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NORTH EAST ENGLAND: THE IRISH DIMENSION An exploration of 2001 Census Data

A report prepared for the


This report, one of a suite of twenty four, is an outcome of a research project on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. The research project was funded by the DĂ­on Committee. Publication of this report is funded by the DĂ­on Committee. First published by the Federation of Irish Societies in 2007. ISBN

978-1-906325-22-0

Copyright

Source data - 2001 Census: Crown copyright. This report: FIS copyright.

Printed by New Image Design and Print, Block D, Unit 1, Bounds Green Industrial Estate, Ring Way, London N11 2UD.

The Federation of Irish Societies is a national umbrella body representing and providing services to its affiliated organisations throughout Britain. These organisations include welfare advice agencies, day centres, community care services, clubs, social and cultural organisations and housing providers; as well as projects to meet specific needs of particular sections of the community, such as women, elders, Irish travellers and prisoners.


North East England: the Irish dimension An exploration of 2001 Census data

A report prepared for the Federation of Irish Societies, London


Contents: FIS Foreword .............................................................................................. 2 Author’s Introduction ................................................................................... 3 Using the data ............................................................................................. 7 Key data ...................................................................................................... 8 1. Nature of the population......................................................................... 9 2. Economic activity and inactivity ............................................................ 14 3. Types of work........................................................................................ 19 4. Unpaid carers ....................................................................................... 25 5. Qualifications ........................................................................................ 33 6. Home tenure and accommodation type ................................................ 36 7. Amenities .............................................................................................. 42 8. Health .................................................................................................. 45

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FIS foreword We are very pleased to be able to publish the suite of reports which FIS has commissioned from Word-Works and which focus on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. This data and commentaries are presented in a comparative context at national, regional and selected local levels, and on the basis of the full sixteen categories from the 2001 Census Ethnic Group Question. These reports indicate the diversity in the performance of ethnic minority groups in Britain. They show that the statistical profile of the identified white Irish places them closer to white British and Indian in many respects than, for example, more radically marginalised groups like Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, refugees and asylum seekers. Nevertheless, Irish deficits exist, most visibly in the area of health. They extend to related areas like levels of economic activity, where limiting long-term injury and disability contribute. The specific age profile of the white Irish population, with its bias towards older people, has implications in terms of care needs, as have the high proportions of white Irish single- and two-pensioner households. At the same time, the proportions of those white Irish without qualifications and working in the building industry point to the need for training/retraining towards integration/retention in the labour market. Indeed, government initiatives around health aspects of local regeneration, extension of working life, and reengagement of those with disabilities in the labour market, increase the importance of Irish community inclusion in order to achieve targets. It is important that the duality of the performance of the Irish in Britain – that combination of high achievement and disadvantage/social exclusion, which is by no means unique to the Irish community among British ethnic minority communities – should not distract attention from issues that need to be addressed. That there are sections of the Irish population who have multiple needs, are marginalised, and have information, support and service needs which need to be addressed was clearly indicated by the data provided by the FIS/AGIY Standardised Information System, collected from our front line agencies and published between 1994 and 2003. This and other documentation with a strong local thrust (for example, the valuable L Simpson et al., Ethnic minority populations and the Labour Market: an analysis of the 1991 and 2001 Censuses (DWP 2006)), emphasise the need for good local intelligence and greater and easier access to small-area statistics. We have been disappointed by the structuring of much of the analysis of ethnicity data from the 2001 Census published to date, particularly the use of various “combined ethnic group categories” and the failure to disaggregate the White “combined group” data. These procedures ignore one of the most significant findings of T Madood et al. Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage (PSI 1997) with relevance to policy formation, as well as such examples of good practice as Collecting ethnic category data: Guidance and training material for implementation of the new ethnic categories (DH 2001). Increasingly, micro-decisions about delivery of services take place at a local level. Those with local responsibility under the Race Relations Acts for addressing inequalities must have the best possible local data on all significant communities (including minority ethnic communities) at their disposal, and must use it in an inclusive way to inform their policies. We thank Word-Works for providing us with this suite of reports, which we commend to our affiliates, our partners in the British voluntary sector, and to those with a responsibility for policy formation and the delivery of services. We hope they will prove useful in raising the profile of the needs of ethnic minority populations, including our own.

