PORTFOLIO mariya lapteva 110213503
List of contents 02
Year Design Report
ARC2001 Design module work 04
Simplicity, Economy Home
Non-design module work
Place of Houses essay
Fire escape coursework
2. Page 5
aims of proposal
newcastle’s byker bridge
Taking advantage of the existing space within the arches of the Byker bridge by accomodating studios, galleries and/or cafes in southfacing spaces, raised from the ground, thus resisting the overwealming height of the bridge and creating an urban ‘tree house’ within the Ousebourn valley.
5. KEY: 1.journey up 2.elevation
4. render of proposed space
5.conceptual collage Page 6
site and concept initial considerations
This project’s brief asked for the development of a small terraced house for a young couple. The aim of the design was to achieve a comfortable space to live, where the occupants can accommodate their work and leisure.
KEY: 1.figure ground 2.site study
4. view of site
The initial concept was derived from the site observations. Noise and chaos are common in the area, due to the presence of two pubs and a school in close proximity. The reaction to the existing surroundings was to create a ‘shell’ which would enclose the living activities. It would provide a sense of privacy, and also clearly separate the indoor from the outdoor. The way this is achieved is by having two volumes, as if one offsets from the other. The inner would contain the living activities, and outer would protect it, and hold all the services.
5.conceptual model 1-100 Page 8
Placed, Displaced development models & light study
Following the concept of the offsetting volumes, the design development aimed at creating a protective â€˜shellâ€™ which would enclose the living and working activities from the unwanted distractions of the outside. Explorations were made in the direction of creating an intermediate space between the public and private in the forms of a hidden entrance, which is not directly visible from street level.
Using a series of study models, light explorations were made, looking at the ways sunlight would behave in the building. Emphasis is made on morning light, which would create a streak of light, running across the first floor wall.
Page 9 3
KEY: 1.exterior view 3.1:100 build- 5.east light 2.concept for ing on site plan 4. light study
plans and section
f. g. h.
KEY: 1.PLANs a.living room c.kitchen not to scale b.dining space d.bathroom
2.SECTION not to scale Page 10
Placed, Displaced final model scale 1:20
The model reinforces the concept of the relationship between the ‘solid shell’ and the ‘core’, as the first is made out of plaster and the latter – cardboard, each communicating the concept simply by the nature of the material.
model production casting plaster & cardboard
Placed, Displaced proposal
final model & front elevation
The proposed design is a two storey open plan building, which creates a clear distinction between solid and light. It creates a sheltered threshold, which is contrasted by the open nature of the interior spaces. The wooden flooring and light furniture reinforce the ideas behind the soft and light core, and the solid lime stone cladding of the â€˜shellâ€™ creates a protected feel to the building.
4. KEY: 1.morning light 2.noon light 3.perspective 4.elevation not to scale
*added work interior views
As suggested in the project feedback, more detailed view on the interiors of the house were added. The considered materials are stained walnut, cherry and for the exterior of the building â€“ limestone.
a.night view on stairs b.day view on living room c.day view on bedroom
c. Page 13
Simplicity, Economy, Home
site and response initial considerations
The brief of this project was to create a small foyer for a group of eight people with troubled past, in which they can work and live.The urban location of the site near St. Jamesâ€™s park seemed appropriate, since the key purpose of the building was to provide opportunities for reintegration within the busy medium of everyday life. Being protected but visible from the outside became a major theme in the building design. Initial considerations were made, in terms of the existing conditions on the site â€“ sun light, street, noise. A key concept became the idea of creating a space, which is not excluded visually but is protected, and provides the opportunity of choosing between privacy and publicity. Other main aims were providing sufficient sunlight into the living quarters and communal area, and also creating a shelter from the noise on the street.
