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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE

REORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S URBAN RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O ADVISOR: TED NGAI RENSSELAER SOA FALL 2011 - SPRING 2012


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

Focus Research Intent

04

Precis

08

Shanghai: Regional Background Geography Population Growth + Density Land Growth + Use Agriculture

18 22 28 30

Chinese Interface with Nature Eastern Versus Western Urbanization Interface with Landscape

34 38

Urban Issue: Commercialization

42

Urban Issue: Water Flooding and Flood Walls Destruction of Wetlands

48 56

Urban Issue: Waste

64

Shanghai Flooding Scenarios

68

Case Study

80

Urban Projection Walls Wetlands Elevated Urbanism

86 90 94

Material Research Bacillus Pasteurii Calcium Carbonate

102 106

Site + Typologies

112

Aerial-Scape

128

Acknowledgements

140

Sources

142

2011-2012

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RESEARCH INTENT

URBAN METABOLISM FOR MEGA-URBAN GROWTH

(TITLE) FIGURE 1.00: Spongy bone structure (LEFT) FIGURE 1.01: Crowds on pedestrian street, Nanjing Lu


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

RESEARCH INTENT

SHANGHAI

NEW YORK CITY

MEXICO CITY

SAO PAULO

TOKYO FIGURE 1.02: Megacities with highest growth rates

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URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

2010 marked the year when more than half of the world’s population was residing in urban areas. The dramatic rise of urban population in the twentieth century, from 13% in 1990, 29% in 1950, 46% in 2000, to finally reaching 50.46% in 2010, marks an unprecedented condition of our human - urban ecological environment (Population Growth in Cities, United Nations). With global urban population increasing at a rate of 1 million per week, cities are growing faster than planners and policy makers can react, and it is strangulating city infrastructure across the world. The implication of such accelerated and often uncontrolled growth is immense since there are more than a half dozen cities growing at this rate, many of which are without adequate public infrastructure to even support a fraction of this growth. Cities that prospered in the 19th and 20th Century often grew out of a similar rapid industrialization and economic expansion. Without exception, all disregard human health and ecological impacts, leading to many serious urban related crisis such as high oil prices, high energy consumption, and last but not least, depleted fresh water access. When facing this inevitable growth of these new megacities, we must ask and anticipate how such an accelerated growth would mean to a city’s infrastructure such as a potable water and system, power grid, waste management, and transportation network? In addition, we must also be cognizant of the deeper ecological impact due to the hugely intensified food consumption, waste generation, pollution, land use conversion, and seek to symbiotically thrive with its immediate biome (Parametric Urban Sustainability, Ted Ngai).

2011-2012

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PRECIS

RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE

(LEFT) FIGURE 2.01: Intrusion of new highrises


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

THESIS ABSTRACT

EACH YEAR AN INCREASING NUMBER OF RESIDENTS GET DISPLACED FROM SHANGHAI’S URBAN CENTER TO THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE CITY. FIGURE 2.02: Destruction of Lilong housing to make room for new commercial highrises

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M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

THIS FORCED RELOCATION HAS CAUSED THE DESTRUCTION OF ALMOST ALL OF WHAT IS LEFT OF SHANGHAI’S NATURAL WETLANDS, MOVING SATELLITE CITIES INTO UNPROTECTED FLOOD PRONE AREAS.

FIGURE 2.03: Residential and high rises moving into wetland and agricultural land

2011-2012

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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

THESIS ABSTRACT

THE CURRENT URBAN SYSTEM IS FAILING SHANGHAI, LEAVING THE HEAVILY USED GROUND LEVEL UNPROTECTED. FIGURE 2.04: Flooding on the ground level

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M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

HOW CAN SHANGHAI’S RAPIDLY GROWING INFRASTRUCTURE UTILIZE WATER, RATHER THAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE IMPENDING CATASTROPHE OF FLOODING WATERS? FIGURE 2.05: Flooding pausing ground level use on the ground level

2011-2012

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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

THESIS ABSTRACT

THESIS ABSTRACT Urbanization in Shanghai has been primarily fueled by the economic growth that came after the Chinese Economic Reform in 1978. Prior to this reform, a planned economy existed in China, where industrial production was the focus, rather than economic development. As part of the economic reform, the real estate market was opened up to foreign investment in 1993, creating the ability for wealthy investors to now choose where specific buildings are located, creating a “market oriented” urban infrastructure. This market trend was only expanded when in 1995 urban planning was decentralized from the regional government to allow the individual districts to control planning, creating the desire for districts to compete and build projects that will produce high revenues. As a result, Shanghai has now become more centralized, with a gentrified urban center that includes high end commercial and luxury housing.

FIGURE 2.06: Destruction of Lilong housing

This centralization has led to the inevitable destruction of poorly maintained and government-owned low rise lilongs, forcing the relocation of the low and middle class to the outskirts of the city and causing the destruction of the natural elements that have mitigated annual flooding patterns. Each year the Huangpu river floods, causing the center of the city and other locations along the river to become partially submerged and as a result pauses the ground level circulation and movement. In addition to the flooding, Shanghai experiences typhoons during the same season, causing extreme high tides, as well as all other built up spaces to become flooded. This proposal looks to re-organize Shanghai above the flood plane through a phased process, ultimately creating a new urban typology of an elevated city.

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FIGURE 2.07: Constructed wetlands near urban center


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

THESIS STATEMENT

FIGURE 2.08: Officials analyzing the Shanghai floodgate

In the deltaic region of Shanghai, rapid urbanization has created “market” driven planning, forcing the relocation of the low and middle class to the outskirts of the city and causing the destruction of the natural elements that have mitigated annual flooding patterns. Each year the Huangpu river floods, causing the center of the city and other locations along the river to become partially submerged and as a result pauses the ground level circulation and movement. In addition to the flooding, Shanghai experiences typhoons during the same season, causing extreme high tides, as well as all other built up spaces to become flooded. With this impending catastrophe and continuation of sea level rise, these conditions are worsening and the current floodwall system will eventually fail and a new system will be needed to replace it. This proposal looks to accept the flooding that Shanghai experiences by re-organizing the infrastructure and ground level activities above the flood plane, through the investigation of a controlled natural process of calcification to aid as a structural solution to grow the city upwards. As a result, the “new” ground level acts as an extended flood buffer that, through phases, can evolve over time to control, protect, and restructure the urban infrastructure of Shanghai.

FIGURE 2.09: Annual flooding that has become part of daily life in Shanghai

2011-2012

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THESIS ABSTRACT

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URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

“It is impossible to envisage the reconstruction of the old city, only the construction of a new one on new foundations, on another scale and in other conditions, in another society.” -Henri Lefebvre (1968)

FIGURE 2.10: Fields of highrises in outskirts of Shanghai

2011-2012

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SHANGHAI: REGIONAL BACKGROUND GEOGRAPHY, POPULATION, AGRICULTURE, CLIMATE

(LEFT) FIGURE 3.01: Satellite image of greater Shanghai


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

REGIONAL BACKGROUND

17 1 6340.5 23,019,148 D ISTR ICT S

COUNT Y

S QUA R E KM. P EOP LE

CHONGMING BAOSHAN JIADING YANGPU ZHABEI HONGKU PUTUO JING’AN

HUANGPU

LUWAN

CHANGNING

XUHUI QINGPU MINHANG KAZAKHSTAN

SONGJIANG

MONGOLIA

BEIJING

CHINA

N.KOREA S.KOREA JAPAN

PUDONG NEW FENGXIAN

SHANGHAI

INDIA

JINSHAN MYANMAR THAILAND

LAOS

FIGURE 3.02: Location of Shanghai and geographical location

GEOGR A PH Y Shanghai lies on the east coast of China on the Yangtzee River Delta. It is made up of seventeen districts and one county, with a total area of 6,340.5 square kilometers (Shanghai 2010 Census). The current population has reached 23,019,148 people, making it the largest city in China (see figure 3.02). Shanghai is located near sea level, at an average altitude of four meters. The lowest lying area is Dianshanhu Lake and lies at a two meter altitude, with other intermediate areas that are located at sea level. Within the East China Sea, Shanghai is located at the mouth of the Yangtzee River. To the north, in between the island of Chongming and the other Shanghai districts lies Yangtzee Bay. To the south of Shanghai is Hangzhou Bay (see figure 3.03). Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, which spans between Dianshanhu lake and Yangtzee Bay. At

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At an average elevation of four meters above sea level, Shanghai was once all wetlands.


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

FIGURE 3.03: Satellite image of Shanghai with Huangpu River callout

the urban center, the river separates the financial district from the old city, the Bund, and the Concessions (see callout above). This area contains many of the shipping ports, which is what originally started the economic boom and positioned Shanghai as the economic capital of China. The Huangpu also created a barrier for the growth of Shanghai, constraining all of the historic growth to the west of the river. As a result of Shanghai being so close to sea level, a large portion of the land is wetlands that contribute to large amounts of flooding. Shanghai has developed radially and is now begining to take over almost all of the geographic area, destroying much of the agricultural and wetland areas. The wetlands that remain are primarily used for wetland ecology and agricultural purposes. These areas are located north of the city center on Chongming Island.

2011-2012

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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

REGIONAL BACKGROUND

POPULATI ON + D EN S I T Y The total land area in each of the districts is 6,340.5 square kilometers. The largest district is Pudong New Area, located on the east side of the Huangpu River. The second largest is Chongming, the agricultural island, followed by Fengxian, Qinpu, and Songjiang (see figure 3.06). All of these areas are outliers of the city center. The smallest land area is contained by the central city districts, where the historical urban center was formed. Like the district areas comparison, the Pudong New Area has the highest population. Even though Chongming has the second largest area, it does not have one of the largest populations because it is primarily an agricultural district with spread out residences. The second largest district is Minhang, followed by Baoshan, Yangpu, and Songjiang. The smallest district population is Jing’an (see figure 3.05).

Between 2000 and 2010, Shanghai’s population has grown by 37.53%, expanding the urban center into sea level areas.

(Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau, 2010 Census)

The most densely populated district is the Huangpu district, located to the west of the Huangpu River (see figure 3.04). The density then disperses radially from the city center, following the radial growth trend of Shanghai (Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau, 2010 Census).

DENSITY: DISTRICT DENSITY: DISTRICTCOMPARISON COMPARISON

4.5

x 10

4

PUDONG NEW AREA HUANGPU LUWAN XUHUI CHANGNING JING'AN PUTUO ZHABEI HONGKOU YANGPU MINHANG BAOSHAN JIADING JINSHAN SONGJIANG QINGPU FENGXIAN CHONGMING

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

3 462 42 869 33 466 17 580 16 815 32 598 20 717 25 984 32 828 19 862 4 894 5 039 2 381 1 179 1 965 1 217 1 191 584 TOTAL: 3,030

5 341 2

HONGKOU

0 YANGPU HUANGPU LUWAN Data provided by Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau.

SONGJIANG

DENSITY (PERSON/SQ.KM) 584-10,000 10,000-20,000 20,000-30,000 30,000-40,000 40,000-42,869

FIGURE 3.04: Population density comparison of the districts within Shanghai

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POPULATION: DISTRICTCOMPARISON COMPARISON POPULATION: DISTRICT 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

PUDONG NEW AREA HUANGPU LUWAN XUHUI CHANGNING JING'AN PUTUO ZHABEI HONGKOU YANGPU MINHANG BAOSHAN JIADING JINSHAN SONGJIANG QINGPU FENGXIAN CHONGMING

419.05 53.2 26.94 96.27 64.4 24.84 113.59 76.03 77.08 120.62 181.43 136.55 110.54 69.1 118.99 81.55 81.9 69.24

3 4

5

TOTAL: 1,921.32 0

1

2

PUDONG NEW AREA YANGPU BAOSHAN

POPULATION (10,000) 24.84-50 50-100 100-150 150-200 400-419.05

MINHANG Data provided by Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau.

SONGJIANG

FIGURE 3.05: Population comparison of the districts within Shanghai

LAND AREA:DISTRICT DISTRICTCOMPARISON COMPARISON LAND AREA: 1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

1 210.41 PUDONG NEW AREA 12.41 HUANGPU 8.05 LUWAN 54.76 XUHUI 38.3 CHANGNING 7.62 JING'AN 54.83 PUTUO 29.26 ZHABEI 23.48 HONGKOU 60.73 YANGPU 370.75 MINHANG 270.99 BAOSHAN 464.2 JIADING 586.05 JINSHAN 605.64 SONGJIANG 670.14 QINGPU 687.39 FENGXIAN 1 185.49 CHONGMING TOTAL: 6,340.50

0

2

4

1 5 3

PUDONG NEW AREA CHONGMING

LAND AREA (SQ. KM.) 7.62-200 200-400 400-600 600-800

FENGXIAN QINGPU Data provided by Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau.

