Goldoni's Pamela from Play to Libretto Author(s): Ted A. Emery Source: Italica, Vol. 64, No. 4, Literature & Opera (Winter, 1987), pp. 572-582 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Italian Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/479238 Accessed: 17/11/2009 19:36 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=aati. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Goldoni'sPamelafrom Play to Libretto TED A. EMERY
the world of Italian opera it is somewhat unusual to encounter a librettist who is also a majorliteraryfigurein his own right. Forthe most part,librettists have been viewed as little better than dedicated hacks, churningout texts whose artisticvalue is decidedlysubordinate to that of their musical settings. Naturally, exceptions come to mind: Metastasio'sdrammiper musica were regardedby his contemporaries as marvels of poetic beauty, while later authors such as ArrigoBoito and Giuseppe Giacosa were both librettists and literarymen of some note. The principalItalian playwright-librettist,however, is certainly CarloGoldoni, whose comedies are admiredtoday as much as in his own time and whose over seventy intermezzi and drammi giocosi per musica had a crucial influence on the development of eighteenth-century comic opera.1What is particularlyinteresting in Goldoni's case is the fact that, throughout his career,his librettistic activity was exercised concurrently with his work for the spoken theater: his first surviving libretto, the intermezzo "La Pelarina" (1730),predateshis first comedy, the "scenario"Momolo cortesan, by eight years, while his last theatricalwork was again a comic opera,II talismano, written in 1779. Even during his most active years as a playwright,Goldoni rarelyproducedless than three libretti per season. This assiduouspracticeof two diverse literarygenreswas not without important consequences, for despite their differences there are numerouslinks between Goldoni'splays and his libretti.2A readingof the libretti can thus often provide insight into Goldoni's broader artistic and ideological development, as a comparison of his Pamela with its operaticrevision will show. The original"Pamela,"as everyoneknows, was the famous novel by Samuel Richardson,Pamela, or VirtueRewarded. Published in 1740, Richardson'sPamela soon enjoyed a tremendous vogue throughout Europe;by 1742 it had been translatedinto Germanand French,while an Italian translationappearedin 1744-45 and was reprintedin 1749.
Not surprisingly, the novel's success encouraged a number of playwrightsto adaptRichardson'splot to their own medium: in 1741, a stage version by James Dance appearedin England,and in 1743, two French adaptations were produced, one by Boissy at the Comedie Italienne and another by La Chaussee at the Comedie Francaise. Voltairealso drew on Richardsonfor his Nanine, ou le prejugevaincu. In Italy, it was Goldoni who set his hand to Richardson'stext: his Pamela, o sia la virtui premiata was among the famous sixteen comedies written for the 1750-51 season at the Teatro Sant'Angelo.3 However,that was not the only one of Goldoni's works to derivefrom Richardson'spopularnovel. Not only did the Venetianprovidea sequel to his comedy (Pamela maritata, 1760), but he also returned to his Richardsonianadaptationand readaptedit for the operatic theater in his libretto of 1756, La buona figliuola. Goldoni'stwo main encounterswith Richardson'snovel occurredat strikingly different moments in his career: Pamela occupies an importantposition in his projectof theatrical reform,while La buona figliuola was written well afterthat optimistic projecthad provento be illusory and after Goldoni's theatrical productionhad entered into an artistic crisis. If we comparethe novel with the play we may discover much about Goldoni at the moment of his reform, identifying those featuresof the source text which the playwrightfelt were transferable to the cultural context of mid-century Venice and to the aesthetic context of his theatricalproject.4In tracingthe evolution of Goldoni's Pamela from play to libretto, however, we concentrate on something ratherdifferent,examining certainaspects of the author'sdevelopment from the reformto its aftermath. A brieflook at the principaldifferencesbetween the EnglishPamela and the Venetian one will shed light on the "ideology"of Goldoni's reform. The most obvious changes are in the characters' names, Italianizedfor the Venetian audience:SquireB. becomes MilordBonfil, and his sister LadyDavers becomes Miledi Daure. Pamela retains her firstname, but her family name is changedfromAndrewsto Andreuve, while Mrs. Jervis becomes Madama Jevre. More important, the personality of these characters is in some cases radically altered. Consider,for example, the two protagonists.MilordBonfil is farless of a rakethan SquireB. and not nearly as determinedto force Pamelainto sexual compliance without marriage. Pamela's virginity is less threatenedin the play than in the novel, for Bonfil is nearly as eagerto wed her as to bed her. At the same time, however, Goldoni's Pamelais more clearly in love with her master than was Richardson'spuritan maiden:the motive of her passion is developedalmost at once, without Richardson'slengthy preliminaries(Pamela'sinitial fear and loathing of Mr.B.).In Richardson,the strugglebetween Pamela and SquireB. is