KEY: 1.abstract representation of site
2.elements on site
3.figure ground (not to scale)
4.sun path analysis Page 15
Simplicity, Economy, Home concept and development about the spaces
In order to connect to the occupants a representation of daytime activities was explored, namely the footsteps people leave behind. They depict a sense of direction and purpose, which the people using this accommodation lack. Focus was made on the permeability of the footstep marks left on a white sheet â€“ some areas are solid and dark, and others a completely see through (3). The idea behind the design is incorporating a set of vertical layers, with varying levels of transparency throughout, so that some spaces are completely enclosed, and some are opened to the outside, in such a way that a bystander is capable of seeing through. A need for a â€˜differentâ€™ space was established, since one purpose of the building is to encourage communication between inhabitants. The communal area was chosen as most appropriate, and will be positioned on the route to the accommodation, so the occupants interact on a daily basis. The space should create an enclosed and sheltered feel in the form of a curve, wraping over, mimicking womb-like qualities (2,4).
The image below depicts the starting point behind the design of the communal space.
4. KEY: 1.conceptual model of space arragement
2.initial concept model of curving space
3.sheet of footsteps
4.concept for curving space
development models explorations of permeability Explorations of the circulation on the front facade, establishing one of the â€˜layersâ€™.
Simplicity, Economy, Home proposal
front elevation and plans
The elevation clearly depicts the idea of the permeable layers and the varying levels of transparency throughout the building â€“ some spaces it is completely see-through, and others the eye is stopped at some part of the interiors.
KEY: 1.section diagram
2.depiction of common space
3.front elevation (not to scale)
c. 3. f.
KEY: 1.view on bay 2.view on extrud- 3.view from 4.view on accomwindow ing â€˜balconyâ€™ outdoor terrace modation level
a.bycicle strorage b.retail
c.workshop d.vehicle access
e.communal area g.tutor accommodation
f.outdoor terrace h,i.accommodation level
Simplicity, Economy, Home
Depicting how the building sits within its context; also showing the light qualities present on site.
KEY: 1.sectional diagrams
2.section (not to scale)
c.outdoor terrace d,e. accommodation
presentation model 1:100, white acrylic
Showing the relationships between spaces at an accurate scale, minimising distracting elements.
Model construction: fully demountable
building on site This photomontage depicts the pedestrian view, when approaching the site. It shows context and population. It is looking at the dynamic setting of the building context near St. James stadium.
Simplicity, Economy, Home
Civic Centred site and concept initial observations
The brief of this project asked for a medium scale public building, situated in Tynemouth. The site that was chosen is the Pier site, and the programmes are leisure and culture. The building will accommodate a cycling club, which joins indoor cycling activities, BMX and bring a logical conclusion to the existing cycling route via the old railway. The culture part of the building is to be a small library with a collection on sports photography. The site was striking with its linearity and perspective and further explorations were made in that direction. The model on the right depicts the linear nature of the site and through picture frames portrays the pedestrian view on the particular locations.
KEY: 1.diagram of connections
2.1:200 model showing linearity and journey
4.panoramic view of the site, depicting linearity
explorative notions looking at perspective
Exploring ways to heighten the already existing strong sense of perspective on site by framing views.
KEY: 1.perspective sketch
2.close up on jouney model
3.framing lighthouse experiment of volumes
3. Page 23
development models relationship between volumes
This set of 1:200 model mainly concentrated on the relatiochip between the two main volumes, and the connection between them.
KEY: 6.section (not to scale) 7.night sectional elevation (not to scale)
Page 3 7.
The building follows the shape of the site, creating an open space in front. Reinforcing the idea of taking a ‘journey’ to a focal point, an external staircase was added, leading from ground level to the roof, where, on an observational terrace the view is directed towards the focal point of the setting – the lighthouse. The building itself consists of 2 distinct volumes, where one the roof of one can be reached from ground level. It can be reached also by bicycle, where on an external sheltered ramp one can leave it and enter the building straight to the cafe. DIAGRAMS KEY: 1.framing view of lighthouse in order to create a direct parh through the building towards it. 2.connection between volumes, path is blocked 3.path does over volume, creating a view 4.creating a path to the lighthouse, continuing the flow 5.view point on higher level
Page Page 253
Civic Centred 6.
plans (not to scale) 9. 12. 8.
KEY: 1.path to first floor
6.BMX ramps 8.cafe 7.sheltered bike storage 9.creche
10.meeting room 11.library
12.reading/ working space
1:100, mdf, cardboard, casting plaster
6. KEY: 1.view on external stairs
5,6.1:100 model Page 27
Civic Centred proposal
building on site
Showing the linear relationship between the building and the pier. Aiming to highlight the sence of directionality.
