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Landmarks


Introduction

People create structures in context of places; those structure then condition the making of people. In that recursive process, people and places change, continually. . . . (Johnson et al 1990: 8) A successful urban or architectural space is used space, and the use of most spaces is “Movement”. Therefore, the main purpose of this chapter is to research and analysis spaces through the movement behaviour of people in order to provoke a sense of people-place awareness in the design. The understanding of physical movements and environment relationships would lead to create a better urban and architectural place where social life and communication between people-people and people-space is encouraged. Topic: Landmarks & Movements in the city of Cologne Research Question: How architectural and functional landmarks effect orientation/ movement of people (tourist or inhabitants) in the old centre of cologne? Method: This research consists of two parts: a literature review of related work on subject of Movement and field research in center of Cologne around landmarks in order to study the relation between movement behaviour and built environment. The first part --literature review-- focuses on reviewing theoretical works concerning the interrelationships between physical environments and human behaviour, particularly pedestrian and car movement in urban spaces. The second part –field research – focuses on analyzing the present situation to formulate the orientation in old center of cologne. This part is realized through studying pictures, drawings, maps, sketches, postcards and profile of streets. Description of Topic: During the visit to Cologne what would be amazing is that there are three different aspects of the city which changing each other continually: Firstly are the movements in urban context. It is fascinating to observe how one arrives in central station in a pedestrian zone; calm and quiet. But suddenly you can find yourself in “Stadtautobahn”, a huge highway that you only can feel the dominance of the cars. And some other parts are simply just

a normal mixture of people of cars. Secondly, while one is moving through the city, he can always feel the dominance of some particular buildings such as Dom. Thirdly is the interaction of the two aspects above. These Particular solid buildings (which in this chapter are called landmarks) are pulsing while the dynamic movements receive them. In order to cast new light on the relation between people and the built environment and show how important it is, in the practice of architecture, to understand the complexity of the relation between people, objects and environment. Therefore, it was decided to study movement behaviour around landmarks. The landmarks of cologne are collected in three different points of view: the city planning, Tourists and inhabitant of Cologne. This chapter has been categorized it in two groups: 1. Theories – basic scientific background - Tokyo Plan by Kenzo Tange for Importance of movement in a city - Philadelphia plan by Loius Kahn for a movement of a car - Theory of Derive by Guy Debord for a person wandering around the city 2. Field research – case study - Information about landmarks in cologne (paintings, postcards and functions) - Information about orientation of cars and people - Relation between movement and atmosphere of space - Relation between movement and functions


Theoretical Framework

Kenzo Tange1: Kenzo Tange in his Plan for Tokyo implies that the organic life of a city lay exactly in the flowing movement of its people, who engaged in the communication of various functions and created the total function. Mobility was the factor that gave organization to the city and the transportation system was the physical foundation of the city’s operation. The importance of the communication system within the city was articulated by Tange with a metaphor: “It is the arterial system which preserves the life and human drive of the city, the nervous system which moves its brains. Mobility determined the structure of the city.” The automobile has changed the relationship between architecture and street, also the speed and scale that automobiles have introduced into urban life is changing people’s conception of space. In result he developed mobility as a characteristic of the contemporary society, rendering it concretely with a strong formal language – a large spanned suspended highway system. He implies: In the age when cities developed around central squares and plazas and when people lived within limits prescribed by regional societies, the central square was the nucleus of communication, and the cathedral, the castle and the city hall were the spiritual support, as well as the symbols of city life. Horses and carriage moving along radial streets past rows of buildings must have formed a very harmonious ensemble. Now, however, mass communication has released the city from the bonds of a closed organization and is changing the structure of society itself. In the society with an open organization and in the pivotal city of this organization the mobility involved in free, individual communication is assuming a larger and larger scale. This movement, added to the fixed movement of regular commuters, has led to extreme confusion in the larger cities.

1. Tange – Kenzo (1961) A Plan for Tokyo, 1960

Conclusion: City as a Symbol Through the plan, Tange wanted to promote the essential character of the contemporary city, namely mobility, openness and adaptability to changes and growth. The plan took as its mission the establishment of a new spatial order for human habitats. This would require a complete integration of city and architecture, as well as a new relationship between the part and the whole, and between the permanent elements and the transient ones. Tange tended to combine in his design these ideas carry them into a powerful architectural language. However, the way he approached these issues was more symbolic than practical. His ideal city worked more like a symbol, which communicated with people and reflected the social ideals. The result was an ideal city that would act as an exceptional vehicle for transformation of a culture facing the need for new communal symbols. In his plan he claimed: Going even further, we find cases in which spaces are communicational field in a symbolic phase- where we give form to spaces as something symbolized …. I venture to say we need a symbolic approach to architecture and urban space in order to secure humanity, human meaning and human value in architecture and urban space. Through the metaphor of a city with its traditional elements, Tange hoped to endow the city of misfortune with a new order, enable it to communicate with people, and help it regain its vitality and meaning. For him, giving symbolic significance to the operation of structuring is useful both in developing a design inward and in making the design more comprehensible.