Dr Mary Tilki, Chair Federation of Irish Societies May 2007

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Author’s Introduction The Census has long been the most extensive, if not the most comprehensive, source of information about the population of England and Wales. This has not been the case for the Irish population however. Although previously asked whether they were members of other minority ethnic groups, it was not until the 2001 Census that they were asked whether they were Irish. In the 1991 Census, the Irish population was identified from a combination of country of birth data and those instances where people had taken the initiative to write in their Irish identity. The Census is based largely on a series of tick box type questions which are quick to fill in and easy to understand. This approach means that highly complex topics have to be condensed into just a few words. Ethnic origin is one area which can suffer greatly from this treatment as it is so very complex. Potential problems arising in relation to Irish identity are discussed in the reports, most comprehensively in Section 1 of England: the Irish dimension. It is important to examine the information derived from the Census to learn about the Irish population, in order to identify any specific provisions appropriate to meeting their needs. It is to assist this process that the Federation is publishing this series of commissioned reports on the Irish dimension of Census 2001. The Census has provided us with an enormous quantity of data. These reports examine key elements of that data and make comparison, where appropriate, with data relating to the white British population and other minority ethnic populations. Summary findings of the analysis of the Irish dimension of the 2001 Census are set out below and in the series of key data to be found at the beginning of each report. 1. The age of the white Irish population The white Irish population of England and Wales, indicated by the 2001 Census data, is a comparatively older population. In England, the proportion of children identified – those aged under 16 – is very low: 6% in comparison with 20% when looking at the population of England as a whole. In London and the South East, the proportion of white Irish children is slightly higher (7% and 6% respectively), whereas it is slightly smaller in the South West and the North West (both slightly under 5%). The issue of the proportion of children recorded is complicated by the fact that children born to Irish parents may not be classified in the Census as white Irish. If they have one Irish parent and one British parent, for example, they may be classified as white British or white other. At the other end of the age scale, the white Irish population has a large proportion of people who are of pensionable age. Between 20% (London) and 32% (the West Midlands) are aged 65 or older. With between a fifth and a third of the population of this age, there are consequences for the population in terms of economic activity, health and welfare. For example, when looking at the white Irish population as a whole, the level of economic activity is low – this is due at least in part to the proportion of people who are retired. The white Irish population also exhibits the highest level of people who describe themselves as being in ‘not good health’ of all the ethnic groups listed. When data is broken down by age, it can be seen that this is largely (although not solely) because the population has such a high proportion of older people, who are far more likely to describe themselves as being in ‘not good health’.