one between virtue and vice, and the example of Pamela's stubborn attachment to her honor exercises a "civilizing" effect on her antagonist,bringinghim finally to the good resolution of marryingher. Such a resolution was impossible in a Venetian context, where the ruling oligarchywas obsessively concerned with limiting access to a closed aristocratic class. An English nobleman who married a non-noble didno more than commit a social fauxpas;a Venetianin the same position lost some of his aristocraticprivilegesand,worse, could not pass his nobility on to his children. Under the circumstances, Goldoni felt constrained to change Richardson'sconclusion: in the play, Pamela's father is discovered to be the exiled Scottish Count Auspingh, and this convenient twist of the plot eliminates any objectionto hermarriagewith Bonfil.Inhis prefaceto the play, Goldoni defendsthis alterationin the name of a morality determinedby social practice, a morality which it is the theater's responsibility to perpetuate:"siccome devesi sul Teatro far valere quella morale che viene dalla pratica piiu comune, [i lettori] perdoneranno a me la necessita, in cui ritrovato mi sono, di non offendere il piu lodato costume."5Such alterationsin characterand plot change Richardson's focus considerably,transformingthe originalconflict of virtue andvice into one between reason andpassion. The problem of reason versus passion is an important concern in Goldoni'sreformplays and one which must be examinedin light of the mercantileideology they propose.6Recent scholarshiphas determined that Goldoni perceivedthe "passions"(not love alone, but also many other unreasoningimpulses of the individualpsyche, such as jealousy, avarice,prodigality,and so forth)as a threatto social orderand,I would suggest, particularly to the family, the institution on which the playwright based his idealized vision of a productive, stable, and relativelyindependentbourgeoisie.In the plays of his reform,Goldoni consistently privileges the ideology of that class, favoring its underlyingvalues of industry, thrift, and prudence, which are often expressed in the character of the merchant and paterfamilias Pantalone.7Opposedto the orderrepresentedby this "ragionborghese" is the disorderof the passions which constantly threatento undermine the cohesion, reputation,and financial security of the family unit. The plays of the reform thus frequently propose a conflict between a positive, rationalsocial orderon the one hand,anda negative,irrational passion on the other, diagnosing passion's destructiveness and censuringit in no uncertainterms. Though Goldoni's Pamela is set in Englandratherthan in Venice, andthoughit focuses on nobles ratherthan on bourgeoischaracters,the evident conflict of reason and passion (here the passion of sexual longing)links it closely to other plays of the reform.Bonfil'semotion is
clearlypresentedas a threatto the orderof which he is a part:marriage with a commoner would be a stain on his honor and an injury to his futurechildren."Reason"is expressedby Bonfil'sfriendMilordArtur,a characterwho did not exist in Richardson.In two long scenes (I,13 and II,2),Artur acts as Goldoni's mouthpiece in enumerating all of the rationalobjectionsto an "unequal"union. As in the otherreformplays, reason is determined by the demands of society and reflects the requirementsof a character'sclass, while passion is an irrationalneed of the individualpsyche andmust be repressedfor a greatergood.But in Pamela,unlike most of the other reformplays, the tension between the two opposingforces cannot be resolved: unable either to represstheir emotion or to follow its dictates, the two protagonistsare caught in an irreconcilablecontradiction. Pamela is replete with scenes which show that contradictionat its most tempestuous. These charactersare far from reticent about their emotional quandary and frequently give vent to their feelings in monologues consisting of paradoxes (Pamela. "Oh caro anello! Oh quantomi sarestipiiucaro, se dato non mi ti avesse il padrone!Ma se a me dato non lo avesse il padrone,non mi sarebbesi caro." 1,5)or of rhetoricalquestions followed by emphatic negations: Bonfil.TuttiamanoPamela,ed io non la dovr6amare?Mail mio grado ... Che grado?Sar6nato nobile,perch6la nobiltami abbiaa rendere Pamelaval piu di un regno,e se fossiun re, amereiPamela sventurato? Miprivero piuidellamiacorona.Mal'amotanto,edho cuordi lasciarla? dellacosapiuipreziosadiquestaterra?Lacederbamiasorella?Partir6per non pii verderla?(restaunpoco sospeso, epoi dice)No, no; giuroal cielo,