2. Kahn - Louis Isadore (1953)

Louis Kahn2 Tange’s anti zoning position and emphasis on urban communication system were also shared by Louis Kahn. In his plans for Philadelphia dated 1952, Kahn not only accepted traffic as the generator of the design but also suggested this might be more than a mechanical necessity. His diagram of circulation, which defined different types of movement, gave visual form to the traffic and became the departure point of the plan. His analogy between the flow of traffic and the flow of rivers provided a novel analysis of the movement pattern of a large metropolitan area: Expressways are like rivers. These rivers frame the area to be served. Rivers have harbours . Harbours are the municipal parking towers. From the harbours branch a system of canal that serve the interior, The canals are the go-streets. From the canals branch cul-de-sac docks The docks serve entrance halls to the building. Kahn recognized from the first that the historical cities that dealt with problems of not only community collapse due to the departure of industries and original occupants, but also an inefficient traffic system and inadequate parking spaces for the modern era of motor cars. To Kahn, movement was fundamental for an ideal city form. in his opinion ordering movement in the city must present a ‘logical construct’ that protects against the destruction of the city by the motorcar. Kahn regarded streets as a mechanism of the city and the street for Kahn was not for maximizing the automobile speed, but for “order and convenience” made possible by stopping in reserved locations, the relationship between the ‘served’ (buildings and open space) and the ‘servant’ (streets) space was clearly articulated through his diagram of proposed movement patterns. Therefore, Kahn presented the construction of an alternative of an ideal modern city form by two dominant designs derived from his finding of historicism and understanding of the need for modern life: efficient traffic system and iconographical civic centers. Kahn felt that the city needed the order of movement and the presence of institutions as monumental architecture, which would then cooperate and create an organism that would allow the city to operate by itself in a sustainable fashion.

Conclusion: Kahn’s True Form of Implementation There are three important conclusions in Kahn overall plans and Ideas: First, for Kahn, the movement pattern and the idea of monumental civic centers have potential to sustain civic identity. The idea of central Philadelphia as a complete pedestrian environment might not be practical when visualizing today’s need for mobility and ‘connectibility’. But the core idea to make a city liveable in the sense of pedestrian security, while at the same time promoting sacredness of the civic centre as a setting of cultural activities and human reaction is legitimate, especially with this modern dilemma of overwhelming automobile traffic. Moreover, the iconographic characteristics of the civic centre and recognized pattern of the viaduct could essentially construct a ‘sense of place’ essential to good city form. These are characteristics that could have made his plan an appropriate implementation for the Modern city form. Second, the form of Kahn’s plan derives from his realization of ‘order’ and the need for ‘monumentality’ in the city. Movement is the structure of the city to Kahn. The derivation of buildings came from the order of movement: the locations of civic buildings were established on the basis of movement in the city. Therefore, monumental and symbolic needs for those buildings came from the need for institutional order in the centre city: a new civic anchoring resonated with the power and memory of ancient monuments. Third, it was the ‘movement’—a form of interactivity—and the ‘group of monumental buildings’—a form of civic symbolism— that created the ‘realized form’ of Kahn’s plan for central Philadelphia.


3. Debord – Guy (1955)

Guy Debord3 Walking is the best way to explore and exploit the city; the changes, shifts, breaks in the cloud helmet, movement of light on water. Drifting purposefully is the recommended mode, tramping asphalted earth in alert reverie, allowing the fiction of an underlying pattern to reveal itself. The technique of drifting, navigating the city on foot, the reading of the city in terms of the psychological effect that it has upon the individual that are present in the Situationist definition of psychogeography. The concept is understanding of the relationship between geography and psychology and the imaginative possibilities to be found in the urban environment. In the definition given by the leader of the Situationists, Guy Debord, psychogeography is ‘the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment, whether consciously organized or not, on the emotions and behavior of individuals’. The principal method for the study of these phenomena is the dérive or drift in which ‘one or more persons during a certain period drop their usual motives for movement and action, their relations, their work and leisure activities, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there.’ Dérive – it’s a French word that’s become pretentious now, there’s been a sort of sacralisation of it – it basically means wandering, but as Debord defined dérive it was going from one bar to another, in a haphazard manner, because the essential thing was to set out with very little purpose and to see where your feet led you, or your inclinations … You go where whim leads you, and you discover parts of cities, or come to appreciate them, feel they’re better than others… In practice Guy Debord illustrated these data in the map of The Naked City. The work consists of a map of Paris that has been cut up and reassembled, not in accordance with the representation of the physical terrain, but according to ‘unities of ambiance’. Red arrows connect the different quarters according to the feelings they inspire, the continuity of ‘sense of place’ between geographically separated areas, providing a representation of the ‘fixed points and vortexes’, the ebb and flow of the atmosphere of place that Debord evokes in ‘Theory of the Dérive’. This map shows the experience of the city as it is perceived at ground level.

