot of ways, the book spoke to me. I never dealt with sex, drug addiction and depression Charlie experienced but somehow, I connected to him. Like him, I was a wallflower. I was never asked out to dance during parties. I was a “nobody.” At some point, I felt like I was the one who’s writing the letters. The things Charlie went through in high school were the things almost everyone went through. Another thing I loved about the book was Chbosky’s writing style; he dealt with the issues very well without getting the readers that heavy feeling. The writing style also showed how Charlie has grown. It is one of


those

novels

that

were

able

to

put

complex

thoughts

into

simple

but

understandable sentences. Its movie version was beautiful as well! At first, I had reservations because most of the movie adaptations of the novels I have read sucked but “The Perks” did not disappoint. It lived up to the book, I must say. It helped that Chbosky, the author of the novel, wrote the screenplay and directed it. It was definitely faithful to the original material although there were some scenes that were cut out but it was able to capture the essence of the book. I watched it with a friend who hasn’t read the book yet and she enjoyed the film as well. It was accessible to non-readers as the story is very relatable. The main casts did a great job portraying their roles; they really played the roles very well. I thought that Logan Lerman embodied Charlie’s character well; Emma Watson was playing a totally different character from Hermione and

nailed

it;

and

Ezra

Miller

was

charismatic

and

charming.

The

cinematography was great as well; it has a dreamy feel to it and the creation of vivid and rich colors even in the dark scenes added to the film’s artistic appeal. The film had classic, indie vibe which I really liked. Also, the songs used in the film managed to expand the book’s appeal. Wonderful soundtrack. I know it is cheesy and all, but both the book and film made me feel infinite.

Love always, Marjorie


By Renzi Manlapig

After Andy gave his toys to Bonnie, Woody, Buzz and the rest of the gang felt relieved because they will not end up in the attic. They will still be played with. A few years later, Bonnie received an iPad from her parents and chose the Subway Surfers over Woody and Buzz. She played with Grand Theft Auto than with RC, the remote controlled buggy. She doesn’t play cowboy with Jessie and Bullseye anymore because she’s having more fun with Temple Run. And she no longer finds the Potato Heads cute due to Angry Birds. A good plot for Toy Story 4, eh? In this technological era, gadgets such as tablet PCs are becoming the ‘modern toys’ of children. The most prevalent use of tablets among kids is not for educational purposes but for gaming. The wide variety of apps and games installed in these tablet PCs is reminiscent of childhood toys. Angry Birds can be likened to a slingshot, in as much as the other toys stated above show parallelism with games and apps. They are like virtual representations of the toys we know. Furthermore, the fact that children prefer these gadgets more than toys makes them the substitute for toys, the modern toys – the new plaything. And because of this, there has been a noticeable decline in the use of toys. Toys or gadgets, which one do you prefer as a childhood plaything? Let’s compare. Try to imagine a family reunion. Let’s say they belong to the middle and upper classes of the society. The parents left their children in the play area surrounded by toys to have some quality time. Each of these kids either has their own or uses their parents’ gadgets. Do you think they’ll bother chatting with one another? Even if they’re cousins, I bet no one will initiate a talk. Instead, they will just use their gadgets. Gadgets limit our social interaction. With these around, particularly tablets, everything becomes handier including the Internet. The advantage of


being handy also becomes a disadvantage because, with tablets, there is a tendency for them to confine themselves in their personal space while they’re with other people in a public place. The irony is that social-networking sites or SNS, which are more accessible through these gadgets, make the youth less sociable. E.J. Westlike, an Assistant Professor of theatre studies at the University of Michigan, analyzes Facebook as a stage where people get to perform in front of an audience. In the virtual world, they portray themselves as how they want others to see them. And sometimes they end up liking their virtual characters more than their true selves that they don’t know how to deal with real people anymore. With more Internet socializing than actual socializing, they become introverted. Now, what if the kids didn’t have gadgets? I bet they will play with the toys around them. Toys stimulate bonding. It’s given that these toys are just digitalized through apps and games, but will these beat the physical interaction children have with toys? There’s learning in experiencing – when you let all your senses coordinate together. There’s learning in doing. With tablets, everything’s done with a touch and a click. There’s not much use of the other senses. There’s not much body coordination. There are hardly any body movements. Toys such as board games have educational purposes. Actually, almost every toy has an educational purpose. In Roland Barthes’ “Mythologies,” he defines “toys as essentially a microcosm of the adult world; they are all reduced copies of human objects.” A doll conditions little girls to their future role as mothers. They feed the doll, change its diaper and sing it lullabies. Lego blocks teach children how to build things. Monopoly teaches them things about the business world – managing money and properties. The toys also give children an idea of what they would want to be like when they grow up. When the kid likes cooking toys, maybe he/she can be a chef. Toys open children to a lot of possibilities. Tablets are now more popular than toys. Is it really time for Woody and Buzz to say hello to the attic?


