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Client: TU/e BMT Contact person: Daisy van der Schaft Coach: Ronald van Tienhoven Theme: Nextnature Semester: B2.1 Date: 4-1-2012

NEXT NATURE DPD36 FOOD TECHNOLOGY DESIGNING FOR IN VITRO MEAT MARJOLEIN KORS


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THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT detailed in this report was to design “something” that had to do with in vitro meat. In vitro meat is an innovating protein product which is still in development but has the potential to change our future eating habits. In this report I will chronologically cover the global design process that I went through. I will explain and show what I have done during this period, how I eventually caume to the final design concept and how this design can help in vitro meat to become a potential success. The outcome of this project is a design concept that: - Is designed with the idea to approach and introduce in vitro meat on a differnent and new way. Which will accelerate and enhance the acceptation of in vitro meat. - Is a complete concept, what means that it is directly applicable in our society once invitro meat is ready for human consumption. - Has an emphasis on the unconsciousness and how it influences the behaviour of people.

- Is design out of the idea that invitro meat is a total new food source and not just a replacement product for meat, more like potatoes and rice. - Is focussed on clearness and openness, a personal approach, personal adjustability, fascination, our future society, self-regulative and a different perspective.

The title of this B2.1 project is “Food design and Technology” and located in the Next Nature theme of Industrial Design at the Technical University of Eindhoven. During this project I have been supported by my coach Ronald van Tienhoven.

PREFACE

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TABLE OF CONTE

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Preface Table of contents Introduction

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THE DESIGN PROCESS

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Exploration The image of in vitro meat General comments on in vito meat The origin of this image An emphasis on connection with laboratory Misconceptions Compared to meat Resulting vision on in vitro meat

10 10 12 14 14 14 15 15

Client meeting W1 Introduction Turning point

16 16 17

Idea generation W2-W5 Introduction Corresponding & Interesting aspects Scenario: Vision on future eating habits

18 18 18 19

Midterm exhibition Design concept Results

20 24 25

Deepening the design concept Business plan explorations Costs compared with the “normal� introduction for in vitro meat. Technology Exploration of the restrictions Reconsideration and implementation of the restrictions

26 28 33 34 34 35


ENTS Shape exploration One piece Amount of pieces Kind of meat Technology container

36 36 36 37 37

Final concept The design concept The design itself Scenarios of use Business plan

38 40 40 42 44

Final exhibition

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Recommendations Aesthetics Way of use Business lan

48 48 49 49

APPENDICES

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Interview with Dauisy van der Schaft of the BMT laboratry

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REFERENCES

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NOWADAYS MEAT IS PRODUCED on a quite unsustainable way. A complete animal is grown but just a part of it is actually used for human consumption. This meat production method causes all kind of issues on the field of the environment, health and ethics. Thereby it is most likely that the demand for meat will increase in the upcoming years. It is even estimated that in 2050 this demand will have been increased on such a scale that the production has doubled to 463 million tons of meat per year. To produce this amount of meat on the current way is almost impossible. It already occupies about 30% of the viable land and represents 18% of the global warming effect. So a solution has to be found.

IN VITRO MEAT

A POSSIBLE OPTION is being developed by my client the BMT: In vitro meat or better called “cultured meat�. The idea of in vitro meat is to let a small amount of muscle cells grow and multiply into a piece of meat. So why grow a whole animal if it is possible to grow only

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THIS PROJECT OFFERS THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXPLORE NEW FOOD TECHNOLOGY AND ITS’ IMPACT FOR DESIGNERS.

the piece you actually use. In short currently in vitro meat is produced by obtaining cells from an animal source and cultivated this in a culture medium. Then they are placed in a bioreactor were they grow over time while an electrical implied is applied to train the growing muscles, eventually resulting in a piece of in vitro meat. In order to read this report it is preferred to understand this in vitro meat production process. As an extra help I have included an explaining picture on a following page, which I think explains it quite clear.

INTRODUCTION PROJECT PROPOSAL

The production of this in vitro meat would in comparable with “normal” meat be approximately 45% more energy effective, 96% less greenhouse gas producing and 99% less land & water using. Thereby in vitro meat would not only be healthier for the environment but also for us. Animal epidemics would belong to the past just like the secretly use of hormones. Morally it will also be better because we don’t need to keep and slaughter animals on such a massive way.

THE PROPOSAL OF the Food Technology project on study web was as following:

“Food is one of the last elements that connects humans to their natural origins. Often images related to food display a very romantic picture about the authenticity of a product. Food however is a highly industrialized product. And becoming even more so by the progression of gentech, but also new food technologies like the ‘victimless meat’. This project offers the opportunity to explore new food technology and its’ impact for designers.” – Studyweb

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THE DESI P

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IGN PROCESS

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EXPLORATION THE OVERALL IDEA OF THIS PROJECT was to design “something” concerning in vitro meat with the emphasis on food design and food technology. The end product was not defined, so could be anything. In order to start designing, and be able to see opportunities. I know from experience that I need a decent foundation of knowledge concerning the subject and the already existing design concepts. Therefore my project started with an exploration week in which I oriented myself in to the subject in vitro meat as well as food technology and food design. During this week we as a group THE IMAGE OF IN VITRO MEAT discussed our findings and ideas. THE MOST STRIKING AND INTERESTING ASPECT that I found was that in vitro meat is frequently planned to be introduced as a replacement product for meat which will look and be consumed exactly like ‘normal’ meat with a clear connection to the lab, it is also known as lab-meat. The reactions of people on the idea of in vitro meat are often negative, one sees it as a manipulation of

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A visual explaination of the in vitro meat production process made by Nik Spencer. Published online 8 December 2010 | Nature 468

nature. A minority reacted positive but with distrust. This distrust is generally caused by the unclearness of the origin of invitro-meat and the connection with the laboratory. One has a negative feeling concerning invitromeat, unnatural and unclear. On the next page a compilation of comments can be found which represents the average opinion on in vitro meat that i found.

This “yuck� reaction could prevent in vitro meat from being a success or even accepted. One gets deterred before he or she has actually tried it. Changing this image of in vitro meat is a big and important challenge to overcome. To do so the origin of this negative image has to be found and changed for the better.