Conclusion: Subjective Experience The Naked City presents with us a radically subjective reading of the city, and in the process subverts the claims to objectivity made by conventional maps. The ‘gods-eye-view’ with which the ordinary map of Paris presents its user is an abstraction that excels at schematizing geography, yet effaces the experience of the city as it is perceived at ground level. Or, to put it another way, it is very good at telling its users where they are going, but is near-useless at telling them what it will be like when they get there. Debord stated that ‘psychogeography’s progress depends to a great extent on the statistical extension of its methods of observation’. Until this has occurred ‘the objective truth of even the first psychogeographic data cannot be ensured. But even if these data should turn out to be false, they would certainly be false solutions to a genuine problem. Debord seems to be suggesting that with more psychogeographic maps, more dérives, it would be possible to aggregate an objective, or the concrete universal truth about the nature of the city as it is experienced. Yet how could a map such as The Naked City be anything other than a representation of a purely subjective experience? Or, to put it another way, how could one express the nature of the experience of dérive in a way which was not merely self-expression, that is, art?


Landmarks

There is one common important point in all three theories from last pages: They do not only point out the movement, but also another important character for a city: Tange claims there is a need for a symbolic approach to architecture and urban space in order to secure humanity, human meaning and human value in architecture and urban space. Kahn point out the importance of the presence of institutions as monumental architecture and Guy Debord represents the ‘fixed points and vortexes’, the ebb and flow of the atmosphere of place to show experience of the city as it is perceived at ground level. It is concluded that these fixed point/monumental architecture/a symbols approach to architecture are acting as a pulsing component while the movement/traffic/flow is the receiving component. The intent of this research and analysis is to cast new light on the relation between people and the built environment and show how important it is, in the practice of architecture, to understand the complexity of the relation between people, objects and environment. Therefore, it was decided to study movement behaviour through landmarks. Definitions of landmarks: In literature: a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. In modern usage: a landmark includes anything that is easily recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure. In American English: to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. In urban studies as well as in geography: an external point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment In this research: functional or architectural points that if we take them away from the city, city has nothing special to offer. Collecting the landmarks: The landmarks of cologne are collected in opinions of three

different parties: -The City Planning: information in the official website as the most important building in Cologne -The Tourists Office: information in the official website duo to most visited buildings, comments of visitors in the tourist office website -Inhabitant of Cologne: interview through mail , interview through Facebook These landmarks include museum, parks, restaurant, bars, churches, Rivers, squares, towers, operas, theatres, bridges and …. The result of this information is on the list of 90 landmarks which is visualized in the map 1. It should be mentioned that there are several of landmarks which are in three categorize but the repetition was not illustrated. Conclusion: After gathering all the dates and illustrating them on a map, following conclusions are drawn: - Almost all the touristic landmarks and municipality’s landmarks are the same, while inhabitants have completely different landmarks except Dom. - In morphology: most of the important churches are located in the old center of Cologne (the right side of the bank of River), High rise building are located on the ring road of Cologne which does not disturb the perspective of the old center when it is viewed from the river. Museum and Theatres all are located in the right side of the bank while the functional building (offices, congress rooms and ...) are at the left side of the river bank. - Landmarks by inhabitants of Cologne are outside of the center which the one of qualities of those locations is that there is no so many tourists in them and also the transportation systems.