Let me first tell you a story about my friend Neil. He met a girl on Facebook. Ever since the day they became Facebook friends, he started liking all her photos. He developed a crush on her because she looks beautiful in all her uploaded photos. But then, someone tagged her in a stolen shot. Neil was shocked to see that she’s not really flawless and fairskinned. He was devastated to see his dream girl turn into a nightmare. What a heartbreaking incident caused by Photoshop! As we all know, Adobe Photoshop is the most popular and widely used photo editing software. It can do magic with every picture, transforming the ugly to something beautiful by editing all the imperfections until the desired outcome is achieved. Photoshop is like virtual painting. There are tools like paint brush, healing brush and paint bucket. There are also features wherein a picture can look sketched and impressionistic. There are effects like watercolor and oil painting. Photoshop is not limited to editing. It can actually be used to create images and artworks. These images are categorized as digital paintings. Though there is no actual paint and brush, Photoshop still requires skill. It may be less expensive than actual painting but the process of digital painting can be more painstaking. Some think that Photoshop makes everything more beautiful. But no, there is good and bad Photoshop. Good Photoshop is when the picture improved after the editing.

( Airbrushed, Optical Illusion, Film Graphics )


Bad Photoshop is when there are still flaws after the editing or there is too much editing that the picture either becomes uglier or looks unrealistic.

( Too much editing, Twisted neck, Third arm )

( Distorted left arm, Holding hands with no one, Wrong reflection )

Photoshop, when used properly, creates amazing graphics. It is very useful in advertisements and posters, especially beauty products. The perfection it gives to photos leaves good impressions on viewers. But that perfection raises our standards on beauty. Everything will seem not enough until it’s perfect. Beauty is equated to being flawless, fair-skinned, and sexy. It is all about superficial qualities. And the desire for perfection pulls us away from reality. Most edited pictures are far from the original ones, enough to fool our naked eyes. This is what happened to our dear friend Neil. Photoshopped beauty has been so popular that a local band even made a song about it. Tanya Markova’s “Da Facebook Song” tell us a story about how a guy was fooled by a girl’s Facebook Profile Picture. Sure, uploading a Photoshop edited picture will receive hundreds of likes. But will the likes and good comments give you happiness when you know in yourself that it is just because of a Photoshopped beauty? Will it really boost or just lower your selfesteem? - Renzi Manlapig


To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images. - Plato, The Republic Shadow art is a I was watching an episode from the anime Detective unique form of Conan by Gosho Aoyama, when an evidence of the murderer caught my attention. Yes, the evidence is sculptural art inevitably beautiful, casting a shadow that portrays where the 2D the murderer. It was a thin steel rod being curved or shadows cast by shaped into a complex figure so that when you shine a 3D sculpture light into it, it forms a ballerina silhouette which points out the culprit. It amazed me, and before ɪ knew are essential for it, I was already searching about it, and found out that the artistic effect. I have already seen some of these things in the site - Niloy J. Mitra, called ‘9gag’, and that it is called “Shadow Art”. Mark Pauly , These examples of shadow art impressed me because, how 2009 did they (the artists) manage to shape these things knowing that they will form a certain object or even a reflection of is reality once light has shone upon the sculptures? How did Shadow art inly they know from what angle will they shine the light towards not certa mainthose works of art? I had done some research and found out on but that they can also use computer to do these kinds of things. stream, see They propose a design procedure in a program where the n ca u yo aduser can directly specify the desired shadows by providing a s a m e th , ts n set of binary images and corresponding projection infore m se verti ib mation. There is also geometric optimization that computes tr s a even s a 3D shadow volume. It looks technical for me so ɪ did not st rti a r ute fo y bother to understand quite a few terms about the process in d n A r like fo making. d n a Warhol, a Shadow art was also popular when a group of contestants in s even a r fo the talent search tv show “Pilipinas Got Talent” joined and solution made it up in the finals. They were so great that the images pollution. were not stationary but moving objects, mimicking animals, and even everyday objects with the use of their bodies and sometimes props (as shadows).

