Game Modification Project Discovering the Surgical Instrument Game by Transforming the Catan Marisa Tapia IT 5830 University of Colorado Denver March 8, 2012
Introduction: Introduction: Â Can a game be changed to teach something? Yes. Through game modification techniques a game can be transformed into a purposeful subject specific learning opportunity. The purpose of this assignment is to transform or modify a current game-The Settlers of Catan-to teach a subject in my discipline or domain. Through simple or complex changes one can create and deliver a robust teaching tool that promotes fun, engagement, purpose and identified learning outcomes.
By embedding values such as collaboration, ownership, accountability and critical thinking the game is now being transformed into a usable tool to promote teaching and learning principles. The newly created game using the basic principles of The Settlers of Catan can be transferred and molded to promote surgical instrument identification and utilization in the surgical setting. Â
The Mind Map Story: Establishing Ideas and Game Design Beginnings: Getting started on this project was quite the tedious process. First, my fears about this class were coming true as I am not a game person therefore my first challenge was overcoming my obstacle of not liking games. Secondly, I had to re-program myself to step outside of my comfort zone and dive into breaking down a game that I was not fond of. Lastly, I had to modify the game as well as identify the game content that would be best suited to mold into the Settlers of Catan. This was quite the challenge. I had numerous ideas with no significant direction. I was indifferent to several options as far as content to mold into The Settlers of Catan. I initially thought of a word game to assist with medical terminology but what fun is that? My second attempt at modifying, designing or developing a game was the medication game but that would be too vast and ever-changing as medications change rapidly for their intended purpose or for the true realistic utilization of the medication. I then realized that I was wasting time by overthinking the assignment and I needed to put thoughts into actions and develop a plan, below is the mind map that assisted me in the modifications needed to develop the Surgical Instrument Game.
Modification of the Settlers of Catan: The Surgical Instrument Game
1. I realized quickly that the most important step in playing a game is building confidence among the players to entice participation and competitiveness with the ultimate goal of learning something. My initial challenge was how do I create this with the content I have? Do I keep the Catan structure? Do I stay true to the game rules or do I base the game on the premise of building onto something? Do I start from scratch or do I modify it to build skills that will transfer into the learning criteria through the analysis and synthesis of the current player’s knowledge base to the expected player’s achievable outcomes?
3. Initially, I was going to use the original hexagonal diagram as the playing field for the game but decided to modify this element into a pyramid the player climbs. I created a stair like approach to reaching the top of the pyramid to encourage participation, skill acquisition and ultimately competency in achieving the peak of each achievement. The game is simple as it builds on the player’s knowledge in surgical instrumentation knowhow. Must be played with a minimum of 2 players with the maximum of 4. The game takes the player from a novice to expert approach in mastering one set of skills from one level to the next by climbing the pyramid with the ultimate achievement of reaching “competency” in all components of surgical instrumentation skills and knowledge acquisition.
Why is the instrument game the content to use? The most important and critical knowledge to fully integrate nursing skills in the operating room is to understand, identify, utilize and recognize what surgical instrumentation is needed for a specific surgical intervention. Critical instrumentation needs in the operating room are essential to facilitate the surgical intervention in a timely manner to promote and insure patient safety needs. Such safety factors include but are not limited to the reduction of blood loss and the surgeon’s ability to attain visualization at the surgical site for the surgical intervention at hand. The progression in learning instruments is quite grueling often tiresome and requires accuracy. First, the student must learn the classifications of instruments, followed by what each instrument’s function and purpose. Next, the student must correctly identify which surgical tray or grouping the instrument belongs to. Finally, the student must identify which surgical tray correlates to which surgical intervention. As you can see, the learning is a series of steps in order for knowledge acquisition and ultimate competency.
Transforming the Board Game
Incorporating a theory and a model into the game in shape of a pyramid the
Through the use of a theoretical framework and a nursing model I derived the board game, which was the first step in the modification process. The theoretical framework I chose was Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the nursing model I chose is Patricia Benner’s From Novice to Expert. Below are the two pyramids depicting the concepts of the theory and model and how they can both be utilized into deriving teaching and learning constructs to build on the player’s knowledge base.