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One of the consequences of an older population is a higher proportion of women – simply due to the greater longevity of women. In London for example, 58% of the white Irish population is female. In the South East 62% of the white Irish 65 and older population is female. In England as a whole, 53% of the white Irish population (of all ages) is female. Another related consequence of an older population is the proportion of people who are living alone – typically women who have outlived their male spouses. A fifth of white Irish households comprise a pensioner living alone. Given the older age profile of the white Irish population identified in the Census, as well as the proportion of white Irish households which are single or two pensioner households, provision of statutory and unpaid/informal care is a significant issue. The Census indicated that, in England, 4% of pensionable age white Irish men were themselves providing 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care, that 1.7% of working age white Irish men were providing the same amount of weekly care, and that 8.6% of working age white Irish women were providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care. In addition to the informal and formal care being provided in the community, 0.44% of the white Irish population are being cared for in psychiatric hospitals and homes, nursing homes and residential homes, as opposed to 0.28% of the whole population. 2. Education and qualifications The findings of the 2001 Census in this area present a mixed picture. At one level, the white Irish population performs very well, in terms of the proportion attaining the highest qualifications (levels 4/5 – degrees, PhDs, professional qualifications). Among white Irish aged 25 to 34, the proportion so qualified reached 46% - with regional variations ranging from 36% (West Midlands) to 54% (North East England), proportions, in each case, more than double that found in the equivalent white British population. Even 22% of 16 to 24 year old white Irish people in England have qualifications at this level, although some of the qualifications would be outside their age range. This pattern of relatively high attainment continues up to the age group 35 to 49. After this age, the attainment levels reduce to the levels of the white British population. One of the main reasons for the comparatively low levels of economic activity amongst white Irish 16 to 24 year olds, is the large proportion of white Irish individuals who are in full-time education. The proportion here is much greater than in the equivalent white British population, rising to 69% in the North East of England. Levels of economic activity in this group range between 4% and 10% below the level of economic activity in the white British population. The Census data suggests that, while a proportion of white Irish people in England have high level qualifications, there is also a significant proportion who have no qualifications at all. 12% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have no qualifications (from 9% in the North East to 17% in the West Midlands). This proportion rises with age. Amongst white Irish 65 to 74 year olds, 70% in England have no qualifications. This ranges from 60% in the South East to 77% in the West Midlands. In each group over the age of 49, there is a greater proportion of white Irish people with no qualifications at all than in the population as a whole. For example 62% of white Irish people in England aged between 60 and 64 have no qualifications, in comparison with 54% of the general population.

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3. Work The 1991 and 2001 Censuses provide evidence that Irish men are commonly to be found working ‘on the buildings’. The 2001 Census found that this was true for around a fifth of white Irish men of working age. Between 13% in North East England and 22% in the West Midlands are working in construction – 20% in England as a whole. These are far higher proportions than those found in any other ethnic population. Working in construction has possible implications for other areas of life. It can have a seasonal or temporary element leaving numbers of men out of work for periods of time. It can also be dangerous and exhausting work. It is an industry which reflects the peaks and troughs of the economy. With so many white Irish people working ‘on the buildings’, there is inevitably a glut of people needing to retrain at times when there is an economic downturn or when individuals need to move on for other reasons such as age and illness. Between a quarter and a third of white Irish women are working in health and social services. This is a far greater proportion than in the white British population and on a par with the Black African and Black Caribbean populations. Much care work and nursing work, while not seasonal or temporary, can be low-paid or may involve antisocial hours. A significant proportion of white Irish men work in professional occupations. 15% of white Irish men in England are in professional occupations (compared to 12% of white British men). In some English regions, the picture is much more exaggerated. For example, in the North East, 27% of white Irish men are in professional occupations in comparison with 10% of white British men. Women show a similar, although less pronounced, pattern. 13% of white Irish women in England are in professional occupations in comparison with 11% of white British women. So again, in this area, the 2001 Census presents a mixed picture. Further, the Census data relates to a period of time in which there was relative economic prosperity for the country and its regions. Certain indicators, such as levels of longterm unemployment were thus very low. It is important to recognise that during a less prosperous time, such indicators will be higher and there may be greater disparities between some of the ethnic groups. 4. Health The Census provides data about limiting long-term illness and disability. In every region in England the proportion of white Irish men aged between 25 and 74 who are not working because of permanent illness or disability is higher than the proportion of white British men not working for the same reason. In England, 11% of white Irish men are not working because of illness or disability. There is one age group of white Irish men for whom findings in this area are exceptionally strong and consistent, men aged between 50 and 64. In this age group, between 25% (the South East) and 41% (the North West) of men have limiting long-term illness. In England as a whole, 29% of white Irish men of this age have limiting long-term illness, 4% more than amongst white British men of the same age. The Census also asked about people’s view of whether they were in good health or not. 22% of men in England aged between 50 and 64 described their health as ‘not good’. In fact, for each age group, for both men and women, the trend is for more white Irish people than white British people to indicate ‘not good health’. 5. Housing and amenities Census data relating to housing and amenities provides a complex picture in terms of the white Irish population. For example, a relatively high proportion of the population owns their own home outright (26%) but, similarly, a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population lives in social housing (21%). These proportions are relatively