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GENERAL COMMENTS ON IN VITRO MEAT Soggy pork … yum yum, where do I sign up? I don’t know, the whole thing just seems kind of Frankenstein-ish to me. I don’t think I’d be able to trust in-vitro meat even when it is ‘proven’ to be completely identical in every way to organic, grass-fed meat. But who knows? Perhaps it will eventually become inevitable, or even a solution to food supply problems. And the reality is that every new idea is first ridiculed, then accepted, and eventually praised. I know 5 years ago I ridiculed the idea of eating fat to lose fat and now I do nothing but sing the praises of that reality! Kat Eden December 3rd, 2009 If it was proven to be impossible to devise a test that could I dont want to get way off topic but the distinguish in vitro meat from subject does bring up the benefits of local real grass-fed beef, I would grown sustainable meats as opposed to consider it. mass produced corporate foods. I think Given the “starter culture” laboratory produced meat would fall in method, I’m assuming that the latter category. Just a different type of the meat would be cloned, stockyard if you will.It may be cleaner and which raises an additional set environmentally less intrusive, but still of questions. For instance, mass produced by a corporation which by what if all the meat we condefault means my health will be weighed sumed came from the DNA against profitibilty and return on the of only 100 animals, or 10, or research and shareholder expectations. I’d fewer? Would this impact our rather kill it myself or atleast know the guy immune systems? What about who raised it and killed it for me. our overall health? Kristin J chute December 3rd, 2009 December 3rd, 2009 Or people could man up and remove meat from the diet. So it's totally viable to pump people full of chemicals and destroy the earth but not viable to reduce the amount of meat eaten in ones diet? Seriously, it's kind of sad. It's meat, not eating it won't kill you, it's more likely to kill you. "But it's so yummy!" Well congratulations, you and millions of others let thier tastebuds and the meat industry dicate what you shovel in.

el 07:33 pm Nov 14 2011

It's so sad reading some comments like: I will never eat fake food, save our lives not animals', etc. What scares me the most is ignorance and most of people should read, study, learn a lot before opening their silly mouths or writing stupid comments. there's just sensitive people and insensitive people. some can feel, some others just can't and they're a waste fo space. there's just ignorance and culture. culture and knowledge are the only things that will save your lives and your souls one day. Max Riley 11-21-2011 5:22 PM

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Fascinating. But does anyone else wonder what sort of carbon footprint this process will have when it's all said and done? Will this really be more sustainable than growing meat the old-fashioned way? Charles McCann 2011-11-02 07:03:21 AM Food: A taste of things to come? (Nature)

I'd happily eat this if it tasted like the real thing. We are struggling to sustain beef farming now as it is. (environmentally) I look forward to the days where I can eat guilt free :> Educated Person 11:49 pm Nov 14 2011

“Skeptical” isn’t the word that comes to mind for me… “disgusted”? Yeah, that comes closer! I just think of all the times Man has tried to duplicate what Nature has already perfected… and I think we should just let Nature do its job. There are just so many factors that a lab can’t even touch, no matter how hard they try… Besides, isn’t grass-fed meat expensive enough as it is? I can’t imagine test-tube meat being any better, on any front (cost, taste, nutrient value, environmental impact, etc.). Adam Kayce December 3rd, 2009 I wonder what this meat would cost, particularly if it actually did meet Primal standards. Aside from the “ick” factor, my distrust of governments comes into play; I can’t imagine that this process would be free from government meddling. Who knows what the result of that would be. Someone once said, “I’d rather trust a cow than a chemist”. I’m still pretty much in that camp. alpowolf December 3rd, 2009

So some people aren't keen on the origins of this meat, yet we don't really know what goes into the meat we are currently buying and eating. we're a funny species. ryan 06:12 pm Nov 14 2011 Not natural+ Laboratory= Red Flags Al December 6th, 2009

Theoretically, it could be cheaper because cattle require a lot of grazing land to produce mean. Granted, I think I would let other people experiment with this for a couple of decades before I gave it a try. Jon December 3rd, 2009

eeew! This makes me feel like becoming a vegan. Totally gross. juju 08:42 pm Nov 15 2011

I love Katie’s comment above. I think it nicely illustrates the gut reaction of disgust. I know I feel it, too. The poll seems to be showing that though there is both a good constituency of those that find this appalling, abhorrent, and just plain gross (among other reasons to not be interested in consuming in vitro meat) and those that, under perfect conditions, wouldn’t have a problem with franken franks – the good meat is good meat crowd. Mark Sisson December 3rd, 200

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EMPHASES ON THE CONNECTION TO THE LABORATORY SOME PRODUCTS DEVELOPED IN A LABORATORY have had negative effects on human health or on their surroundings. What did not always meant that these products were taken of the market, against all odds. For examples cigarettes, the softenon medicine and the Des medicine. What resulted in people becoming distrustful towards products that are made in laboratories. The effect of this result can be seen in the national cervical cancer vaccination of a couple of years ago in the Netherlands. Many girls didn’t show up at the vaccination day because of the distrust towards this vaccine. They were afraid that it would cause more harm than good. Of course these examples aren’t concerning food but it does affect the image of the laboratory. It caused people to connect a negative and distrustful image to the laboratory. Considering that in vitro meat is made in the laboratory and introduced as laboratory meat, people are also connecting a negative image to in vitro meat.

ORIGIN OF THIS IMAGE

WHERE DOES THIS NEGATIVE REACTION comes from? What are the consequences of this reaction? And eventually what could prevent people from having this reaction? In my opinion the planned approaching and introducing method of this new product causes people to have the “Yuck” reaction. They want to introduce it on a direct way without thinking of the unconscious experience that it creates. The influence that our unconscious has on our experiences is something what I find really interesting and fascinating. It is an unaware process which can work negative or positive in a design. It is possible to “use” or shape these MISCONCEPTIONS unconscious thoughts through THE UNCLEARNESS AND DISTRUST AROUND design. If done on the right way, IN VITRO MEAT causes misconceptions to it can become a powerful method come into the world. People are thinking that because these thoughts influence it is genetically manipulated or carcinogenic ones behaviour. I wanted to use this just because they are ignorant. Also the idea idea to make people react positive that in vitro meat needs hormones isn’t true towards in vitro meat instead of but often used as a counterargument. Thereby negative so actually change the ‘normal’ meat also has a lot of misconceptions image of in vitro meat. To explore which work in its advantage. These are caused this opportunity further I started by a lack of knowledge or a lack of will to know with unravelling the negative the trued. An interesting misunderstanding reaction towards in vitro meat and which I came across was that people think explore how I could make these that ‘normal’ meat is healthier and more positive. At this moment I didn’t natural than invitro-meat. But they forget knew if I would be able to change that mega stables causes a lot of animal these unconscious experiences suffer and animal epidemics. Resulting in a but I did saw it as a fascination need for antibiotics and vaccinations. With opportunity.

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invitro-meat these mega stables will become redundant. It is an illusion of people to think that ‘normal’ meat is natural. An animal gets born out of artificial in simulation and probably spends it whole life inside without grass or fresh air. In the mega stables it will get cluttered with antibiotics and sometimes forbidden hormones. Only to end up as a piece of meat full with extra added odours, colours, flavours, preservatives and a lot of water. Thereby “normal” meat isn’t healthy for us anymore in the amounts that we consume it. In vitro meat on the other hand is customizable and can be made in such a way that the negative aspects of meat are gone. Than eating meat will become healthy by adding extra vitamins, omega fatty acids and by reducing bad fats.