no,no.Non sarimai.(I,12) A concordanceto Goldoni'splays,if one existed, would undoubtedly show in these two charactersa high frequencyof adversatives(such as "ma,"of which there are three instances in the very brief quotations above),tangible linguistic evidence of the contradictorysituation in which Pamela and Bonfil find themselves. Moreover, what the protagonistsdon't say also suggests their conflicting emotions: Pamela seems to sigh more than any of Goldoni'sotherheroines,while Bonfilis subjectto spells of anguishedsilence, followed by passionateoutbursts. The actions of the two charactersalso suggest their internal conflict. Forexample, when Artur convinces Bonfil to escape from Pamela by retiringat once to Artur'svilla, Bonfil at first agrees,then contradicts himself, swearingnot to let Pamela out of his sight, and then reverses himself yet again.But when he actually does departhe is seized with a fainting spell and forced to return. The young lord's contradiction is total, expressedphysically as well as mentally, and his passion shows its powerover reasonin increasinglynegative ways. There is no escape from contradictionfor the lovers until Goldoni's providentialdeus ex
TED A. EMERY
machina eliminates in one fell swoop all rational objections to their marriage.Yet we can hardly call love the victor here, for passion triumphs in Pamela only by default: love is possible in the end only becausereasonallows it to be so. The negative view of passion and its conflict with an ideologically privileged reason is a major link between Pamela and the plays of Goldoni'sreform.But if Pamela reflects the ideology of the reform,La buonafigliuola occupies a differentposition in the history of Goldoni's theater.As we have noted, it was written in 1756, severalyearsafterthe playwrighthad begunto experiencesetbacksin his reformistproject,in a moment of discouragement and artistic confusion which preceded the masterpieces of Goldoni's last years in Venice. The opera's importanceto musical history is clear: in its 1760 setting by Niccolo Piccinni it became one of the greatesthits of the century.8The literary importanceof La buona figliuola is more subtle: the operaticreduction of the play suggests some important elements of Goldoni's ideological developmentin the years following the reform. Many of the modifications from play to libretto can be tracedto the change of genre from spoken to musical comedy. While Pamela was written in prose, portions of La buona figliuola-the arias and ensembles-had to be changedto verse. What is more, the addition of ariasradicallychanged the pace of the work. Whereasin the play the story could be developed without pause from scene to scene, operatic conventions requiredthat most scenes end with an aria:the plot was developed rapidly in recitatives, while the arias ending each scene providedan "expressive"moment in which vocal virtuosity was more important than the words of the text. Literaryinterest thus had to alternatewith musical interest, providinga plot which moved forward by starts and halts. Moreover,the acts of a comic opera traditionally endedwith a lively ensemble finale, and Goldoni was thus requiredto arrangehis plot so as to bringmost of the characterson stage at the end of each act. Most important, the text of the play had to be radically compressed: since the addition of music to words lengthened performancetime by a substantial margin, Goldoni was forced to eliminate many scenes from Pamela in his librettistic adaptation.Both the numberof scenes cut from the play and the numberof scenes added in the libretto are substantial. Of the forty-seven scenes of the play, thirty-eight are cut: over three-quartersof Pamela is amputated!Of the forty-two scenes of the libretto, twenty-seven are new material (nearlytwo-thirds of the total),while barelyovera thirdof the libretto's scenes have a parallelin the play. This seems more like butcherythan adaptation,yet it is more the direction than the volume of these cuts, additions,and modifications which is significant to our understanding of the post-reform Goldoni.