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high in comparison with both other minority ethnic populations listed in the Census and in comparison with the majority of the white British population. Significantly, in England, the white Irish population has the highest proportion (1.2%) of people in medical and care communal establishments (including psychiatric units, prison, and those we might associate with an older population, residential and nursing homes). The population also has the highest proportion of people in households comprising a lone pensioner (18%). This is true of England as a whole and each of the country’s regions. In terms of amenities, the white Irish population of England shows two interesting characteristics in comparison with the other ethnic populations listed in the Census. The first is in terms of central heating – 8% of the white Irish population has no central heating – and secondly, 40% of the white Irish population does not have a car. Both of these proportions are higher than those found in the white British population. The report The Census data is wholly descriptive and, as such, does not seek to explain particular phenomena, merely to tell us what it is. Thus, we cannot find out from Census data why a specific proportion of people live in social housing, for example. The following report attempts to describe the findings of the 2001 Census and, where appropriate, to suggest possible causes and effects. Gudrun Limbrick WordWorks May 2007

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Using the data All the data in this report is derived from the results of the 2001 Census which attempted to include all people living in England and Wales. As such, the report and its findings are entirely dependent on the coverage achieved by the Census, the terminology used and the questions asked. The delineations used are those provided by the Census. For example, the age bands quoted are those designed by the Census. The data is represented as graphs in this report to provide an immediate visual to represent the bare figures. However, greater detail can be found in the accompanying tables of data. This report has a number of companion volumes which may provide useful comparative analysis to aid understanding. National reports:

Local reports:

England

Birmingham

Wales

Bristol Coventry

Regional reports:

Leeds

East England

Leicester

East Midlands

Liverpool

London

Luton

North East England

Manchester

North West England

Northampton

South East England

Nottingham

South West England

Portsmouth

West Midlands

Sheffield

Yorkshire and the Humber

Swindon

Source: 2001 Census, [Key Statistics for Local Authorities]. Crown copyright 2004. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO

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North East England: Key data

The nature of the population - 56% of the white Irish population was born in the Republic of Ireland - 25% of the white Irish population is aged 65 or older Economic activity and inactivity - 57% of white Irish people aged 25 to 74 are economically active - 13% of white Irish men are not working because of permanent sickness or disability - 70% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds are in full-time education Types of work - 13% of white Irish men are working in construction - 17% of white Irish men are managers or senior officials - 9% of white Irish men are in elementary-type occupations - 32% of white Irish women are working in health and social work Qualifications - 9% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have no qualifications - 24% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have qualifications at the highest levels Home tenure and accommodation type - 61% of white Irish people own their own home - 19% of white Irish people are in social housing - 14% of white Irish people are in privately rented accommodation - 17% of white Irish households are pensioners living alone Amenities - 40% of white Irish people do not own a car - 4% of the white Irish population does not have central heating - 8% of the white Irish population are living in households regarded as overcrowded Health - 12% of white Irish men aged 16 to 49 have long-term limiting illness - 33% of white Irish men aged 16 to 64 are in not good health - 29% of white Irish women aged 16 to 64 are in not good health

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Section 1. The nature of the population of The North East

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at the number of Irish people in the North East in comparison with other ethnic groups. The place of birth of Irish people is examined, differentiating between those Irish people born in Ireland and those born elsewhere. It also examines basic demographic information such as ethnic origin, gender and age. It is this data which is of fundamental importance when understanding other data in this report such as economic activity and health.

