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REUSING LONDON’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE MARIUS-BOGDAN DRĂGAN

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REUSING LONDON’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

MARIUS-BOGDAN DRĂGAN Department of Architecture University of Strathclyde Glasgow, March 2016

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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MOTIVATION

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INSPIRATION

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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LITERATURE REVIEW

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CHAPTER 2: INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

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DEFINITION

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WHY PRESERVE?

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BENEFITS OF PRESERVATION

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LONDON’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

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CHAPTER 3: REUSE

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DEFINING REUSE

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DEFINING CONSERVATION

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SAME SPACE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS

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THE CONVERSION PROCESS

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SUSTAINABILITY

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CHAPTER 4: CASE STUDIES

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TATE MODERN

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THE FOUNDRY

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DONMAR DRYDEN STREET

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CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSIONS

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CONCLUSION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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LIST OF FIGURES

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ABSTRACT

The industrial heritage represents all the

The function of a building can change at some

testimonies of industrial culture which has

point over the years, due to several numbers

historical, technological, social and architectural

of factors such as social, environmental and

significance. These testimonies can be buildings,

economic factors, which influence the purpose

machineries,

of a building. By adapting and reusing industrial

laboratories,

mills,

factories,

mines, warehouses that we’re mostly built in

buildings

we

avoid

wasting

construction

the industrial Revolution between 1750 and

materials, loss of energy, and it can be a

1850. Although many of these buildings we’re

sustainable strategy by activating abandoned

destroyed and demolished over time, industrial

sites and maximizing the use of urban space,

buildings are valuable to the community by

helping to control the urban sprawl.

giving people an important sense of identity, also maintaining the distinct character and

The purpose of this dissertation is to get a

cultural background of the place.

chance to explore and research the idea of reuse by explaining and presenting the

The most important sites should be fully

importance of London’s industrial heritage, also

protected and should not be allowed any

the methods and strategies used to preserve

interference which would compromise their

and adapt historic buildings to new functions

historical

integrity

and architectural programs.

building

materials.

or

authenticity

Adaptation

and

of

the reuse

can be a beneficial and sustainable way to maintain the character and identity of industrial buildings, and it should be a strategy adopted by all architects and local authorities for future developments.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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Fig. 1 Winchester Rifle Factory (2013)

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“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.� Charles Darwin

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MOTIVATION

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Cultural and industrial heritage has always been

The aim of this study is to raise awareness

a big inspiration for me during my architectural

of the importance of London’s cultural and

studies. The buildings unique character and

industrial heritage by presenting the main

their historical context has a great impact over

benefits of preservation and reusing them to

the community and city because they evoke

regenerate degraded parts of the city. In order

memories of the place that once was in a

to understand the value of industrial buildings it

different scenario, which served different needs

is necessary to describe the main characteristics

and functions. In a time where technology is

of industrial buildings as well as the possibilities

moving at a fast pace, and the need for constant

they offer to adapt to different uses.

change is mandatory, these historical heritages are often abandoned or demolished to make

Another important part of this dissertation

space for new developments that often destroy

is to explain how the concept of reuse can be

the character and identity of the place.

used as a sustainable strategy by using the existing industrial buildings in new ways which

I believe that maintaining the identity of a

helps maintain the identity of the surrounding

place, preserving the surrounding context and

context.

enhancing it, will be a more sustainable and beneficial strategy than demolishing buildings

A series of case studies will be presented and

filled with history and character.

analyzed to better understand the possibilities that London’s industrial buildings offer, as well as the constraints such as structure, materials, façade, lighting, ventilation etc. These projects will help solidify the main argument for the study to set the final discussions and conclusions.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS MAIN QUESTION When will the reuse of industrial heritage be used as the main strategy for future sustainable project developments? SUB-QUESTIONS Why preserve industrial heritage? How can we use old buildings for new uses?

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Fig. 2 Tate Modern (2003)

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INSPIRATION

The reuse of industrial buildings has evolved

Similar to the conversion of the former power

significantly over the past ten years, especially

station, on a smaller scale, many former factories

in former industrial cities. London for example

or small warehouses have been transformed

has a wide range of industrial heritage from

into office buildings, art centers (Fig. 3 Donmar

large scale buildings such as Bankside Power

Dryden Street, London) or even houses (Fig.4

Station or Battersea Power Station to small

Shoreditch Warehouse Conversion).

scale warehouses such as Donmar Warehouse. These buildings offer an amazing potential

These projects inspire architects and future

for architects to create something unique,

developers to push the boundaries of reuse as

filled with character and history. The biggest

a form of reinventing the future of architecture,

inspiration for London’s industrial heritage is the

while staying faithful to the past.

conversion of Bankside Power Station into Tate Modern, one of the most famous art museums to date. The flexibility of the main space, where the former turbine hall used to be, has offered an opportunity to create a wide range of public manifestations and unique exhibitions that caught everyone’s attention. One of the most iconic exhibitions held in Tate Modern was Olafur Eliasson’s weather project. The project consisted in the installation of an artificial light which was an abstract representation of the sun (Fig. 2 Tate Modern, 2003). Famous photographers around the world gathered in the turbine hall to capture this unique exhibition, which ultimately transformed Tate Modern into the main source of inspiration for the idea of reusing industrial heritage.

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Fig. 3 Donmar Dryden Street (2014)

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Fig. 4 Shoreditch Warehouse Conversion (2013)

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The first chapter was used to illustrate the basic

made with the referenced ideas from Miles

introduction to the research. In this part the

Glendinning(2013) and Keneth Powell(1999).

problem statement and research questions

The dissertation is strictly focused on London’s

we’re asked in order to understand the scope

industrial heritage as it offers a wide range of

of the research. This dissertation intends to

examples of industrial heritage sites which

identify the link between industrial heritage,

are in a constant state of decay. An elaborate

preservation, reuse and sustainability.

Key

description of King’s Cross Gas Holders, Gillete

inspiration

presented,

Factory in Brentford, Millennium Mills, Lots

which provided the visual motivation for the

photographs

we’re

Road Power Station, and the iconic Battersea

outcome of this research. The reaction from the

Power

visuals provided the general concept of the idea

diversity and importance of industrial heritage

between old and new, adaptation and reuse.

in London’s skyline and how the proposed

Station

was

used

to

portray

the

development projects will influence London The second chapter contains an elaborate

and its inhabitants. The research continued with

research

of

a detailed approach on how buildings can be

this research, which is industrial heritage.

converted to have a different use or purpose, as

Definitions and characteristics we’re presented

well as the entire process of converting industrial

to fully understand the importance of industrial

buildings. The references used for explaining the

heritage, while the benefits of preservation

entire process we’re from Michael Stratton(1997)

provided the main argument for the dissertation.

and James Douglas(2006). Finally the last part

A further research was made to explain the

of this chapter was devoted to the sustainability

benefits of preservation by investigating the

aspect of the process of reuse and how it can

work of Jean Carroon(2010) and Johannes

be a beneficial and optimal strategy for future

Cramer(2007), who have a similar approach

development projects, mainly referenced from

towards the preservation of heritage.

the work of Carroon Jean(2010).

based

on

the

main

subject

The main chapter of theis paper

is the

The fourth chapter of the research involved three

third chapter, where the concept of reuse is

case studies, which presented built projects of

described with reference points from Serban

industrial buildings being reused for a different

Cantacuzino(1975) and Douglas James(2002).

purpose.