Surprisingly,the cuts seem to take aim principallyat the "reform" theme of reasonversus passion. The anguishedadversatives,rhetorical questions,andimpassionednegatives that we saw in Pamela have little place in the libretto'sdiction. What is more, the operaeliminates many key scenes in which the play hadunderscoredthe protagonists'passion. Forexample, the play stresses in Pamela'scharactera conflict between love and honor. In her monologue of Act I, Scene 17, the young girl is clearly torn between her love for her master and the necessity of protectingher "purity";with greatdifficulty she decides that she must flee Bonfil'shousehold: Pamela. Tutti i momenti ch'io resto in questa casa, sono oramai colpevoli e ingiuriosi alla mia onesta. II mio padrone ha rilasciato il freno alla passione. Egli mi perseguita, e mi conviene fuggire ... Oh Dio! Lasciero un si gentile padrone ripieno di tante belle virtiu?Ma no, il mio padrone non e piii virtuoso; egli ha cambiato il cuore; e diventato un uomo brutale, ed io lo dovrb fuggire. Lo fuggiro con pena, ma pure lo
fuggiro. In another important series of scenes (11,5-7),the play underscores the hopeless, "pathetic"quality of the love of Pamela and Bonfil: the young woman asks that she be allowed to return to her parents, and Bonfil sadly agrees to let her go. Their leave-taking is extremely melancholy, and when Pamela kisses her master's hand in token of farewell, she bathes it with her tears and then dries it with her apron. Pamela exclaims that she is a "poverasventurata,"and Bonfil in an asideyears to commit suicide ("Quantovolentieri mi dareila morte"). Bonfil'smore violent feelings are also stressed in the play: in I,1-2, he can barelybe restrainedfrom challengingthe cavaliere Emold to a duel when he discovers that Emold has unsuccessfully tried to seduce Pamela. These and many similar scenes do not reappearin the libretto, with the effectthat La buonafigliuola is substantiallyless "passionate"than the play. Similarly, the voice of reason is weaker in the opera. The characterof Milord Artur and his sermons against socially unequal marriageare eliminated, and the contrast between reason and passion in La buonafigliuola is consequently muted. This is not to say that it is entirely absent, however. True, the Marchese della Conchiglia, the opera'sparallel of Bonfil, is not at all tormented by doubts about the proprietyof marryingCecchina (the opera'sPamela):when asked if he intends to wed her, his strongest negative is "questo nol so" (1,12), while in a later scene he rashly exclaims that he will marryher despite his relatives' resistance (II,10). However, the new character of Armidoro,fiance of the Marquis'sister Lucinda,takes on some aspects of both BonfilandArtur.It is he who objectsto the social inequality of a
marriagebetween the Marquis and Cecchina on the grounds that it affects his honor: he hesitates to marryinto a family whose nobility couldbe thus compromised.Moreover,it is Armidorowho, like Bonfil, is caughtin a conflict between love and "reputation":honor tells him to breakoff his engagementto Lucinda,while love urgeshim to marry her. The conflict between reason and passion has thus been displaced onto a minor characterwhose theatricalinterest is slight. In so doing, Goldoni has "devalued"the insoluble contradiction that was at the heartof Pamela. The kinds of new materialaddedto the librettoareno less suggestive of a fundamentaldifferencebetween the play andthe opera.True,some of this new material, like many of the cuts from the play, can be ascribedto the demandsof the operaticform.Havingeliminated scenes of passion, Goldoni needed to provide new interest; he did so by introducinga series of minor comic roles which would have been out of place in the play but which were expected in a libretto. The most interesting of these parti buffe are the two servetta-like characters Sandrinaand Paoluccia,malicious gossips whose jealousyof Cecchina precipitatesmany of the opera'scrises, including the finales to Acts I and II in which Cecchina is unjustly accused of sexual promiscuity. Similarly, the kidnapping of Cecchina by Armidoro and his hired ruffiansin 11,2-4,is an attempt to providemotion and vivid action in the libretto,replacingthe play'smore subtle psychologicalfocus on the contradictionof warringemotions. But some of the addedmaterial in the operagoes beyondthe requirementsof the new genre.Forexample, Pamela'sfatherCount Auspinghis here replacedby the Germansoldier Tagliaferro,who has been sent