In the North East region of England, 96.4% of the population classify themselves as white British 1 . In comparison, 87.0% of the population of England classified themselves as white British. The make-up of the remainder of the region’s population is illustrated in the figure below. Figure 1. The proportion of the population in minority ethnic groups in the North East 3%

2% North East England 1%

Bl ac k or

Bl ac k

Bl ac k

Br iti

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-B is h Br it

or As ia n

ia n As

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ak -P

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ia n

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or As ia n

ia n

is ta ni

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As ia n an d

Af ric an M ix ed

-W hi te As

ea n

Bl ac k

an d

-W hi te

M ix ed

an d

Bl ac k

C ar ib b

er W th -O

M ix ed

-W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

-I

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ris h

0%

In both the North East region and in England itself, the largest minority group is ‘white other’ (0.8% of the population of the region and 2.7% of the population of the country). The white Irish community is 0.4% of the North East’s population and 1.3% of the population of England as a whole. It is probable that the proportion of Irish people recorded in the Census is an underrepresentation of the actual Irish community in the North East and this issue is discussed more fully in England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data. Estimates 2 suggest that the actual Irish population of the North East could be between 1.3% (33,295 individuals) and 1.6% (39,954 individuals) which is smaller than the estimated proportional size of the Irish population of England (4.1%). However, these corrected figures would make the Irish population the largest minority ethnic population in the North East region.

1

In the Census questionnaire, respondents were given five options: white, mixed, Asian, Black or Chinese. Within the ‘white’ option, respondents were asked to select either British, Irish or other white. For the purposes of this report, these options have been abbreviated to ‘white British’, ‘white Irish’ and ‘white other’. 2 Using the 2.5 and 3 correctional factors of the born-in-Ireland population suggested by Hickman MJ and Walter B Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain CRE 1997

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Figure 2. Proportion of population of the North East born on the island of Ireland 3

1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6%

Born in Northern Ireland

0.5%

Born in the Republic of Ireland

0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% North East

England

0.9% of the population of England was born in the Republic of Ireland in comparison with just 0.2% of the population of the North East. Of those people in the North East who described themselves in the Census as Irish, 55.5% were born in the Republic of Ireland. 19.7% were born in Northern Ireland. In total 43.0% of those describing themselves as white Irish were born in the United Kingdom. Figure 3. Proportion of the population that is female 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

Fe m al es :t ot W al hi te -B rit is h M W ix h ed i W te hi -I -W te ris hi -O h te t h a M e n r ix d W ed Bl hi ac -W te k C hi ar te ib an be d an Bl M ac ix ed k Af As -W ric ia hi an n t e or an As As d ia ia As n n or ia Br As n As iti sh ia ia n n o I B nd rA Bl rit ac ia is si n h k an or P B Bl ak rit ac is is h ta k -B Bl Br ni ac iti a ng sh k o l ad C -B rB hi es la ne la ck hi ck se C Br or ar i t ib is O be h th -B er an la Et ck hn ic Af ric G ro an up -C hi ne se

0%

Taking the population as a whole, in both the North East of England and England, the proportion of women is just over 51% - 51.6% in the region and 51.3% in the country. In the North East, there are some minority ethnic groups which have a much lower proportion of women – notably the Black Caribbean (40.1%) and Black African (42.1%) populations. Amongst the white Irish population, the proportion of women in England as a whole is 52.9%. In the North East, it is 51.0% - 0.6% lower than in the population as a whole.

3

The term island of Ireland used here includes both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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Figure 4. The age distribution of the white Irish population 40% 35% 30% 25% all

20%

white Irish

15% 10% 5% 0% 0-15

16-24

24-49

50-59

60-64

65-74

75 and older

Age is arguably one of the most important factors to bear in mind when looking at the white Irish population as defined by the 2001 Census. When compared with the whole population of the North East region, the above chart clearly illustrates that the white Irish population is an older population. There is a similarity between the white Irish population and the region’s population as a whole in the 24 - 49 age group but in younger age groups, the proportion of white Irish people is smaller than the general population and, conversely, in the older age groups, the proportion of white Irish people is greater. 24.7% of the white Irish population is aged 64 or older, in comparison with 16.6% of the population as a whole. In terms of the 0 to 15 year olds, 5.9% of the white Irish population are in this age group in comparison with 19.8% of the population as a whole. One factor to bear in mind is whether people in different age groups behaved differently in terms of completing and returning the Census forms. Hickman and Walter (1997) 4 suggest that there is likely to be an under-representation of younger Irish people completing the Census and there is also an issue of second and third generation Irish people who did not define as Irish 5 in the Census. This would have an impact on the proportion of younger white Irish people counted in the Census. However, the issue of under-enumeration would not apply to those aged under 16 6 who are very poorly represented in the age distribution illustrated above. From the data the Census provides, it is not possible to say to what extent the skewed age profile above is the result of the under-count and to what extent there actually is a skewed age profile in the white Irish population.