The word “adaptation” was also defined, as it

range in terms of scale, from the large scale of

is commonly used along the concept of reuse

the famous project Tate Modern, to the small

for a better understanding of the research.

scale of a warehouse on Donmar Dryden Street

On the other hand, the difference between

transformed into an artist rehearsal studio.

reuse and conservation was made to point out the key elements that distinguish these two interventions on industrial buildings. This was

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The case studies offered a diverse


LITERATURE REVIEW

The research for the concept of reusing industrial heritage must firstly seek to include an exploration of the idea of conservation and preservation. In order to understand the

“Because their structure tends to outlive their function, buildings have continuously been adapted to new uses.”

concept of adaptive reuse firstly it is necessary Cantacuzino, 1975: viii

to have a detailed presentation about industrial buildings. This chapter will contain a coherent description about industrial buildings can be found in Michael Stratton’s book Industrial

The books portrays different types of building

England(1997) where he illustrates the outcome

conversions, such as churches, barns, mills,

of the industrial revolution and how the major

warehouses and other industrial buildings. The

cities across the world have been industrialized.

terminology of reuse and adaptability will come into play to help us understand the meaning

The third chapter will explore the principles of

of reuse. Regarding industrial buildings, due

adapting buildings and how can the building

to their size, structure and characteristics,

layout be changed while maintaining its

they are subjected only to particular new uses.

structural elements. In his book, Building

The suitable new uses for industrial buildings

Adaptation, Douglas James (2006) describes

are: industrial museums, residential use, new

three essential requirements for a successful

industrial use, offices and hotels, sports centre,

building conversion: appropriate development

art galleries and cultural centres(Douglas, 2006).

approach, driving force and a suitable building (Douglas, 2006). The author provides principles

In Michael Stratton’s and Barrie Trinder’s

for improving the adaptation of buildings, and

book, called Industrial England, the main

also the process and technology behind the

ideas regarding the importance of industrial

adaptive reuse of buildings. This chapter will

buildings, their functions, how they we’re built

also explore the concept of adaptive reuse

to meet their requirements and how they can

and its benefits. In his book, New uses for old

adapt in time are presented.

buildings, Cantacuzino explains that buildings need to be adaptable in time in order to

The final part of this chapter will describe the

respond to the constant change of people’s

sustainability behind the the process of reusing

needs(Cantacuzino, 1975). In this book the

historical

author describes the general benefits of reusing

Preservation: Greening Existing Buildings by

old buildings and their historical value.

Carroon Jean(2010) will provide the idea of

buildings.

The

book

Sustainable

sustainable preservation can be a key factor for future development projects that will not only reuse industrial buildings but also transforming them into green, self-sustainable buildings.

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CHAPTER 2

INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

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Fig. 5 Battersea Power Station (2012)

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“The heritage of the past is the seed that brings forth the harvest of the future.� Wendell Phillips

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DEFINITION

The word “heritage” can be explained as being “the combined creations and products of nature and of man, in their entirety, that make up the environment in which we live in space and time.” (Us, français and standards, 2016). The meaning of heritage has constantly changed over time, while not usually directly associated with industrial buildings, it is presently associated with many domains such as history, tourism, conservation, preservation etc. Heritage is “a reality, a possession of the community, and a rich inheritance that may be passed on, which invites our recognition and our protection” (Us, français and standards, 2016). This gives us the starting point in the process of understanding the significance of industrial heritage as being not just a term that refers to abandoned industrial sites, but to the idea of recognizing the value of old industrial sites and the importance of restoring the character of the place.

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Fig. 6 Elegance Unravelling (2010)

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WHY PRESERVE?

The

idea

the

Industrial heritage sites often are associated

existing

with abandoned areas left to decay, commonly

buildings in order to maintain their character

located in central areas of the city due to the

and cultural value. Although most of the

fact that 19th century cities we’re developed

abandoned industrial buildings aren’t practical

and organized around these industrial sites,

or provide energy efficiency, the main reasons

opposite to the present situation where these

for preserving and converting them is to

industrial areas are located at the edge of the

maintain the unique character they provide to

city.

protection

of

preservation

and

represents

conservation

of

the city. Maintaining the memory of the once well-known factory or warehouse, its unique

The present challenge for architects and

architectural features, the original construction

conservationists is to take these industrial

materials and enhancing it, will create a higher

sites, which are currently wasted voids in the

value for future development projects, while

urban fabric, identify the potential value and

keeping the character and individuality of the

transform them into usable spaces for the

site intact.

community, while maintaining the essence of the site unharmed.

Industrial sites we’re the main key areas of the city that influenced not only the surrounding context but the future development of the city as well. Industrial buildings have unique characteristics that differentiate them from the surrounding context, making them stand out providing the sense of cultural identity. These unique features and cultural identity supports the idea of preservation as a sustainable method not only to keep the sites value but potentially increasing it by reusing it to new contemporary uses for the community.

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BENEFITS OF PRESERVATION

With the basic knowledge about industrial

By adapting and transforming these buildings

buildings being set, the importance and the

for new uses can benefit the community by

benefits of preservation will provide the main

creating a place where people can gather,

argument of this dissertation.

interact or even work. Therefore, the once known factory, which was a centre point for

The preservation and the reuse of old industrial

the community, will continue to maintain its

buildings can be beneficial in many different

importance but in a different scenario.

ways, such as maintaining the heritage, avoiding demolition can be beneficial environmentally

Along with the social and environmental

as well as economically, and it can have a great

benefits, adapting old industrial sites has its

impact on the community by keeping the

economic benefits too. Using the existing

character and identity of the place intact.

materials and resources will help manage the expenses to focus on rebuilding and preserving

James Douglas describes demolition as a

the site, rather than spending it on demolition.

“wasteful, hazardous, polluting, disruptive and

Also by gathering people, these industrial

costly process” (Douglas, 2006: 97). This process

sites filled with character and cultural identity

can be avoided by preserving and adapting the

become tourist attractions which generate

building to fulfill a new purpose, which will

economic value.

benefit both the society and the environment. The reuse of the building is part of a sustainable strategy that uses the available materials and structure, rather than demolishing it which causes pollution and energy waste. Jean Carron states: “Waste is the physical evidence of the heedless way we utilize natural resources, creating environmental and social impacts at every stage of the process.” (Carroon, 2010: 254). The demolition of industrial heritage sites has an social impact as well as Johannes Cramer states: “demolition of old buildings is now perceived not only as an ecological waste but also as the eradication of local identity, of cultural heritage and of socio-economic values.” (Cramer and Breitling, 2007: 9).

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LONDON’S INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE

Historic industrial buildings have been the

The purpose of these ornaments wasn’t only

main anchor point for many british cities, as the

for the company’s image, but it was to blend

process of manufacturing allowed the city to

the industrial building with its surroundings

prosper, usually around the factory sites. Most

by using a vernacular treatment of the facade.

of the factories and warehouses we’re made

Factories and warehouses, often associated

from brick or stone, from one to five stories high,

as

with wide structural openings that allowed the

similar characteristics such as large open

building to accommodate a large number of

spaces, exposed structure, façade rhythm and

workers and machinery. Their unique structure

repetition. These individualities, along with the

and architecture gave the neighborhood a

brick ornaments and offers a unique character

distinct character, which is maintained until

for each building.

industrial

brickwork

structures,

have

the present day as industrial heritage sites. Although they are described as more functional than architectural buildings, these structures can revive the communities and have the potential to make a big impact in the urban context. These factories are places filled with

“Over time the treatment of historic buildings has encompassed a curious mix of reverence and sanctity, abrogation and destruction”

memory and character, they are the proof of

Hobson, 2003: 3

the Industrial Revolution that influenced our present days and our cities.