Art is not just for beauty, or as a reflection of the reality, sometimes, it can be as mysterious, as mind-boggling, and as useful as a SHADOW ART.


“BEING BROKEN IS BEAUTIFUL”

ique e techn s e n a p is a Ja tal 繕い) 金 ( i o r with me u s k ic u s m t a Kin ord in en cer r. The w ing brok e ir v a il p s e r r of gold o ld”. with go , usually r ir e a u p q e r c la s “to e mean s e n a p a J

ɪ am here to talk to you the concept of understanding that a piece is more beautiful for having been broken. Kintsukuroi is believed to be started in the 15th and 16th century. It is also known as kintsugi (“to patch with gold”), and there was a story behind it.

Have you ever felt broken? … that you are weak? …fragile? … that no one can mend your wounds? …that you are useless?

Have you ever Well if you have not felt that w on dere d way before, a shattered glass, a why gol d o broken pot, a cracked vase, and exis r silver ts? W hat a a fractured vessel already had. the re ir p u r p But do you know the thing that the oses? y ju s Are t me has made their brokenness luxu rely ry or f away? It’s GOLD. signi or in g w fyealth ?

“Once upon a time, in Japan, a wealthy man was sitting, having some tea. As he was taking in the beautiful sights and sounds of the beautiful landscape he inadvertently dropped his teacup and it broke. The teacup was made of clay and so it would need to be taken to a craftsmen in order to get it fixed. He sent his precious teacup to the shop. Later, when he received the teacup back it was mended, but it was mended crudely and it turned his precious beautiful teacup into a something he no longer appreciated. However, all was not lost, another craftsmen decided to approach the teacup in a different way. He delicately undid the ugly job the other craftsmen did and instead of simply and crudely stapling the broken pieces together, he filled the cracks with a Gold Resin. Now the teacup had veins of gold resin all around it keeping the broken pieces together.” - Alon, 2013 A piece of pottery that has been broken, its value being degraded and considered it as trash, will it still be of help? Yet when we see that it has been done by the kintsukuroi technique, we cannot help but wonder on such a phenomenon that the piece, once broken and considered trash, is still useful. ɪ cannot help but relate this brokenness to us human beings. Who among us has not yet been broken? Who has not had a relationship destroyed? a loved one whom life has taken? A fractured bone? A friendship over? Dreams died like that of cigarette butt being stepped on? Each of us, in one way or another has been broken. And there are things in life that may help us fix those things, acting like the gold, which is a symbol that being broken or having imperfections is beautiful. Love, trust, faith, happiness… these are all fixers of our brokenness.

Art comes in relation to us being humans, and objects may sometimes signify us. Although non-living, their representation of us is what makes us strong and have our own realization of ourselves. “We are all wonderful, beautiful wrecks. That's what connects us--that we're all broken, all beautifully imperfect.” ― Emilio Estevez


Ilocano Music: An Art By: Myron D l c Art is a work made or composed by man to express himself, especially his feelings and ideas. It can be through paintings, sculptures, dance, music, writings, etc. Through art works, artists can be able to showcase what is stored in them. Art shows beauty and reality but sometimes art can also be beyond imagination. This means that art is very broad. Artists can create their own ideas in making a certain art even beyond what they can see in reality. Anything can be a subject of art. Sometimes an art cannot be immediately understood except for the artist himself. There are a lot of interpretations coming from different people from different countries about an art. Some may say that this certain art is beautiful some may say it’s a junk but let’s not forget that every art has its own reason why it was made the way it is, that every art has its own beauty within. Music pleases the ears, touches the soul, and gives color to one’s heart that makes it far more different from any other form of art. It changes lives through the words it conveys. According to Janesa Lei Guerrero, an Ilocano musician, “The preservation of Ilocano music is not given importance anymore. Many Ilocano people today don’t appreciate their own culture, their own Ilocano music, only old ones do. I think this is because of the influence of modernization. People rather choose to listen to the music of the present generation. ” On the other hand ArjayAlcantara, another Ilocano musician believes that it is not about the lack of preservation of people why the music back those days does not exist anymore but it is because people just really want to create their own music and not just adapt. In addition, he also believes that traditional music does not necessarily need to be preserved today because as an artist himself at present generation it is very important for him to make music considering what is appealing to the listeners. Music has its own identity from generation to generation. Some Music fades as times go by, some is still being remembered but later on as Music creates its own identity again and again it just vanishes away and forgotten by people. But even if each and every artist has his own unique talents, what’s important is that they enhance these God-given talents and create beautiful music.