by his commanding officer to track down a child "lost"years beforeduringa campaignin Italy. He reveals that Cecchinais the daughterof a Germanbaron,and as a noblewoman she is permitted to marry the Marquis. The characterof Tagliaferro drawson the commedia dell'artemask of CapitanSpaventoandthough the lanzknecht lacks Spavento's farcical cowardice, he repeats the character'sbraggadocio,his easily arousedtemper,andhis ostentatious delight in warfare.9Unlike Capitan Spavento, however, Tagliaferro gives surprisingevidence of a new emotional sensitivity, of an ability to feel the pathos of Cecchina's situation. In Act II, Scenes 14-15, for example, Tagliaferro comes upon the sleeping Cecchina, who is exhaustedby her woes. Dreaming, the young woman calls out for the fathershe has never known, and the martialTagliaferrois so struckby this that he feels a compassion which he cannot even qualifyin words: "OhpoveroTatesco, mi sentir... / Puh! non savermi dir." However slight the scene's content may seem on a first reading,it suggestsa fundamentalchange in Goldoni's way of looking at passion. The farcicalstereotypeof the soldierlybraggarthas been infused with a
new emotional tenderness, revealing a capacity for gentle feelings entirely foreign to his commedia dell'arteforebear.Significantly,this emotional delicacy is farremoved from the stormy passions we saw in Pamela. But if the unlikely figure of Tagliaferro/Spaventohas been made more receptive to sentiment, what of the protagonists?Are they, too, renderedmore delicately sentimental? The answer, I think, is yes. We have seen that the conflict between reason and passion has been attenuated in the libretto and that the opera's protagonists lack the painful contradictions of their parallels in the play. The Marquishas ever fewer reservations about marryingbeneath his station than did Bonfil: his love for Cecchina does not involve him in any emotional quandariesand is thus in a sense more "delicate." Where Pamela's distress stems largely from her internal conflict between love and honor, Cecchina is merely a victim of circumstances and appearances. The most violent passion she expressesis one of wounded melancholy. In her famous aria "Una povera ragazza" (1,12),she sadly protests against the persecutions of the marchesa Lucinda and of the gossips Paoluccia and Sandrina,but she, too, can hardly be said to suffer an internal contradiction since the obstacles to her love are imposed entirely from the outside. True, the melancholy that we see in Cecchina was an important element in Pamela as well, but here the relatively tender emotion receives far more exclusive attention in a libretto which has eliminated more violent feelings and has devalued the opposition between reason and passion. The opera thus substantially reduces the emotional intensity of the play, foregroundingfeelings that areuncomplicated,gentle, andtouching. In short, it moves from the theme of "passion" toward that of "sensibility." Froman ideologicalpoint of view, this is an importantdevelopment. The play reflects a certain rigidity inherent in the reform:it presents a Manichean world in which the author requires his characters, and perhapshis audience, to make an either/or choice between the "order" of reasonand the "disorder"of passion. But where the readerof Pamela is encouragedto make the difficult choice in favorof reason-until the final agnizione renders such a decision moot-La buona figliuola merely asks us to participatein Cecchina's emotions, to shed a tear of sympathy for her plight. In the years since the reform, Goldoni had come to see the passion of love as less destructive, as less of a threat to an orderwhich he felt boundto defendeven at the cost of sacrificingthe emotional needs of his characters. With passion rendered more delicate,more civilized, it could be expressedas a gentle sensibility not necessarilyat odds with "order"or "virtue." In this movement away from the passionate and toward the sentimental, Goldoni surely reflects the European vogue of