800-1000 1000-1200 1200-1210.4

SONGJIANG

FIGURE 3.06: Land area comparison of the districts within Shanghai

2011-2012

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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

REGIONAL BACKGROUND

BIRTH, DEATH, MIGRATION (1990-2009) BIRTH, DEATH, MIGRATION (1990-2009) 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009 2010

YEAR BIRTH DEATH MIGRATION (INFLOW) MIGRATION (OUTFLOW)

1990

2009

13,200 B i r t h s 8,630 Deaths 12,180 I n fl o w 10,720 Outflow

9,230 B i r t h s 10,670 Deaths 15,720 I n fl o w 4,770 Outflow

1990-2009 3,970 Less B i r t h s 2,040 More Deaths 3,540 More Migrating In 5,950 Less Migrating Out

Data provided by Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau.

FIGURE 3.07: Population growth broken down by births, deaths, and migration

POPUL ATI ON + D EN S I T Y (C O NT I NU E D ) The population growth in Shanghai is attributed solely to the migration into the city In the time span between 1990 to 2009 there have been overall more deaths than births and more people migrating in than migrating out, which has caused the exponential population growth in the city (see figure 3.07). Compared to other megacities, Shanghai ranks in the top three with one of the highest peak densities of 96,200 people per square kilometer (Shanghai 2010 Census). The average density is much lower, at 24, 673 people/kilometer (see figure 3.08). In addition, compared to other cities, Shanghai’s distribution of density from the city center is much more intense, which is why the peak density is so high, as seen in the previous graph. The greatest density happens at the center (1500 people/hectare) and then decreases exponentially. As a comparison, New York City’s density distributes much slower and peaks at about 175 people/hectare (Bertaud). London also has a less intense density in the center and is distributed more evenly (see figure 3.09). Unlike other cities where the density is getting smaller as the area is moving away from the center, the Shanghai model is more exponential than other cities such as New York City and London.

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M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

AVERAGE+PEAK DENSITIES OF CITY

AVERAGE + PEAK DENSITIES OF MEGA-CITIES 12

x 10

4

10

96,200 PEOPLE/KM2

8

6

4

24,673 PEOPLE/KM2

2

0

INNER CITY (10 KM RADIUS) PEAK DENSITY Data provided by Urban-Age.net

FIGURE 3.08: Densities as compared to other megacities DENSITY DENSITY PROFILE PROFILECOMPARISON COMPARISON 500 1200

NEW YORK CITY

450

SHANGHAI

400 350 300

1000

250 200 150

800

100 50 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

D ISTANCE FR OM CIT Y CENTER ( km )

600 500

LONDON

450 400

400

350 300 250

200

200 150 100 0

5

10

15

20

25

DISTA NCE FRO M CIT Y CENT ER ( km)

50 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

D ISTANCE FR OM CIT Y CENTER ( km ) Data provided by Bertaud, Alain. “Metropolis: A Measure of the Spatial Organization of 7 Large Cities.” (2001): 1-22. Web

FIGURE 3.09: Density profile comparison as compared to other megacities

2011-2012

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REGIONAL BACKGROUND

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URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

“Shanghai citizens often complained about the overcrowding and lack of improvement in the city’s infrastructure...In the late 1970s, in a city without high-rise housing, the population density of Shanghai was five times that of London” -Jos Gamble

FIGURE 3.10: Lilong and high rise housing

2011-2012

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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

REGIONAL BACKGROUND

L AN D G R OW TH + US E Shanghai has grown dramatically since it was first established as a trading port. The city grew outwards, encompassing concessions that were established after the end of the Opium War (see figure 3.11). The urban center is still continually growing, as more people keep migrating into the city and housing is pushed outwards. As the housing is pushed outwards, many of the agricultural areas are disappearing, leaving little room for farming, while also depleting the wetlands (see figure 3.12).

About half of Shanghai’s land is fully urbanized, with the rate of urbanization increasing dramatically each year.

The urban texture of Shanghai has also transitioned from communities of lilong housing to fields of high rises. Lilongs were originally developed from the strong Western influence that came into the city in the early 1900’s to house one family (Lee). Now they suffer from overcrowding, with typically more than eight people in a two person space. They are now being demolished to make room for high rises. Mid and high rise buildings are quickly replacing the lilong communities, displacing large amounts of people. These create a new social structure and take away from the street level communities that would exist in areas with one to two story buildings (see figure 3.13).

(Shanghai 2010 Census)

1840: AFTER THE OPIUM WAR SHANGHAI ESTABOLISHED AS TRADING PORT OLD CITY 1885: BRITISH ESTABOLISHES A CONCESSION AFTER TREATY AFTER OPIUM THE WAR OPIUM WAR 1840: AFTER FRANCE, USA, JAPAN FORM SHANGHAI ESTABLISHED CONCESSIONS

TRADING PORT

AS A

1937: SHANGHAI ESTABOLISHED AS MOST IMPORTANT PORT IN ASIA JAPAN IS IN CONTROL OF SHANGHAI UNTIL 19451885: AFTER BOMBINGS BRITISH ESTABLISH

A CONCESSION AFTER TREATY (AT END OF OPIUM

1956: FOREIGNERS LEAVE CITY AND CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY WAR) TAKE OVER

FRANCE, USA, JAPAN FORM CONCESSIONS

1997: GREAT ECONOMIC GROWTH

1937: SHANGHAI AS MOST IMPORTANT PORT IN ASIA JAPAN IS IN CONTROL OF SHANGHAI UNTIL 1945 1840 1885 1975

1956: FOREIGNERS LEAVE CITY AND THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY TAKES OVER

1995 2005 2008 (http://cities.media.mit.edu/pdf/Mobility_on_Demand_ShanghaiCaseStudy.pdf)

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1997: GREAT ECONOMIC GROWTH FIGURE 3.11: Urban growth pattern


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

BAOSHAN JIADING YANGPU ZHABEI HONGKU PUTUO JING’AN

KAZAKHSTAN

HUANGPU

MONGOLIA

BEIJING

CHINA

N.KOREA S.KOREA

CHANGNING

QINGPU MINHANG

JAPAN SONGJIANG

SHANGHAI

INDIA

LUWAN

XUHUI

PUDONG NEW FENGXIAN

MYANMAR THAILAND

LAOS

JINSHAN

FIGURE 3.12: Land use transition from 2003 to 2010

Orig the that earl fam over mor pers bein room

OLD LILONG HOUSING

Mid quic com amo crea and leve

NEW MID-RISE HOUSING

TYPICAL URBAN BLOCKS

FIGURE 3.13: Urban grain diagram

2011-2012

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OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

REGIONAL BACKGROUND

AGRICULTUR E Rapid urbanization has been a large problem for Shanghai, reducing the area that is available for agricultural purposes. After the total area that is urbanized is taken out of Shanghai’s area the total amount of land left over for cultivation is 5,161.2 square kilometers, which is continually diminishing (see figure 3.14 and 3.16). In 2009, the total land sown was 3,961 square kilometers, which leaves 1,200.2 square kilometers left over. This area is about equal to the size of Chongming Island (Shanghai 2010 Census). Since 1979, there has been a loss of 129,470 hectares. This is a dramatic decrease in 30 years, and the total area lost, due to urbanization and sprawl, is the relative size of Chongming (Shanghai 2010 Census). Since Shanghai’s land keeps being turned into urban areas, it is unclear how Shanghai will support itself in the near future, giving rise to the potential that Shanghai (and China) may have to rely heavily on imported goods.

TOTAL: SHANGHAI

6340.5 23,019,148

S Q UAR E K M . PEO PL E

TOTAL: URBANIZED AREA

1179.3

S Q UAR E K M .

FIGURE 3.14: Urbanized ares

30

Total urbanized area from 2005 data: Zhao, Shuqing, Liangjun Da, Zhiyao Tang, Hejun Fang, Kun Song, and Jingyun Fang. "Ecological

R E N S S E L A E RConsequences S O A of Rapid Urban Expansion: Shanghai, China." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4.7 (2006): 341-46. Print.


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M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

CULTIVATED AREA (1979-2009) 40

1979: 360,010 cultivated hectares

35

1989: 320,400 cultivated hectares 30

LOSS of 39,610 hectares

1999: 290,090 cultivated hectares

25

LOSS of 89,860 hectares 2009: 200,230 cultivated hectares

20 15 10 5

//TOTAL LOSS of 129,470 hectares in 30 years 09

20

07 20 05

01

03

20

20

99

20

97

19

95

19

19

91

89

93

19

19

19

87 19 85

83

19

19

79

81

19

19

YEAR

Data provided by Survey Office of the National Bureau of Statistics in Shanghai.

FIGURE 3.15: Loss of cultivated area

TOTAL: AREA AVAILABLE FOR

5,161.2

CULTIVATION SQUA RE KM.

2009: TOTAL LAND SOWN

3,961

WAS

SQUA RE KM.

TOTAL: LAND LEFTOVER

1,200.2

SQUA RE KM.

(TH E R ELATIVE SIZE OF CH ONG M G ING) OPE N FOR C U LTIVATION OR A C O N TIN UATION OF TH E UR BAN SPRAWL FIGURE 3.16: Area available for cultivation

2011-2012

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REGIONAL BACKGROUND

AGRICULTUR E ( C O NT I NU E D ) In addition to transition of land usage, the housing typology has also changed and affected the way in which argriculture exists in Shanghai. The Chinese relationship with living conditions and their livestock has changed drastically in relation to the urbanization of the city. Prior to the 1850’s, when much of housing was the courtyard typology, the livestock was concentrated in the courtyard, typically in the southern side so they would have shade. Between 1850 and 1950, the housing typology switched to lilongs, and livestock was pushed to the exterior of these communities, with some animals still remaining in the alleyways. The current condition, as high rises are begining to take over the city, are industrial farming techniques, with farming pushed to the perimeter of the city, creating an urban condition and a rural, agricultural condition. As Shanghai continues to grow, the agricultural areas will be pushed out even further, which is problematic due to the coastal geography of the city. PERSPECTIVE

PLAN

L I V E S TO C K / U S E R R E L AT I O N S H I P

[RURAL]

ANIMALS ARE CONCENTRATED IN THE ENCLOSED COURTYARD IN THE SOUTHERN AREA SO THEY CAN BE SHADED

[URBAN]

SHANGHAI’S POPULATION BEGINS TO GROW, LILONG HOUSING DEVELOPED, SOME LIVESTOCK IN ALLEYS, MOST LIVESTOCK PUSHED OUTWARDS

[MEGACITY]

SHANGHAI’S POPULATION GROWS AT FASTER RATE, INDUSTRIAL FARMING DEVELOPS, NO LIVESTOCK IN URBAN CENTER OR SUBURBS

KEY:

LIVESTOCK FIGURE 3.17: Housing typologies and agricultural consequence

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M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

“Shanghai is feeding 22% of the world’s population on less than 7% of arable land available worldwide” -Chinese Agricultural Minister Sun Zhencai

FIGURE 3.18: Urban destruction in Shanghai

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CHINESE INTERFACE WITH NATURE URBANIZATION AND LIVING WITH THE LANDSCAPE

(LEFT) FIGURE 4.01: Tiered rice paddies, Beijing


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

CHINESE INTERFACE WITH NATURE

HISTORICAL WESTERN URBANIZATION

FIGURE 4.02: New York City

EASTERN VERSUS WESTERN INTERFACE WITH NATURE

(WESTERN)

Western architecture and urbanism is characterized by concrete and steel structures, with little integration with nature, whereas Chinese culture is one of the oldest civilizations in the world because of the way they have always interacted with nature and ecology. Western city skylines are filled with tall iconic towers that create a sense of identity for the urban area. The ground level is entirely covered with masses of concrete and pavement that diminish what is left of the natural landscape (see figure 4.02). Green spaces are inserted periodically, slipping in with the urban grid that is specific to each city. By building upwards and outwards, cities are begining to sprawl into what was once agricultural land, creating megacities that are faced with the issues of overcrowding, waste management problems, clean water scarcity, flooding, and energy shortages. With the trend of urbanization now following this model, more and more of the earth’s population will be faced with these problems as everyday situations.

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1

1

2

2

3

3

FIGURE 4.02b+4.03b: Eastern vs. Western growth comparisons


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M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

ANCIENT EASTERN URBANIZATION

FIGURE 4.03: Forbidden City, Beijing

Cities today need “to recognize the very real environmental crises of our time and pay close attention to change and adaption...� -Stan Allen

(EASTERN) Ancient Chinese cities were originally designed to create a balance between human and natural elements. The theories of feng shui, as well as the element of axial progression were also contributing factors, creating strong axes for spiritual and governmental power reasons. Chinese cities utilized the wall typology, a somewhat enlarged version of the courtyard typology to ensure that they could keep their natural resources, create a balance between landscape and man made materials, and for protection. Imperial cities were designed around the axis of the royal palace, with series of low lying buildings and an occasional pagoda that would stand taller (see figure 4.03). The problem now, which we can see with Shanghai today is the desire for the built environment to become westernized. This is why where there was once marshlands, it is now covered in concrete.