COMPARED TO MEAT

SO HOW DO THEY WHAT TO INTRODUCE IN VITRO MEAT? According to what I have found, as a replacement product for meat with the same type of packaging, method of use, colour, aroma, texture and taste. With the result that it is being compared to “normal” meat. While it will never be exactly the same no matter how much they try. Simply because meat doesn’t has just one particular taste and texture. There are differences between cows and between pieces of the same cow. Which are caused by for example different amounts of exercise, food and pollution. Taking into account that people mostly try to avoid changes, this results is that even when the taste would be similar or even better there is still a big chance that they will chose for the meat that they know.

RESULTING VISION ON IN VITRO MEAT

IF NOTHING CHANGES to the way that in vitro meat is planned to be introduced and approached then I think that it will turn out to be a flop. In order to change this there has to be an emphasis on the unconscious experience and perception of in vitro meat. These have to become positive instead of negative. Probably this will be able by being more open and clear about the origin and production of in vitro meat, removing the misconceptions and distrust around in vitro meat and focussing on the positive aspects of in vitro meat instead of just comparing it with “normal” meat. Creating such an immense change in the way that in vitro meat is being experienced by the society is not easy and takes a lot of time. So I saw much more potential in the protein source that is already half way in this process, namely vegetarian meat. It still has problems due to its slightly boring image but in the last years this image has gotten a huge positive boost. People are starting to realise that we have to live on a more sustainable way. Besides this it also has had a huge improvement of taste and texture.

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CLIENT MEETING INTRODUCTION AFTER THE FIRST WEEK I had a meeting with the client. During which we as a group showed our vision and received feedback. The client informed us about the progress of in vitro meat and showed us how in vitro meat looks at the moment. They already had their own idea of what they wanted to do with in vitro meat and how they wanted to introduce. Even when they were interested to our ideas it did felt as if they weren’t able to take our ideas really in

consideration even when they would wanted it themselves. If this really was the case, I’m not sure but it did felt that way.

Muscle stem cells growing in a nutrient gel, on velcro. Photo made by: Bart van Overbeeke, Eindhoven University of Technology

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TURNING POINT

JUST AS I DISCOVERED in the research my client also wanted to introduce in vitro meat on the normal and obvious way, as a copy of “normal� meat. Without knowing that

this would probably mean that in vitro meat would become a flop. This frustrated me but at the same time gave me a motivating to show that a different approach and introduction of in vitro meat is indeed possible. This gave me the challenge that I need in my design process in order to become motivated and inspired so actually what I needed in order to start designing. I wanted to convince them that there are more solutions and options, than just the one of with they thought. To enhance this convincing power, my design needed to become a complete product. One that when in vitro meat is ready for human consumption could immediately go on the market. I wanted them to become fascinated by my concept.

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meat works, what the advantages are and how romanticised the current meat industry actually is, a lot changed from opinion. They saw the potential of vitro meat and were prepared to change their eating habits. But not without the side note that it wouldn’t create any consequences for their health. So it is important that there is INTRODUCTION a certain amount of openness and clearness NOW THAT I HAD PREPARED towards in vitro meat, so that they feel they the project by getting a basic can “trust” it. knowledge of in vitro meat, meeting my client and developing a goal it was time to come up with some start up concepts and ideas. For inspiration I did different activities as well as in a group as individually. As a group we did some brainstorms, with methods from the book Thinkertoys, and we had discussions on thoughts, findings and ideas. Thereby we did a survey to see how people experience different kinds of meat and to what extent they want to see the origin of it. Individually I went to the vegetarian butcher in Den Haag to see what is different in their approach to vegetarian meat that makes people experience it more positive. Thereby I have questioned many people on the idea of in vitro meat with and without information to see what their reactions, argumentation and remarks were.

IDEA GENERATION

RESULTS CONVERSATIONS OUT OF MY CONVERSATIONS on in vitro meat I had gotten two kinds of opinions, in consistence with the opinions that I found during my first week exploration. Namely: interesting I would like to try it but am not sure if I want to use it as a daily product. I will probably continue to but the meat I always buy. And: “Yuck!” what are they now doing to nature. After they had gotten some more information of in vitro meat and so knew in big lines how in vitro

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SCENARIO:VISION ON FUTURE EATING HABITS.

THE WORLD AROUND US WILL not change significant in the upcoming years. Trends will come and go just like they have always done, so also in food. The thing that will change is the reason why we eat. We will eat more and more for the experience and pleasure instead for the nutrients. Nutrients are much easier to receive trough supplements. Which are exactly customizes for everyone so that we precisely get what we need. The current normal meal composition of potatoes, meat and vegetables will disappear. New recipes will be introduced from cultures all over the world. Overall we will eat more conscious in which the design of the food is very important. Design and food will become more related to each other. Food is about the beauty, strangeness and especially fascination. The source, consistence and the footprint of our food will be clear for us when we buy it. So we are really able to make our own choices. At the same time people are getting less time so readymade meals are getting more popular. Also other food will become easier to prepare and less time consuming. In vitro meat just as vegetarian meat will become a popular item in the now more experimental kitchen.

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POSITIVE FEELING, CULTURE, UNCONSIOUS RECOGNITION – through things like the appearance and way of use I want to anticipate on the unconscious association that one makes and so influence their way of experiencing and reaction to the product. In which I want to find myself on the edge between the thing that I am referring to and what it really is. These associations are with products that create a positive feeling like the meat that hangs in a French kitchen as conservation. The known anD trusted is mostly experienced as positive and safe. This feeling works on an unconscious level and creates a personal connection between the product and the consumer. Thereby food needs a culture, past or something else to let people have a feeling with it so also a new food product should be recognizable and connectable to something that consumers already know. It is much easier to accept something new if it is not totally new, it has to ‘feel’ familiar.Not immediately connected to meat, like potatoes and rice. – Most likely it will never become precisely like meat so I also do not want people to compare it to meat. Instead I see it as a new product with almost the same type of nutrients, meat and in vitro meat has to be seen as rice and potatoes.

FASCINATION – In order to make my product fascination for others it has to get a confusing effect. To achieve this I chose to make it a product that is difficult to be categorized, it is not meat or fruit, not new or old, not living or death. This hopefully causes people to start thinking about it and become fascinated. They will get the feeling that they already know it because of the unconscious hints.

CORRESPONDING & INTERESTING ASPECTS NORMALLY THE NEXT STEP in my idea generation process consist out of connecting al the experiences and thoughts, caused by the activities, to the context until an interesting connection is created in the shape of an idea. Without considering if something would be possible. These ideas are then written down in my dummy and I choice one or two from those to continue with. But this time this didn’t really worked, it wasn’t that I could not come on ideas but not the one idea that I was surging for. I decided to switch from getting new ideas to reconsidering the already existing ones and search for their corresponding or interesting aspects.

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TRANSPARANCY – in order to make the product more open and transparent I want to take the process into the home of the consumer. With the result that he or she can see what happens and gets a feeling of being in control.


COMPLETE PRODUCT – To enhance my previous point and make it more realistic I wanted to make a complete concept. Of which the whole image is completed including things like a business plan, a reality check and a way of use.