The Philippine Music by MyronD l C For years, Philippine music has been continuously resonating, not only inside the country but the entire globe, for we have already proven that our music has its own identity. For some people, particularly musicians or art enthusiasts, music is a part of life wherein people could express their own thoughts and emotions, as a means of living, a tradition, a part of culture. In the Philippine context, music from other places differs a lot from how the Filipinos express it. Before the Spaniards came to the country (for the purpose of colonizing and enculturation – the act of sharing and slowly imparting one culture to another), Filipinos were already animists. They worship and believe things that surround them, especially anything that is related with nature. With these beliefs, they have managed to create rituals and myths and some of these are present until now. Then the Spaniards arrived, enculturation began and a change was made among the Filipinos’ minds. The belief the Filipinos had and the culture the Spaniards tried to influence were combined and formed a new kind of mentality amongst the Filipinos. A higher way of thinking that is. Everything changed; Filipinos learned sewing, Christianity, economy, education and Art, especially in the Music industry. What was the identity of Philippine Music before? And what is it today? Before, Philippine Music was for worshipping nature and things, it was more like of a ritual. No melodic phrases, ne specific musical rules were then followed. Philippine Music was not that strict before unlike today. The Philippine Music of today is far better than before due to its form and nature. Music today follows a norm and not just plainly sang. Philippine Music is also taught in schools and other institutions. There are a lot of Filipino musicians that are as good as other musicians (probably better) external of the country. There are also written music by the use of technology and speaking by technology, there are also numerous musical objects such as electric guitar, drum, tuning fork, etc. Philippine Music is indeed a huge development. Whatever music we may encounter in our daily lives, the identity of our music will never discontinue. God gave this to us and it’s our part to enhance it and develop it more.


Abstraction - every work of art, no matter how literal or representational, is removed from the indiscriminate and chaotic world beyond the picture frame Achromatic -designating color perceived to have zero saturation and therefore no hue, such as neutral grays, white, or black Aesthetics - the theoretical counterpart to art; the branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with a view to establishing the meaning and validity of critical judgments concerning works of art, and the principles underlying or justifying such judgments Allegorical - a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal Appropriation - art of “making do�; bricolage as tactics; process of borrowing and changing the meaning of cultural products, slogans, images and elements of fashion Architecture - the art or practice of designing and building structures and especially habitable ones Art - an original creation, produced by an individual gifted with genius; in a modern sense of the term: "the skillful (sic) production of the beautiful in visible forms" Art exhibition - a room or series of rooms where works of art are exhibited Art patron - the support or encouragement of a patron, as for an institution or cause Authorship - the fact or position of someone's having written a book or other written work


Avant-garde - a group active in the invention and application of new ideas and techniques in an original or experimental way; a group of practitioners and/or advocates of a new art form Axiological plane - analyzing the values of a work; a necessary part of crticial evaluation; art directly or indirectly conveys meaning and seeks to influence ideas and values in subliminal ways

Brush strokes - the way an art work, specifically a painting, was painted; the structural aspect of the brush formation in a painting Basic Semiotic plane - meaning is produced from the interplay of signifiers of the work

Canvass - a piece of cloth backed or framed as a surface for a painting; the painting on such a surface Chiaroschuro - an effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from a particular direction on something Chroma - the strength or purity of a color Classic art - refers to the ancient art and architecture in Greece and Rome Collage - an artistic composition wherein pieces of various materials are arranged and glued to create a certain form Collecting - gathering together things Color - an art element that is seen when light hits an object and is reflected to the eyes Contemporary art - the art of the late 20th and early 21st century Content - the idea, feelings, sensations presented in a work of art