List of Landmarks 1.Sankt kunibert 2.Sankt anges 3.Gross sankt martin 4.Historisches rathaus 5.Sankt Mauritius 6.Sankt aposteln 7.Opera house 8.MUNGERSDORFER Fussballstadion 9.Weltstadthaus 10.Westdeutscher rundfunk 11.Minoritenkirche 12.Hohenzollernbrucke 13.Museum Ludwig 14.Kraftwerk niederaussem 15.Sankt gereon 16.Ringtrum 17. Messetrum 18.historische konlgliche eisenbahndirektion 19.Hansahochhaus 20.Colonius 21.Kolntrum 22.Sankt Ursula 23.Musicaldome 25.Sankt maria himmelfahrt 24.Kloner hauptbahnhof 26.Kloner Dom 27 Altstadt 28 Bettenhaus uniklinik 29.Herz jesu kirche 30.Justiz 31.Unicenter 32.Klein sankt martin 33.Kraftwerk knapsack 34.Deutzer brucke 35.Wassertrum 36.Sankt maria IM capitol 37.tanzbrunnen 38.Colonia haus 39.Zoobrucke und rheinseilbann 40.Mulheimer brucke 41.Messehochhaus 42.Stadtautobahn 43.Koelnmesse 44.Lufthansa 45.Designpost

46.Schloss bensberg 47.Constantin hofe 48.Deutzer bahnhof 49.Stadthause 50.Laxness arena 51.Tuv rheinland 52.Facahhochschule deutz 53.Siebengebrige 54.Drachenfels 55.Post tower¬ 56.Rodenkirchener autobahnbrucke 57.Neu sankt heribert 58.Aurora muhle 59.Raffinerie godorf 60.Sudbrucke 61.rheinauhafen 62.Ehemals luftansa 63.Deutschland funk 64.Deutsches sport und olampia museum 65.Schokoladenmuseum 66.Severinsbrucke 67.Abtei deuts 68.Alt sankt heribert 69.Sankt severin 70.Landeshaus 71.Sankt maria lyskirchen 72.Herz Jesu Kirche 73. Park am Aachener Weiher, 74. Wallraft-Richartz Museum 75. Restaurant... Päffgen Brauhaus 76. Hellers Brewery¬¬¬ 77. Aachener Straße 78. Friesenplatz 79. Zülpicher Str. 80.Cologne Triangle 81.Rheinauhafen 82.Platz/Vierscheibenhaus 83.4711 House 84.Overstolzenhaus 85.Klumbia Museum 86.Zeughaus 87. Romano-Germanic Museum 88. Nuemarkt 89. Huemarkt 90. Rheine River


2

37

39

38

16

21

8

19

20

40

1 22

15

29 28

25 86

75

14

78

10 82 11 7

83 77

6

73

88

17

18

24

42

23

31 4

44 43

12

26 74 87 13

85

45

80 47 70

3

67 68 62

27 33

89

9

46

49 48

59 56

35 5 79 76

41

36

51 84 71 61

34

64 65

72

66

81

50 69 57 30

60

63

32

The City Planning

The City Planning

58

Inhabitant of Cologne

55

54

53

52


Woodcut From: Werner Rolevinck Fasciculus Temporum, Koln 1479 (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 100 805)

Woodcut 1493 (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 91 130)

Anton Woensam von Worms, 1534 (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 53 814)

Woodcut 1548 (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 165 408)

Painting 1795, Laporterie (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 97 426)

Landmraks in Painting and Postcards Examination of the archive reveals that pictures of cologne have for centuries depicted the city from the right bank of the Rhine, almost without exception. However, over the centuries there have been clear changes in the composition of the pictures and the portrayal of important elements and landmarks. During the 15th century, representation of Cologne’s military, economic and religious might was foremost. Dominant compositional elements were the city walls with their twelve gates and certain church towers. In that time, the uncompleted Cathedral did not play a particularly prominent role. In subsequent time, the picture shifts in favor of church towers, as representation of the “holy city” of Cologne becomes more important. The “city crown” is formed by numerous churches towers, over which the church of Great St. Martins, the Cathedral construction site and the city tower “Rastrum” predominate. There is a little change to this perspective of Cologne until the 18th century, although vies of the city become increasingly adorned with landscapes or cultural elements. Up this time, the choice of perspective is the same in all representation of the city: the view depicted is forming the east, looking across Deutz and the busy traffic on the Rhine to the city beyond. In 18th century, new perspectives begin to emerge. Increasingly, pictures depicting views from the south. The view of the city diffuses into a sea of houses, from which only Great St. Martins, the city tower “Rastrum” and the unfinished cathedral protrude. These hitherto infrequent views of the city then become supplemented by images and frames of distinct sections of the city, something which becomes more prevalent from the 19th century onwards. The growth boom that occurred during this time made it more difficult to represent views of the city in its entirety, which led to a famous on well-known, distinguishing elements of the city such as Great St. Martins with the cathedral construction site and the surrounding. This in turn led to a shift in the observer stand point back to the Deutz side of the Rhine. Parallel to urban growth and the resulting considerable expansion of Cologne during 19th century, the cathedral, in the course of its completion between 1842 and 1880, becomes increasingly more prominent in views of the city. Both its magnitude and the symbolism of its completion served to style the cathedral as an icon. Pictures of the city focus increasingly on the cathedral, which gradually comes to replace views of the city in its entirety. The predominance of the cathedral in pictures of the city is apparent from the end of the 19th century.