SUITABLE FOR OUR, FUTURE, SOCIETY – We life in a society in with we do not have time. Probably this will become even worse in the future so my design should ask just a small amount of time in order to be able to compete with other products. Actually it has to be sort of a readymade product that askes the minimal amount of preparation.

THE RIGHT DISTANCE TO THE CONSUMER – People associate “growing” with life and something that is living. In order to let them not get attached to the product it has to give a different feeling, than being “alive”. There are already product in our home that are alive but aren’t seen as alive, namely fruit. These don’t grow but mature and people do not have the feeling that they have to kill it. This idea of a further development without it being experienced as alive fascinated me and I want to use it in my design.

APPEARANCE – I want to give a hint to meat through the way that it looks. But not on such a way that it would be compared to meat. So that is why the texture will give a hint to meat but the shape will give a hint to fruit. People should not see it as meat nor as fruit. It has to be something in between.

Now I repeated the connecting process with not only keeping in vitro meat in mind but also these aspects. What resulted in a design concept that I thought was interesting and fascinating. This design concept is the one that I worked out and presented on the midterm exhibition.

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MIDTERM EXHIBITION

A DESIGN CONCEPT THAT HAD THE POTENTIAL to not only fascinate others but also myself had been found so it was time to actually turn it into something visual. What I had done for the midterm. With the idea that the midterm would be an opportunity to see if my design could create the effect or better said the fascination for which I was looking.

The visualisation of the design concept together with its matching stand

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DESIGN CONCEPT

BASICALLY WHAT I DESIGNED was a totally new and different way of approaching and introducing in vitro meat. One focused on the way that the unconscious mind works and how it influences the way that things are experienced. I tried to shape this unconscious way of experiencing through my design in order to enhance and accelerate the acceptation and appreciation of in vitro meat. To see if I were on the right direction in achieving this, I visualized it into a prototype. Obviously it would not be possible to really make the in vitro meat plus the bioreactor so I visualized different stages of the maturing process. My design concept is a way to take the growing or better said maturing process of invitro meat into the consumers’ home. So that people can experience and see how invitro meat develops while they feel in “control” of the process. The design itself is a small selfregulating bioreactor that consists out of different parts just like a mandarin. The invitro meat is located within those chambers, with the option to have a different kind of meat in every chamber. These are then protected and kept sterile by the outer skin. The smallest one is most likely how it looks when you bought it in the store. Then you hang it in the kitchen until it is ready to be consumed, what will be within a couple of days. During those days

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it is possible to at some marinate to it. When every chamber contains just enough meat for one healthy portion it is ready to be consumed. To let you know it gives a sight what could be a lightly change of colour. Now it is up to you to choose if you want to use it immediately, if so then just get the portion out. Remove the protection membrane and let it slide into the pan. Also an option is to let it become tenderer, by just letting it hang. Or if you don’t want to eat it or let it be tenderer then just store it as ‘normal’ meat in the fridge.


During this maturing process the cells are in need of nutrients like sugar and amino acids. What will be provided by the cylinder in the middle. This cylinder also contains the devices that regulates and ensures that the temperature is a constant 37 degrees. After this harvested this cylinder will be removed and in the most optimal case reused.

RESULT

DURING AND AFTER THE MIDTERM EXHIBITION it was clear that it created the effect that I wanted. People were attracted to the concept and its visualization. Some even said that they would like to try it. This of course was not really possible due to the fact that in vitro meat is not ready for consumption. But it is still a great sight that my approach to in vitro meat created a more positive feeling and image. Thereby I can conclude that my theory of influencing the unconscious by design is indeed possible. So I also used this idea in the rest of the design process. Still, the design concept as presented was far from complete. I did not yet had covered every aspect that it would need in order to a complete concept. Things like how the technique could work or how the nutrients and warmth would be provided were not yet decided. Thereby I also did not yet made a business plan. The reason why I did not decided anything on these aspects was because I first wanted to test the idea. For the final prototype I had to involve these aspects in order to let it be a complete design concept.

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DEEPENING THE DESIGN CONCEPT

ON ITSELF I WAS QUITE SATISFIED with the way that my midterm design turned out and the reactions that it received. Therefor I dedicated to spend the second half of the project on deepening this design concept. In order to achieve my plan of eventually having a complete design concept with everything that I thought would be needed, a realistic business plan and a reality check on especially the area of the technique still had to be made. Due to the new insights and knowledge that I will receive during this process it will be needed to reflect and reconsider my design choices before I make the final choices. These are namely for example influenced by what technologically possible is.

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meat in combination with my concept can also be of great value for others. Due to its great amount of options and benefits for example its low fat, high protein, new preparation methods, small amount of land use, eventually low costs and many more. What could prevent that in vitro meat is wasted during this acceptation period is to let the channel harvests the meat that hasn’t been sold. Selling this as semi normal meat is a tricky point because it can be detrimental to the image that I try to create. But it is a point that may not be left out and so is something for the recommendations. What can be done with the meat that has become ripe while not being sold? Considering that first the pioneers will have to be draw to the product, my business plan will take them as the costumer segment.

BUSINESS PLAN EXPLORATIONS

Sometimes I speak about the “normal” introduction and design introduction method. The “normal” introduction method stands for introducing in vitro meat on the same way that meat currently is being sold. The design introduction is short for introduction method of the concept that I am explaining in this report.

PERSONALLY I THINK A DESIGN isn’t finished without a complete context. In which a business plan plays a big role. So during this period I have orientated myself into business planning, with the help of the book Business Model Generation. I chose for this book because I have used it before and it really helped me due to its visual and clear approach. According to its principle a business plan consist out of different related aspects. Which are all needed and important to be explored in order to let the business plan function. That is way I exploring these aspects separately during this period. With the result that when I was realizing the final design concept I could easily use these exploration and shape them into one cohered business plan. CUSTOMER SEGMENT - In vitro meat is a completely new product, so probably the first months or years will only be about getting familiar with it and accepting it. During this period of time I expect that only the pioneers are going to try it. But if my approach works this acceptation will be enhanced and accelerated. So that during this acceptation process the amount of people that are consuming in vitro meat will grow. Eventually I’m not gone focus on a particular group of consumers. In vitro meat will especially be a great option for those who don’t want to eat meat out of ethical reasons. Currently these are the ones who choice to eat vegetarian meat, biological meat or just a less amount of meat. Besides this group I think in vitro