Many of the british industrial sites, which “The factory, according to some interpretations

are now under ruins and their landscape is

of the Industrial Revolution, supplanted the

contaminated by trash and building materials,

home as the scene of manufactures” (Stratton

are neglected and forgotten by the authorities.

and Trinder, 1997: 13). Factories we’re designed

These industrial buildings that have remarkable

not only for their utilitary purpose, but also

architectural brick and steel structures we’re

to accommodate a large number of people,

proven to be valuable for the community and

machienery and the protection of goods.

the city as they provided economic stability

Factories and warehouses usually we’re strict

and work places for the society. Michael

and

“sometimes

Stratton states: “Britain was the world’s first

it became an architecturally ornate icon,

industrial nation. It was also one of the earliest

which

utilitarian

buildings,

represented

public

to experience the full trauma of decline in

image.” (Stratton and Trinder, 1997: 99). The

traditional manufacturing and dock handling,

ornamentations used for the factories and

and has pioneered the conservation and re-

warehouses

use of redundant factories and warehouses”

we’re

the

but

often

company’s

brick

ornaments

around the windows, entries and roofs.

(Stratton, 2000: 8).

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Fig. 7 Shad Thames Crossing (2013)

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Sustainability in present days, due to climate

Some of the most important industrial heritage

change, has become a necessity for all new

examples in London include: King’s Cross Gas

buildings. Converting old industrial buildings will

Holders, Gillete Factory in Brentford, Millennium

raise awareness by using the available materials

Mills, Lots Road Power Station, and the iconic

rather than wasting it, also avoiding demolition

Battersea Power Station.

which causes pollution, as Hobson states “an ever-closer relationship between planning and

These

abandoned

industrial

buildings

in

conservation has seen planning providing the

London are perfect examples of how important

means and muscle previously lacking to prevent

industrial heritage can be for the community

the last late lamented demolition of a valuable

and for the city skyline as well. It doesn’t just

historic feature” (Hobson, 2003: 59).

provide a sense of forgotten history and stories of a time when London’s industry was at its

London, although it has no coal mines or

peak moment, but it also creates diversity and

steelworks, during the Industrial Revolution it

character, things that undoubtedly makes

had the biggest concentration of Boulton & Watt

London the unique city it is today.

steam engines, which started the expansion of the industrial activity in London, making it an

By demolishing these industrial buildings,

industrial centre (Marshall, 2013).

not only will it destroy the city’s legacy and its history, but also it will be an environmental

The Industrial Revolution bloomed in London,

disaster due to pollution, energy and material

with industries such as cars manufacturing,

waste caused by the demolition of these large

airplanes, ship building, brick factories, glass

buildings. On the other hand, by reusing the

factories, potteries, which transformed London

industrial heritage, not only will it maintain the

into a thriving industrial capital. Although many

history, character and skyline of the city, it will

of these industrial buildings we’re the pride of a

be a more sustainable and rational approach

nation which lead the way in terms of industry

towards the conservation and reuse of heritage.

and technological innovation, in the present days London’s industrial heritage remains at risk of permanent destruction due to continuing decay and lack of conservation. The English Heritage has stated that 40% of the listed industrial buildings could be reused in terms of economic and industry development, while 60% can be reused as public buildings with social and cultural values due to their large size, such as museums, cultural centers, art galleries etc.

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Fig. 8 King’s Cross Gass Holder (2015)

KING’S CROSS GASS HOLDER

King’s Cross Gas Holder is a Grade II listed

shape of the structure, while in the middle

industrial heritage site built in 1850s, which used

there’s a large green space where people can

to be part of the largest gasworks in London

gather and take part in social activities.

(Morris, 2015). This large circular frame has been transformed into a park by Bell Phillips Architects, as well as new social housing blocks will surround the Gasholder Park forming a small community that will help solidify the idea of appreciating the industrial heritage and adapting it to new contemporary uses. The park is formed from a stainless steel canopy that follows the circular

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Fig. 9 Gillette Factory (2014)

GILLETTE FACTORY

Gillete Factory in Brentford is another Grade II

The factory stopped production in 2006 and a

listed industrial building that was built in 1937

future reuse of the building was set to become

and designed by Sir Banister Fletcher (The

a new hotel and business park (The Gillette

Gillette Factory, 2014).

Factory, 2014).

This two storey Art Deco style building, mainly built from bricks, is famous for its size and large window openings as well as the central tower with four-faced clock is considered a landmark for the community of Brentford.

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Fig. 10 Millennium Mills (2013)

MILLENNIUM MILLS

Millennium Mills is a former flour mill located

The project will create office spaces, public

on East London’s Royal Docks, which impresses

spaces, restaurants and social housing that will

by its Art Deco style as well as its large size,

help regenerate this industrial heritage site.

inhabiting 450,000 sqm (Flour milling and the

Newham mayor Sir Robin Wales adds: “This

port - Trades, industries and institutions - Port

multi-billion pound transformation is a fantastic

Cities, 2016). This building was considered a

opportunity to reinvigorate the Royal Docks

landmark in the beginning of the 20th century

area, giving it a new lease of life benefiting

but it was closed in 1980 and remained under

Newham and the capital as a whole.�(Taka and

continuous decay until recent days. A recent

Taka, 2016).

development project is set for the reuse of Millennium Mills and its entire surrounding site to create a new social and economic centre for East London.

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Fig. 11 Lots Road Power Station(2010)

LOTS ROAD POWER STATION

Lots Road Power Station is an old coal power

the power station switched from coal to oil fuel.

station located near Thames River in Chelsea.

In present days Lots Road Power Station sets to

The power station was buit in 1904 and it was

be the biggest development project in Chelsea,

the longest-serving power station in the world,

as the project designed by Sir Terry Farrell sets

which was shut down in 2002 (Lots Road power

to reuse the power station to inhabit social

station gets a new life in ÂŁ1bn flats and shops,

housing.

2013). The entire site will be used to its maximum This industrial building was made out of

potential with new buildings of social interest

traditional red brick forming two halls that

such as offices, restaurants, residential areas,

where lit by large arched windows. The main

sports centres , while the power station will

hall initially had four tall chimneys of 84 meters

be flanked by two towers,which frames the

each, which we’re later reduce to only two when

industrial building.

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Fig. 12 Battersea Power Station (2013)

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BATTERSEA POWER STATION

Perhaps the most iconic and well-known

Battersea Power Station is currently on the

example

verge of becoming one of the biggest future

of

industrial

heritage

buildings

in London is the Battersea Power Station

developments of adaptive reuse to date.

designed by Sir Giles Gillbert Scott, which has two individual power stations built separately

The future reuse of this iconic industrial building

in 1930 and 1950 is currently the fourth largest

will be designed by Rafael Viñoly Architects, and

brick building in Europe (Largest brick buildings

it will host public space, conference centres,

around the world [Infographic] | Architecture

restaurants, commercial spaces, offices and

And Design, 2016).

on top of the building two levels of residential areas. The masterplan will also include a series

Designed as a symmetric plan on a 15 acre site

of residential, leisure, commercial and cultural

on the bank of Thames River, the station was

buildings that surround the power station,

an imposing landmark that stood out not just

transforming the 15 acre site into an architectural

by its impressive size, but by its symmetric

harmony between old and new, past and

composition and its 4 famous chimneys. The

present. On this project famous architects are

concrete chimneys, placed above a boiler room

involved such as Norman Foster and Frank Gehry

with an neighboring turbine hall, are 103 meters

who will design the surrounding buildings of

tall, which made them an obvious signal point

the masterplan. Frank Gehry states: “Our goal is

in London’s cityscape (History of Battersea

to help create a neighbourhood and a place for

Power Station - construction, 2016). It’s sheer

people to live that respects the iconic Battersea

size and distinct architecture made it a symbol

Power Station while connecting it into the

of technology and power, metaphorically and

broader fabric of the city” (Frearson, 2013).