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CHINESE INTERFACE WITH NATURE

TIERED RICE PA DDIES

YEL LO W MOUNTA INS

COURTYARD HOUSING TYPOLOGY

(a)

(b)

SU 10

NL

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LIVING: ADULTS LIVING: CHILDREN COOKING CLEANING

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B E I J I N G C O U R T YA R D H O U S E

N

(c)

IN TER FAC E W I TH LA N D S CA P E The ancient Chinese civilization interaction with landscape can be seen at the building level where through the courtyard house typology, their relationship with livestock, and the connection to the exterior was very closely related. The Chinese garden was very important culturally and shows the relationship to the natural habitat in that one of its main purposes was as a shelter to connect with nature, as well as harvesting plants for agricultural and medicinal practices. The Chinese relationship to the earth through the typology of cave dwellings, which are still inhabited today, use the natural insulation of the earth for heating and cooling purposes, as well as also utilizing the courtyard typology for sunlight and solar gain, allowing the program to be positioned accordingly (see figure 4.04). The Chinese temple and shrines also utilized the same construction type, carving the worship spaces out of stone and utilizing the earth as a buildings material, rather than a base for new construction.

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CA VE DWELLINGS

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

CA VE DWELLINGS

CA VE TEMPLES+SHRINE

COURTY ARD RESPONSE

s

(j)

G R O TT OS

ion

iat

ad

(f)

LO N GMEN

rr ola

(e)

COURTYARD CAVE DWELLING

(d)

(k) (l) FIGURE 4.04: Chinese utilization of landscape in architectural forms

Ancient Chinese dwellings used the landscape as a material, integrating program, structure, and natural resources into one entity.

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CHINESE INTERFACE WITH NATURE

1990

2010

FIGURE 4.05: Pudong development

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URBAN ISSUES STRUCTURE/ INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORTATION WATER WETLANDS

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

CURRENT SHANGHAI ISSUES

DESIGN FACTORS

LAND SUBSIDENCE UNSTABLE BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURE

MICROBE BASED INFRASTRUCTURE

HORIZONTAL SPRAWL [METRO]

SPRAWL=VERTICAL SPRAWL

SALTWATER LEACHING FLOODING FLOOD WALLS WATER TABLE SINKING

NEW URBAN GROUNDLEVEL

DESTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTED FRESHWATER WETLANDS

FIELD OF HIGHRISES

ACCESS TO “GROUNDLEVEL”

ENERGY ECONOMIC GROWTH WASTE

“MARKET BASED” URBANISM SEWAGE/BLACKWATER IN HUANGPU

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

FIGURE 4.06: Urban issues caused by urban population growth

IN TER FAC E WITH LAN D SCAPE ( C ONTINUED ) The problem that Shanghai is facing today, like many cities, is that the urban structure is becoming westernized, with the insertion of iconic buildings and highrises (see figure 4.05). This move away from the utilization of the natural landscape has caused events, such as flooding, to destroy the living conditions and resources of residents within the city center, as well as other periphery locations. General urban issues, such as transportation, water, energy, and waste have been translated into the current struggles that Shanghai faces today. Land subsidence from the heavy infrastructure and water pumping from Shanghai’s aquifers is one current issue, essentially sinking Shanghai, while the sea level is also rising. These conditions have caused an unstable soil condition, jeopardizing much of Shanghai’s infrastructure. At the same time, Shanghai is continually flooding, due to the loss of the natural landscape that has been attributed to westernization (see figure 4.06). All of these problems are a direct link to the rapidly growing population and the increase in commercialization that has entered the city.

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URBAN ISSUE: COMMERCIALIZATION ESTABLISHMENT OF A MARKET BASED URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE

(LEFT) FIGURE 5.01: Pedestrian Street, Nanjing Lu


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COMMERCIALIZATION

CENTER

PERIPHERY

PERIPHERY

FIGURE 5.02: Commercialization causing all residential to be pushed out of the city center

URBAN I SSUE: CO M M E RC I A L I Z AT I O N One of the major issues that has most recently been visible due to the restructuring of the market is commercialization. Urbanization in Shanghai has been primarily fueled by the economic growth that came after the Chinese Economic Reform in 1978. Prior to this reform, a planned economy existed in China, where industrial production was the focus, rather than the current model of economic development. This shift in the economy changed the way Shanghai is structured, causing Shanghai to become seen as an international and global city that is now the economic capital of China. As part of the economic reform, the real estate market was opened up to foreign investment in 1993, creating the ability for wealthy investors to now choose where specific buildings are located, creating a “market oriented” urban infrastructure. This market trend was only expanded when in 1995 urban planning was decentralized from the regional government to allow the individual districts to control planning, creating the desire for districts to compete and build projects that will produce high revenues. As a result, Shanghai has now become more centralized, with a gentrified urban center that includes high end commercial and luxury housing. This centralization has led to the inevitable destruction of poorly maintained and government-owned low rise lilongs and the relocation of low and middle class housing to residential high rises located in the outskirts of Shanghai, destroying most of the natural land that has been preventing flooding in the deltaic region (see figure 5.02).

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“In 1995, the total volume of relocated space was 3.23 million square meters. According to the Shanghai Statistics Yearbook 2005, this indicator grew almost 80% in less than ten years, reaching 5.8 million square meters in 2004.” -Catherine Lee

FIGURE 5.03: Highrises in the relocation areas

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COMMERCIALIZATION

2000 “There are about 10,000 buildings with more than 10 floors in Shanghai, of which 80 percent have been built in the past 10 years.”

-Wang Pingxian

FIGURE 5.04: Increase in number of highrises over 35 meters tall from 2000 to 2011

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2

3

U R B AN ISSU E: C OMMER C IALIZ AT I O N ( C ONTINUED ) The commercialization can be seen as recently as looking at the comparison between the number of high rises (greater than 35 meters tall) that have been built between 2000 and today. This area focuses on the urban center where much of the international investment is being driven and seen (see figure 5.04).

B AOSH A NQU

J IA DING

C H A NGNING PUDONG INERNAT IONA L A IRPORT S O NGJ IA NG X INC H A NGZ H EN F ENGX IA N LUC H AOGA NZ H EN

J INSH A N

4

FIGURE 5.05: Expansion of Shanghai’s urban center and the introduction of satellite cities

As a result, the urban center has expanded both horizontally and vertically, causing these new urban areas to be developed in the local government’s attempt to decrease the density and in a sense “dispose” of and relocate the low and middle class who can no longer afford to live in the urban center. The satellite cities that have developed are located on the next highest elevation available, in order to prevent the threat of flooding. As these areas become more developed, the infrastructure will cause land subsidence, increasing the chances that these areas will act in a similar manner to the urban center and flood periodically.

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URBAN ISSUE: WATER FLOODING AND ITS IMPACTS ON SHANGHAI

(LEFT) FIGURE 6.01: Flooding at street level


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WATER

FLOO D I NG A ND FLO O D WA L L S

2 1.5 1

Flooding has become a major issue in Shanghai because of the distribution of the low lying elevation, its location in respect to the mouth of the Yangtzee River, and the fact that the Huangpu River, which floods annually, bisects the center of the city in half.

2 1.5 1

The reason why Shanghai developed in the first place and was contained to the historic city center was because of the wetlands and soil quality for agricultural purposes. The old city is where the highest elevation is, which drove the development of the rest of the city. Now that the highrises are expanding to the areas that were once used for agriculture, Shanghai is begining to use all of its resources and land area (see figure 6.03).

2 1.5 1 2 1.5 1

Now the city has grown out into these low elevation areas where the wetlands are located. The wetlands, since on the coast, are controlling the flooding in the Yangtzee river delta (in addition to the dams up the river). If these wetlands are removed Shanghai will lose its natural flood mitigation system and Shanghai will soon start to become submerged (see figure 6.04).

0-1 METERS 2-4 METERS >4 METERS 0-1 map METERS FIGURE 6.02: Elevation of Shanghai 2-4 METERS >4 METERS

2 1.5 1

2 1.5 1

2 1.5 1

2 1.5 1

2 1.5 1 SHOALS BELOW 1 METER 1-2 METERS SHOALS ABOVE 2 METERS BELOW 1 METER

0-1 METERS 2-4 METERS >4 METERS

1-2 METERS ABOVE 2 METERS

2 1.5 1

S

2 1.5 1

SHOALS BELOW 1 METER 1-2 METERS ABOVE 2 METERS

OLD CITY S

P

R

A

W

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PUDONG

HUANGPU

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FIGURE 6.03: Sectional growth map of Shanghai, stages one through four

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0M

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+1M

+5M

+2M

+9M

FIGURE 6.04: Flood prediction maps

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WATER

+6M

FIGURE 6.05: Flood prediction maps in relation to the new satellite cities

FLOOD I NG A ND F LO O D WA L L S (C O NT I NU E D ) The new satellite cities that Shanghai has developed for the relocation of the low and middle class are consequently located in the highest elevated areas (see figure 6.05). The fact that the government did not evenly space the new cities based upon their location to the urban center shows that flooding is indeed a threat and a design factor; however, the issue is not being addressed in the long term because the same typical building strategy is being used in these areas instead of a new way that would prevent flooding. As these areas inevitably start to sprawl, the infrastructure will start to demolish the very thing (wetlands) that is saving the city from flooding and destruction.

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LAND SUBSIDENCE (MM) 25.00 25.01-50.00 50.01-100.00 100.01-150.00 150.01-200.00

FIGURE 6.06: Land subsidence map of Shanghai

“The recorded cumulative subsidence has been 2 to 3 m in the central area of Shanghai.� (Chai, 33)

In addition to the threats of the rising sea levels and the destruction of wetlands there is also the issue of land subsidence, causing the land to sink, while the water is also rising. When looking at a land subsidence map, the areas that are sinking the most are the ones that have the highest density and therefore require more infrastructure and more pumping of water. As Shanghai has been rapidly urbanizing, the increase in the number of high rises has been dramatic, increasing the land subsidence threat. This problem only adds to the level of destruction that would happen if Shanghai were to flood, adding to the land that would be destroyed if water were to inhabit the ground level.

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WATER

CONSTRUCTED IN 1990

CONSTRUCTED IN 1970

CONSTRUCTED IN 1960

FIGURE 6.07: Typical typhoon destruction path

FIGURE 6.08: Flood wall system 5.25 m

5.0

4.09 m

4.0 3.59 m

3.14 m

3.0 1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

FIGURE 6.09: Historical rise of flood wall system along the Huangpu River

FLOOD I NG A ND F LO O D WA L L S (C O NT I NU E D ) Shanghai is also very prone to typhoons, with one major one happening in 1981, which caused the Shanghai city center to flood, due to the water level rise of the Huangpu river (see figure 6.07). Since the river was the driving factor for what land was urbanized first, important historical buildings and areas, such as the Bund and the French Concession are especially prone to floods with the potential of ruining the buldings at their base. The cities way of dealing with this was to raise the flood barrier of the river, creating a hard boundary between the city and the coastline (see figure 6.08). Each time the city floods the barrier is raised, acting as a response instead of a preventive measure (see figure 6.09).

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“The mean land level is between 3m to 4m above sea level in Shanghai, but the flood defense wall is more than 6m now. It is still not high enough with the sea level rising and land sinking.” -Quanlong Wei FIGURE 6.10 a+b: Building collapse due to unstable soil conditions

Yet another problem with Shanghai’s elevation and flooding issues is the unstable soil condition which causes extreme building disasters where the piles failed and cause the building to fall over (see figures 6.10 a+b). With the continuation of land subsidence, as well as the increase in the amount of typhoons, rain fall, sea level rise, and the destruction of wetlands, building and urban infrastructural problems like these will become inevitable.

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WATER

FIGURE 6.11: Protected and unprotected wetlands

DES TR UCTI ON OF W E T L A N D S As the urban population has increased, so has the demand and need for agricultural products, such as rice and grains, which is the major export item and food staple in the Chinese diet. Because of the geography and location of Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtze River Delta, approximately 23.5% of the area consists of wetlands with rich soil that can sustain large quantities of rice production. Urbanization has led to the deterioration of these wetlands, due to water pollution from untreated waste, rapid growth of urban infrastructure, the use of wetlands as dumps, and overfishing. As the population is growing these rice paddy areas need to produce more efficiently in order to keep up with the rising demand of rice production in the Yangtze River Delta, as well as the rest of the world. Shanghai also sits in an area where much of the wetlands in China are concentrated; making it important that urbanization does not spread and lead to the slow destruction of wetlands in this area.