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VALUE PROPOSITIONS - The product will give consumers a traditional experience with the emphasis on exclusiveness, luxury, personizability, customizability and design. It will be a way to eat meat without conscientious objections. The product is thereby easy to use and creates a lot of extra possibilities compared to normal meat or meat replacement products. For example when the consumer has bought it, it can be kept outside the fridge what makes it space saving and decorative. During the maturing process it doesn’t needs any human interference or time from the consumer. Eventually when the consumer harvests it he will have fresh meat, fresher that he could ever get “normal” meat to be . CHANNELS - Already early in the design process i had decided that I didn’t wanted to let the consumer come in contact with the laboratory or to let the product be associated with it. It needed an intermediary which would actually function as a channel. This channel did had to stand for the values that I tried to connect to the product, craftsmanship and luxury. Thereby I did not wanted to deny the origin and production of in vitro meat. One has to have the opportunity to ask questions and receive information. What actually means that there has to be a knowledge source where


they can get information; assistance with problems concerning the product. Finally I also want it to be associated with a protein source. So this channel will need to have a connecting with meat. Taking all of these aspects into account I ended up at the butcher. Which has a connecting with meat and the right image, of craftsmanship, luxury and nice food. Thereby it is also a medium that focusses on personal contact through which information, advice and help can be delivered to the customer. To make sure that it is possible that diversity can exist between the butchers, this channel will also function as a feedback channel. With the result that the product that the butcher sells is adapted to the wishes of its customers. This will be an extra value of the product because I expect that there are differences in meat preferences between areas and countries. Instead of the butcher as channel it is also an option to chose for other businesses as long as they fit with the image of the product, for example delicatessens. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS - Due to the image that I try to connect to the product, a personal assistance relationship between the customer and the channel would probably fit the best. This channel could provide help during and after the purchase of the product onside at the point of sale. Depending on how many pioneers there will be this could also be a dedicated personal assistance relationship. But creating such a relationship would take time and a lot of effort. So it is an option but I don’t think it is possible or that every customer would want it. Something that looks more like a community relationship is also an option. Then the users are able to exchange knowledge and solve each other’s problems. This can work for exchanging recipes, preparation methods, taste experiments and minor problems. But because of the needed knowledge of the product and its technology, I don’t think this will be a good idea. Customers wouldn’t be able to really help each other and there is a change that this may create misconception. Co-creation between the channel and the customer is a plus for the product, then the customer can give feedback to adjust the product to the customer.

REVENUE STREAMS - The customer pays for the product so one way to generate the Revenue Stream is through asset sale. In order to lower the price of the product and make it more able to compete with other protein products, there is an opportunity in the idea of a container-deposit. This will then be concerning the part with the technological, the seed. After harvest, the seed can be returned to the channel where the deposit is refunded to the redeemer. On this way the customer does not have to bear the full cost of the seed and will the technology not be wasted. Personally I think the price of the product itself will at the beginning be relatively high but when more people are buying it the price will drop. This business model is bases on a price that is comparable to biological meat or lower. Considering that that is the moment when it gets a potential for the above average and average earning customer. Eventually it has the possibility to be lower than ‘normal’ meat because of it efficiency in the use of resources. KEY RESOURCES - There will be a need of a network of participating channels through which the product can be sold. Also a distribution network is needed to make sure that every channel gets the right products. Thereby a system is needed through which the feedback can be gathered and converted into something what can be used to adapt the product to the customers. Involve and cooperate with an already existing brand could be a way to make the product more successful. This brand will need to stand for the same image if so that

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this would have a huge plus for the product and so for the acceptation of in vitro meat. At the moment it is so that scientists are making the in vitro meat. But it might be better to shift this to an extern manufactory, which could be of the involved brand. Then these scientists can just work on the further improvement and development of invitro meat. Also the bioreactor in which the in vitro meat will develop itself would have to be produced at the same place as the in vitro meat. Because when the in vitro meat grows from the start to the harvest in the same bioreactor there will probably be less chance of a contamination with bacteria etc. Due to the same reason, this will also be the place where the seeds are cleaned and reused. KEY ACTIVITIES - One of main activities would be to produce the product and to make sure that the channels are able to function properly. These channels need to be education on in vitro meat. So that it can function as knowledge source for the customers and help them with their problems, without constant contact with the laboratory. To provide the channels with the in vitro meat, it has to be transported from the manufactory point to the channel. Doing so, it has to be made sure that the right order is delivered to the right channel according to the feedback. Also this feedback needs to be gathered, converted and used to adapt the product to the customers.

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In order to make a network of channels that are willing to sell the product partnership management is needed. Thereby internal research and development by the laboratory needed to continue to improve in vitro meat and the product itself. Marketing will also be important to get the product known in the society.


KEY PARTNERSHIPS - A possible partnership could be with the brand. This brand could then provide the product with more acceptance and publicity and on the other hand the product can provide the brand with a new and potential extension. There also needs to be a partnership between the channels, the manufactory and the laboratory. So that the adaptation of the product to the market

goes smoothly and feedback plus innovations can easily be intergraded in the product. I think this is valuable, knowing that in vitro meat is a totally new product with innovating possibilities. Probably the best way to discover what the consumer wants is by lettings them experience it and

An exploration on the way that these factors could be merged together into the business plan.

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improve the product according the feedback that is given COST STRUCTURE - The precise costs are still unclear as well as from in vitro meat as from the design itself. Eventually it has to be able to compete with the already existing protein sources. Because of the effective use of resources of in vitro meat and the low costs of my design this should eventually be possible. But at the beginning this is probably not possible so instead of selling it against great losses I want to focus on the biological meat price. People actively make the choice to buy it and are willing to pay more if they get something for it. So this product has to be value driven in which premium value proposition and a high degree of personalized services are important. Consuming this meat will give the consumer an exclusive feeling. Marketing will be important to make people known with the product but has costs attached to it. Investing in this will probably be profitable on the long term. For marketing costs have to be reserved. Distribution will have to take place from the manufactory where the product is made to the channels. When this distribution takes place the product is still in an early phase of development. This means that it is not even half its final size. What makes the product distribution is really efficient.

The channels are functioning as literally channels through which the product is sold. These have to earn some money from the sales. But because these are already existing companies they do not have to live from it, they also sell other product. These channels do have to be educated what will have some costs connected to it. These are only there at the beginning or when something from importance has changed in the product. So actually the main costs are due to startup costs which every new company or product will have. There will also be research and development costs that have to be covered. But I think there are some possibilities and options out of the government or investment of others. In my business plan I try to take these costs into account but also find a balance between what would serve the product and the possibilities.

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COSTS COMPARED WITH THE “NORMAL” INTRODUCTION METHOD FOR IN VITRO MEAT. After exploring the business plan I doubted if my design wouldn’t just make in vitro meat eventually much more expensive. If so I woul have to reconsider my design and if needed, compromise or surge for opportunities which would lower the costs. Fortunately when I looked at it more closely I came to the insight that this isn’t the case, it even has a change to be less expensive. Firstly, mass production is a cheaper and a faster way to produce in vitro meat. But it’s particularly for making identical products. On this way there is no opportunity to adapt in vitro meat to the customers what makes it less exclusive. What would mean that the price has to be lower and it will be less possible to fully utilize the new opportunities that in vitro meat brings. So there will be fewer reasons to change from normal meat to in vitro meat. Eventually less people will buy it and the acceptation is decreased. Thereby it isn’t impossible to use mass production in the production of this design, only the feedback system still has to be able to function properly. The design itself is continuously the same only the meat kind is influenced by the feedback and so changes per amount of products. On both ways, “normal introduction” and “design introduction”, the in vitro meat has to be fed, be kept warm and controlled. Only on the design way extra material is needed for the skin but this won’t be much if the right materials are chosen. The real technology is the expansive part and will be recycled. Thereby also on “the normal introduction” method packages are needed. Considering the business plan “the design

introduction” method can safe costs in the transportation from the manufactory to the channels. Due to the fact that then the in vitro meat is transported in an early and so smaller phase what causes that more meat can be transformed in the same space. On both methods channels are needed which need to receive there share. Only by using internet as channel it is possible to cut on these costs. Personally I do not see this as a real possibility. Because the feeling that is created will be impersonal and negative so I expect that this would lower the success of in vitro meat. In order to make it possible that the channels are able to function as a knowledge and help point training is needed. This will at some costs but investing in this will be profitable. Due to the more positive feeling it will eventually increase the integration and acceptation.