literally speaking, which marked the beginning of a new era in the development of London’s industrial scene with a grand and bold gesture. The power station been declared an industrial heritage site for 33 years, and although it is currently under advanced forms of degradation and decay, merely a brick skeleton, it still has an immense significance to London’s skyline and it has the potential for future development projects that could transform the site into a new cultural and economic center (Graham, 2015). Similar to Bankside Power Station, which was transformed into the famous Tate Modern Art Museum by Herzog and de Meuron in 2000,

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CHAPTER 3

REUSE 35


Fig. 13 Battersea Power Station Proposal (2013)

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“To restore a building is not to repair it, nor to do maintenance or to rebuild, it is to reestablish it in an ultimate state that never existed before.” Eugène Viollet-le-Duc 1855

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DEFINING REUSE

Architecturally

speaking,

reuse

is

a

term

function, capacity or performance to fit new

that is often associated with old buildings or

uses (Douglas, 2006). Although the term reuse

industrial sites which suffer changes in order

and adaptive reuse have a broad meaning and

to have a different purpose than the initial

often can be related to any type of modification

one. Buildings, due to their characteristics and

made to a building, in order for to maintain its

presence throughout time, often outlive their

true meaning, the changes made to the building

purpose and function, which forces the fact

must be significant and substantial. In other

that they need to be adaptable in time in order

words the building needs to have a complete

to respond to the constant change of people’s

new use or function, which changes its entire

needs (Cantacuzino, 1975).

typology in order to fully illustrate the concept of reuse, while small changes such as the

The reuse of these sites have social, economic

refurbishment of a room, or new construction

and environmental benefits and it also helps to

materials implemented into the building do

control the sprawl of the city by using existing

not fall in the category of reuse.

buildings or structures to inhabit different functions needed by the communities. Usually these industrial sites are well linked within the city along main roads and public transport, which prove to be valuable requirements for the new and adapted building to be integrated within the city infrastructure. Close related and commonly used with the same meaning as reuse are terms such as conversion, refurbishment, adaptive reuse which portray the main idea of using buildings for new uses other than their original ones. Douglas James defines reuse as a significant change to an existing building function when the former function has become obsolete (Douglas, 2006). The word “adaptation”, according to the British Dictionary is “A change in structure, function, or behavior by which a species or individual improves its chance of survival in a specific environment” (The definition of adaptation, 2016), but in the context of buildings it means any intervention to a building that changes its

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Fig. 14 Abandoned Power Plant

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DEFINING CONSERVATION

Conservation, on the other hand, is close related

Apart from the economic and cultural values

to the idea of maintaining the heritage the same

that conservation undertakes through heritage,

as it was, as a part of history and cultural value

the main attribute that makes conservation

retained in its original form. Conservation has

such a demanding field in the contemporary

an important role in architecture and it is a part

society today is the social value. Maintaining the

of the society and its environments, which we’re

identity and unique character of the industrial

made, destroyed, then remade again to retain

and cultural heritage of a city will benefit

the historical value of the place (Glendinning,

the society by providing a sense of place and

2013).

belonging for the people and the communities formed around these heritage sites. These often

The main difference between conservation and

abandoned industrial sites scattered around the

reuse is that conservation is strictly associated

city provide future development opportunities

with repairing and preserving the heritage

to connect and revitalize the existing urban

such as preventive and helpful interventions

fabric by creating new uses in once inaccessible

to materials, structural elements, façades in

areas of the city, while maintaining the sense of

order to reconstruct the building back to its

place and character of the surrounding context.

original form, while the idea of reuse not only reconstructs the building, but it modifies it to fulfill new uses, by enhancing and adapting it to new social and economic demands. Alfrey and Putnam considers that conservation “tends to be concerned with only a part of the industrial heritage – it can validate and help to protect the structures and appearance of things, but may not be able to sustain the patterns of use which have justified them” (Alfrey and Putnam, 1992: 8). Reusing industrial buildings, however, not only helps maintain their original value, but also can provide new purpose and uses for the community.

Architectural

conservation started with the idea of preserving historical monuments, but over the time it gradually started to think about urban form as well, and how it can relate and interact with the surroundings (Powell, 1999).

40


SAME SPACE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS The

evolution

of

society,

depending

on

the intangible can be described as lighting,

the nature of human relationships, or the

acoustics, ventilation etc. These necessities of

advancement of technology, has developed

the space provide the functionality of the space.

specific architectural functions to meet the

The specific purpose of a building requires the

demands of the people. The evolution of the

spaces inside to provide specific qualities and

architectural space developed along with the

necessities such as shape, size, illumination,

evolution of society itself, fitting the needs

ventilation, furniture and equipment.

of different types of human activities: work, leisure, sports, living etc. Historically speaking,

Since society is under a continuous evolution,

each period had its own unique characteristics

the need of adapting and reusing buildings

regarding architecture functions, which was

to fulfill different functions is a necessity for

conditioned by the forms of activities held in

future architectural projects. The evolution

that period. This influenced the architecture

of human activities has influenced the way

of the buildings to be in direct relationship

spaces are designed, not only to fulfill a specific

with its function. Factories and warehouses by

purpose, but to embody a series of different

definition we’re built to fulfill a specific purpose

configurations. The flexibility of a space can

or function depending on what type of industry

provide a higher value for the building, as it

it was meant for.

can adapt to future needs. Due to the constant evolution

of

technology,

the

architectural

space gains new principles and possibilities regarding its configuration. The space becomes

“Factories are regarded as functional suggesting that they we’re built to last and that they look right because they are unselfconscious, honest structures”

an adaptable and flexible element, capable of changing its function in correlation with the necessities. The word “functional” can portray three different

Stratton, 1997: 50

meanings. It can be used in the context of historic architecture when it was associated with the word “modernist”, it also was used in the 19th century to describe factories or other industrial

The purpose of a building influences the way the

buildings, and finally it is used in a more literal

space was designed. The activities held inside

way to describe buildings in general, as the way

the architectural space define the functionality

a building is designed to fulfill a specific purpose

of the space itself. In order for the space to define

or to host a specific activity (Stratton, 1997).

a specific type of activity it must contain tangible and intangible things. The tangible things can be described as furniture or equipment and

41


Regarding industrial buildings, most of London’s

building must be combined with a new one,

factories we’re built from brick and timber

usually combining the old brick structure of the

which we’re the main materials used until

building with a new steel structure.

the Industrial Revolution, where steel offered greater possibilities for building new factories.

An example of this combination is the conversion

Although industrial sites we’re built for specific

of a warehouse in London into an office building

functions, in order to preserve the character

for Analog Folk (Fig. 15 Warehouse Conversion:

of the abandoned sites, new functions would

Analog Folk). This project makes use of the

be needed to take place in the newly adapted

industrial structure of the warehouse to create

factories.

wide open spaces, which facilitate different flexible office layouts. The use of black steel

The wide structural openings and large spaces

frames, timber and exposed ventilation system

can be used for different functions such as

emphasizes the industrial feel of the building.

industrial

museums,

residential

use,

new

industrial use, offices and hotels, sports halls, art galleries and cultural centres (Douglas, 2006). Depending on the layout and size of the building, it can be compatible to different functions.