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23.5% >300

OF SHANGHAI IS WETLANDS

SQ. KM

WETLAND TYPE COASTAL RIVER LAKE RESERVOIR+ POND

AREA 305,421 ha 7191 ha 6803 ha 299 ha

WETLAND DEGRADATION: -USED AS DUMPS -WATER POLLUTION -OVER FISHING -RAPID URBANIZATION RESERVOIR+POND WETLANDS COASTAL WETLANDS RIVERINE+LACUSTRINE WETLANDS

FIGURE 6.12: Types of coastal wetlands

There are four majors types of wetlands in Shanghai: coastal, river, lake, and reservoir and ponds. Currently, wetlands take up approximately 23.5% of the land area of Shanghai (see figure 6.12). Because of rapid urbanization, wetlands (both inland and coastal) are facing degradation due to the area being used as dumps, therefore polluting the water. Wetlands are also facing the rapid commercialization and industrialization that is entering the city, causing the wetlands to become filled and replaced with infrastructure

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WATER

(a)

(b)

(c) FIGURE 6.13: (a) Infrastructure entering wetlands (b) Constructed wetlands near urban center (c) Untouched coastal wetlands

DES TR UCTI ON OF W E T L A N D S (C O NT I NU E D ) Of the wetlands that still exist, many are near the city center and have infrastructure that is quickly approaching and taking over the area (see figure 6.13a), while others near the coast remain untouched, until the urban sprawl of the satellite cities has entered the coastal area (see figure 6.13c). The government of Shanghai has already set up a series of constructed wetland projects near the urban center, showing the importance of restoring these natural flood mitigators (see figure 6.13b). Because Shanghai is located in a deltaic region, water continually acts to irrigate the land, since it once contained all wetlands and agricultural fields. This is why the wetlands in China are especially important to preserve because of the geographical location near the coast, which is why Shanghai was developed as a port city in the first place (see figures 6.14 and 6.15).

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SHANGHAI

FIGURE 6.14: Hydrology map, centered around Shanghai

Between 1990 and 2000, 30% of China’s natural wetlands disappeared...Since 1950 50% have dissapeared.

On a more localized level centered around Shanghai, the importance of the Yangtzee river can be seen, and its irrigation importance to the wetlands, as well as its relation to major cities (see figure 6.15). Shanghai is the largest city along the Yangtzee, but also contains and is built on a majority of the wetlands and grain production in the area. Since Shanghai is on the coast, it is threatened by two water sources, creating the need for new infrastructure to be implemented at the ground level.

-Gallagher 2011-2012

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WATER

cityANALYSIS

DRAINAGE AREA YANGTZE RIVER RIVER RUNOFF DAMS MAJOR CITIES LAKE + RESERVOIR WETLANDS CLASTIC ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS CARBONATE ROCKS

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Ding, T. "Silicon Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Silicon and Suspended Matter in the Yangtze River, China." Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 68.2 (2004): 205-16. Print.


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SHANGHAI

FIGURE 6.15: China wetland map, with the Yangtzee River called out

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WATER

FIGURE 6.16: Population density, unprotected wetlands, and developing areas overlayed onto eachother

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D ESTR U CTION OF WETLAN D S (CON TIN UE D)

RELOCATED RESIDENTS

INFRASTRUCTURE/ STRUCTURE

WETLANDS/RICE PADDIES

NUTRIENTS/ STRUCTURE

FIGURE 6.17: Separation of materials and strategies

These satellite cities that Shanghai is currently developing are essentially adding to the urbanization growth that the city is experiencing. These new cities will not be able to expand according to the needs of the population growth rate because they will start destructing the wetlands, that take up roughly one third of Shanghai, as well as the remaining agricultural areas. This area produces a large population of the grains needed in Shanghai, China, and the world, as well as helps mitigate the flooding that will only continue to worsen in Shanghai. By layering the information of areas of high density, unprotected wetlands, and new developing areas, you can start to see areas that will very soon become problematic. Land will continue to be lost to tall high rises as the satellite cities begin to follow the same growth model as the current urban center. At its core, Shanghai doesnt have an agriculture problem, but an urban infrastructure problem that could be solved by separating the systems and providing for the needs of the wetlands and rice paddy fields, but also restore a sense of community that is being lost. This could potentially be accomplished by utlilizing the water that is causing destruction as a building material, rather than being seen as a threat to the urban structure, buildings, and daily events and lifestyles. By creating new building materials with water there will be new potentials for the flow system of materials and nutrients, creating an interwoven urban system (see figure 6.17).

“[Climate change] requires us to fundamentally reconsider where and how we live as societies; demands that we reinvent infrastructure design to meet the more variable conditions cities will face in the future...� -Dr. Judith Rodin 2011-2012

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(LEFT) FIGURE 7.01: Waste collection


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WASTE

ORGANI C

SOLIDS

CHEMICAL

HEAVY METALS

ORGANI C

SOLIDS

CHEMICAL

HEAVY METALS

ORGANI C

SOLIDS

CHEMICAL

HEAVY METALS

FIGURE 7.02: Trash in Shanghai streets

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ORGANI C BIOLOGICA L

CHEMICAL

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS

HEAVY METALS

In addition to the flooding issues that Shanghai has, there is also a problem with the deteriorating waste water treatment system in that its capacity does not fit the needs of the growing population. Currently, 95% of industrial waste water is treated, while 53% of domestic waste is treated. Three main problems exist with the current system. The first is that much of the waste is dispersed into the Huangpu river, contaminating the public water system, as well as creating unsanitary conditions for the shipping import and export industry that comes through the center of Shanghai each day. The second problem is that only 30% of the waste water recieves secondary treatment. This leaves much of the organic waste untreated, further polluting the water. The third major problem is that the current capacity is less than three million cubic meters of waste water, while the actual discharge of Shanghai is over five million cubic meters. As Shanghai keeps increasing in size (in both built land area, as well as population) the waste management system is not able to keep up.

SOLIDS FIGURE 7.03: Types of waste

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SHANGHAI FLOODING SCENARIOS SECTIONAL INVESTIGATION

(LEFT) FIGURE 8.01: Residents moving to higher ground during a flood


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FIGURE 8.02: Shanghai sectional study comparing urban issues as a result of flooding

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FLOODING SCENARIOS

1

WAST E WATER Currently 95% of industrial waste water, and only 53% of domestic waste water is treated in Shanghai. Three main problems exist with this system: (1) Much of the waste is dispersed into the Huangpu River, which is where much of the drinking water is taken from. (2) Only 30% of the waste water gets secondary treatment, leaving much of the organic waste untreated, polluting the water. (3) The current capacity is less than 3 million cubic meters of waste waster, while the actual discharge of Shanghai is over 5 million cubic meters. Shanghai keeps growing but isn’t keeping up with its waste water management system. If Shanghai were to flood, the main problem would be the long term deterioration of the underground pipes that carry the waste, as well as the lack of infrastructure that will be available for water treatment. Also, the Huangpu River would flood, dispersing waste into the streets and habitable living conditions of Shanghai (Ward). FIGURE 8.03: Waste water and management consequences as a result of flooding

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2

F LOOD WALLS Until the 7th and 8th century AD Shanghai consisted of all wetlands and marshes, which acted as natural ways to control flooding. Today, to mitigate the flooding in Shanghai, a flood wall system has been implemented. The current floodgate is 5.86 meters tall, with levees on the Bund in the center of the city that measure 6.9 meters high. This system acts as a short term response mechanism, rather than a system that acts to prevent the damages done by flooding. In the next 300 years, the estimate of sea level rise in Shanghai is 5 meters. At the same time, Shanghai is sinking due to the growing infrastructure and increased water pumping. Also, if Shanghai were to experience a storm similar to Hurricane Katrina, 8.5 meters of water would enter Shanghai. Currently, the way to solve this problem is to keep increasing the height of the flood walls, which at a certain point becomes unrealistic.

FIGURE 8.04: Flood wall consequences as a result of flooding

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FLOODING SCENARIOS

3

WATE R R UNO FF To add to problem of flooding, much of Shanghai is now covered in either concrete or pavement. The natural flood mitigation of wetlands is no longer used in the center of Shanghai because of extensive urbanization. If the Huangpu River were to flood, then Shanghai would not be able to easily drain, causing the destruction and weakening of buildings at their base, as well as the destruction of many modes of transportation.

FIGURE 8.05: Water pooling consequences as a result of flooding

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WATER PU MPIN G The ground pumping of water is also a major concern that is causing Shanghai to sink from its already 3 meter elevation level. When water is pumped from the four main aquifers below Shanghai, water is taken from the clay and sand that Shanghai sits on, causing it to sink. If in the areas in the outskirts of the city where there is little pavement and the water was to get in the soil, the soil would become unstable, causing buildings to collapse.

FIGURE 8.06: Water pumping consequences as a result of flooding

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FLOODING SCENARIOS

5

WETL A ND S M I TI GAT I N G F LO O D I N G The main areas where wetlands still exist are in the coastal areas of the city. These areas flood very easily, and the wetlands there are used to mitigate the water, while also providing agricultural purposes for the city. Because of the small grain size and large surface area of clay particles, the water clings to the clay, creating confining layers in the subsurface. This creates an unstable ground for buidings that are moving into the area Currently, residential towers are moving into these wetland areas and paving over the natural habitat. If this continues to happen, the wetlands will be completely gone and Shanghai will flood more frequently and severely.

FIGURE 8.07: Wetland mitigation for flooding

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6

TR AN SPOR TATION Currently, transportation occurs on two main levels. On the ground level, cars and pedestrians utilize the area for roadways and pedestrian streets. The secondary level is elevated above the ground level and carries train and highway networks. If Shanghai were to flood, the entire ground level would not be able to be utilized; however, the elevated rails and highways could potentially become the new ground level.

FIGURE 8.08: Transportation consequences as a result of flooding

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7

COMMER CI A L Since the center of Shanghai is built around “marketbased” planning, there are many pedestrian streets that are fully commercialized. On these roads, the circulation exists only on the ground level, which is fully paved. When Shanghai floods, pedestrial circulation is paused, and the ground level commercial areas are flooded. In addition to the transportation, the pedestrian level circulation and commercial areas will have to be relocated

FIGURE 8.09: Commercial consequences as a result of flooding

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C OASTAL C ON DITION The natural coastline of Shanghai are wetlands, that successfully mitigate flooding. The growth trend of Shanghai is to expand laterally, pushing the coastline outwards. To achieve this the coastal wetlands are being drained and replaced with concrete surfaces and highrises.

FIGURE 8.10: Coastal consequences as a result of flooding

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CASE STUDY CHINESE WATER CITIES

(LEFT) FIGURE 9.01: Canal in Suzhou


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CASE STUDIES

SUZHOU

FIGURE 9.02: Suzhou and the decrease in the amount of canals

CHINESE WATER CI T I E S Suzhou, located to the west of Shanghai, and although an ancient city, utilizes a canal system as a driver for urban structure. Like Shanghai and its problem of the destruction of wetlands, Suzhou has destroyed most of the canals that have been beneficial for the city for reasons such as the build up of waste, space that was needed for infrastructure, and the city’s desire for green spaces and gardens (see figure 9.02). Unfortunately in Suzhou, and other water towns like it, they have suffered from flooding, the deterioration of building materials that interact with the water, lack of space for growth, and water contamination (see figure 9.05).  lthough not a perfect urban structure, aspects can A be taken in association to the urban relationship to water and the use of water as a material. The canals are used daily by the neighboring residences for cooking, washing, organic (and in-organic) waste, and transportation.

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LUZHI TONGLI

NANXUN WUZHEN

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

SHANGHAI

ZHOUZHUANG

XITANG

FIGURE 9.03: Distribution of Chinese Water Cities around Shanghai

The Chinese Water Cities utilize water as a driver for the urban structure, but at the same time are slowly losing their canal systems.

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FIGURE 9.04: Horizontal layout of Suzhou

CHINESE WATER CI T I E S (C O NT I NU E D ) One reason why some of these canals were destroyed were to implement more green spaces and gardens. The garden exemplifies the Chinese relationship to natural elements and provides insight on how urban forms were originally designed. The goal of the Chinese garden is to capture the greater environment and allow for a visitor to feel as though they are wandering through the landscape. The garden is always enclosed and contains a series of juxtaposing elements that are placed to showcase yin and yang. Architecture, rocks, water, and plants are always used and are situated to create specific views within the enclosed space. The relationship to the environment can be seen carried over to the Chinese water cities and landscape design. Although water is utilized as a system, the components are still separated and not unified (see figure 9.04). This causes the houses only on the water to be able to benefit, and since the buildings are growing out into the water, many of the canals will continue to dissapear. Looking into a new urban system for Shanghai, aspects of these water cities can be integrated into the new urban structure; however, the separation of these systems will need to be further integrated.

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FLOODING

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

WASHING

(a)

LIMITED ROOM FOR GROWTH

(e)

TRANSPORTATION

(b)

DETERIORATION OF MATERIALS

(f)

COOKING + ORGANIC WASTE DISPOSAL

(c)

WATER CONTAMINATION

(g)

FRESH WATER SUPPLY

(d)

(h)

FIGURE 9.05: Problems the Chinese Water Cities face versus the way water is utilized

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URBAN PROJECTION PROJECTED SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES

(LEFT) FIGURE 10.01: Shanghai ground level flooding


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

URBAN PROJECTION

SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES IF...