Expert: Intuitive Judgment Proficient: Experienced Competent Conscious Planning Advanced Beginner: Guided Behavior Novice: Learn rule and no experience
The Game Board: I initially wanted the game board to stay as is, but after careful consideration I decided on the pyramid.
Both the theory and model identify that reaching the peak only establishes more learning to be accomplished as well as growth. In order to be a nurse in the operating room setting, basic skills must be met prior to integrating other aspects of instrumentation knowhow. Building on the knowledge from one level to the next promotes a successful transition from novice to expert.
The player(s) will climb the pyramid during each level of the process of: 1.
Instrument identification and classification
Instrument tray recognition
Type of tray for specific
Sterile technique skills
Putting it all together: scenario based question
1. The instrument classification is a retractor The identification is the name of the retractor (Doyan Retractor). 2. Sterilization methods include: autoclave steam, Ethylene Oxide Gas (ETO) as well as Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma 3. Utilization: used for visualization of organs during surgery 4. The above set is a plastic surgery set which includes this instrument 5. This tray would be used in a minor abdominal or breast surgery. 6. Sterile technique related question to surgical table set-‐up 7. Scenario based question to promote expertise and p eak performance
Adaptation of the New Game Settler’s of Catan Original Tiles
Original Game Board Configuration Hills: Bricks
Tiles and Resources Cards
Each resource card is color
Blue: Instrument Class and ID Pasture: Woods Green: Sterilization Method Mountains: Ore Purple: How the instrument is used Fields: Grain Brown: ID of instrument tray Forest: Lumber Orange: Types of surgical procedure that would use this surgical instrument tray Desert: Nothing Yellow: Sterile Technique question Red: Scenario Based Question
coded to determine the learning level in a novice to expert with the: Blue and Green: Novice Purple and Brown: Advanced Beginner Orange: Competent Yellow: Proficient Red: Expert
Cards: Development Cards, Resource Cards, Special Cards and Victory Point Cards In the Surgical Instrument Game the Development Cards stay the same as the original game in which they provide progression. As the player climbs the pyramid starting with the blue level and progressing to the top or the red level they automatically will be allowed a “re-‐do” or a second chance to progress when they draw this card. The Resource cards are an opportunity to use a resource to look up information. Special cards are “chance” cards that allow the player to go straight to the top and risk everything. Victory Points Cards allow the player to double their score regardless of level.
Scoring: Through the use of a dice, the number displayed on the dice determines which level you start on in a blue to red progression BONUS: Additionally, if a player is awarded the QA Card they have the opportunity to ask the opponent a question regarding sterile technique.
Reflection: Design Process
Step 1: Establishing ideas and generating a plan of action for this game was the most frustrating process as I lack the gaming experience and ingenuity to create a game-and as a friend told me, that “if you can think it, it has probably already been done”, which was disappointing to hear since he is a devoted gamer and my partner in crime with all the games with Friends that I play. Next, I drew out the sketch to a possible game, and then another and another, with no success. Finally, I decided on using a mind map. Through the use of a mind map, I was able to identify the direction and the goals of the game that would be relevant in my domain/discipline as well as the applicability to the teaching and learning perspective. Step 2: I did an internet search on “healthcare games”, “nursing games” and “surgical instrument games”. None of these games captured my attention nor did they capture “a true method to learning something”. These games only identified a method to perform item recognition while using the word “game” to depict this. I felt that in order for my game to be effective I had to bring it back to theories and models to figure it all out. I chose Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Patricia Benner’s model, From Novice to Expert (1984) to mold something that could take a player’s knowledge base and build on this to effectively provide the care necessary and safely to the patient undergoing an operative or invasive surgical intervention. I thought to also use Bloom’s Taxonomy but it did not mold quite as well as Benner’s nursing model, which most nurses are familiar with.
Reflection: Modification and Learning Outcomes Step 3: When creating this game, I had no idea I would change it so much from its original state, but it made sense, as I wanted to create a purposeful game for nurses learning surgical instrumentation and its many layers of information that the nurse should know. As nurses we collectively lack expertise in other disciplines such as education, training and technology. Through the use of theoretical frameworks and nursing models the most effective learning into practice is developed and achieved. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs depicts levels of a pyramid in which needs are met ranging from the most basic to the more complex (bottom to top). An individual will seek out the most basic needs first prior to progressing to the next level. Upon reaching self-actualization, the individual will attain this level for a brief moment and the progression begins anew starting from the bottom and working oneself towards the peak of self-actualization.