Small

factories

are

commonly

reused to inhabit apartments, small office or commercial spaces, functions which are close related to human proportion and small scale. Large industrial buildings can be used either for museums, art galleries, theatres or sports halls, which need large open spaces to be functional. Rare situations offer the possibility to develop mixed use activities, transforming the once industrial building into a small neighborhood with leisure, commercial, working and living spaces combined together. The spaces provided by abandoned industrial buildings

can

easily

be

changed

and

reconfigured in order to provide the required flexibility to inhabit different functions. In order to achieve flexibility, the old structure of the

42


Fig. 15 Warehouse Conversion: Analog Folk (2014)

43


THE CONVERSION PROCESS

The process of reuse and conversion can be

Listed buildings or industrial sites can have

continuum, in constant progress, because it

restrictions

takes in consideration a wide series of factors

allowed interventions to the building, which

such

as

people,

the

cultural

can significantly limit the future development plan (Douglas, 2006). Based on this research and

architecture and society is under a continuum

investigation, the optimal solution can be taken

process

into consideration and create the development

evolution

that

and

regarding

identities. Due to the process of globalization, of

technology

implemented

influences

the

way future development projects are being

plan.

approached. Reuse has the potential to solve both the past and the future of buildings, but the process of reusing and converting buildings

Driving force

is often complicated due to the many factors

The driving force is usually a project leader that

involved.

takes the idea and convinces investors or the development company to invest in the project

According to James Douglas, the conversion

(Douglas, 2006). After a substantial research and

process of industrial buildings usually needs

investigation of the industrial building, the next

three

phase is to provide a plausible and profitable

essential

development

requirements:

approach,

driving

appropriate force

and

suitable building (Douglas, 2006).

reuse project that will not only provide a social and financial benefit for both the community and the investor but also a sustainable solution, which will benefit the surrounding environment as well. Usually these kinds of projects can

Appropriate development approach

attract investors just by the fact that it could be

This requirement is based on the identification

something different and unique that promotes

of the potential building to establish the needs

sustainability and the preservation of cultural

and requirements of the community (Douglas,

heritage.

2006). Applied to industrial heritage this can be related to the phase of identifying the

Depending on its size, the project can potentially

state of decay of the industrial building, what

be either a local center for the community, or

percent of the building is usable and what are

a small conversion of social housing, office and

the possibilities to transform the building to

commercial spaces.

fulfill new uses and how that will influence the surrounding context and community.

44


Fig. 16 Brunner Showroom Clerkenwell (2013)

45


sustainable approach for future developments, Suitable building

it also involves a lot of financial risks in order to

In order for the reuse project to be successful the

come to a desired and successful reuse project.

building configuration and structure must be

Proven that reusing buildings that are currently

suitable for the new function (Douglas, 2006). In

in a state of decay or near demolition has

other words you cannot propose a new sports

environmental, economic and social benefits

hall into a small factory with narrow spaces.

a new formula that predicts the potential for

The compatibility between the old purpose and

a successful reuse was developed by Craig

configuration of the building must be on par

Langston and Li-yin Shen. The formula predicts

with the new purpose Douglas, 2006). In special

the physical life of a building that determines

cases, where the existing industrial building

the environmental attributes of the building. By

is in an advanced state of decay, but it has a

knowing the exact life spam of a building and

meaningful significance for the community the

calculating the “decay curve� you can identify

façade is the only thing that remains preserved as

in resulted diagram when will the optimum

an exterior shell for the building, and the interior

point for adaptive reuse intervention (Shen and

of the building is completely reconfigured with

Langston, 2010). The algorithm also produces

a new structure and layout. This type of project

an overall score for the building from 0 to 100%,

can illustrate the concept between old and new,

thus buildings who have a score below 20%

past and present, where architecture can blend

have a low reuse potential, the ones between

these two different typologies into a coherent,

20-50% are considered to have a moderate

unique and expressive building.

value, and buildings who receive a score above 50% have a high potential for reuse (Shen and

These three requirements must be taken into

Langston, 2010).

consideration everytime before any attempt of an adaptive reuse project, as it provides a basic

This will be a great tool to identify the potential

strategy for architects to follow. Each industrial

for industrial heritage future development

building has its own unique design and

projects. Not only will it provide fewer risks

character and in order to use it to its maximum

when it comes to investing in a future adaptive

potential it needs to be taken into series of site,

reuse project, but will also help identify the

building and structural analysis to obtain a

most valuable cases fit for reuse.

viable reuse project. The potential of reuse is most of the time just an optimistic idea of what could be preserved and utilized from buildings that have lost their purpose, whether its functional, economic or cultural. Although, for the very best reasons it is a

46


Fig. 17 Bombay Sapphire Distillery (2014)

47


SUSTAINABILITY

So why reuse the industrial heritage? Why not

sustainable strategy for future projects and

just demolish everything and start from scratch?

reuse of old buildings to be suitable or even

How will that affect the environment and the

better than the new ones (Carroon, 2010).

people? The answer to all of these questions can be simply associated with the idea of

In a time when usually it’s easier and cheaper

sustainability.

to replace something rather than repairing it, where technology is rapidly progressing,

Sustainability is the number one driving force

environmentally speaking, the construction

that can, and will be able to provide the deciding

of new buildings will only do damage to the

argument of reusing the industrial heritage as

environment. In order to repair the damage

we know it today. The reuse of buildings had

done, we must change this mentality into one of

many driving forces over time. Initially it was

repair and reuse of our resources, buildings and

mostly functional and financial due to the fact

materials (Carroon, 2010). By reusing buildings

it was cheaper and rational to reuse an existing

for a different purpose than its original one,

building rather than demolishing and building

it provides a different approach to the old-

a new one. In the 19th century the driving

fashioned

force for reusing historic building was closely

which causes crucial energy and material

associated with heritage and preservation of

waste, affecting both environmentally and

the historic value (Powell, 1999). In recent days

economically.

demolition

and

reconstruction

the main driving force for reusing buildings is sustainability.

The key factor in a sustainable reuse of industrial heritage is to identify the possibilities and the

Sustainability has been an important subject of

suitable solutions for the building. To do so, a

our recent times since the drastic changes in the

clear analysis of the current state of the building,

world’s climate have been considerably getting

such as structural elements and materials,

worse by each year. The definition for the word

needs to be done to identify what can and

“sustainability” is described as “the quality of not

can’t be restored. This can also help make the

being harmful to the environment or depleting

decision-making process easier, whether if the

natural resources, and thereby supporting

building has the potential to be reused in order

long-term ecological balance.”(The definition

to save energy and materials or not.

of sustainability, 2016). Although sustainability has many different approaches, in architecture

Another

is often described as a way to minimize the use

environment is the use of physical space to its

important

factor

regarding

the

of energy, materials, and use of space in order to

maximum potential. Better use of the existing

help preserve our natural environment. In a time

space not only will help financially, but also

where natural resources are getting limited,

environmentally by reducing carbon emissions.

architects need to provide an environmentally

Reusing these industrial heritage sites, not

48


Fig. 18 Bombay Sapphire Distillery Section (2014)

only takes advantage of using the existing

do so. Most of these buildings we’re built for

buildings and space, but also it helps control

manufacturing, storage, or energy supply, they

the expansion of the city.

are lacking many key features such as thermal and water insulation or even ventilation systems.