Within the context of this research, two fundamental issues arise: - Cologne has traditionally been depicted from Deutz on the right bank of the Rhine. - At the very latest since its completion in 1880, Cologne Cathedral has uniquely come to symbolize the city. These statements hold true to the present day. Even contemporary illustrations of the city often depict the classic panorama of the Rhine and the city. This functions as a instantly recognizable view of the city, and is important both in the collective mind and of its inhabitants and beyond (tourism, commuter or marketing purposes). Pictures-Postcards views of the city are also important aspect in term of the image perception and recognition. In particular, picture-postcards show which particular element represent the city to the outside world , as they are sold in their millions and sent to all over world. They also show which images and views of the city visitors to cologne will expect to see. In these picture-postcards, Cologne cathedral emerged over time as a unique symbol. During the selection process it immediately became apparent that there are only very few postcards that do not depict Cologne cathedral, and that the range of views of the cathedral is limited. The postcards depict just a few perspectives and angles, which are varied in different manners (taken in night or during various seasons of the year ‌) There are a large number of aerial photographs showing the cathedral and its surrounding from all directions; these can also be found in historic postcards. Some angels show the cathedral in its city context, with visual references to busy locations such as the Hohe Strasse or the Opera. In such cases, just the cathedral’s characteristic spires are shown, which are enough. however, for the cathedral to be fully identifiable. Historic postcards often showed the view of the Huemarkt with the cathedral in the background. The Huemarkt first became an important location for the city at the start of 19th century as a busy junction in the vicinity of the Hindenburg Bridge. It is noticeable that not just in important plazas and location are shown within the context of cathedral, but also individual buildings. This form of representation is found in both historical and contemporary postcards. To summarize we can understand the importance of cathedral for the traditional view of the city, as well as for all new and modern additions. The cathedral both provides orientation and sets a landmark for the city.

Engraving approx. 1865, J. Poppel (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 49 844)

Photograph approx. 1920 (Source: Rheinisches Bildarchiv Nr. 61 669)

Cologne Cathedral and Bastei

Far Left: Cologne Cathedral and WallraffRichartz Museum Left: Cologne Cathedral and 4-ScheibenHaus (WDR) Right: Vista from Offenbachplatz (Opera Cologne) to Cologne Cathedral


Kolnarena and Cologne Cathedral

Pictures taken from the river bank of the Rheinpark

East elevation of Cologne Cathedral with Hohenzollernbrucke, approx. 1920 and today

Cologne Cathedral and Great St. Martin, Pictures approx. 1940 and today

Left: West elevation of Cologne Cathedral RightL South elevation of Cologne Cathedral

Front view of the western face with its characteristic doubletowered Sllhouette. These views emerge increasingly from 1880 onwards, the year in which the cathedral was completed. They are generally photographed from the air or from buildings across the way. This perspective also forms one of the most popular subjects for the photographs; usually taken from the cathedral platform or from the “Burgmauer� street. Front view of the Langhaus from the southern aspect. These pictures are generally taken from the Roncalli Platz, which is also used as a stage and venue for various events such as the Christmas market, opera and theater productions, fair and sporting events. Just as is the western face, the southern aspect is a similarly popular tourist photograph motif. View from the Rhine Park to the north-east of cologne cathedral with the Rhine in the foreground. This angel is found in old picture postcards of the city and is still depicted today. The cathedral appears separated from the historic part of the city that surrounds it, and its vastness dominates the buildings to the fore. Eastern view of the Langhaus and the dual towers, with the Hoherzollernbrucke in the foreground. This perspective appears in postcards from as early as the turn of 20th century and is still depicted today. Many people walk the short distant across the bridge in order to gain a view both of the river and the famous panorama of the historic city center. Composition view of the historic city center showing the characteristic outline of the cathedral and great it. Martin. This is the ultimate classic view of the city of Cologne. The south eastern perspective was depicted in the very first pictures of the city, and is shown in numerous historic postcards. Variations shows one of the bridges the schiffsbrucke or the hindernburg brucke or together part of the area of Deutz, or the view from the Deuzter brucke. Conclusion: The palette of historical illustration and pictures-postcards views of the city are limited to just few main angels which represent the city of Cologne to the outside world, and in which the cathedral acts as the standards symbol of the city.