Transcendence occurs throughout the learning process for nurses and is thought to be critical in the caring for self and others and often takes place during selfactualization.
Step 4: In looking into what works in nursing education Benner’s Model: From Novice to Expert always comes to mind. This model identifies the progression of learning among nurses-or better said, how nurses learn to be nurses. This model is based on Dreyfus’ model of skill acquisition. This model provides the foundation for the learning to occur and the plan for the player’s success in the game and in learning something through the use of progressing or climbing the pyramid.
Play Testing: During the playtesting component of this project and through the use of the internet I dabbled in the games out there related to surgical instruments as well as contrasting it with the Settlers of Catan. The games available were quite non-‐descript and only emphasized name recognition of instruments and lacked the critical thinking component that I wanted to generate with my game. As with the Settlers’ of Catan there was a thought process involved in which an individual player strategically planned thing out in order to progress and attain land. In my game I wanted the progression to mean something and to have not only a sense of accomplishment in reaching the top but to ultimately learn and practice safely. When would I introduce this game to student? The most assumed schedule would be during the time they are introduced to surgical instruments however, I would introduce the game after each lesson related to the given topic in an effort to promote learning progression and as a method for the player or student to determine their own distinct learning needs.
Reflection: Reflect on the modification process as a means of better understanding content Q: How did the modification exercise assist in learning more about the learning domain? During this treacherous process to take apart a game and modify it to meet the needs of my discipline in the context of a learning domain was grueling, however, as the adult pessimist that I have become, I did not see the use of a game in an effort to learn something beyond medical terminology. This project was useful in identifying goals and outcomes for learning through the use of a game, whether it was modified or not. Nursing practice, nursing theory and nursing education is not something that is uncommon to me, however, best practices in learning, training and technology are novice topics in my current professional circles. Utilization of a game to learn something was an unforeseen outcome based on my past experience in nursing education and nursing best practices related to learning. This project allowed me to mold or modify a game to an identified topic related to the discipline I practice. This project also provided me the opportunity to step out of my comfort zone and take a “deep dive” approach to creating a game that was useful, hopefully fun, increases a player’s /student’s knowledge base and build up their confidence to competency and achieve expertise.
Resources: Photographs: All photographs were obtained from the internet via Snagit during March 1-10, 2012. Benner’s Model retrieved March 10, 2012. http://www.sld.demon.co.uk/dreyfus.pdf Maslow’s Pyramid 1990’s version. Retrieved March 7, 2012. http://badidumariam.blogspot.com/2010/02/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html
Settlers of Catan retrieved March 1, 2012 image and board game http://www.google.com/imgres?q=settlers+of+catan&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1369&bih=726&tb m=isch&tbnid=nrplnA1uHl7pFM:&imgrefurl=http://www.amazon.com/Mayfair-Settlers-CatanBoard-Game/dp/B00001ZT4D&docid=QLbUzgWJZ7b3RM&imgurl=http://ecx.imagesamazon.com/images/I/61rdJSX5fdL._SL500_AA300_.jpg&w=300&h=300&ei=V8NdT7SnIuSyiQK VgOGtCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=654&vpy=181&dur=1675&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=109&ty=1 68&sig=100759130507373249911&page=1&tbnh=157&tbnw=157&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429 ,r:2,s:0 Tapia, M. Personal photographs of instruments. The Thinker retrieved March 9, 2012. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=the+thinker&num=10&um=1&hl=en&biw=1369&bih=726&tbm=i sch&tbnid=Cr_tu8KoPV4Z8M:&imgrefurl=http://craptoseintolerance.blogspot.com/2011/12/isthinker-tebowing_16.html&docid=q2e50kNdPONsCM&imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/bS4NeBoaHDw/Tutrm1cJm2I/AAAAAAAAFws/A55FtE7nk7c/s1600/the_thinker.jpg&w=459&h=60 0&ei=gcRdT63hHpHRiAKQmOWLCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=727&vpy=169&dur=27&hovh=257 &hovw=196&tx=128&ty=107&sig=100759130507373249911&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=164&tbnw=1 25&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0