According

to

Fournier

and

Zimnicki,

the

sustainable design principles that describes the maximum reuse of building materials and structure, as well as the renewal of the passive aspects of that building should be included in the process of reusing historic buildings too (Fournier and Zimnicki, 2004). Although the prospect of reusing old industrial buildings is a sustainable approach, in order to be bring these old structures to contemporary standards, it requires a long and complicated process to

49


The process of transforming industrial heritage

approach towards the natural environment.

into contemporary buildings is often a slow

This approach will be implemented in the

and complicated process, which firstly involves

near future as the only way to adapt to the

the repair and reconstruction of the original

sustainability issue, which is becoming more

structure and materials, reconditioning them to

and more present.

their original characteristics then implementing new, contemporary materials, structures and systems that will coexist and blend with the old ones. Future development projects based on reusing industrial heritage will produce architecture that remains faithful to the historic values of the building, will be a more economical and the most important part, it will provide a sustainable

“Sustainability can’t be like some sort of a moral sacrifice or political dilemma or a philanthropical cause. It has to be a design challenge� Bjarke Ingels

50


CHAPTER 4

CASE STUDIES

Fig. 19 Tate Modern (2001)

51


52


“As an architect you design for the present, with an awareness of the past, for a future which is essentially unknown.� Norman Foster

53


TATE MODERN

The first case study is the iconic Tate Modern by Herzog and de Meuron finished in 2000, as well as the new extension project for the museum which will be finished in June 2016.

Fig. 20 Tate Modern (2000)

THE FOUNDRY

The second case study is the conversion of a former shoe-polish factory into a office building. The project was designed by Architecture00 in 2014.

Fig. 21 The Foundry (2014)

DONMAR DRYDEN STREET

The third case study is a small conversion of an old warehouse into a rehearsal and educatutional

facility

for

Donmar

theatre.

The project was finished in 2014 by Haworth Tompkins Architects.

Fig. 22 Donmar Dryden Street office (2014)

54


Fig. 23 Turbine Hall, Tate Modern (2000)

55


TATE MODERN

Tate Modern is one of the most famous modern

Although Tate Modern has had an incredible

art museums in the world due to its uniqueness,

success in terms of reusing industrial heritage

being the former Bankside Power Station built

and to this day it is one of the most iconic

in 1947. The former power station is considered

buildings in London, the museum is set

to be the one of the biggest and most

expand its gallery spaces furthermore due to

notable adaptive reuse projects, which raised

an extension project which will be finished in

awareness in terms of reusing old industrial

2016. The extension of the famous museum was

buildings, transforming them into architectural

designed by the same architects Herzog and

masterpieces.

project

de Meuron, which treated the project in a more

encouraged architects and local authorities to

contemporary approach but still having the

take in consideration the industrial heritage, but

same style and visual language as the existing

it offered a new sustainable strategy of dealing

building. The main argument for the extension

with abandoned historic buildings (AD Classics:

project was that art is in a constant process of

The Tate Modern / Herzog & de Meuron, 2013).

change and a new way of exhibiting art was

Not

only

did

this

needed (AD Classics: The Tate Modern / Herzog Herzog and de Meuron won the competition for

& de Meuron, 2013).

the renovation of Bankside Power Station and transforming it into a modern museum, which

The new extension of the building provides a

aimed to keep the quality of the old building

greater variety of spaces and connects with

while introducing new innovative elements

the main turbine hall through the former oil

(Powell, 1999). The architects chose to maintain

tanks of the power station, which will be used

as much as possible from the original structure,

as spaces of artistic performance. From these

keeping the facade and the big chimney, which

large circular spaces, going up through the new

acted as a signal point for local visitors. However,

building, there are ten levels for live art galleries

they changed the entire structural system of

and film, while the top of the building will be

the building, and introduced a rectangular

a public viewing terrace that provides great

glass volume at the top of the building, which

views of London’s skyline. The idea of the new

allowed light to come into the building.

building is not only to extend the gallery spaces, but to provide different kind of experiences

The museum accommodates different types of

created through an extended diversity of space

gallery spaces, but the most important space

typologies. The façade of the new building is

of the museum is the former turbine hall that

made from brick, which matches very well

was initially designed for the power station

with the old building, but it is done in a more

generators. This monumental space, which

contemporary way as bricks are layered in such

spans over the entire height of the building, was

a way it feels like it is perforated, allowing the

designed as a public experimental place where

interior lights to protrude the façade.

different manifestations would take place.

56


Fig. 24 Tate Modern Extension (2016)

57


Fig. 25 Tate Modern Diagram (2016)

Fig. 26 Tate Modern Plan (2000)

58


Fig. 27 The Foundry (2014)

59


THE FOUNDRY

This adaptive reuse project is a former 20th

The main circulation areas are located in the

century shoe-polish factory transformed into

atrium, creating a dynamic space with bridges

offices and spaces for charity organizations. “The

and staircases that are oriented in different

old factory has a beautiful, robust quality that

directions. The new building, which has four

is hard for modern buildings to match” (Can

storeys in total, was designed to have meeting

architecture build a community? | Little Atoms,

rooms, offices, lounge areas, café, administration

2016). The building is a perfect example of how

offices and a large roof terrace.

old industrial architecture and contemporary architecture can merge together in harmony,

The materiality of the projects is faithful to the

creating something unique and inspiring.

industrial feel of the old factory. While the factory is made from bricks which we’re left exposed to

The

“We

preserve its individuality, the new extension is

wanted the new structure to reflect the existing

architect,

Lynton

Pepper

states:

mainly made from exposed concrete and wood

building’s industrial nature by keeping its

which actually complements the materiality

structure exposed, hence the new extension’s

of the industrial building. The use of exposed

bare concrete soffits and raw-looking materials,

concrete retains the idea of pragmatism and

such as MDF, timber battens cladding staircases

efficiency close related to industrial buildings.

and recycled carpet tiles used for flooring.” (Can

While the exposed concrete and bricks gives

architecture build a community? | Little Atoms,

the building a more industrial look, the use of

2016).

wood tends to provide it warmth and balance (Lutyens, 2016).

A series of gable roofs we’re used to relate with the gable roof of the existing shoe-polish factory.

The project also approached sustainability as a

By using the existing structure, it provided a cost

critical driving force for the entire design. The

effective solution that blended the old with the

difference of thermal performance between the

new (Lutyens, 2016).

old factory and the new extension was an issue in order to maintain the U values very low. The

The interior of the former factory has been

factory was insulated accordingly to avoid heat

reconfigured in order to inhabit new open plan

loss.

office spaces. Most of the internal walls we’re removed in order to have larger spaces, while the structure and façade of the building remained intact. Between the old building and the new extension, an interior atrium was formed, which brings natural sunlight into the building. This open void sets the division between the old and the new.

60


Fig. 28 The Foundry Interior (2014)

61


Fig. 29 The Foundry Interior (2014)

62


Fig. 30 Donmar Dryden Street (2014) 63


DONMAR DRYDEN STREET

This project is a conversion of a small warehouse

its own, being beautifully crafted and painted

done for a theatre company in London. The

in nuances of red and blue, which provide an

project was realized by Haworth Tompkins

unique contrast with the old warehouse. The

Architects in a style that emphasizes the

last storey of the building, benefiting from the

contrast between old and new. The main idea

extra height of the pitched roof, was used as an

was to use the old 19th century warehouse as a

education studio for the artists and visitors as

rehearsal and office facility for the main theatre

well. The large studio was designed as a flexible

close by. In a place where artists can come

space with abundant daylight facilitated by

and rehearse their plays and acts, an artistic

the installation of skylights, where the timber

approach was a key factor in the design process

structure of the roof remained visible.

(Donmar Dryden Street / Haworth Tompkins, 2015). The small four-storey warehouse has an

The materials used for the project we’re mostly

unique character due to its brick façade which

plywood, timber frames and steel which kept

blends in with the surrounding context.

the tone and the natural warmth of the building. The architect Steve Tompkins stated: “The

Although the project had a small budget, the

Dryden St project has been a joint exercise in

interventions made to the building we’re bold

wringing the maximum creative potential from

and challenging. The biggest intervention was

an ordinary London building on a tight budget.

removing one of the floors in order to have a

Working with Josie Rourke and her team has

large double height rehearsal room for the

been great fun and, once again, our ongoing

artists. The room was designed in a way that it

collaboration with artist Antoni Malinowski is

stands out from the rest of the interior spaces,

central to the design.” (Donmar Dryden Street /

which we’re left mostly in their original state.