THE CURRENT FLOOD WALL SYSTEM CONTINUES TO BE BUILT

CURRENT

FIGURE 10.02: Current Bund waterfront

URBAN P R OJE CTI ON If Shanghai continues to use the methods in which they are dealing with their increasing flood problems, the city will ultimately not be protected. The current flood wall system the Shanghai has implemented is working as a responsive system, rather than a preventive one. Because of this, as the flooding worsens Shanghai will not be protected and each year Shanghai will experience detrimental flooding to the ground level, as well as urban infrastructure and existing buildings. As a result, the flood wall system will continue to be rebuilt and grow in height.

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WATER LEVEL RISE: 5M

FIGURE 10.03: Projected Bund waterfront

As a result of the increasing height of the flood wall a few things will happen. One issue that will arise is that the wall will act as a barrier between the city, cutting off visual connections across the Huangpu River. This spatial issue will cause the city to be divided into cells, further breaking off visual and physical connections. This notion is acting similarly to the urban typology of ancient Chinese walled cities, which use the wall as a source of protection. Perhaps the most detrimental would be the loss of fluid transportation across the city and the loss of all ground level activities.

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URBAN PROJECTION

SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES IF...

WETLANDS WERE INTEGRATED INTO THE URBAN CONTEXT

URBAN P R OJE CTI ON ( C O N T IN U E D ) Another option would be to utilize the wetland system throughout the city, essentially flooding the ground level that is used heavily daily.

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FIGURE 10.04: Wetlands as voids at the ground level

If this option were to occur, the wetlands would act as voids within the urban context, cutting off all transportation and ground level activity

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F LO O D MIT IGAT ION

WETLANDS WETLANDS NO NOWETLANDS WETLANDS

TIME

[ Kusler 1983] FIGURE 10.05: Wetlands versus no wetlands for flood mitigation

WETLA ND S A S F LOO D BU F F E RS Although wetlands create voids within an urban landscape, their uses for retention of water make them excellent flood buffers. As a water storage system they protect against monsoons, storm surges, as well as flooding and the rising sea level. The use of wetlands in the urban context is not unprecedented. Wetlands are used in the Netherlands because of their elevation at sea level, as well as in the outskirts of New Orleans. Currently, the coastal wetlands around New Orleans are being restored, as they are seen as more valuable than the current levee system.

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FLOOD STORAGE IN WETLANDS

1X

5X

WATER STORAGE FINE SILT FILTERED RECHARGE WATER

FIGURE 10.06: Wetlands as a sponge for flood water

FIGURE 10.06: Wetlands as voids at the ground level JANUARY FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER

FLOOD SEASON PLUM RAIN BELT

TYPHOON SEASON

RICE PLANTING

RICE HARVESTING

POTENTIAL FLOODING

RICE CULTIVATION PERIOD “GROUND LEVEL” DESIGN PERIOD

0

31

59

90

120

151

181

212

243

273

304

334

365

“[Wetlands] slow floodwaters and provide space for water overflowing from rivers, thereby reducing a flood’s destructiveness.” -World Wildlife Foundation

FIGURE 10.07: Flood scheduling

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FUTURE

URBAN PROJECTION

ELEVATED URBANISM

1

2 4

3

FIGURE 10.08: Elevated urbanism above wetlands

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HOW CAN WETLANDS AND URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE COEXIST?

ELEVATED U R B AN ISM If wetlands are useful for flood mitigation, but create voids at the ground level within the urban context can the city begin to lift above the wetlands (see figure 10.08)? How will urban planning have to be rethought in order to achieve this long-term goal? By using this new typology of planning Shanghai would begin to utilize the water storage capabilities of wetland ecologies, while also creating a preventive flooding system that will protect the city well into the future. By accepting this new planning strategy, Shanghai will begin to reject its current mode of flood mitigation and will discontinue the use of the flood wall system. This shift in strategy marks a new era in urban planning: one that values the importance of natural and ecological elements over the current way in which we build and think about urban networks. In this new planning method, the system of the city starts to form as a response to the current ecological problems and solutions that are needed, creating long term urban planning solutions, rather than shortterm urban fabrics that will eventually be negated because of rapidly emerging natural concerns. Urban population growth becomes a secondary factor, rather than a driving concern, and is solved through the use of elevated networks

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FUTURE

URBAN PROJECTION

URBAN LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY

SMALL COURTYARD PARK P

1

A

S

LARGE URBAN PARK

T

CURRENT

2

DRIVERS

Personal and social gathering space

DRIVERS

Create open space in densifying city

LARGE URBAN PARK

NEW URBAN LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY

CURRENT

2

F U T U R E

3

DRIVERS

Protect the urban environment from environmental threats

Create open space in densifying city

NEW URBAN LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGY F U T U R E

3

DRIVERS

Protect the urban environment from environmental threats

FIGURE 10.09: Urban landscape typologies

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WHAT NEW URBAN TYPOLOGIES BEGIN TO EMERGE?

F U TU R E LAN DSCAPE TYPOLOG I ES Through this new planning process a new landscape typology would begin to emerge. Previous (and current) landscape typologies exist as voids within the city, either as smaller blocks or larger areas. For instance, Central Park in Manhattan exists as an urban park, but cuts off connections in the center of the city. To get from one side to another there are limited transportation routes, forcing people to travel around the park (if using vehicular transportation), rather than through it. In this new landscape typology, the urban entity is lifted, allowing for a sprawling wetland landscape to exist beneath the city (see figure 10.09). The “urban park� is no longer seen as a void, but as an endless landscape that serves two main purposes: a destination, as well as a flood protection system for the city. Scheduled usage becomes a new way to inhabit a city. When flooding is not a threat and the wetlands have not reached their water retention limit, the ground level can be utilized; however, when flooding is an issue, all activity is shifted upwards with no direct threat from flooding. The idea of how humans interface with nature is shifted. No longer are natural elements destroyed for the introduction of man-made structures, but humans begin to live with their surroundings, rather than depleting them. 2011-2012

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URBAN PROJECTION

LINEAR VERTICAL SPRAWL

R AW L

GROUND LEVEL THICKNESS

G R O U ND LEVEL TH I C KN E SS

HORIZONTAL SPRAWL

GROUND LEVEL THICKNESS

G R O U ND LEVEL TH I C KN E SS

ELEVATED NETWORKS

GROUND LEVEL THICKNESS

FIGURE 10.10: Typical urban modes of growth

MODE S O F G R OW TH This new urban model changes the mode in which Shanghai grows. Instead of growing vertically upwards or horizontally outwards, the entire city will begin to be shifted above the flood plane (see figure 10.10). Instead of having only one mode of access to the ground level, such as the case in high rises or horizontal sprawl, the ground level will begin to be thickened and the city will be lifted into networks. In this new strategy, land availability is not an issue because of the way the city can grow off each other to form networks of urban space.

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RESTRUCTURING: DENSIFICATION OF COMMERCIALIZATION IN CITY CENTER

RESTRUCTURING: RELOCATING DEVELOPMENT UPWARDS OVER THE FLOOD PLAIN

FIGURE 10.11: Shanghai urban restructuring plan

This new strategy also changes the way in which Shanghai operates. Instead of densifying the city center with commercial program, the city can focus on the shifting of development upwards (see figure 10.11). This new scheme will blur the concept of compartmentalized programs within the city and will create network connections between residential, commercial, and infrastructural entities. A new mode of densification emerges, with elevated networks responding to the type of urban fabric that is needed for each program. The idea of the grid system is replaced by the introduction of elevational planning.

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FIGURE 10.12: Shanghai land ownership dispute

CHINESE P R OPE R T Y + Z O N I N G L AW S What makes this restructuring process possible is the Chinese property and zoning laws. These laws state that urban land, as well as rural land, is owned by the state government. This allows the Chinese government to control the land usage, and can change the land usage at any time. Instead of the government controlling the location of commercial program to gentrify the center of the city, the government can begin to zone out Shanghai into elevated networks over time.

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FIGURE 10.13: Oil rig, New Orleans

FIGURE 10.14: Oil rig, New Orleans

FIGURE 10.15: House on stilts

FIGURE 10.16: Flood water stilts, Thailand

HOW DO YOU LIFT AN ENTIRE CITY WITH A MINIMAL FOOTPRINT?

The next question that begins to emerge is how to lift an entire city above an already existing ground plane. This idea of lifting is not about floating or using scaffolding, but about creating a minimal footprint in order to free up space for a sprawling wetland buffer and park. Examples of minimum footprint structures can be found in already existing typologies, such as oil rigs lifted above the ocean, houses on the coastline lifted above the water, or (at a much smaller scale) in flood stilts used by residents to wade through flood waters (see figures 10.13-10.16). The issue of materiality begins to emerge as an important factor for how to grow a city upwards, while also taking up minimal ground space. 2011-2012

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MATERIAL RESEARCH SECTIONAL INVESTIGATION

(LEFT) FIGURE 11.01: Microscopic investigation: bone-like structure


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BIO SOILS

BACI L LUS PAST E U R II [ S A N D TO S A N DS TO N E ]

BURNER

PIPETTE ENDS

BACILLUS PASTEURII

SAND

UREA

CALCIUM CHLORIDE

FIGURE 11.03: Chemical materials for sand calcifying procedure

UC DAVIS

FIGURE 11.04: Microscopic comparison between sand grains that are injected with bacillus pasteurii versus sand grains without injection

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BURNER

PIPETTE ENDS

BACILLUS PASTEURII

SAND

UREA

CALCIUM CHLORIDE

FIGURE 11.02: Sandstone formations

FIGURE 11.05: Sand injected with bacillus pasteurii

B IO SOILS

HOW DO YOU CONTROL A NATURAL CALCIFICATION PROCESS?

One issue in building in Shanghai is that much of the infrastructure has destroyed the wetlands and has been built on top of the weak soil, causing buildings to collapse and sink. The pumping of water from the aquifers is also causing land subsidence. Natural building elements are one way to “un-ground� a city. By looking at natural materials found in landscapes, is there a way to create structural elements in a city by controlling the natural process of calcification? There is currently a bacteria that is being developed by UC Davis Soil Interactions Laboratory that essentially turns sand sized grains into sandstone. If the scope of this technology is widened, the bacteria has the potential to stabilize the soil beneath Shanghai and eventually grow the city upwards. By injecting Bacillus pasteurii, which already exists naturally in wetlands, calcium gets deposited around the sand grains which causes cementation (see figure 11.04). Can this natural cementation work as man made bedrock beneath the city, or create natural structures above ground? One issue in using this technology is that the structural formations would have difficulty organically growing without the aid of heavy scaffolding, which would ultimately have to be removed after the structure has solidified, begging the question, is there a more direct process?

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CALCIUM CARBONATE

N AT U R A L FO R M AT I O N :

CA LCI UM CAR B O N AT E

C aO + H 2 O → Ca(OH) 2 calcium oxide

c a l c i u m hydroxide

water

C a(OH) 2 + CO 2 → C aC O 3 + H 2 O

(a)

calcium carbonate

(b)

water

LIMESTONE

carbon d i ox i d e

MARBLE

CEMENT

c a l c i u m hydroxide

(c)

FIGURE 11.07: Materials with calcium carbonate as a main element

CALCI UM CA R B O NAT E Another natural structural process occurs through the calcification of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is the main element found in nature and natural building materials, such as cement, marble, and limestone. Coral also does this process naturally to excrete an exoskeleton for protection (see figures 11.08 and 11.09). This process happens naturally when calcium hydroxide is combined with carbon dioxide. Through the weathering process, the rock formations are shaped. By analyzing the chemical formula, can this natural process begin to be controlled?

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CORAL

FIGURE 11.06: Grand Canyon

(a) (b) (c) FIGURE 11.08: Coral exoskeletons and calcium carbonate precipitation in water

coelenteron

1st cell layer mesoglea

CALCIFICATION OF SKELETON

calicoblastic layer calicoblastic fluid

skeleton

FIGURE 11.09: Coral exoskeleton calcium carbonate excretion process

Calcium carbonate is deposited on the outermost layer by the reaction of carbon dioxide, water, and bicarboante atoms, all within the layers of the coral organism.

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CALCIUM CARBONATE

CO N T R O L L E D FO R M AT I O N :

FIGURE 11.10: Creation of limewater from calcium hydroxide

FIGURE 11.12: Calcification of calcium carbonate on specified formwork

FIGURE 11.11: Introduction of carbon dioxide through solution

FIGURE 11.13: Calcification of calcium carbonate on specified formwork

MAN -M A D E STONE In order to lift a city upwards, can this calcifying process become controlled to create a new type of building material? Is it possible to create man-made stone? Through the experimentation of the elements that make up calcium carbonate, a new way of controlling the porcess begins to emerge. In one instance, limewater is created from calcium hydroxide. When carbon dioxide is combined into this solution it yields calcium carbonate as a substance in water (see figures 11.10 and 11.11).