Conclusion4 The map below shows the important view points of center of Cologne. The palettes of historic illustrations and pictues-postcards of the city are limited to only just a few main motifs that represent the city of Cologne to the outside world, and in which the Cathedral acts as the standards bearer and symbol of the city. It can be mentioned here that the high rise development do not corrupt the classic image of the city since the pictures are taken from the Deutz river bank and the towers would be situated behind the observer.

The most important landmarks (specially the touristic ones) are concentrated in the area around the Cathedral. High rise buildings on the right bank of the Rhine would also not be seen by the visitors viewing the Cathedral from these sites. However, this analysis has shown that the part of Cologne on the right bank of the Rhine, especially the Deutz river bank, plays a central role in providing the classic views of the city. Which means that over time the element in the illustration have changed many times but the only landmark that has never got out of the pictures is the Cathedral.

4. Independent evaluation of the visual impact study in Clogne - 2005


Area of Movement Analysis

For the next step for the analysis of landmarks and their movement behaviour, the central core of the Cologne was chosen. This area can be split in three subareas which are varied in several features: - The character - Main functions - Morphology of the blocks - Way of movement - Period they have been built

There are 4 different analysis in this area in order to research about the movement: 1.Flows 2.Sections 3.Atmosphere and movements 4.Functions and movements

Touristic Character Shopping Center of the City Big Close Volumes Dominant Pedestrian Movement Oldest Part

Offices Workshop of the City High rise Construction Car and Pedestrian Movement Newest Development

Houses More Open Spaces within the blocks Dominant Car Movement Period of Built


Analysis


Flows

The map below is drawn by being inspired by Louis Kahn which includes traffic-flow and its structures in Cologne. The aim of the map is to explore the modern city of Cologne with a look at how traffic flows. Expressways are the black line. These expressways frame the area to be served.

The spiral circles are the municipal parking towers. From parking, there is a system go-streets that serve the interior, these roads are shown with grey arrows which the direction of them shows the direction of the cars. The go-streets serve entrance halls to the buildings. The grey dots show the pedestrian areas. The dash lines show the tram lines.


What spaces, what activities, what buildings formed the creative center of human commu¬nication? This is the question Kahn was asking in the 1950s. He felt that in order to pre¬serve the quality of life in urban environments, people, buildings, and services should be brought to the city center and cars and roadways should be placed on the periphery, or outer edges. Exploring the traffic in the Cologne shows that the pedestrian movement start around the Cathedral and then split into two branches. One goes on the right bank of Rhine which continues to the other bank to parks and green open spaces while the other branch goes to the shopping centers. In the pedestrian areas the views of the Cathedral is strong and every now and then in the turn of the streets it reveals itself. The pedestrian areas allow people to walk safely and easily from place to place within the city center. In fact this part is the slow-moving traffic. The spatial organization reveals that the city of Cologne is still heavily influenced by the Roman Times. The significance of this ancient crossing of the main east-west and north-south axial roads is particularly evident in the western part of the

city. These axes can be easily recognizable since they are the expressways and fast-moving traffic which frame the areas to be served. Somehow it looks like that the city is defending itself against the automobile, in order to allow the center to be reserve for pedestrian and human interaction. The go-streets complete the picture of the traffic flows. They are narrow and mixed of car and pedestrian flows that serves medium-moving traffic. They are the streets which are connected to the parking (whether parking towers or parking along the streets). There are approximately 6,000 parking spaces in the city of Cologne. The map in the page before shows the parking towers with their entrance to the streets. And the map below shows the parking along the streets. The colour red presents the areas which it is possible to park on weekdays up to 24 hours for 4 Euros. And on weekend the parking on these areas are for free. The color blue presents the areas which it is possible to park on Sundays and holidays from 9 to 23 o’clock. The parking fee is € 0.50 for every 20 minutes up to a maximum of 4 €.


Sections and Street Profiles

13.5 m

12 m

3m

12 m

13 m

15 m

12 m

Am Leystapel

12 m

21 m

21 m

7m Heumarkt

6m

40 m

3m

10 m


18 m

18 m

21 m

15 m

7m

18 m

Hohestrasse

Schildergrasse

18 m

15 m

15 m

12 m

4m Tunisstrasse

3m

12 m

1.5 m

12 m

3m 3m

1.5 m Georgestrasse

9m

1.5 m


Movement and atmosphere: This part discusses the movement and atmosphere as a point of view of a person wakling: As Guy Debord says walking is the best way to explore and exploit the city; which allowing the fiction of an underlying

pattern to reveal itself. Here is a subjective reading of the city as experiencing the city as it is perceived at ground level and telling what it will be like when someone gets there.