Haworth Tompkins, 2015).

The rest of the building is occupied by office spaces where the brickwork and timber beams of the building we’re left exposed in order to achieve a more artistic vintage effect. This gave the building personality by using contrasting contemporary furnishing with old structures. The main feature however, considered the hearth of the building, is the staircase that connects all the spaces, making it the backbone for the entire project. Since the building is small and narrow and designed on multiple levels, the circulation was a key component for the design. The main staircase is considered a piece of art on

64


Fig. 31 Main Staircase (2014)

65


Fig. 32 Rehearsal Room (2014)

66


CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION 67


Fig. 33 People discussing (2014)

68


69


DISCUSSION

The concept of reuse can be discussed either

consideration for the reuse process as well.

from a theoretical or a practical point view. The

For instance Tate Modern is a successful reuse

theory contains all the ideas and knowledge

project due to the fact that an art museum

presented in a logical way from general to

requires large, open and flexible spaces, while

detail in order to reach a final conclusion, while

The Foundry was transformed into an office

the practical point of view contains physical

building due to the interior scheme, which

evidence of reuse today, case studies where

provided a series of narrow and open spaces

the ideas became reality. The case studies

ideal for an office layout. This offers the idea of

presented offer three different examples of

compatibility between old functions and new

reusing

functions as an important part in an conversion

industrial

heritage.

The

difference

between them is scale, function and character

project.

which highlight the different possibilities of reuse in diverse scenarios.

Character Character plays an important role in industrial

Scale

heritage simply by the fact it provides social and

The scale of industrial buildings is the main

cultural value for the surrounding context and

factor which determines the complexity and

the society. Reusing these buildings will help

challenges faced in the conversion process.

maintain the identity and history of the city,

Tate Modern for example, due to its size and

while providing new opportunities for future

significance, was designed after an architectural

developments. The case studies presented,

competition, where different proposals we’re

although

submitted for the famous power station. Donmar

commonly address the same idea of maintaining

Dryden Street on the other hand, due to its

the character of the building and enhancing it

small scale was created for Donmar Theatre’s as

by adapting it to a new purpose. The contrast

a necessity for new facilities with a tight budget.

between old and new can be identified in all of

Regardless of their scale, all three projects

these projects, whether if it’s the glazed skylight

use brick as their main structural element,

above the old brick structure in Tate Modern,

which gives them the similar atmosphere and

or the new extension of the shoe-polish factory

character.

separated by the atrium, or the red and blue

having

different

cultural

values,

metal staircase in Donmar Dryden Street, as a Function

symbolic border between future and past.

All three industrial buildings had different functions: power station, shoe-polish factory and warehouse. The function of the building directly influenced the design process in order to fulfill its purpose. Aspects such as size, form, functionality and structure are taken into

70


71


CONCLUSION

Over the course of history, buildings as well as

projects. In a city as big and diverse as London

humanity has been in a constant process of

it is a priority to control urban sprawl by reusing

change. This process of change is well embedded

the available industrial heritage sites. Despite

in the buildings, which in most cases remain the

of its many advantages, the concept of reuse is

only physical memory of past civilizations. The

still an evolving idea, which hasn’t reached its

historic and cultural value of old buildings offers

full potential yet, but in order to secure a more

the community the understanding of their

environmental friendly strategy for the future it

origins and cultural identity and it also brings

needs to push the boundaries even more.

a sense of place and belonging for them within the city.

The research aimed to follow a sequence of ideas starting from the definition and presentation of

Although the act of reuse has been used on

London’s industrial heritage and its potential,

small scale projects such as houses or barns, the

to defining and understanding in depth the

main concept of transforming and converting

process of reuse both in theory and practice. The

old buildings actually began to evolve in the

researched theories, strategies and case studies

20th century after the end of the Industrial

defined the concept of reuse and established

Revolution when many of London’s industrial

the benefits it has to offer for future sustainable

buildings we’re shut down and abandoned. The

projects. This dissertation acknowledges the

reuse of significant industrial structures will not

potential of London’s industrial heritage and

only benefit London’s community by activating

presents the possibilities for a bright and

these old abandoned industrial sites for new

sustainable future.

public uses which brings people together, but also it creates continuity by remaining faithful to the historical identity of these buildings. The concept of reuse has grown significantly in the past years, due to the fact architectural firms have been encountering more and more projects where the initial structure of the building was kept not only for financial reasons by reusing the existing materials to avoid wasted energy and materials on demolition, but also as a sustainable strategy. The sustainability behind reusing London’s industrial heritage will provide a way in which London can stay true to its industrial roots, while providing an environmental friendly solution for future

72


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Flour milling and the port - Trades, industries

Morris, J. (2015) London’s latest park is inside

and institutions - Port Cities (2016) Available

a Victorian gasholder, Cityam.com. Available

at: http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/

at:

show/ConNarrative.104/Flour-milling-and-the-

latest-park-is-inside-a-victorian-gasholder-by-

port.html (Accessed: 2 March 2016).

regents-canal-in-kings-cross (Accessed: 6 March

http://www.cityam.com/228382/londons-

2016). Frearson, A. (2013) Gehry and Foster team up on Battersea Power Station redevelopment,

Taka,

Dezeen.

http://www.dezeen.

regeneration given green light, The Spaces.

com/2013/10/23/gehry-foster-battersea-power-

Available at: http://thespaces.com/2015/04/23/

station-redevelopment/

silvertown-regeneration-given-green-light/

Available

at:

(Accessed:

5

March

T.

and

Taka,

T.

(2016)

Silvertown

2016).

(Accessed: 4 March 2016).

History of Battersea Power Station - construction

The definition of adaptation (2016) Dictionary.

(2016) Batterseapowerstation.org.uk. Available

com. Available at: http://dictionary.reference.

at:

com/browse/adaptation?s=t (Accessed: 6 March

http://www.batterseapowerstation.org.uk/

hist1.html (Accessed: 2 March 2016).

2016).

Largest brick buildings around the world

The definition of sustainability (2016) Dictionary.

[Infographic] | Architecture And Design (2016)

com. Available at: http://dictionary.reference.

Available at: http://www.architectureanddesign.

com/browse/sustainability (Accessed: 4 March

com.au/features/list/largest-brick-buildings-

2016).

around-the-world-infograph (Accessed: 1 March 2016).

The of

Gillette Brentford.

Factory

(2014)

Available

at:

The

History

http://www.

Lots Road power station gets a new life in £1bn

brentfordhistory.com/2014/02/11/the-gillette-

flats and shops (2013) Available at: http://www.

factory/ (Accessed: 1 March 2016).

standard.co.uk/news/london/lots-road-powerstation-gets-a-new-life-in-1bn-flats-and-shops-

Us, S., français, C. and standards, C. (2016) Charter

project-8838979.html (Accessed: 2 March 2016).

for the preservation of Quebec’s Heritage - 1982 International Council on Monuments and Sites,

Lutyens, D. (2016) London’s finest: The Foundry by

Icomos.org. Available at: http://www.icomos.

Architecture 00 - onoffice magazine. Available

org/en/support-us/179-articles-en-francais/

at: http://www.onofficemagazine.com/interiors/

ressources/charters-and-standards/192-the-

item/4005-architecture-00-s-third-sector-

deschambault-charter (Accessed: 1 March 2016).

work-hub-in-vauxhall (Accessed: 3 March 2016).