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FIGURE 11.14: Creation of scafolding system with controlled densities to control where more structure is needed, as well as controlling the formations at the ground level

MAN -MADE STON E ( C ONTINUED) Another process that can be considered is calcium carbonate precipitation through electrical currents produced thorugh electrosys (see figures 11.12 and 11.13). The problems with these two processes is they have little potential for large scale implementations and structural properties. Also, as a building method, they are equally unrealistic. In order to become possible in an urban setting, a new method will have to be developed to organically grow a city upwards. 2011-2012

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CALCIUM CARBONATE

FIGURE 11.15: Calcification tests of different frameworks and “scaffolding”

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FIGURE 11.16: Calcification of “scaffolding”

MAN -MADE STON E ( C ONTINUED) Through experimentation, there is potential for calcium carbonate to be created in a different way to create a building material that can organically and continually grow. If combined with a natural binder, the calcium hydroxide can become a paste that when exposed to carbon dioxide will calcify and become calcium carbonate. This controlled way of essentially growing a building material has many benefits. One of these benefits includes the relatively low cost of construction because of the accelerated natural process that is developed. Also, because of the building “materials” that are used, the city becomes a natural carbon sink. Carbon dioxide can get harvested from local coal mines and used to calcify the formed structures, essentially acting as a large scale building material. Many forms can derive from this process, all fluid and organic in nature. Different scaffolding systems can be utilized in order to seed the process at the ground level and create a foundation for future growth over time (see figure 11.15). Local materials, such as strips of bamboo or rope can be initially structured in order to create a support for future development of an “aerial-scape.” 2011-2012

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SITE + TYPOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT OF AN AERIAL-SCAPE

(LEFT) FIGURE 12.01: Pudong


SEA LEVEL

SITE

2 0 1 1

0 METERS

Y E A R

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1 H VAC, WAT E R , E L E CT R I C B U I L D I N G SY S T E M S E L E CT R I C POW E R GAS WAT E R

S U B WAY T R A N S PO R TAT I O N

S E WAG E

D E E P WAT E R

FIGURE 12.02: Existing site conditions

NAN JI NG LU In order for this process to be implemented within a city, an initial site needs to be studied to examine the existing conditions and programs that would have to be rethought and re-organized to grow Shanghai upwards. The initial site chosen is Nanjing Lu, a commercial pedestrian street in the urban center of the city. Beneath the site lies heavy infrastructure, such as electric power, gas, water, subway transportation, sewage, and deep water pipes. All of these functions are delaminated, with different connections branching off for individual buildings, such as the water, electrical, and gas systems (see figure 12.03).

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INFRASTRUCTURE DELAMINATION

LAYER 1 LAYER 2 LAYER 3 LAYER 4 ZONE 1 ZONE 2

ZONE 3

LAYER 5

M A T E R I A L TRANSFER+FLOW

FIGURE 12.03: Delamination of infrastructure and material flow to existing buildings

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SEA LEVEL

Y E A R

SITE

2 0 5 0

1 METER

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2

FIGURE 12.04: Site under flooding conditions

FLOOD I NG C O NSEQ U E N C E S As the city begins to flood, many of these infrastructural elements will begin to corrode and deteriorate, needing to be restructured upwards over time. Many activities at the ground level, such as pedestrian and transportation circulation would become displaced. In addition, all of the underground elements would also become displaced, such as underground transit, electrical, water, sewage, and gas (see figure 12.05). In order to prevent this from happening, protective measures will have to be set up, such as a permanent scaffolding system, that will eventually change the urban spatial relationships within the city.

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“When we look at a map, we have to think that 30 years later or 50 years later everything will be below sea level.”

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

A R E A S A F F E C T E D

TRANSIT

ELECTRICAL

-Hui-Li Lee, Landscape Architect (Kurtenbach)

WATER

SEWAGE

G

GAS

GROUND -PEDESTRIAN -TRANSPORTATION

FIGURE 12.05: Displaced urban elements under flooding conditions

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SITE

INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE

ELECTRIC/CABLE CORROSION [erosion/corrosion]

OXIDIZATION F R O M MOISTURE IN AIR OR GROUND M E T A L : RETURN TO OXIDIZED S T A T E

EROSION / CORROSION

CORROSION

SEDIMENT EROSION

1 2 E ROSI ON OF SOIL PROFILE soft peaty soil

3

compact fine sand

4

coarse sand rock substrate + subsoil

5

FIGURE 12.06: Infrastructure and sediment erosion

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INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE

BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE STRUCTURAL D A M A G E [foundations] MOLD DAMAGE [insulation] [ s h e a t h i n g ] W I R I N G + P L U M B I N G D A M A G E

GROUND SURFACE EROSION

[freeze/thaw cycles] CRACKING

1

W AT E R S E E PA G E FREEZE/ T H A W

2

3

FURTHER CRACKING

FIGURE 12.07: Building infrastructure and ground surface erosion

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SITE CONCEPT

F U TU RE FUT URE

CURRE NT C URR ENT LI NEA R G R O UN D P L AN E + P R O G R A M

THICKENED GROUND PLANE + PROGRAM

FIGURE 12.08: Programmatic and elevationsal shift of existing ground conditions

PROGRA MM ATI C SH I F T This urban proposal involves a programmatic shift. Instead of the heavy reliance on the ground level, urban elements will begin to be shifted upwards, leaving the ground level free for wetlands and landscape development (see figure 12.08). Circulation is no longer limited to horizontal movement at the ground level, but is instead stretched to span upwards.

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E

X

CURRENT I S T I N

G

P R O G R A M A S F LO O R P L AT E S

P

R

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

FOU TU P ORES

A

L

PROGRAM AS GROUPINGS/AREA (ALLOWS FOR OVERLAPPING PROGRAM)

FIGURE 12.09: Shift of program adjancencies and relationships

PR OGR AMMATIC SH IF T With this programmatic shift comes the development of new forms of urban space. Instead of program acting within floor plates within the existing condition, programs will begin to act as groupings (see figure 12.09). As the city becomes elevated, the ground level will essentially become thickened, delaminating the circulation and infrastructure networks.

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TYPOLOGY

LONG BONES

C O M PACT V S . S P O N GY

SPONGY BONES

LONGER IN HEIGHT THAN WIDTH CRUCIAL FOR MOBILITY HIGH STRENGTH COEFFICIENT USED FOR CREATING HEIGHT

ACT AS DIFFERENT FORMS OF STRUCTURE COMPACT BONE: OUTER SHELL, PROTECTIVE SPONGY: INTERIOR, LESS DENSE

CONTINUOUS STRUCTURE ACTS AS SUPPORT FORMED AROUND BONE MARROW VOIDS ACT AS STORAGE SPACE FOR NUTRIENTS

(a)

(b)

(c)

F L AT B O N E S

IRREGULAR

SESAMOID BONE

BROAD AND FLAT USED FOR PROTECTION OF ORGANS BASE FOR MUSCLE ATTACHMENT

FIT IN NO CATEGORY: VERTEBRAE MULTIPLE PIECES THAT FIT TOGETHER PROTECTION OF SPINAL CORD

LOCATED WHERE TENDON PASSES OVER JOINT PROTECTION OF LOCALIZED AREAS RESTRICTION AND CONTROL OF MOVEMENT

(d)

FOR MA L TY P O LOGY In order for calcium carbonate to house all of these elements within the aerial-scape of a city, there needs to be a typology. Through previous experimentation, the forms that are produced are visually (as well as chemically) similar to bone structures. By creating a catalog of different typical bone forms, their functions within the body start to translate into scaled up urban elements (see figure 12.10). Forms such as long bones, compact, bones, spongy bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones begin to emerge as specific urban spaces that are only possible because of the natural building material that is utilized. Because of the “long bone” high strength coefficient, as well as its physical proportions and height versus width ratio the structure begins to emerge as a way to elevate the city, while also creating a minimal footprint.

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(e)

(f) FIGURE 12.10: Bone typology catalog


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C O R A L P O LY P S

INVERSE

P O LY P F O R M AT I O N

HARD EXOSKELETON POLYPS PRODUCE CALCIUM CARBONATE POLYPS FORM COLONIES WITH RIDGE GEOMETRY

ACT AS INVERSE OF TYPICAL POLYPS HARD EXOSKELETON BOWL-LIKE SHAPE

CORAL POLYPS CAN POPULATE ANY GEOMETRY SOME FORMS HAVE DIFFERENT SCALES OF POROSITY

(a)

(b)

(c)

HAMMER CORAL

MUSHROOM CORAL

S TA G H O R N C O R A L

LONG POLYPS OVERLAPPING TO FORM EXTERIOR SKELETON

SERIES OF RIDGES WIDER AT BASE, THEN TAPERS OUTWARDS SKELETONS FORM REEFS

BRANCHING STONY CORAL GROWTH HEIGHT DETERMINED BY WATER FORCES

(d)

(e)

(f) FIGURE 12.11: Coral typology catalog

FOR MAL TYPOLOGY ( C ONTINUE D) Because of the porous geometry of spongy bones, natural voids are created that can provide spaces for infrastructure to be housed and protected. Irregular bones, such as the protection of the spinal chord, can also provide this same function. Utilizing the same geometric logic, the flat bones can begin to provide sprawling planar surfaces for transportation networks, as well as ground level and aerial pedestrian networks. The geometric logic of coral exoskeletons can also begin to be utilized by understanding their formation processes (see figure 12.11). Through the calcium carbonate excretion through the coral polyps, structural geometric formations begin to develop, which could translate into enclosure typologies.

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TYPOLOGY

URBAN ELEMENT

STRUCTURE

INFRASTRUCTURE

C I R C U L AT I O N

C

EROSION CONTROL

POLYPS POLYPS FOR

CON ST R UCTI ON TY P O LO GI E S Through this new urban growth process typical construction is rethought and replaced. Structure becomes much more organic in geometry and naturally thickens at strategic spots, replacing typical I-beams and trusses. Infrastructure, instead of existing below ground, begins to be housed within elevated voids (see figure 12.12). Circulation is not limited to the ground level, but is allowed to bifurcate and sprawl upwards. Erosion control can naturally develop at the ground level to protect remaining existing infrastructure. And finally, enclosure is rethought as shells with different geometric forms for each programmatic space.

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ENCLOSURE

FIT MULTI PR

MU

WIDER AT


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

T

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

C A LC I U M C A R B O N AT E

TYPICAL

LONG BONES

LONGER IN HEIGHT THAN WIDTH CRUCIAL FOR MOBILITY HIGH STRENGTH COEFFICIENT USED FOR CREATING HEIGHT

(a)

(j)

SPONGY BONES

E (b)

CONTINUOUS STRUCTURE ACTS AS SUPPORT FORMED AROUND BONE MARROW VOIDS ACT AS STORAGE SPACE FOR NUTRIENTS

(k)

F L AT B O N E S

(c)

(d,e)

(f,g)

(h,i)

BROAD AND FLAT USED FOR PROTECTION OF ORGANS BASE FOR MUSCLE ATTACHMENT

(l)

C O R A L P O LY P S

INVERSE

HARD EXOSKELETON POLYPS PRODUCE CALCIUM CARBONATE POLYPS FORM COLONIES WITH RIDGE GEOMETRY

ACT AS INVERSE OF TYPICAL POLYPS HARD EXOSKELETON BOWL-LIKE SHAPE

IRREGULAR

HAMMER CORAL

FIT IN NO CATEGORY: VERTEBRAE MULTIPLE PIECES THAT FIT TOGETHER PROTECTION OF SPINAL CORD

LONG POLYPS OVERLAPPING TO FORM EXTERIOR SKELETON

MUSHROOM CORAL

S TA G H O R N C O R A L

SERIES OF RIDGES WIDER AT BASE, THEN TAPERS OUTWARDS SKELETONS FORM REEFS

BRANCHING STONY CORAL GROWTH HEIGHT DETERMINED BY WATER FORCES

(m)

(n)

(o)

FIGURE 12.12: Comparison of typical construction technology and calcified construction

2011-2012

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TYPOLOGY

B ONE TYPOLOGY

-high strength -provides height -dense exterior; spongy, porous interior

-protective element -provides planar surfaces -long spans and surface area

-spinal chord: protects fragile elements -provides interior conditions and enclosure -serves as connections between nodes

URBAN TY PO LOGY Because of the very specific properties of these typologies, each structure begins to become specific elements in the urban context, either in programmatic or infrastructural manifestations (see figure 12.13). What’s emerging is a new way to think about every urban element as a new typology that will protect Shanghai well into the future, but also provide new urban spaces and relationships that otherwise would not exist. In this future urban context, building materials are grown rather than store bought and act as carbon sinks that help its structural capabilities.