"sensibility" which became so important in the last half of the eighteenth century. Several students of the trend have pointed to a progressive"domestication"or "tenderizing"of love in the literatureof the centuryandindeedin the shifting meaningswhich were assignedto the terms "sense," "sentiment," and "sensibility," which were so frequentlyused to characterizeemotional experience.'0A greatdeal of work remains before we can clearly define Goldoni's position with respect to this cultural trend, but it is evident, at least, that after the "failure"of his reformthe playwrightwas seeking new ways to portray passion on the stage. Often, the theme of passion is found in "exotic" tragicomedies,set outside a bourgeois Venetian world and thus not requiringa repressive "correction":the "Persian"Ircana trilogy, La Peruviana, La bella selvaggia. Several of the later comedies, particularlythose with prominent heroines, such as Gli innamorati (1759)or the villeggiaturatrilogy (1761),also focus greaterattention on the emotional life of their characters-though in the case of Giacinta, repressionof desire is still necessary in the end to save both the honor and the financial stability of the middle-class family. Like such plays-and perhaps even more clearly, given its typically operatic conciseness-La buona figliuola shows that Goldoni had begun to discardthe rigid categories of his earlier reform, seeking a new and perhapsless artificialview of the place of passion in society and life. New YorkUniversity
NOTES 'The importanceof Goldoni's libretti to the development of the musical forms of comic opera is well documented. See Werner Bollert, "Die Buffoopem Baldassare Galuppis:Ein Beitragzur Geschichte der italienischen Oper,"Diss. Berlin, 1935, and his "Treoperedi Galuppi,Haydne Paisiello sul Mondo della luna di Goldoni,"Musica d'oggi 21 (1939):265-70; Michael Brago,"Haydn,Goldoni and I1mondo della luna," Eighteenth-CenturyStudies 17, no. 3 (1984):308-32; Andreadella Corte, "I1libretto e l'influenza di Goldoni," in Studi goldoniani. Atti del Convegno internazionale . .. Venezia,1957 (Venice-Rome:Istituto perla collaborazioneculturale, 1960)2: 567-70, and his L'operacomica italiana nel '700, 2 vols. (Bari:Laterza,1923);Domenico De' Paoli, "Goldonilibrettista,"Enciclopedia dello spettacolo, 1958, andhis "I1librettista Carlo Goldoni e l'opera comica veneziana," in Studi goldoniani. Atti del Convegno internazionale 2: 571-91: FrancoFido, "Appuntisu Goldoni librettista di Vivaldi,"in Antonio Vivaldi. Teatro musicale, cultura e societa, ed. Lorenzo Bianconi and Giovanni Morelli (Florence:Olschki, 1982) 345-63; Daniel Heartz, "Goldoni, Don Giovanni and the dramma giocoso," Musical Times, no. 1642 (1979):993-98; "The Creation of the Buffo Finale in Italian Opera,"in Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, no. 104 (1977-78) 67-78, and his "Vis comica: Goldoni, Galuppi e L'Arcadiain Brenta,"in Venezia e il melodramma del Settecento, ed. MariaTeresa
Muraro (Florence: Olschki, 1981) 2:33-69; William C. Holmes, "Pamela Transformed,"Musical Quarterly38 (1952):581-94; M. Infuma, "IIConte Chicchera di Goldoni,"Studi goldoniani 7 (1985): 101-10; JamesL. Jackman,"Goldoni,Carlo," in The New GroveDictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980; Ariella Lanfranchi,"La librettistica veneziana e Carlo Goldoni," in Storia dell'opera, ed. Guglielmo Barblan and Alberto Basso (Turin: UTET, 1977) 3, 2: 109-33; Michael F. Robinson, "Three Versions of Goldoni's I1 filosofo di Campagna," in Venezia e il melodramma del Settecento 2: 75-85; Patrick J. Smith, "The Eighteenth-Century Italian Comic Libretto,"in his The Tenth Muse. A Historical Study of the OperaLibretto(New York: Knopf,1970; rpt. New York: SchirmerBooks, 1975) 101-18; FrankWalker,"Goldoni and Pergolesi,"Monthly Musical Record(October1950):200-05; PieroWeiss, "Carlo Goldoni,Librettist:The EarlyYears,"Diss. Columbia, 1970. 2The relationship of Goldoni's librettistic activity to his development as a playwright is somewhat less well studied than his importance for comic opera as a musical form, but the following works give importantinsights: FrancaAngelini, " 'In mascheravoi siete/Senza maschera al volto?'; Le regole del gioco teatrale nei primi intermezzi goldoniani," Studi goldoniani 6 (1982): 114-30; Nica Berlanda, "I1 linguaggiodel Goldoni dagli intermezzi al Campiello," in Atti dell'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, no. 108 (1959-60) 244-354 and no. 109 (1960-61) 299-354; Giovanni Calendoli, II giovane Goldoni. Dagli intermezzi alla "commedia primogenita"(Rome:Edizioni della Medusa, n.d.); Ted A. Emery, "Da 'Labottega da caffe' a La bottega del caffe. Le contraddizionidel mercato e la riformagoldoniana," Studi goldoniani 7 (1985):46-59; FrancoFido, "Vacanzadal referentee retoricadella Naturanei libretti permusica," in his Guida a Goldoni. Teatroe societa nel Settecento (Turin:Einaudi,1977)48-85 andhis "Riformae 'controriforma'del teatro.I libretti per musica di