74


LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1 Winchester Rifle Factory (2013) Available

Fig. 10 Millennium Mills (2013) Available at: https://

at:

c1.staticflickr.com/5/4050/4681004531_2f229543a7_b.

http://snapshotsforsoreeyes.com/2013/09/28/

winchester-rifle-factory-interior/#jp-carousel-2053

jpg (Accessed: 5 March 2016).

(Accessed: 1 March 2016).

Fig. 11 Lots Road Power Station (2010) Available at:

Fig. 2 Tate Modern (2003) Available at: http://cdni.

http://patrickburchell.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/

wired.co.uk/1280x1920/k_n/MASTER-CROP_148.jpg

galleries/post-7/full/Lots%20Road%20Power%20

(Accessed: 7 March 2016).

Station%20(Chelsea).jpg (Accessed: 2 March 2016).

Fig. 3 Donmar Dryden Street (2014) Available at:

Fig.

http://www.archdaily.com/634016/donmar-dryden-

Available

street-haworth-tompkins/555fb160e58ece07f90001

catchlightsa/8407150947/in/photostream (Accessed:

8c-donmar-dryden-street-haworth-tompkins-photo

2 March 2016).

(Accessed: 4 March 2016).

Fig 13 Battersea Power Station Proposal (2013)

Fig.

4

(2013)

Shoreditch Available

at:

Warehouse

Conversion

https://www.architecture.

12

Available

Battersea at:

at:

Power

Station

(2013)

https://www.flickr.com/photos/

http://cdni.wired.co.uk/1240x826/a_c/

architecturalride1.jpg (Accessed: 3 March 2016)

com/FindAnArchitect/ArchitectPractices/

Fig. 14 Abandoned Power Plant Available at: https://

ChrisDysonArchitects/Projects/

s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/cb/3d/ea/

S h o r e d i tc hWa r e h o u s e Co nve r s i o n - 1 4 2 1 2 6 . a s px

cb3deac71c60672377c092f0872deed5.jpg (Accessed:

(Accessed: 2 March 2016).

4 March 2016).

Fig. 5 Battersea Power Station (2012) Available at:

Fig. 15 Warehouse Conversion: Analog Folk (2014)

https://www.flickr.com/photos/scotbot/7754264462

Available

(Accessed: 4 March 2016).

content/uploads/2015/06/Analog-Folk-London-DHL-

Fig.

6

Elegance

Unravelling

(2002)

Available

at:

http://www.devono.com/blog/wp-

QJEL-10.jpg (Accessed: 2 March 2016).

at:https://www.flickr.com/photos/urban-

Fig.

spaceman/4395203300/in/photostream (Accessed: 7

(2013)

16

Brunner

March 2016).

news/40045_03.jpg (Accessed: 7 March 2016).

Fig. 7 Shad Thames Crossing (2013) Available at: https://

Fig. 17 Bombay Sapphire Distillery (2014) Available

www.flickr.com/photos/catchlightsa/11641518775/in/

at:

photostream/ (Accessed: 5 March 2016).

Guardian/Pix/pictures/2014/10/7/1412670964181/49ff

Fig. 8 King’s Cross Gass Holder (2015) Available

8d07-417f-4999-b76b-462fa0de9ba7-2060x1236.jpeg

at:http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.

(Accessed: 7 March 2016).

dir/1/files/2015/11/Gasholder-Park-by-Bell-Phillips-

Fig. 18 Bombay Sapphire Distillery Section (2014)

Architects-5-1020x610.jpg (Accessed: 2 March 2016).

Available

Fig. 9 Gillette Factory (2014) Available at: http://

bombay-sapphire-distillery-heatherwick-

thespaces.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Gillette-

s t u d i o / 5 4 2 5 9 9 c 0 c 0 7 a 8 0 5 4 8 f 0 0 0 1 5 b - b o m b ay -

factory-II-1050x677.jpg (Accessed: 4 March 2016).

sapphire-distiller y-heather wick-studio-secton

Available

at:

Clerkenwell

http://img.edilportale.com/

https://static-secure.guim.co.uk/sys-images/

at:

http://www.archdaily.com/554750/

(Accessed: 3 March 2016).

75

Showroom


Fig. 19 Tate Modern (2001) Available at: https://

Fig. 27 The Foundry (2014) Available at: http://cdni.

lgphotographix.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/img-175.

wired.co.uk/1920x1280/s_v/SJC02RoryGardiner_253.

jpg (Accessed: 7 March 2016).

jpg (Accessed: 4 March 2016).

Fig. 20 Tate Modern (2000) Available at: http://

Fig. 28 The Foundry Interior (2014)

www.betterbankside.co.uk/sites/default/files/styles/

Available

portfolio_page/public/field/image/tate-modern-800.

SJC09RoryGardiner_259.jpg (Accessed: 4 March 2016).

jpg?itok=2f4W9aiw (Accessed: 1 March 2016).

Fig. 29 The Foundry Interior (2014) Available at:

Fig. 21 The Foundry (2014) Available at: http://static1.

http://www.dezeen.com/2015/03/09/architecture-00-

squarespace.com/static/52cfba7ee4b0e1ab0b92a1e3/

office-building-social-justice-centre-vauxhall-london-

t/54be84a4e4b0f0fba80125ec/1421772193073/

pitched-roof-pavilion/ (Accessed: 4 March 2016).

RG660c_2033-land.jpg?format=2500w (Accessed: 7

Fig. 30 Donmar Dryden Street (2014) Available

March 2016).

at:http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/555f/

Fig. 22 Donmar Dryden Street office (2014)

aefe/e58e/ce19/1b00/0180/large_jpg/VIL_1239A.

Available

jpg?1432334061 (Accessed: 5 March 2016).

at:

http://www.archdaily.com/634016/

at:

http://cdni.wired.co.uk/1280x1920/s_v/

donmar-dryden-street-haworth-tompkins/555faee8

Fig. 31 Main Staircase (2014) Available at: http://

e58ece07f9000183-donmar-dryden-street-haworth-

images.adsttc.com/media/images/555f/b01a/e58e/

tompkins-photo Accessed: 1 March 2016).

ce19/1b00/0184/large_jpg/VIL_3497.jpg?1432334345

Fig. 23 Turbine Hall, Tate Modern (2000)

(Accessed: 5 March 2016).

Available at: http://images.tate.org.uk/sites/default/

Fig. 32 Rehearsal Room (2014) Available at: http://

files/styles/grid-normal-8-cols/public/images/

images.adsttc.com/media/images/555f/af6b/e58e/

tatemoderninterior010959.jpg?itok=0Yvdg9BY

ce19/1b00/0181/large_jpg/VIL_3370.jpg?1432334170

(Accessed: 2 March 2016).

(Accessed: 5 March 2016).

Fig. 24 Tate Modern Extension (2016)

Fig. 33 People discussing (2014) Available at: https://

Avaialbe

static.pexels.com/photos/1984/black-and-white-city-

at:

http://images.adsttc.com/media/

images/5601/2646/e58e/ceff/5f00/01ca/large_jpg/

man-people.jpg (Accessed: 1 March 2016).

newtatemodernsouthview.jpg?1442915903 (Accessed: 3 March 2016). Fig. 25 Tate Modern Diagram (2016) Available at:https://reconversaourbana.wordpress. com/2011/08/24/tate-modern-history-and-vision/ (Accessed: 3 March 2016). Fig. 26 Tate Modern Plan (2000) Available at: http:// www.ad.ntust.edu.tw/grad/think/Typology(95)/ f i n a l % 2 0 wo r ks / m 9 4 1 3 1 0 4 / m 9 4 1 3 1 0 4 / T a t a % 2 0 modern%20museum%20plan.htm (Accessed: 3 March 2016).

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