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-dense, yet lightweight -strong, yet porous -structural at micro-scale


e

URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

U R B A N M A N I F E S TAT I O N

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

I N F R A S T R U CT U R E M A N I F E S TAT I O N

-hard exterior + porous interior provide space for carrying infrastructural elements -acts as vertical circulation + transportation -vertical infrastructural elements

-provides height in an urban setting -element that delaminates the city -minimal footprint for elevating urban elements

-structure spans and bridges between urban nodes, providing pedestrian circulation

-larger spans act as surface for faster, exterior transportation

-provides interior pedestrian connections between buildings

-provides space for horizontal high speed transportation -horizontal infrastructural elements

-provides dense space within a porous city

-at ground level allows for a continual ecosystem -porous wetland -bottom layer as an ecological buffer

FIGURE 12.13: Urban and infrastructure bone typologies

2011-2012

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(LEFT) FIGURE 13.01: Calcium Carbonate Formation


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HVAC , WATER , ELECTR IC BU ILD ING SY S TEM S ELECTR IC P OWER GA S WATER

S U BWAY TR A NS P OR TATION

S EWAGE

D EEP WATER

1

URBAN P R OG R ESSI O N : PA RT 1 Projecting into the future, Shanghai will have to be redeveloped in phases in order to seed the landscape for aerial growth. Immediately, the ground level would have to be rethought, with the lower level infrastructure acting as scaffolding for future development. By removing lower level enclosure, the structural elements are left for calcium to grow on, strengthening and providing a base for future growth. Simultaneously, the existing buildings will have to be re-organized to create room for underground infrastructure to inhabit above the future wetland ground level.

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FIGURE 13.02: Urban progression, phase one

2011-2012

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AERIAL-SCAPE

H VAC , WATER , EL ECTR I C BUI L DI NG SYS TEM S EL ECTR I C POWER GAS WATER

S UBWAY TR ANS POR TATI ON

S EWAGE

DEEP WATER

2

URBAN P R OG R ESSI O N : PA RT 2 The next step would be to set up a scaffolding and seeding system for calcification to begin at the ground level. This allows ground level networks to begin to be created, setting up the base for all the elements of the city to be lifted. These scaffolding structures become the base for spongy bone, long bone, and flat bone formations. Once established at the ground level, the system can organically grow upwards and outwards to establish the rest of the city.

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FIGURE 13.03: Urban progression, phase two

2011-2012

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AERIAL-SCAPE

HVAC, WATER, ELECTRIC BUILDING SYSTEMS ELECTRIC POW ER GAS WATER

SUBWAY TRANSPORTATION

SEWAGE

DEEP WATER

URBAN P R OG R ESSI O N : PA RT 3 All of this preparation is setting up the ability for the ground level to become wetlands, while at the same time the city is growing upwards. This new planning protects infrastructural elements, as well as daily activities and programs that will no longer be paused due to flooding catastrophes. As a result, elevated networks begin to emerge. Instead of the city originally being divided into streets and avenues, the city begins to be divided into elevated program pods with multiple connections to all other areas of the city. At the ground level, enlarged spongy bone structures would become embedded within the ground level surfaces, allowing the wetlands to not become closed off entities, but continuous sprawling ecologies. The ground level becomes a flood buffer, rather than a flood prone area.

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3


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

FIGURE 13.04: Urban progression, phase three

2011-2012

135


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AERIAL-SCAPE

HVAC, WAT E R , E LE CT R IC BUILD ING SY ST E MS E LE CT R IC P OW E R GAS WAT E R

SUBWAY T R ANSP OR TAT ION

SE WAGE

D E E P WAT E R

URBAN P R OG R ESSI O N : PA RT 4 Eventually, when the structure gets strong enough, the existing buildings aren’t needed anymore. The city is entirely lifted and freed, becoming much more porous and open for endless expansion. This new urban typology creates a vertically stretched city, with the ground level as a flood buffer for the entire urban structure. As a result, urban planning is completely rethought. Instead of conventional urban planning thought about in plan, the urban entity becomes much more reliant on sectional qualities and relationships. Effectively, a new type of urban planning emerges that responds to natural elements, rethinks the way we use building materials, and phases urban planning into the future.

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4


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FIGURE 13.05: Urban progression, phase four

2011-2012

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FIGURE 13.06: Urban progression, phase four

2011-2012

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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1

12 OSS EOUS A ERI A L - S CA PE

EXISTING

H VAC , WAT ER, EL ECT R I C B U I L DI NG SY ST E M S EL ECT RI C POW E R GA S WAT E R

SU B WAY T RANSPORTATI O N

SEWAG E

DEEP WAT E R

PHASE 1

PRE-PHASE 1: DISCONTINUATION OF FLOOD WALLS

PHASE 1: RESTRUCTURING THE EFFECTS OF REPEATED FLOODING OVER TIME

2

CREATION OF A PROTECTIVE FLOOD MITIGATION SYSTEM, RATHER THAN A RESPONSIVE ONE DISCONTINUATION OF BUILD-UP OF WALLS, AVOIDING FUTURE OF WALLED CITY

DETERIORATION

Suzhou, located to the west of Shanghai and although an ancient city utilizes a canal system as a driver for urban structure. Like Shanghai and its problem of the destruction of wetlands, Suzhou has destroyed most of the canals that have been beneficial for the city for reasons such as the build up of waste, space that was needed for infrastructure, and the cities desire for green spaces and gardens. Unfortunately in Suzhou, and other water towns like it, they have suffered from flooding, deterioration of building materials that interact with the water, lack of space for growth,

PREPARATION

FACADE + FOUNDATION DAMAGE

RESTRUCTURING

CALCIFICATION

UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE APPROVAL OF SHANGHAI GOVERNMENT FOR ZONING OF NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL LOCATIONS

PROTECTION

PHASE 3

PHASE 2

REMOVAL OF GROUND LEVEL BUILDING ENCLOSURE

PHASE 2: PREPARATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PERMANENT SCAFFOLDING/SEEDING SYSTEM

Suzhou, located to the west of Shanghai and although an ancient city utilizes a canal system as a driver for urban structure. Like Shanghai and its problem of the destruction of wetlands, Suzhou has destroyed most of the canals that have been beneficial for the city for reasons such as the build up of waste, space that was needed for infrastructure, and the cities desire for green spaces and gardens. Unfortunately in Suzhou, and other water towns like it, they have suffered from flooding, deterioration of building materials that interact with the water, lack of space for growth,

ZONING PLANNING: RAISED TRANSPORTATION RAISED CIRCULATION RAISED UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLEMENTATION OF BAMBOO/NET SCAFFOLDING TO ACT AS FORMWORK FOR THICKENED GROUND LEVEL AND VERTICAL URBAN GROWTH

PHASE 3: CALCIFICATION GROWTH AND CALCIFICATION OF PERMANENT STRUCTURE

Suzhou, located to the west of Shanghai and although an ancient city utilizes a canal system as a driver for urban structure. Like Shanghai and its problem of the destruction of wetlands, Suzhou has destroyed most of the canals that have been beneficial for the city for reasons such as the build up of waste, space that was needed for infrastructure, and the cities desire for green spaces and gardens. Unfortunately in Suzhou, and other water towns like it, they have suffered from flooding, deterioration of building materials that interact with the water, lack of space for growth,

IMPLEMENTATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE + BINDER TO SCAFFOLDING

EXPOSURE TO CO2 [STRUCTURE AS CARBON SINK]

PHASE 5

PHASE 4

REPEATED COATING OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE + BINDER TO DESIRED THICKNESS + STRUCTURAL NEEDS

PHASE 4: PROTECTION PROTECTION + STABILIZATION OF EXISTING URBAN STRUCTURES

Suzhou, located to the west of Shanghai and although an ancient city utilizes a canal system as a driver for urban structure. Like Shanghai and its problem of the destruction of wetlands, Suzhou has destroyed most of the canals that have been beneficial for the city for reasons such as the build up of waste, space that was needed for infrastructure, and the cities desire for green spaces and gardens. Unfortunately in Suzhou, and other water towns like it, they have suffered from flooding, deterioration of building materials that interact with the water, lack of space for growth,

CALCIUM CARBONATE STRUCTURES ACT AS SUPPORT FOR TAKING ADDITIONAL LOADS OF BUILDING

PHASE 5: RESTRUCTURING [2] THICKENING + REORGANIZATION OF THE GROUND LEVEL

SECONDARY CALCIFIED STRUCTURES GROW INTO VACANT AREA OF BUILDINGS, CREATING SUPPORT FOR LIFTED INFRASTRUCTURE

Suzhou, located to the west of Shanghai and although an ancient city utilizes a canal system as a driver for urban structure. Like Shanghai and its problem of the destruction of wetlands, Suzhou has destroyed most of the canals that have been beneficial for the city for reasons such as the build up of waste, space that was needed for infrastructure, and the cities desire for green spaces and gardens. Unfortunately in Suzhou, and other water towns like it, they have suffered from flooding, deterioration of building materials that interact with the water, lack of space for growth,

RELOCATE UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE TO THICKENED GROUND LEVEL

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER FLOW AND DRAINAGE BENEATH NEW GROUND LEVEL [WETLANDS] DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC PARK BENEATH NEW GROUND LEVEL [SCHEDULED USAGE]

POST-PHASE 5: GROUND LEVEL AS FLOOD BARRIER

REPEATED FOR: INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORTATION CIRCULATION

RAISING THE CITY INFRASTRUCTURE UPWARDS THOUGH PHASED PLANNING RE-DESIGN OF SHANGHAI’S FLOOD MITIGATION SYSTEM REPURPOSING THE GROUND LEVEL AS AN EXTENDED FLOOD BUFFER

REMOVAL OF EXISTING BUILDINGS FOR FUTURE VERTICAL GROWTH

POST-PHASE 5: DEVELOPMENT OF AERIAL CITY

RESTRUCTURING OF URBAN ELEMENTS CONTINUED GROWTH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE UPWARDS VERTICAL EXPANSION DUE TO POPULATION GROWTH

3

84”

4

37”

19”

19”

19”

186”

19”

12”

19”

28”

FIGURE 13.07: Final review board layout

AC KN OWLED GMEN TS I would like to thank my parents, Linda and Robert Fabrizio for their continual support not only through my thesis, but through my five years of architecture school (not to mention my many travels across the world) while studying at Rensselaer. I would also like to thank my siblings, Michael and Amanda for the continuous laughter and comedic relief they have provided me through this five year long process. I will never forget the help and support that I have received from my many friends I have met through my constant adventures at RPI, for without their given wisdom and humor this project would not have been achievable. This thesis would not have been possible without my advisor, Ted Ngai, whose constant guidance allowed this year long research and design process to produce the unexpected and reach its ultimate potential.

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SOURCES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY (CONTINUED): Mays, Larry W. Urban Water Supply Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print. Moll, Henri C., Klaas Jan Noorman, Rixt Kok, Rebecka Engström, Harald Throne-Holst, and Charlotte Clark. “Pursuing More Sustainable Consumption by Analyzing Household Metabolism in European Countries and Cities.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 9.1-2 (2005): 259-75. Print. “Parametric Urban Sustainability.” Ngai FP Studio (Fall 2011) : Rensselaer. Web. 12 May 2012. <http://www.arch.rpi.edu/2011/11/ngai-fp-studio-fall-2011/>. “Population Growth In Cities.” Http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2001/WUP2001_ CH6.pdf. United Nations. Web. 12 May 2012. Shanghai 2010 Census. <http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/data/toTjnj.xhtml?y=2010e>. “Shanghai: Torrid Population Growth | Newgeography.com.” Newgeography.com | Economic, Demographic, and Political Commentary about Places. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. <http://www. newgeography.com/content/002187-shanghai-torrid-population-growth>. Scholz, Miklas. Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006. Print. Thoughts of Urban Planning in Ancient China. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. <http://history.cultural-china. United Nations. State of the World Population 2007. United Nations Population Fund. PDF. com/ features/urban_planning/>. Ward, Robert M., and Wen Liang. “Shanghai Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal.” American Geographical Society. Print. Wei, Quanlong. Land Subsidence and Water Management in Shanghai. Thesis. Wuhan University, 2006. Print. “What You Already Knew: Shanghai Is Sinking - Shanghaiist.” Shanghaiist: Shanghai News, Food, Arts & Events. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://shanghaiist.com/2008/10/07/shanghai_is_sinking.php>. Xiao, Geng, Lan Xue, and Jonathan Woetzel. The Urban Sustainability Index: A New Tool for Measuring China’s Cities. 2010. Print.

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SOURCES

FIGURES: 1.00

http://archimorph.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/bone_03.jpg

1.01

Marutsero. “Shanghai Crowds by ~Marutsero on DeviantART.” DeviantART. Web. 09 Dec. 2011. <http://marutsero.deviantart.com/art/Shanghai-crowds-119905278?moodonly=69>.