Goldoni frail 1748 e il 1753," Studi goldoniani 7 (1985):60-72; Gianfranco Folena, "Goldoni librettista comico," in his L'Italiano in Europa. Esperienze linguistiche nel Settecento (Turin:Einaudi, 1983)307-24; IreneMamczarz,"L'image de la societe dans les tragi-comedies et dans les drammi giocosi de Goldoni (1729-1748),"Arts du spectacle et histoire des idees. Recueil offerten hommagea Jean Jacquot(Tours:Centred'EtudesSuperieursde la Renaissance, 1983)99-116; Giuseppe Ortolani,"Appuntisui melodrammi giocosi del Goldoni,"in his Lariformadel teatro nel Settecento e altri scritti, ed. G. Damerini (Venice-Rome: Istituto per la collaborazioneculturale, 1962) 199-212; A. Turolo, "I melodrammi goldoniani del periodofrancesee La cameriera spiritosa," Studi goldoniani 7 (1985): 131-51. To my knowledgethere has as yet been no book-length study of the links between Goldoni's libretti and his plays save for my own Ph.D. dissertation, "Goldoni As Librettist: TheatricalReformandthe drammigiocosi permusica," BrownUniversity, 1985,now under revision. The currentpaperwas delivered in a somewhat differentform at the annual conference of the Northeast American Society for Eighteeiith-Century Studies, Providence,R.I.,November 1-4, 1984. 3Theplay underwent a number of title changes in the eighteenth century. At its first performance at the Teatro Sant'Angelo it was called Pamela, o sia la virtui premiata, while on its first publication in the Bettinelli edition it was entitled simply LaPamela. Afterthe publication of Pamela maritata, the earlierplay was referredto as Pamela fanciulla (ed. Pasquali, 1761), while in the Zatta edition and in those of the following century it was usually called Pamela nubile. The two modem editions edited by Ortolanireferto it as La Pamela. 40n Goldoni'srevisions of Richardson'sPamela, see LucianaSciullo, "'Pamela' da Richardsona Goldoni," Quaderni di lingue e letterature (1978): 117-21. I have been unableto consult this article, but I believe it to be substantially the same as Chapter3 of her tesi di laurea entitled "Goldoni e l'Inghilterra"(Padua, 1974). On Goldoni's
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revision of Richardson,first for the spoken theater and then for the operaticstage, see Holmes, "PamelaTransformed."However, Holmes does not consider the ideological and artistic implications of Goldoni's adaptations.Also of interest, although rather general in approach, is Bruno Cagli, "La buona figliuola e la nascita dell'opera semiseria," Chigiana 32 (1975): 265-75. Oddly, Cagli asserts that "la riduzione librettistica sfrutt6 poco propriol'elemento patetico de La Pamela" (273) and gives creditto Piccinni for the "pathetic"effect of the opera. 5Tutte le opere di Carlo Goldoni, 14 vols., ed. Giuseppe Ortolani (Milan: Mondadori,1935-56)3: 332. All quotations from La Pamela arefrom Volume 3 of this edition, while those from La buona figliuola arefrom Volume 11. 60n the problem of passion in Goldoni and its relationship to the ideology of his reform, see Bartolo Anglani, "Le passioni allo specchio. Sentimenti e ragione mercantilenel teatro goldoniano,"Studi goldoniani 6 (1982):7-55. 70n the relationshipof Goldoni'sreformplays to bourgeoisideology, see especially: MarioBaratto," 'Mondo' e 'Teatro'nella poetica del Goldoni," in Studi goldoniani. Atti del Convegno internazionale 2: 465-98, rpt. in his Tre studi sul teatro (Ruzante-Aretino-Goldoni) (Venice:Neri Pozza, 1964) 159-227; Manlio Dazzi, Carlo Goldoni e la sua poetica sociale (Turin:Einaudi, 1957);FrancoFido, "Peruna lettura storica delle commedie goldoniane," Belfagor 12 (1957):636-66, rpt. in his Guida a Goldoni 5-47. More recently, a perceptive if brief review of the problem of the merchant figure and of bourgeois ideology in Goldoni is offered by BartoloAnglani, "Goldonie i mercanti. (Appuntisulla critica),"in Letteraturae societi. Scritti offertia GiuseppePetronio (Palermo:Palumbo, 1980) 1: 243-56. 8Theoperawas also set, with far less success, by EgidioRomualdoDuni (1756)and by SalvatorePerillo (1760). 9See,in particular,Act 2, Scene 6 and Scene 11, andespecially his "military"ariain Act 3, Scene 7. I'See Jean Hagstrum, Sex and Sensibility. Ideal and Erotic Love from Milton to Mozart(Chicago:University of ChicagoPress, 1980),especially 1-23. Also noteworthy is R. F. Brissenden, Virtue in Distress. Studies in the Novel of Sentiment from Richardson to Sade (New York: Harper and Row, 1974), in particular Chapter 1, " 'Sentimentalism':an Attempt at Definition," 11-55.