Section - Alley site and inspiration initial observations
The brief of this project asked for a small temporary timber installation, which will house a busking festival in on of the chares on Quayside. The site we chose is Dog Leap Stairs, located next to Black Gate. The rhythmic pattern of the railway arches seemed appropriate for such an event since the arches act as natural amplifiers that channel the sound deeper into the site depending on their different size and openness. Their varying acoustic qualities warrant a different instrument that requires specific acoustics to optimise its effect. The hard surfaces of the enclosing buildings reflect the sounds. Because of that percussion instruments seemed the best choice for the site.
KEY: 1.sound diagrams
4. Model presenting rhythm
Each arch contains a small stage and recording equipment for one instrument so that the musician can record each instrument separately then loop and combine them in different combinations to create dense layers of sound. The audience also has limited control over what they hear via listening devices that allow the person to hear the music from the perspective of a different seating area.
KEY: 1.1:100 model
4. Page 31
Section - Alley proposal stages design
Showing the six different stages for the festival, each spesific for type of instrument.
KEY: 1.stage for pan drum playing
6.steel drums stage
Section - Alley
proposal seating design
The audience sections of the installation are located separately from each other, scattered onto the grassy areas of the site. Even so, they are not isolated from each other, as they are connected by means of sound. Each seating area is equipped with three sculptural tubes, two of which are receivers and one a transmitter, thus enabling visitors to hear noises from different parts of the site, even thou they are not physically there. This system provides the opportunity to also experience the percussions rhythms and music in different ways, since the tubes also transmit music, by that creating new combinations between sounds on site.
2. KEY: 1.audience area
Non- design courseworks
HOME, SWEET HOME Using specific examples discuss how direct involvement in the process of producing housing impacts on the relationship between the dweller and the dwelling. What can we learn about concepts of construction, dwelling and habitation?
The concept of ‘home’, even though seemingly clear, due to its wide range of definitions can be difficult to use. According to Kimberly Dovey (1985), it is a complex set of relations between a person and a place, which could be a house, a neighbourhood, a city, even a country, depending on the personal context of that individual (Dovey, 1985, p.43-44). This essay will only focus on ‘home’ in the limits of the house and the ways personal involvement in the building of the house can form the relationship between dweller and dwelling in the context of a small group of people, who built their homes in Brighton between 1998 and 2000 (McCloud, 1999). Here it is important to mention key ideas from Gaston Bachelard’s (1964) Poetics of Space, such as the statement ‘our house is our corner of the world. As has often been said, it is our first universe, a real cosmos in every sense of the word’ (Bachelard, 1964, p.4) and the idea that any space can be a home, as long as it ‘reveals an attachment that is native in some way to the primary function of inhabiting’ (Bachelard, 1964, p.4). If Dovey’s ‘home’ is combined with Bachelard’s ‘house’ it can be argued that in the context of the Brighton Co-op, the ‘house’ overlaps with the ‘home’. The purpose of this essay is to consider Bachelard’s idea that any place can be a home (1964) in a real situation and understand the reasons why the small community is at home, without actually owning the dwellings. As mentioned before, this essay will be looking at a specific case of social housing in 1998 in Brighton, where ten families built not only their houses, but each others’ as well. The duration of the project was two years and required a tremendous amount of dedication and personal sacrifice, given the fact that none of them were trained carpenters; and the houses that they were building were not to be owned by them, but by a housing association. They essentially built dwellings to be later just rented by them (McCloud, 1999). The principles by which the dwellings were built were developed in the 1960s, by Walter Segal, who dedicated his career to finding methods of constructions, which are both sensitive to the needs of the clients, thus exploring what makes a space pleasant and habitable; as well as to the context. Segal provided the opportunity to create one’s own process, thus giving the chance of personalization on construction level while still following basic construction techniques (McKean, 1989, p.10). One of the main principles he was basing his work on was providing equivalence of opportunity for his clients meaning that he was giving everyone the same start (McKean, 1989). It can be argued that he provided the opportunity for one to ‘build’ what he believed would best represent his social status.