1.02

http://linlinchina.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/shanghai20965.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/Chrysler_Building_Midtown_Manhattan_ New_York_City_1932.jpg http://www.webinapage.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/mexico-city.jpg http://cdn.archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/sao_paulo_-_fotograaf_nelson_kon886x900.jpg http://tokyobling.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/tokyo_roppongi_sky.jpg

2.01

http://www.flickr.com/photos/benoitflorencon/4040026870/sizes/z/in/photostream/

2.02

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2415/1569645043_9bc7fc28ba_o.jpg

2.04

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3165/3038441382_c5a08898bf_b.jpg

2.05

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3165/3038441382_c5a08898bf_b.jpg

2.06

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2301/2104776983_7600a7ac65_z.jpg?zz=1

2.07

http://architypereview.com/img/uploaded/projects/598/006-03_rpg.jpg

2.08

http://dailyreporter.com/files/2009/10/shanghai-102009.jpg

2.09

http://www.chinaurbandevelopment.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Flooding2.jpg

2.10

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3657/3479683712_8e54c2d68d_o.jpg

3.01

http://www.flashearth.com

3.03

http://www.flashearth.com

3.04

Graphic derived from data from the Shangahi Civil Affairs Bureau

3.05

Graphic derived from data from the Shangahi Civil Affairs Bureau

3.06

Graphic derived from data from the Shangahi Civil Affairs Bureau

3.07

Graphic derived from data from the Shangahi Municipal Public Security Bureau

3.08

Graphic derived from data from Urban-Age

3.09

Graphic derived from data from Bertaud, Alain. “Metropolis: A Measure of the Spatial Organization of 7 Large Cities.” (2001): 1-22. Web.

3.10

http://r1.lhr14s12.c.bigcache.googleapis.com/static.panoramio.com/photos/original/2169111. jpg?st=lc

3.11

Adaptation from http://cities.media.mit.edu/pdf/Mobility_on_Demand_ShanghaiCaseStudy.pdf

3.12

http://www.flashearth.com

3.13

Adaptation of Urban-Age and http://www.flashearth.com

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FIGURES (CONTINUED): 3.14

Graphic derived from data from Zhao, Shuqing, Liangjun Da, Zhiyao Tang, Hejun Fang, Kun Song, and Jingyun Fang. “Ecological Consequences of Rapid Urban Expansion: Shanghai, China.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4.7 (2006): 341-46. Print.

3.15

Graphic derived from data from the Survey Office of the National Bureau of Statistics in Shanghai

3.16

Graphic derived from data from the Survey Office of the National Bureau of Statistics in Shanghai

3.18

http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6076/6109944180_80bc8bd7d1_o.jpg

4.02

http://blogs.gonzaga.edu/careercenter/files/2011/03/NYC.jpg

4.03

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-G9TIgmdK_6E/TYxuhwI3SvI/AAAAAAAABng/Y_lvIbn19Rw/ Forbidden+City.jpg

4.04a 4.04b

4.04d

http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4118/4870905422_6c84388438.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_tBqi5ja-dgs/TIBsKhW6H5I/AAAAAAAADLk/CsUsEJ3NH7E/s1600/ chinese-rice-paddies2.jpg http://yeschinatour.com/static/photologue/photos/cache/courtyard-houses-beijing-01_leading. jpg http://i.pbase.com/o6/74/671674/1/78818300.GWLC9zWR.bIMG_5079.jpg

4.05

http://www.magicalurbanism.com/archives/2075

5.01

http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/4708188.jpg

5.03

Michael Wolf

5.04

Graphic derived from data from http://www.designboom.com/cms/images/ridnew/shanghai05.jpg

6.01

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_4gbo2Edh5sY/TK3bCcyangI/AAAAAAAAE7U/r6R4y_zYB4E/s1600/flood. jpg

6.04

Adaptation of data from http://flood.firetree.net/?ll=31.1329,121.3962&z=8&m=5

6.05

Adaptation of data from http://flood.firetree.net/?ll=31.1329,121.3962&z=8&m=5

6.06

Adaptation of data from http://ascelibrary.org/heo/resource/1/jhyeff/v15/i3/p223_s1

6.08

http://www.springerimages.com/img/Images/Springer/PUB=Springer_Netherlands-Dordrecht/ JOU=11069/VOL=2009.49/ISU=3/ART=2008_9296/MediaObjects/MEDIUM_11069_2008_9296_ Fig7_HTML.jpg

6.09

http://www.springerimages.com/img/Images/Springer/PUB=Springer_Netherlands-Dordrecht/ JOU=11069/VOL=2009.49/ISU=3/ART=2008_9296/MediaObjects/MEDIUM_11069_2008_9296_ Fig7_HTML.jpg

6.10a 6.10b

http://www.treehugger.com/reuters-shanghai-apartment.jpg http://www.treehugger.com/reuters-shanghai-apartment.jpg

6.12

Zhao, Bin, Bo Li, Yang Zhong, Nobukazu Zakagoshi, and Jia-kuan Chen. “Estimation of Ecological Service Values of Wetlands in Shanghai, China. Chinese Geographical Science 15.2 [2005]. 15156. Print.

6.13a

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/images/2009worldexpo/attachement/bmp/site1/20090414/00 13729e4abe0b4e889855.bmp http://architypereview.com/img/uploaded/projects/598/006-03_rpg.jpg

4.04c

6.13b

2011-2012

145


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAI’S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

SOURCES

FIGURES (CONTINUED): 6.13c

http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/609710.jpg

6.15

Ding, T. “Silicon Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Silicon and Suspended Matter in the Yangtze Ricer, China.” Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 68.2 [2004]: 205-16. Print. I.G.D.A.

7.01

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Trash_Shanghai.jpg

7.02

http://earthandindustry.com/files/2010/12/organic-waste.jpg

7.03

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Solid_waste_in_plastic_barrels.jpg http://img.diytrade.com/cdimg/216908/3079289/0/1166187471/Heavy_Metal_Scraps.jpg http://www.cpec.nus.edu.sg/myweb/newsletter/news7/images/Land.p1.jpg

8.01

http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/06/floods-follow-drought-in-china/100090/

9.01

http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/2795607.jpg

9.02

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-QhQga_8eeEQ/Ti7ExI7DkXI/AAAAAAAAAfI/dNubmHYpxFk/s1600/ aCIMG4491.JPG

9.05a

9.05f 9.05g 9.05h

http://s4.reutersmedia.net/resources/r/?m=02&d=20110619&t=2&i=442066217&w=&fh=&fw=&ll =700&pl=300&r=2011-06-19T104629Z_01_BTRE75I0SLM00_RTROPTP_0_CHINA-FLOODS http://greenteamamerica.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/img_6884.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-il3xo-_lUIE/Ti7E18OVtYI/AAAAAAAAAfY/XXt_uMlEFqw/s1600/ aCIMG4533.JPG http://image.guim.co.uk/Guardian/news/gallery/2007/jul/18/china.pollution/GD4058921@ Beijing,-CHINA-A-Chin-7482.jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-fp4uLdsu3KI/TjASJjDly-I/AAAAAAAAAfw/G2QlFrvvdUg/s1600/ Copy+of+bbCIMG4439.JPG http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/2795607.jpg Satoyama II Japans Secret Watergarden. Dir. Masumi Mizunuma. 2004. Satoyama II Japans Secret Watergarden. Dir. Masumi Mizunuma. 2004.

10.01

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3165/3038441382_c5a08898bf_b.jpg

10.02

http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4057/4534686340_31534e5ed3_o.jpg

10.05

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030438009800012X

10.06

http://marineventures.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/MVF_3321.jpg

10.12

http://www.chitblog.net/foto/cina/03.jpg

10.13

http://elizabethely.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/oil_rig.98212623-deepwater-horizon.jpg

10.14

http://static.flickr.com/3253/2763650184_6cdc65fe1e.jpg

10.15

http://fpc.dos.state.fl.us/dalemcdonald/dm3534.jpg

10.16

http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02051/stilts_2051776i.jpg

11.01

http://archimorph.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/bone_03.jpg

11.02

http://www.andrewbullock.co.uk/chrisandandrewwedding.info/photos/trips/delicatearch_wide. jpg

9.05b 9.05c 9.05d 9.05e

146

RENSSELAER SOA


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

FIGURES (CONTINUED): 11.03

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3117/3210207659_a9a518ed37_o.jpg

11.04 11.05

http://www.sil.ucdavis.edu/ http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3077/3211052848_cfb51719eb_o.jpg

11.06

http://0.tqn.com/d/gosw/1/0/6/M/deepcanyon.jpg

11.07a 11.07b 11.07c

http://www.jetsongreen.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Concrete-with-Novacem-Cement.jpg http://www.mii.org/Minerals/Minpics1/Marble.jpg http://earthphysicsteaching.homestead.com/Middle_Mississippian_Salem_Limestone___Bloomington__IN_A.JPG

11.08a

11.08c

http://inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2011/12/Calera-Carbonate-Technology-3-coral. jpg http://www.fastcompany.com/files/imagecache/biomimicry_article_image/files/640-cementcoral.jpg http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/1942/PreviewComp/SuperStock_1942-1565.jpg

11.09

http://www.coralscience.org/articles/biochemistry/calcification2.jpg

11.10

http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/428159/530wm/C0109637-Carbon_dioxide_test-SPL.jpg

11.11

http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/427575/large/C0109146-Carbon_dioxide_test-SPL.jpg

11.12

http://itp.nyu.edu/~cvs245/THESIS/images/WebImages/Calcium_03.jpg

11.13

http://itp.nyu.edu/~cvs245/THESIS/images/WebImages/Calcium_02.jpg

12.01

http://martinbrownphotography.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/yapb_cache/shanghai_pudong_jul y09_0048.3u51tzqz2s00c04kgo4g0gck8.6z2bh7irr8cgwsss04ogskco8.th.jpeg

12.10a 12.10b 12.10c 12.10d 12.10e 12.10f

http://cache2.artprintimages.com/lrg/36/3685/XORCF00Z.jpg http://video.ecb.org/badger/download/vlc/images/VLC052_Spongy_bone.jpg http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/301721/large/P1050153-Spongy_bone,_SEM-SPL.jpg http://www.tsplines.com/contestfolder/entry_images/winners/Architecture9.4_Big.jpg http://www.gotosee.co.uk/GTS_IMAGE_LIBRARY/vertibrae%20diagram.jpg http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/babies-kneecaps-2.jpg

12.11a

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_0onPH541-cs/TOHQ385RWGI/AAAAAAAABsU/XZmsISLJfaU/S374/Hard %2BCoral%2BExoskeleton%2Bpattern_small.jpg http://kosraevillage.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/100924UofW-class-UW-Favites-spsmall.jpg http://www.dbeck.net/2003Fiji/underwater/HardCoral2.jpg http://www.aquariumdomain.com/images/corals/hammerCoral3.jpg http://diverdave.smugmug.com/Invertebrates/Coral/ABPNI-0004/165978203_BjA22-M.jpg http://www.colours.dk/anders/diving/corals/hardcoral/P5010028.JPG

11.08b

12.11b 12.11c 12.11d 12.11e 12.11f 12.12a 12.12b 12.12c 12.12d 12.12e 12.12f 12.12g 12.12h

http://cache2.artprintimages.com/lrg/36/3685/XORCF00Z.jpg http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/301721/large/P1050153-Spongy_bone,_SEM-SPL.jpg http://www.tsplines.com/contestfolder/entry_images/winners/Architecture9.4_Big.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_0onPH541-cs/TOHQ385RWGI/AAAAAAAABsU/XZmsISLJfaU/S374/Hard %2BCoral%2BExoskeleton%2Bpattern_small.jpg http://kosraevillage.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/100924UofW-class-UW-Favites-spsmall.jpg http://www.gotosee.co.uk/GTS_IMAGE_LIBRARY/vertibrae%20diagram.jpg http://www.aquariumdomain.com/images/corals/hammerCoral3.jpg http://diverdave.smugmug.com/Invertebrates/Coral/ABPNI-0004/165978203_BjA22-M.jpg 2011-2012

147


OSSEOUS AERIAL-SCAPE RE-ORGANIZING SHANGHAIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S RELATIONSHIP TO WATER

SOURCES

FIGURES (CONTINUED): 12.12i 12.12j 12.12k 12.12l 12.12m 12.12n 12.12o 13.01

http://www.colours.dk/anders/diving/corals/hardcoral/P5010028.JPG http://www.mining-technology.com/uploads/newsarticle/671134/images/138740/large/3-surface-large.jpg http://www.ae2s.com/p7lsm_img_1/fullsize/Hillsboro_Riverbend-1_fs.jpg http://images.politico.com/global/2012/03/111012_highway_rtr2oymc.jpg http://www.terram.com/assets/images/pages/full/Erocell___12M_private_house___Streatley___ Wreford_008.jpg http://www.azuremagazine.com/images/content/1316024427_ordos_b.gif http://www.mdnphoto.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/20110602_ordos_museum_interior_architecture_kangbashi_development002.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~cvs245/THESIS/images/WebImages/Calcium_03.jpg NOTE: All figures not cited are credited to Marissa Fabrizio

148

RENSSELAER SOA


URBAN METABOLISM FOR ME GA - U R B A N G R OW T H

2011-2012

M A R I S S A FA B R I Z I O

149


Osseous Aerial-Scape