Contextual plane - refers to the social and historical context of the work of art Contextualization - analyzing something by putting it in a specific circumstance or setting Cosmetics - products applied to the body that is meant to beautify or improve its appearance Counter-bricolage - adapting the tactics of the marginalized cultures into the mainstream Curator - the person who organizes and maintains a collection of artworks or artifacts Cyberculture - the culture that has emerged, or is emerging, from the use of computer networks for communication, entertainment, and business

Differentiation - identifying differences and making distinctions between things

Fine art - a visual art considered to have been created primarily for aesthetic purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness, specifically, painting, sculpture, drawing, watercolor, graphics, and architecture Food culture - eating habits and culinary practices of a people, region, historical period Form - an element of art, such as you would see in a sculpture that has three dimensions

Gallery - an establishment that displays and sells works of art


Gender-Bending - bending the traditional codes of gender roles and sexual norms Genre paintings - a style of painting depicting scenes from everyday life, associated particularly with 17th-century Gestalt - in a work of art, its form and its content are inseparable

Hegemony - reception of dominant message of a text in an unquestioning manner Hue - the property which distinguishes one color from another Humanities - the condition or quality of being human

Iconic plane - the image is regarded as an iconic sign: a unique sign with a particular and highly nuanced meaning as different from a conventional sign Image - a representation of the external form of a person or thing in sculpture, painting, etc Informal balance - symmetrical balance refers to a design that has dissimilar elements but still appears balanced, dividing a picture in half won't have the exact same elements however the elements they do have are varied and seem to balance one another out Installation - a work of art that usually consists of multiple components often in mixed media and that is exhibited in a usually large space in an arrangement specified by the artist Intensity - degree of brightness or dullness of a color Interpellation - process by which we are constructed by ideologies that speak to us every day through language and images


Modern movement - set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and farreaching changes to Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; Modernism explicitly rejects the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past, through the application of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody in new forms Motif - a distinctive feature or dominant idea in an artistic or literary composition Mural - is any piece of artwork painted directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface Museum - a building that houses a thematic collection of different things

Nostalgia - the evocation of these feelings or tendencies, esp. in commercialized form

Performance art - a nontraditional art for wherein the artist performs while being viewed by an audience Perspective - the art or theory of representing on a flat or curves surface solid objects, figures, architecture, other surfaces conceived of as not lying in that surface Photograph - an image, especially a positive print, recorded by a camera and reproduced on a photosensitive surface Pop culture - commercial culture based on popular taste Pragmatic - dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations


Proportion - is a principle of art that describes the size, location or amount of one element to another (or to the whole) in a work. It has a great deal to do with the overall harmony of an individual piece Provenance - this is indicated by the name of the present owner or collector of the work, whether it belongs to a museum, gallery, or private collection Public art - any kind of art that is displayed in a public place for public viewing

Scale - the proportion or ratio that defines the size relationships Sculpture - the art or practice of shaping figures or designs in the round or in relief, as by chiseling marble Secular art - an Art not specifically relating to religion or to a religious body Semiotics - study of signs; work of art as the iconic or pictorial sign Space - an extensive area that is the container of all things and events Stencil - an impervious material (as a sheet of paper, thin wax, or woven fabric) perforated with lettering or a design Style - the composite use of the devices and characteristics applicable to their medium of expression Symbol - something that stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship, association, convention, or accidental resemblance Symmetry - the quality of being made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis


Taste - a notion of beauty determined by class and cultural background; learned through social and cultural institutions Textual poaching - possibility of inhabiting or owning text by negotiating meaning and responding Texture – the visual feel of two-dimensional work or the three dimensional feel when touched Theme - the subject of a talk, a piece of writing, a person's thoughts, or an exhibition Tint - a color to which white has been added to make it lighter modeling clay, or casting in metal Toys - microcosm of the adult world; reduced copies of human world Traditional art – articles of everyday life combining design and function; linked with ritual, bear images in the form of symbols and motifs which may convey narratives of communal significance Trans-coding - derogatory terms and refusing them in empowering ways

Value - relative lightness and darkness of a color Videoke - a system of gadgets and apparatuses which have been electronically connected transforming it into an outstanding example of a global technology Visual arts - art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture


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Sources:


Art Studies 2 Journal Project  

Final output by the noisiest group in class. LOL.

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