4

Hickman MJ and Walter B Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain CRE 1997 This is discussed in England: the Irish Dimension - an exploration of 2001 Census data. 6 A significant feature of the age distribution of white Irish people is the small proportion who are aged 0 – 15 – far smaller than in any other of the region’s white British or minority ethnic populations. One can assume that, in most cases, parents or guardians will have completed Census forms on behalf of children of this age. It is thus the parents, in the main, who are making decisions about their children’s declared ethnicity. Most of the parents of the children of this age, will themselves be in the 24 – 49 age group in figure 4 – an age group of similar proportion in the white Irish population to the population of the region as a whole. This begs the question of why parents who reporting themselves to be white Irish did not record their children as white Irish. 5

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Figure 5. Proportion of the population aged 75 and older 12% 10% 8% North East

6%

England

4% 2%

sh -W -I hi ris -O te h M th an ix er d ed B W la -W hi ck te hi C te a rib an be d M Bl an ix ac ed k As -W Af ia ric n hi an or te As As an ia ia d n n As or As Br ia As ia iti n ia n s h n or Bl B ac As In r i tis k di ia an or h n -P Br Bl ac iti ak s k is h Bl Br ta -B ac ni iti k an sh C o gl rB hi ad ne B l ac la es se ck k hi or Br C iti ar O sh th ib er be -B an Et la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

rit i

W hi te

M ix ed

W hi te

-B

ol de an d 75

W hi te

r: t

ot

al

0%

In England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data there is discussion of the proportion of the population that is aged 65 or older. In the white Irish population, there is a significantly higher proportion of white Irish people aged older than 65 (24.9%) than in the rest of the country’s population (15.9%). On a regional level, a higher proportion of the white Irish population is aged 65 or older (24.7%) while the proportion of the region’s population as a whole at that age remains almost the same (16.9%). This is illustrated in figure 4. On a regional level, we are able to examine the older element of this age group – those aged 75 and older and this is illustrated in the figure above. The large proportion of the white Irish population aged more than 75 is clear in the chart above. In the North East and in England, a tenth of the white Irish population is older than 75 – 10.5% of the population of the region and 9.9% of the country’s population. This the highest proportion of all the ethnic populations listed in the Census. The second highest proportion is to be found in the white British population (7.6%). The finding that a quarter (24.7%) of the North East’s white Irish population is aged over 60 – and thus may well be retired – has a bearing on many of the rest of the population’s characteristics as determined by the Census.

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Figure 6. Age distribution of selected minority ethnic groups 60%