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EXPLORATION OF THE RESTRICTIONS TECHNOLOGY

The interview with Daisy van der Schaft can be found in the appendix.

PERSONALLY I SEE TECHNOLOGY as something that should not be seen as a goal or design on its own but as a way to achieve it. First the design idea is thought of and then as a result the needed technology is developed. So also in this design process I did not wanted to be held back by technological aspects that are not, yet, possible. Therefor during the idea generation process I tried to not consider the “possibility� of these ideas. At the moment that I was pleased with my concept, somewhere just before the midterm, I started thinking of its applicability and the possible ways that the technology could function. Now during this second half the technological aspects needed to be taken inconsideration. Knowing that I am a designer and so not the engineer, it was my plan to explore the restriction, think of ways to deal with these and to do a reality check in order to see if it would eventually be a possible design or if things had to be changed.

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THE TECHNOLOGY OF IN VITRO MEAT is technological difficult. So to discover the restrictions and eventually find the solutions I needed to expand my knowledge of in vitro meat. On my own this would have taken a lot of time. So I was glad to hear that a meeting was arranged with Daisy van der Schaft. In which it was possible to ask all the questions that I had concerning in vitro meat. During the conversation I noticed that this was actually already a sort of reality check. Out of which I realised that my idea had potential to be possible. There were just a couple of points that had to be reconsidered and implemented. As a remember, the main and probably most difficult goal of my idea is to assure that it will be possible to grow and develop in vitro meat without any need of a human interference in a home environment.


RECONSIDERATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESTRICTIONS FIRSTLY, IT NEEDS TO BE completely closed and sterile while the in vitro meat is growing. In order to achieve this, the skin material has to be not only elastic, for the growth, but also sealed. Secondly, in vitro meat needs nutrients. My solution is to integrate a vascular system which has a very small density and is porous so that it can reach all the cells. Thereby it needs to have a matrix to grow through. Just like the vascular system this also has to be of a very small density so I decided to integrate the vascular system into the matrix. Of course the blood in the vascular system has to flow. To do so it needs a pomp and instead of just one matrix, two separated matrixes each connected to one side of the pomp and both covering all the cells. The idea is that the pomp will create a high pressure in one matrix and a low pressure in the other. So that the blood will flow out of the high pressured matrix and is sucked into the low pressured matrix. Then it flows back

to the seed were the cellular debris is removed. For practical reasons the pomp is placed in the seed. In which also the temperature of the blood is regulated to be a 37 degrees. Regarding the health issues it is not needed to use antibiotics nor hormones what is a big plus. But also creates a chance that something would go wrong. To be able to monitor this, the seed also contains a pH-meter that checks the blood. It would be optimal if the product could be thrown away after use. Personally I think this is to unsustainable, thinking of the idea behind the project. So I choice to put all the technique in the seed and let this seed be reusable.

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SHAPE EXPLORATION DUE TO THE OUTCOME of the business exploration and technique research I had to reconsider the shape of my design. What I did by reflecting on my choices and motivations with the new knowledge and insights that I had gained. Thereby in the period from the midterm to now I had also gotten some new inspiration and ideas that I wanted to integrate in my design concept. Doing so I explored other possibilities, for not only the shape but also aspects like for the scenario of use. Eventually I was able to choose the most suitable ones and combine all the aspects into one complete design concept. These choices were difficult to make because they all influenced each other. But discussing about it really helped me and made me able to combine them into the final concept. Below I have listed the most important changes in my design concept.

ONE TOTAL PIECE IN MY MIDTERM IDEA the “globe” would have removable chambers. With the option to harvest just one and let the others hang. Technically it would not be possible to let the “globe” hang when one piece is removed. Then the warmth can’t be regulated anymore or every segment would have to become a bioreactor on its own. So you would actually get four individual bioreactors. After I explored this option of one portion per bioreactor I concluded that this would not be an option due to the fact that it would enhance the costs, it would mean that there will be four times as much “globes” hanging in the kitchen and the shape would be a lot less interesting. Why would I actually want to let the “globe” hang after it is ready? Firstly I thought that it would then become tenderer but that wouldn’t be the case. So actually the different chambers weren’t needed. Thereby it would limit the shape and also the preparation. I needed to find an alternative in which it was possible to keep the portion indicator but without segments. The meat will consist out of just one piece with tear lines between the portions. So that the consumer can easily take out the portions that are needed without losing the


ability to also prepare meals like a stuffed turkey. This kind of preparing of stuffing meat can now also be expanded so that new kinds of interesting meals will be possible, like stuffed cow.

AMOUNT OF PIECES

IN THE STARTING IDEA the amount of pieces would be changeable depending on the amount that a consumer would want. But thinking of the practical and costs side I thought it would be better to have a fixed amount. This amount would then be suitable for as well as a one person household as a four person household. After some deliberations and discussions about this I came to the conclusion that four pieces would be the best. A one person household could then eat one piece per day, with a clearance of minimal one day. Thereby a four person household could consume one per day.

KIND OF MEAT

UNTIL NOW I HAD LET THE OPTION open if there would be just one kind of meat or more in one “globe”. According to the technology both are possible. So I explored them and decided that it is not up to me to decide what kind of meat there is inside. It should be up to the customers in whom the butcher has a feedback task and figures so as a channel between the customers and the laboratories. But at the beginning there does has to be some standard meat combinations. Four different kinds of meat would not be that handy because it is only a couple of days maintainable in the fridge so it has to be consumed within those days. Considering that it is normal to make just one meal for one household it will minimal take four days to consume the whole “globe”. In those days the consumer is restricted to eat that servant kind of meat other ways it will turn bad. Thereby when you make a meal for let’s say three persons you will need three times the same kind of meat. So that would mean three times the same “globe”. On the other hand just one kind of meat would not be great for a one person household, then he or she is eating the same meat for four days. So looking at these options I conclude that two different kinds of meat would be the

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best combination. A one person household can alternate between two kinds of meat and at same time it is also the best option for a four person household.