Dream of home
y ed it or nt al e Id oci S
O Ro rie ot nt ed at ne io s n
Fig. 1 A representation of ‘Home and connectedness’ by Dovey (1985), but in the context of Bachelard’s ideas of the ways dreams of past inform reality (Bachelard, 1964), all in the context of Brighton Co-op.
Here Dovey’s ideas about social status are important to mention. In Home and Homelessness he states that home is ‘an integrative schema that is at once a bonding of person and place and a set of connections between the experience of dwelling and the wider spatial, temporal, and sociocultural context within which it emerges’ (Dovey, 1985, p. 44). According to his work, home is a place where one finds links with past, people, place and future – it can therefore be argued that home has the ability of conveying the status of the dweller. We can clarify the most basic of divisions – ‘homeless’ and ‘home owning’, as once those connections are established, one is no longer ‘homeless’ in the sense of not having shelter, but it the sense of him not having established connections with a space, where he feels safe, sheltered and also perceives it as an embodiment of his dreams (Dovey, 1985). Having this definition of ‘homeless’ in mind we can go back to the case of the Brighton Co-op (1998-2000), where it is viable to say that the participants have been ‘homeless’ before the start of the project and with the building of their houses, even though uncompleted, they inhabit them in their dreams of home. In a sense, from the start of the project, the houses become embodiment of their personal ideas of home, thus establishing all the connections mentioned previously. They feel at home, before physically inhabiting the spaces. They have built a relationship with the site, with each other and the dream of the desired home. This idea is deeply rooted in the dream of tomorrow, thus providing the ‘homeless’ with a ‘home’ in this context. This relationship is common throughout the group, and is an important factor in the argument that one can find home, even if the dwelling is not his own, given he finds links with the environment. In The Poetics of Space Bachelard (1964) states that ‘over and beyond our memories, the house we were born in is physically inscribed in us. It is a group of organic habits’ (Bachelard, 1964, p.14). He argues that in each of us, a house of dreams and memories is engraved and the way we inhabit every other house we have lived in is a variation of that ‘primary’ house. It is that house that is the ideal for a home we carry within us, since it ‘is more than an embodiment of home, it is also an embodiment of dreams’ (Bachelard, 1964, p. 15). In the context of the Brighton Co-op case there is a group of people of various backgrounds and who have had different opportunities of dwelling spaces in their lives. They share one thing in common though – the desire to finally settle and create a stable environment for their children to grow up in – an environment most of them have been lacking in their early years (McCloud, 1999). Including single parents and travellers, people who have spent their lives in social housing, the group’s common motivation is to finally feel at home (McCloud, 1999). Bachelard (1964) states that every space we live in, we connect it to the house we call our first home, the house we were born in; we recollect past experiences and recall the various functions of inhabiting. He adds: ‘in order to sense, across the years, our attachment for the house we were born in, dream is more powerful than thought (Bachelard, 1964, p.16). Here we can look closely at Dovey’s model of the home as connectedness (Dovey, 1985, p.44). For the purpose of this essay we will combine the schema with Bachelard’s ideas by replacing the factor of ‘past’ with the concept of the ‘dream’ as a primary factor of forming an attachment towards a place. In the case of Brighton, it can be argued that the people involved have never had the opportunity to get truly familiar and attached to a space due to a variety of personal circumstances, thus making the concept of the ‘dream’ in Bachelard’s book open to interpretation. It can be considered that instead of being a memory of a past experience, the ‘dream’ is actually a dream of what a home should be. Fig. 1 depicts the idea that the dream is directly connected with the future, which according to Dovey (1985) holds the power of choice. The opportunity to pursue a dream gives the families a chance to put behind the inability to settle, and rediscover the lost concept of home in a new embodiment. For each of them it is a different image, but the experience is defined with a combination of newly formed relationships – with environment/place, people and future; and intimate knowledge of the dwelling. When the participants in the project are building their homes,
List of References: Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space. Boston: Beacon Press, 1964. Print. Dovey, Kimberly. “Home and Homelessness.” Home Environments. By I. Altman. Vol. 8. New York: Plenum Press, 1985. 3364. Print. Escoffery, Gloria. “House and Home.” 2003. Caribbean Quaterly. N.p.: University of the West Indies and Caribbean Quaterly, n.d. 130-32. Print. McCloud, Kevin, narr. “The Brighton Co-op.” Episode #3. Grand Designs. 1999. Television. McCloud, Kevin, narr. “The Brighton Co-op revivified.” Grand Designs. 2000. Television.