Picture above is a sketch from the left bank of the Rhine which is showing the landscape of the old center. In this stand point there would be no flows only some boats and the skyline of the landmarks of the cities.

The sketch above is from the right bank of the Rhine which is showing the landscape of the newest development. The Hohenzollernbrucke and RZVK tower is visible. There are only the traffic flow of trams and pedestrian and bikes. It might sound as a pleasant space; however there are a lot of noises from trams and difficulties to ride a bike.

In the pedestrian areas around Cathedral, there are two buildings in contrast with each other (architecturally), sitting next to each other and dominate the space while create a pleasant crowded pedestrian.

The pedestrian streets in center are live spaces which one can experience the senses of the city; smells, tastes, sounds. Since the streets are narrow and buildings high, there is not a strong visual connection with the landmarks.

In the landscape from the Hohenzollernbrucke, there are flows of pedestrian, boats, trams and cars all together with no negative effect besides the noises from the trams. In the skyline the St. Martin and Crane Houses are visible.

When the pedestrian and cars flows come together in the center the presence of the cars becomes negative. Still the pedestrian roads are wider than car roads. The cars and people act as any flows for each other and decrease the speed of the movement.


Sketches above and below both represent the center where the traffic flow of cars and pedestrian are mixed. In the one above you get a pleasant place to relax.

This sketch shows the Kolumba museum in a pedestrian area which there is no flow at all. Barely any one pass by this street which can make it positive or negative depend on the time of the day.

While the one below shows the dominance of the cars with the parking tower in the end of the streets.

Finally we get to surroundings of the Maritim hotel. There are traffic flow of cars, wide fast-moving streets, parking, tunnels, a lot of stop lights and pedestrian roads.

Here is a random street of mix traffic flow of cars and. It is quiet space away from the tensions of center which cars and people do not interrupt each other and every now and then landmarks appear at the end of the street.

At the back side of the Maritim hotel, although the pedestrian roads are separated from the cars (the bridge and the tunnel) there is hardly any pedestrian flows.


Movement and atmosphere: This part discuss the movement and asmopher as a person who is driving in a car, bus, tram or train: The main points of arrival using public transport are: the main railway station, which sees 220.000 – 250,000 visitors per day, the railway station Deutz/Messe, Cologne-Bonn airport, which receives 8.4 million passangers per year and finally the docks on the banks of the Rhine (no passenger statistics were found). These information show just how important the perceived image of the city is, and just how many people (business travelers, commuters, inhabitant and tourists) pass through the city and absorb its appearance on a daily basis. According to statistics regarding the volume of traffic on the main roads of the city, stated in terms of the number of vehicles per 24 hours, traffic is at the densest on the A1 motorway circular (125,900 – 154,300 vehicles per 24hrs), The A4 (107,900 – 136,900 vehicles per 24hrs) and the A3 (156,600 – 185,000 vehicles per 24hrs). on these roads, cars are con-

ducted along a broad circumventation of the city. From the motorway circular, three main routes lead into the city: the A57 at the motorway junction Cologne-West (67,600 – 85,000 vehicles per 24hrs) and the B55 on the right bank of the Rhine at the motorway junction Cologne-East (104,500-120,600 vehicles per 24hrs) and the eastern access road at the motorway junction Gremberg (66,400 vehicles per 24hrs). Within the city itself, both north-south link roads Rheinufer-Strasse and the North-South demonstrate a relatively high traffic volume (36,900 – 52,300 and 32,500-57,900 vehicles per 24hrs). The level of traffic density demonstrates the importance of the mian access roads in establishing a perception of the city. On terms of the sheer number of people who see the city from those perspective. On basis of the above statistcs, the main railway station with the pedestrian platform around the catherdral, the station Deutz/ Messe, the bank of the Rhine, Colong-Bonn airport and the access road B55 (Zoo Bridge), Gremberg/East (Severin Bridge and Deutz Bridge), A 57 and the North-South road emerge as points of focus for traffic and visitors to the city.


driving towards the city is really important since it show the perceived image of the city, and just how many people (business travelers, commuters, inhabitant and tourists) pass through the city and absorb its appearance on a daily basis.

