CURRICULUM and TEACHING
∗About Curriculum in general ∗Curriculum system in Finland ∗Combining Curriculum and teaching
What comes into your mind when you hear the word ”curriculum”? ∗ Feel very free!
∗ Padlet address: http://padlet.com/wall/9c94u4cb5n / Minna http://padlet.com/wall/ves0b7czj5 / Päivi
About Curriculum in General
The curriculum tells the teachers what should be taught to students
“The curriculum has an integral role in generating the intended outcomes, contents and pedagogic frameworks in teaching.” Vitikka, Salminen & Annevirta 2012
“ Curriculum is the experience of learning something you didn´t know before. Engaging learners in exploration of something that matters to them” Stephen Murgatroyd, Curriculum Symposium in Edmonton. November 4-5 2011
Homework: What about the video you watched?
∗ What kind of ideas did you get from video? ∗ How did you find the speakers´ ideas about curriculum nowadays?
Different Aspects behind Curriculum
∗ Bigger framework behind curriculum work: Social norms, values, power, politics etc.
∗ Different curricula: Written, implemented, experienced, hidden curriculum
∗ Different focuses behind the curriculum: teaching vs. learning vs. substance vs. process vs. product etc.
Curriculum Work in Finland
∗ Finland has a national core curriculum ∗ Participants in the curriculum process − The Finnish National Board of Education (NBOE) − The Government − Local authorities − School + School teachers
Parts of the curriculum ∗ Objectives ∗ Courses (material, content etc.) ∗ Teaching methods ∗ Evaluation (basics and methods) ∗ Description of the teaching personnel ∗ Description of the teaching resources ∗ Description of the teaching and learning environments ∗ Description of the learning material (text / schoolbooks) ∗ Legislation
Examples of local curriculum âˆ— Russian language in Eastern Finland instead of swedish language: http://yle.fi/uutiset/pm_backs_russian_over_swedish_in_eastern_schools/5635958
âˆ— Optional Swedish would widen the social divide http://yle.fi/uutiset/lipponen_optional_swedish_would_widen_the_social_divide/6 849275
Some questions about curriculum in Finland ∗ How much influence can a teacher have on curriculum? ∗ How much variation should there be between regions? ∗ Do you basically like/dislike the idea of variety in the curriculum?
Curriculum and Teaching ∗ A teacher needs to have capabilities to adapt and use a curriculum and also to participate in making it. ∗ The main task of the teacher training is to teach how to use, apply and develop the curriculum. ∗ The teachers need a clear knowledge of how the teaching methods should be planned and developed so that the students learning would be forwarded towards the aims of the curriculum. ∗ Teachers´ possibilities to influence the curriculum in practice is a sign of teacher´s autonomity and gives appreaciation for their independent pedagogical skills.
Combining Curriculum and Teaching ∗ Have you had a curriculum to work with? ∗ What are the benefits of having a curriculum? ∗ What are the key challenges? How are those challenges overcome?
Different Approaches of Curriculum for Teachers Curriculum as CoachÂ´s Tactic Plan Teaching is a game. Teacher is the coach. Learners are the players. Planned activities but also improvisation used.
Curriculum as Building Drawing
Curriculum as Piece of Art
A clear picture of the ready building.
Teaching is creating the piece of art.
Teaching is the process of building the house. Teacher as a construction worker.
Teacher is the artist.
Questions ∗ How do you see the curriculum, teaching, communicating, learning in different metaphors and how they differ from each other? ∗ Mention some good and poor things in curriculum in different metaphors? ∗ Teacher has different roles with the curriculum in these metaphors. Which one do you prefer?
If you have time, please check out this video. âˆ— http://www.ncee.org/programs-affiliates/center-oninternational-education-benchmarking/top-performingcountries/finland-overview/finland-instructional-systems/
âˆ— Can you pick up some things which tell us about the Finnish curriculum?
Sources ∗ Basic Education Act (628/1998) ∗ Basic Education Decree (852/1998) ∗ The Government Decree on the General National Objectives ∗ Darling-Hammond 2009, Steady Work: How Finland Is Building a Strong Teaching and Learning System ∗ Distribution of Lesson Hours in Basic Education (1435/2001) ∗ Jackson 1992, Conceptions of Curriculum and Curriculum Specialists” in Handbook of Research on Curriculum ∗ Lahdes 1986, Peruskoulun Didaktiikka. ∗ Mäkinen, M. & Annala, J. (2010). Meanings behind curriculum development in higher education. ∗ Popkewitz 1997, The production of reason and power, curriculum history and intellectual traditions. Journal of Curriculum Studies 29. ∗ Uusikylä & Atjonen, 2000 . Didaktiikan perusteet. ∗ Vitikka, Salminen & Tiina Annevirta 2012 Opetussuunnitelma opettajankoulutuksessa. ∗ www.oph.fi/english