Image source - The Brighton Co-op revivified Paul, ex-traveller (left) shares: ‘Sometimes, in the middle of the night, I get up, and just wonder around. Because I can... It’s not 8ft by 12ft (laughs). Sometimes, and I have to confess to this, I even pour myself a little drink of water from the tap and just drink it, even though I don’t want one. It’s mad. Just to have running water.’ (McCloud, 2000)
they find out exactly how each joint works and how the frames come together and how the house stands up. It becomes the ‘unforgettable house’ of which Bachelard (1964) speaks about. In conclusion, even though highly specific, the case of the Brighton Co-op conveys the ideas of both home and house the ways Dovey (1985) and Bachelard (1964) portray them, which combines them into a universe of both emotional stability and physical comfort. During the two year process the participants get closer to each other, create a community, and successfully build their environment, which gives ground to a calmer and stable life. As the project unravels from ‘homeless’ they become ‘home owning’, simultaneously building their dream. They have crafted a place where they can finally settle and create their routines and rituals that make their homes highly individual and personalized. Upon completion, each dwelling, even though structurally identical to the next, is different in its atmosphere, since it embodies what the dweller sees as his ‘dream of home’. All colourfully painted and internally original, the ten houses show the Segal method in practice – given the same opportunity, each participant in the project has built something extraordinary, having his personal needs in mind (McCloud, 1999); or as it was once said in a poem, each of them has built ‘his personal fief and stronghold. His final masterpiece’ (Escoffery, 2003). Word Count: 1506
McKean, John. Learning from Segal. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 1989. Print.
Y T I L REA
e m o H
By Mariya Lapteva 110213503 ARC2023
Structural Diagram Steel Frame
Primary Structure Secondary Structure Page 38
The primary structure is steel frame, which provides support for the overhanging accommodation levels. In between the steel columns there are timber framed walls which are filled with insulation and clad with Redwood The timber walls support heavy triple glazing units. The accommodation timber walls sit on a precast concrete slab, supported by primary and secondary steel beams. The ceiling of the workshop level is also precast concrete and metal deck, since it is also a balcony and needs to support human weight. The tutor flat is a separate, completely timber framed construction, but one common structural wall with the accommodations.
Tectonic Intent The main tectonic intent of the design was to create a clear boundary between privacy and publicity, giving but also taking away the choice between the two, thus incorporating the life within with the life outside. In order to achieve the effect, the main two materials I chose for the building are concrete and timber, where the former represents the public and work realm and the latter – the private dwelling. The ground floor is the most public part of the building, with elements of exposed concrete in the front of the building. It is combined with elements of timber, such as window sills and door frames. The idea is to create a sense of boundaries between in and out, up and down. For the private sections of the building I’ve chosen Redwood cladding, which gives the building a more natural, yet controlled look, taking away the institutional feel, but keeping the idea of the purpose of the space. The curved section continues this idea. It houses the communal space of the foyer, but since conceptually the space has to be inviting and save, I decided a curve would be natural. I picked bent glulam joists in order to make the shape possible, and for cladding – again Redwood. The room has to feel enclosed and private, creating a sense of separation from the formality of the public spaces. The primary structure is steel frame, due to the overhanging accommodation section (coated in Redwood) and the glass lift, for both which sufficient structural support is needed.
External Wall Section 1. 2. 3. 5. 4. 6.