Arena

Lufthansa RZVK Cathedral

ARCDR

shot above is showing A4/B55a

TUV

RZVK

Katradius

shot above is showing Ottoplatz

Colonius

Cathedral

shot above is showing A 559 Direction Gremberg

Arena

RZVK

Hohenzollernbrucke Cathedral

shot above is showing Zoobrucke

TUV

Colonius


Movement and Functions Kenzo Tange implies that the organic life of a city lay exactly in the flowing movement of its people, who engaged in the communication of various functions and created the total function. Mobility was the factor that gave organization to the city and the transportation system was the physical foundation of the city’s operation. By this mean, it is necessary not only survey about the movement itself but also the relation between movements and function. The map below shows the function distribution in the area

Mix-use

(Housing - Commercial - office)

Housing special Function Commercial and industry Green Space

of research. The distribution of the special functions such as touristic places, museums, theatres and ... is very much in balance and the walking distance between them is logical. The housing areas are completely away from the city center while in the center there are only the mix use of offices and commercials and some housing. Nevertheless the parking spaces have a close relation to commercial areas and even many of them are located beneath or top of those building while there are barely green spaces in the center.


Conclusion

Overview: Movement in the city is effected by various different elements. Nevertheless movement also shapes every component in the city. It would be almost impossible to define weather movements are pulsing or receiving elements. In the case of this analysis (movement and landmarks), landmarks act as main pulsing elements. They define the Cologne, show the city to outside world, and give directions. Design of Streets, landmarks, movement: Looking at the sections show the streets in the center are very narrow while the buildings there are high. In these areas, the visual connections with the landmarks are very weak. The promenade and feather away from the center gives its audience different perspective of different landmarks which makes an elegance introduction for the city before one gets to its core. Atmosphere, landmarks, movements: Each landmark offers an experience from inside and also outside. But sometimes one of these experiences is more dominant. Cathedral, Great St. Martin, the bridges, residential or office buildings and etc are more extroverted landmarks. There is most of the time a view from them in the context of the city, and they can be more spectacular from outside. While some other buildings such as Ludwig Museum, Kolumba Museum, Opera, Arena and etc are building s while they offer the most from the inside. Functions, landmarks, movement: As a result of the analysis the relation between the function, landmarks and movements is not so recognizable, since most of the landmarks are in the pedestrian area. Some landmarks with functions such as shopping, residential, educational are related to movement only in for the parking. The direction of the roads and the location of parking show that clearly.

this research shows three important facts: -The experiences of the users through their movement behaviour around these landmarks -The experiences categories all the landmarks in two architecturally groups base on how they affect the behaviours: Introverted landmarks and extroverted landmarks. -Base on the studies and obsevation all 90 landmarks they have one common characteristic in common: They are all solid. The fact of the importance of the users’ experience in landmarks, has brought a new idea; a new way of experiencing an architectural landmark. An object which respond to you and it environment which maks it no longer a solid building. This responsive building, communicate with the way you move and the speed of your movement and the charatristics of the enivornment. Users have an unique experience which can be different from any other person. In this way I have decided to design an dynamic landmarks in terms of responsive environment. The architecture is the art of creating the setting for human life. Architecture is the means and the goal to maximize involvement of human life. For a long time architecture has meant to design a certain space which encourage people to move or behave in a certain way. However, the fact is that people and users are more important than an architectural object. No longer should a building change the behaviour of the users but users dominate buildings and change their environment duo to their needs. This way we can reach a responsive and dynamic environment which people defines it. And if people define a building, that object becomes part of their society. Responsive environments can be a combination between the scientific developments that resulted in Ambient Intelligence systems and the aesthetic motivation behind interactive art installations and the architecture as base to create an space for it. Responsive environments has been redefined as physical spaces, such as city squares, public halls, etc, that are enhanced with the use of technology and media. This context provide the awareness and user experience have an important contribution to the success of a responsive environment. An environment where the aesthetic of interaction, user engagement, access, embodiment and intimacy are also to be taken into account in the design and specifications phases5.

5. Jorge Alves Lino , Responsive Environment


Bibliography

1. Tange – Kenzo (1961) A Plan for Tokyo, 1960: Towards a structural reorganization – Tokyo Bijustu Shuppansha 2. Kahn - Louis Isadore (1953) Towards a plan for midtown Philadelphia 3. Debord – Guy (1955) Theory of Derive 4. Indepedent evaluation of the Visual Imapct Study Cologne, 2055, Institute of urban and regional planning, RWTH Aachen University 5. http://www.jorgelino.com/fileadmin/Content/jorgelino/ researcher/publications/2010_JAL_BS_MR.pdf


Movement

Profile for marjan sarab

Landmarks and movement marjan sarab 2012  

Landmarks and movement marjan sarab 2012  

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