TECHNOLOGY CONTAINER THE DESIGN NEEDED AN element in the middle that would contain all the technology. For practical reasons and as an enhancement the hint to fruit, this elements shape changed from a cylinder to a seed. The process that happened at home is actually the growth of the meat. But I did not wanted to give one the feeling that it had to be slaughter. That is why I choose to give it the feeling of fruit through little recognitions like the shape. Instead of slaughtering it gives the feeling that it has to be harvested. The consumer will on that way not become attached to it, it does not feel alive. The cylinder also changed into a seed due to the idea of having one piece of meat. That required that there would only be one hole at the top.


FINAL CONCEPT The last and final step was to integrate and combine all the aspects of my concept into one complete final design. In this chapter I will explain and show how this final design concept had turned out.

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THE DESIGN INSELF

THE DESIGN IS BASICALLY A small bio reactor that can function without human interferance. It consists out of an outer skin, the actual meat and in the middle the seed that contains the technology. The seed will provide the meat with everything that it needs, such as nutrients and warmth. Whereas the skin provides protection and makes sure that the meat can expand while staying sterile. So this bio reactor makes it possible for the meat to

THE DESIGN CONCEPT

MY DESIGN CONCEPT IS an alternative for the introduction of in vitro meat. In which the focus lies on the unconscious mind and how it affects the behaviour of the consumer. By ensuring that this works in the advantage of my design I have tried to enhanced the integration and acceptation of in vitro meat to give it a higher change of becoming a success. This design is a concept that consists out of a possible, functional and deliberated design in combination with a fitting business plan what makes it a complete and realistic design concept. KEY POINTS Fits in future society Positive feeling Self-providing Personalized Clearness and openness Fascination Not compared to meat Extreme fresh Can be kept outside the fridge Natural, craft and healthy

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develop. This meat consists out of one piece but if preferred then it can be easily separated into four portions due to the tear lines between the portions. These four portions can all have the same meat or in pairs, two one kind and the other two another kind of meat. So it is possible for example to choice chicken and beef. If a bio reactor is ready for consumption so after zero to fourteen days, depending on how you bought it, it can be harvested. This date is written on the card on which also the kinds of meat are written. At this moment

the portion are of the right size and the skin changes so that it can easily be removed. Before harvest it has to be kept outside the fridge and can be hanged, with the help of the hook which is attached to the seed. After harvests, the meat that is not being used needs to be stored in the fridge. From that moment it can be kept for four to five days.


SCENARIO OF USE

On the television Daniel saw the new “in vitro meat sphere”. He was immediately very fascinated by the way that it looked and decided to buy one at the butcher. Once at the butcher Daniel sees the spheres hanging by the counter. “What can I do for you?” the butcher asks. And in response Daniel say that he would like to try the in vitro meat sphere. The butcher tells him what kind of combinations he currently has. Daniel decides to go for the chicken and beef with a harvest date of tomorrow. After his visit to the butcher Daniel goes home and hangs the sphere in his kitchen, just like he saw at the butcher. The next day the sphere has reached its harvest date. Daniel grabs the sphere with both hands and pulls the skin lightly from each other. With a little crack in the skin the seed can be removed. Now he totally removes the skin and throws it away. What rest is the in vitro meat. Daniel doubts if he would stuff it or not. But then

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he remembers that he eats alone tonight so he will only need one portion. He decides to go for the beef and so cuts his piece of, at the indicated line. Then Daniel wraps the rest in


foil and puts it in the fridge. He prepares and eats its piece on the way he always does. Next time that Daniel goes to the butcher he takes the seed with him. There he delivers it

and get his deposit what he uses to buy a new one, salmon and scrimp this time.


BUSINESS PLAN This is a business plan which arcording to me woud be the most suitable for the introduction of this new product.

Production Controling and asuring that the channels are able to function. Controling the feedback system inplementation of this feedback. Marketing Finding new channels; expanding this network.

The channels MBT laboratory Leveranciers

The perspective of this busininess plan is from the betrokken brand company. The company is also the manufactor of the product itself.

Materials, needed for the manufactory of the product. A network of participating channels, for sales and feedback. A distribution network between the manufactory and the channels A system through which the feedback can be gathered and converted into something usable. Product production Marketing Research and development (MBT laboratory) Distribution

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Traditional expe with the empha exclusiveness, lu personizability, c and design. A way to eat m conscientious o Fitting in our fu easy to use; not conceling. New possibilitie exotic animal m Doesn’t needs a interference or consumer. Fresh meat, fres could ever get “ to be .


erience asis on uxury, customizability

Personal assistance relationship between the customer and the channel.

Pioneers

meat without objections. uture society, t time

es such as meat. any human r time from the

sher that he “normal� meat

Already existing shops or businesses who fits the image of the product, for example butcherys and delicatessens.

Product sale. Investments and subidises

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The goal of this business plan is to give an idea of the way that this product could function in the market. It is for me not possible to make the actual, final and complete business plan. Due to the fact that the design is still fictive and in vitro meat is just in the early development stage. So a lot of factors especially about the costs are still unclear so further development, information and knowledge is needed.


THE CONCEPT RECEIVED some remarks but overall was experienced quite positive. There were two points that I thought were really interesting. Namely the discussion that I had with Menno Stoffels about me using a pencil instead of pen for my poster. But that was actually more a personal development/ insight which will be discussed later in the reflection. The second one was actually also a discussion only then with a fellow student. In that discussion we had thought of all kinds of recommendations and options which could improve the product even more, see recommendations.

FINAL EXHIBITION Side note: Due to my dyslexia the deadline for my report was postponed to after the final exhibition. With the result, that I could include the result of this exhibition in my report.


RECOMMENDATIONS AESTHETICS ONE OF THE MOST important recommendations is that the technique should be worked out and tested. Then it is possible to see if it would work and if not, what has to be changed in order to let it do work. It will also be visible if some changes have to be made considering the shape and particularly the proportions between meat and seed. Also the effect on the acceptation and appreciation of in vitro meat that I tried to create has to be tested in a wider range of people. Then it will be visible if it really has a noticeable effect and if it will make a difference in the amount of people that want to buy in vitro meat instead of the meat, or substitution, that they are used to. So that it creates more than just a bit of interest, that it creates a real change in the habits of people and

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a will to buy in vitro meat. Another thing that has to be explored further is the materials that will be used in the design. These have to be cheap but at the same of high quality because the bio reactor has to function properly. This especially applies to the outer skin which has to be able to expand, keep the meat sterile and control the warmth. When the product can be harvested the skin should also be easily removable. The seed has to be made out of a sustainable material so that it could be reused. So this seed also has to have the possibility to be refilled, sterilised and recharged. The shape can be reconsidered and if needed improved. Maybe it would be an option to make it at the outside visible of what kind of meat it consists, possible through its colour, shape or texture. This has to be tested in order to see if it is possible, if it would work and how it would create the best reaction. The skin can also function as a molding tool of the meat. So that when the skin is removed a pattern can be seen on the meat. Currently this already happened in my final prototype due to the fact that I used a pumpkin. So the structure of the pumpkin could be seen on the gelatine what I used to visualise the meat. This effect was interesting so this has a potential. A side note is that the effect has to be studied, because it could also create a manmade feeling which could be experienced as negative.