1. FLAT ROOF - WARM DECK
- primary supporting steel beam - rigid insulation 90mm - insulation 100mm - timber joists structural deck
2. WALL OPENING
- triple glazing unit
3. INTERMEDIATE FLOOR
- plywood decking - timber joists
4. STEEL FRAME OVERHANG OVER OUTDOOR SPACE
- steel primary beam - cast concrete slab - timber frame wall - timber cladding
4. 5. STEEL FRAME WITH TIMBER FRAME FILLING
- steel primary beam - timber frame wall - cast concrete slab - outdoor timber cladding - indoor plasterboard wall covering
6. STEEL FRAME WITH TIMBER FRAME AND CONCRETE BLOCKWORK
- steel primary beam - cast concrete slab - timber frame wall - concrete blockwork wall - flat roof/outdoor space
7. STEEL FRAME EXTERNAL WALL
- cast concrete slab - blockwork external wall workshop
8. SOLID CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS - powerfloated concrete slab - blockwork external wall
FLAT ROOF WARM DECK - EXTERNAL TIMBER FRAME WALL
Bitumen roof covering Drip fillet Rigid insulation 90mm Primary steel beam junction to secondary steel beam Roof battens BATT insulation 200mm External redwood cladding Horizontal battens Cellulose insulation 140mm Vapour barrier SCALE 1:10
EXTERNAL TIMBER FRAME WALL OPENING
External redwood cladding Horizontal battens Cellulose insulation 140mm Vapour barrier Drainage insulation Triple glazing Extended sill Softboard acting as a ventilation control layer
INTERMEDIATE FLOOR - TIMBER FRAME EXTERNAL WALL
Plasterboard Vapour barrier Floor covering insulation Primary steel beam Floor joists Softboard acting as a ventilation control layer
STEEL FRAME OVERHANG - TIMBER FRAME WALL
Plasterboard Vapour barrier DPC Floor covering Concrete slab Metal deck Primary steel beam junction to secondary steel beam Softboard acting as a ventilation control layer Redwood finish
STEEL FRAME FLOOR - TIMBER FRAME EXTERNAL WALL
Floor covering Concrete slab Metal deck Primary steel beam junction to secondary steel beam BATT insulation 200mm Softboard acting as a ventilation control layer Redwood finish Vapour barrier
STEEL FRAME FLOOR - TIMBER FRAME EXTERNAL WALL- CONCRETE BLOCK INTERNAL WALL
Plasterboard Vapour barrier Tiles Roofing membrane DPC Floor covering Concrete slab Metal deck Primary steel beam junction to secondary steel beam BATT insulation 200mm Fire insulation 70mm Concrete block internal wall
STEEL FRAME FLOOR - EXTERNAL CONCRETE BLOCK WALL
Aluminium flashing Roofing membrane Tiles Rigid insulation Vapour barrier Concrete slab Metal deck Primary steel beam junction to secondary steel beam BATT insulation 200mm Fire insulation 70mm Ceiling board Concrete block external wall
CONCRETE PAD FOUNDATIONS - EXTERNAL CONCRETE BLOCK WALL
Concrete blockwork External insulation Fire insulation 70mm Concrete slab DPC
Sustainability accoriding to BRE green guide
Category – External wall construction
Category – Internal Wall
Category – Upper floor construction
Sub-category – Cladding of framed construction
Element type – Framed Partitions
Element type – Upper floor construction
Element – Timber stud, plasterboard, paint
Element – OSB2 decking on timber joists
Element Number – 809760003 Summary Rating – A+ Kg of CO2 eq. (60 years ) – 15
Element Number – 807280041 Summary Rating – A+ Kg of CO2 eq. (60 years ) – -7.6
Category – Ground floor construction
Category – Domestic Windows
Category – Roof Construction
Element type – Solid concrete
Element type – Windows
Element type – Flat roof warm deck
Element – Powerfloated in sity concrete slab, over insulation of polyethylene dpm laid on blinded virgin aggregate sub base
Element – Preservative pre-treated softwood window, double glazed, water based stain (TWAS)
Element – Timber joists, OSB/3 decking, vapour control layer, insulation, EPDM single ply waterploofing membrane
Element Number – 820100202 Summary Rating – C Kg of CO2 eq. (60 years ) – 63
Element Number – 813100020 Summary Rating – A+ Kg of CO2 eq. (60 years ) – 190
Element Number – 1212540037 Summary Rating – A+ Kg of CO2 eq. (60 years ) – 25
Element type – Light steel framed construction Element – Treated softwood boarding on timber battens, breather membrane, OSB/3 sheathing insulation, light steel frame, vapour control layer, plasterboard on battens, paint Element Number – 1206490021 Summary Rating – A+ Kg of CO2 eq. (60 years ) – 94
Published on May 18, 2013