WAY OF USE THERE ARE ALSO DIFFERENT options that have to be explored which can make the product easier to use. For example the meat can also be pre-cut so that when the seed is removed the consumer can shake little pieces of meat right into the pan. This can also be experienced as negative due to its man-made feeling.

BUSINESS PLAN FOR THE BUSINESS PLAN IT would be an idea, to not only create a value for the butcher but also for the rest of the meat industry. Convincing them and giving them a place in the production of in vitro meat will probably work in favour of the acceptation. Maybe it could be possible to make the in vitro meat ready when you want it to be ready. So if you decide that you want to eat chicken tomorrow that the in vitro meat is also ready at that day. Now it is the idea that you have to wait until the harvest date is reached.

Personally I have no clue if and so how this could work but it would be a great plus for using in vitro meat. There also has to be looked more closely at what could be done with the meat that would reach its harvest date wihle still at the butcher. Waybe the growing process can be stopped before this happends. Or maybe the butcher could havest it and sell it on some way. This then should not be in tegenspraak with the image that I try to created. But before it is time to even consider these, in vitro meat first has to become fully explored, developed and eventually made ready for human consumption.

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APPENDIX INTERVIEW WITH DAISY VAN DER SCHAFT OF THE BMT LABORATORY Is it possible to make in vitro meat from all kinds of animals, no wand in the future?

“On this moment we only work with mammals because we know how we can make in vitro meat from this group of animals. We first want to master this group before we are going to look at another group like birds and fishes. These have different kinds of cells and so are in need of a different treatment. In the future I can think of a reason why it would not be possible to also make in vitro meat from other groups of animals.” In “normal” meat it is possible to taste a difference between different pieces of meat of the same animal depending on where it came from. For example, between a chicken filet and a chicken wing. What is the reason behind this and is it also an option with in vitro meat?

“This has to do with the amount of training that meat has had. A chicken breast gets way less exercises that a chicken leg which is constantly moving. Through this the composition of the substances in the cells changes together with the texture of the meat what causes the eventual taste to be different. The same principle can be used by in vitro meat. In order to make the muscles contrast we use electrical shocks. Which are provided by electrodes, places perpendicularly compared to the muscle cells.” 50

“In the future it would also be possible to use not only muscle cells but also fat cells. These also influence the eventual taste. Thereby organ meat would also be an option. These organs wouldn’t be able to function due to the extra unnecessary costs that this entails. But considering that there isn’t such a broad market for this kind of meat, we aren’t really working on organ meat at the moment.” Are antibiotics currently being used in the production of in vitro meat, and if so will it remain in the future?

“At this time we indeed use antibiotics in order to prevent infections from bacteria. This is needed because of the amount of people that are working in this laboratory and because the bioreactor is often being opened. This makes that there is a chance of a contamination. Before, we worked on a smaller scale what caused that the use of antibiotics wasn’t needed. In that time it had never happened that a piece of in vitro meat had become infected by bacteria.“ “So when a closed bioreactor is used that optimally will be thrown away after usage antibiotics are not needed.”


How does in vitro meat growths, how big can it become and are hormones needed?

“Currently we grow in vitro meat by sticking different cell bundles together. In order to really let in vitro meat grow a way has to be found to provide every cell with the needed nutrition’s. Other ways the inner cells will start to die. In the future this should be possible with the help of something like a vascular system that reaches every cell. If we are able to make this that there will not really be a limit to the size, what will probably be the case within four years.” “We do not use hormones and have no plans to start using them. What kind of effect these would have on the in vitro meat is not clear for us.” What are the optimal conditions for the production of in vitro meat?

“In vitro meat cells are living cells so a constant temperature of 37 degrees is needed. This differs a little bit per animal but within the mammels that we currently use this difference is minimal. Also a small deviation of this number isn’t a big problem. Thereby the cells will need a blood like subsitance to provide evey cells with nutrients and remove the ceklllular debris. That some cells closer to the source will get more nutrience that others isn’t a problem, this is normally also the case. They just need enough to function and life.”

How can every cell be provided with enough nutrietns? Tereby how can the cellular debris be removed?

“To do this a circulation is needed with an amount of blood. When there is a pressure difference in the bioreactor the bloed will get pumpt around. Then the nutrients will leave the blood and the cellular debris is absorbed by the blood. In order to filter this debris from the blood a filter is needed. The nutrients itself consists out of onderandere aminoazits and sugers. At the moment we are using animal aminoazits but it is possible to make these on plantaardige basis. This blood will problably highly influence the taste of the eventuall meat just like the fat concentration and way of preparation. It will also be possible to give the meat a special taste through its nutrients just like corn chickens taste lightly like corn. Training would also give the meat a special effect concerning the texture and protaine concentration.” Do the cells need to grow on some sort of structure? And if so is a 3 dimensional kind of shape also possibly instead of flat strips?

“The cells are indeed in need of a structure and it is possible to make it 3 dimensional. There are different ways to make such a matrix like electro spinning and SD printing. Uitzetten of the meat would be difficult and is not possible with these two techniques. This matrix can be made just how you want it to be so it would be possible to make cutting lines or tear lines.”

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Are sophisticated instrumentations required to measure and control the conditions inside the reactors?

“Could be an option but mostly a pHmeter is already enough. Due to the fact the pH changes when something is wrong with the meat. “

How long would it take for the meat to grow into a normal portion, so about 100-125 gram? Thereby how much nutrients would it need to reach this size?

“How long this takes depends on the amount of muscle cells that can be started with at the same time. To make a muscle you have to count on two weeks. So in the future when we will have bigger reactors in which we can start the growth of a lot of cells at the same time, growing a portion size of In order to provide all the meat cells with the nutrients that they meat should take less than two weeks.” need and to make sure that there waste us being removed would it be an option to let the blood flow through the matrix?

“if you would paste a lot of little pieces together then a blood or medium flow through the bloudn’t be needed. But this is the opprtunity for in the future to make larger pieces of tisue. We already planned to develop somesort of vascular system to provide the meat with ocitien and nutrients.“

At our previous meeting we spoke about training the muscle cells. The idea was that this would be important, but the reason why wasn’t yet clear for me. One thing that was mentioned as important reason was the taste. This would differ according to the amount of exercise that the meat has had. Personally I would say that less training makes the taste actually better. Considering that I like chicken breast more that chicken legs, seeing that this is also more expensive I’m not the only one who things this. So why would it then needed to be exercised? Has it other benefits?

“Yeah that a tricky one, but the idea is indeed that the more exercise a muscly gets the thicker it becomes so what results in more meat.” 52


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Economics Study Project 29071. Available at: http://www.newharvest.org/img/files/culturedmeatecon.pdf Edelman, P. D. (2003). In vitro meat production. Wagingen University

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Report Food Technology B2.1  

Design Concept for in vitro meat

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