50%

white Irish

40%

white British Indian

30%

Pakistani Black Caribbean

20%

Chinese

10%

0% 0-15

16-24

25-49

50-59

60-64

65 - 74

75 +

There is no other (majority or minority) ethnic group in the North East which is structured in the same way as the white Irish population in terms of the age of its members. A relatively low proportion of under-25s (15.9%) is contrasted with a relatively high proportion in each age group over 50. In the white British population, 30.5% of the population are aged under 25, as is 23.8% of the Black Caribbean population and 52.3% of the Pakistani population. 51.5% of the white Irish population is in the potentially economically active 25 to 59 age group, but this is not significantly different from other ethnic groups as it is in the lower and higher age groups. For example, 61.6% of the Black Caribbean population is aged between 25 and 59 as is 47.4% of the white British population. Just 40.6% of the Pakistani population is aged between 25 and 59. As the above series of graphs illustrates, in comparison with the other minority ethnic groups listed, the white Irish population is an ageing population – a larger proportion of the population is older (over 64) than is younger (under 25). A population of this structure will shrink as the numbers who die are not matched by those born, unless migration patterns change the general trend or unless there are changes in how sections of the population perceive their ethnicity 7 . Additionally, an aging population will have very different characteristics and needs in comparison to those with a younger population – more people will be retired and no longer economically active; care needs may be different and levels of ill-health and disability tend to be higher in populations which are older, for example. As suggested above (in discussion of figure 4), it is important to remember that a skewed age profile may be affected by different age groups having differing Census form return rates. This may or may not affect different ethnic groups in different ways.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section found that 0.4% of the North East’s population reported as white Irish. However this is likely to be an under-representation of actual figures. Self-declared ethnicity is a complicated issue – the white Irish population could be as high as 1.6% of the population of the North East. The reported white Irish population in the North East has a relatively small number of people who are aged under 25 and a relatively large number of people who are aged 50 and older, and 75 and older. 7

Commentators have suggested that for a variety of reasons (such as the complexities of ethnicity and identity, a confusion between ethnicity and nationality, and the construction of the ethnic group question in the Census form) a number of people born on the island of Ireland and second and third generation Irish people may not have taken the option of identifying as white Irish in the 2001 Census.

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Section 2. Economic activity and inactivity

_____________________________________________________________________ Any population has a bearing on the economy of the place in which it lives. This section examines the levels of economic activity of the white Irish population of the North East in comparison with the rest of the region’s population. Economic activity, as an indicator, is a count of the number of individuals who are either working or are available to work. To aid our understanding, this section also looks at what the Census has to say about economic inactivity. The first figures in this section look at those people aged between 16 and 24. The later figures look at the older age group – those aged between 25 and 74.

Figure 7. Proportion of the population of the North East aged 16 to 24 years old which is economically active 8 80% 70% 60% 50% North East

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Ec

on om

ic al ly

ac tiv e

16 -2 4

ye a

ro ld s: W to hi ta te M ix -B l ed r i W tis -W W hi h hi te hi te M te ix Ir i an O ed sh th er -W dB la W hi ck hi te an Car te M ib d i xe be Bl As d a an ia - W ck n As A or hi f r ia ic te As n an As an ia or ia n d As n Bl Br As ia or ac iti ia n k As n Br sh or ia iti In Bl n s d h B a Bl ck ri - P ian ac Br tish ak C k hi iti is o sh ne B rB ta ni se - B ang la c la or la k de ck Br O sh th iti C sh er i a Et - B ribb hn ea la ic ck n G A ro up frica n -C hi ne se

0%

In the North East, 40.7% of the white Irish 16 to 24 year old population is economically active. This compares with 62.8% of the region’s population as a whole. Looking at England, 60.7% of the white Irish population is economically active, in comparison with 65.2% of the England’s population as a whole. The differential in the North East is marked and means that of each of the minority ethnic groups listed, the white Irish group has the fourth lowest proportion of economic activity – only the ‘other white’, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese populations have lower levels of economic activity in this age group.

8

Economically active is defined as the state of being available for work or working. Thus, someone who is unemployed is still defined as economically active. Someone who is retired, for example, is not defined as economically active.

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Figure 8. Proportion of 25-74 year olds who are economically active 80% 70% 60% 50% North East

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Ec o

no m

ic al ly

ac t

iv e

25 -7 4

ye

ar o

ld s: W to hi ta te M ix -B l ed r i W tis -W W hi h hi hi te te M te ix Iri an O ed sh th er -W dB la W hi ck hi te te an Ca M rib d i xe be Bl As d a an ia - W ck n As Af or hi r ia ic te As n an As an ia or ia n d As n Bl Br As ia or ac iti ia n As k n Br sh or ia iti In Bl n s d h B a Bl ck ri - P ian ac Br tish ak C k iti hi is o sh B ne rB ta ni se - B ang la c la or la k de ck Br O sh th iti C sh er i a Et - B ribb hn e l ac an ic k G A ro u p frica n -C hi ne se

0%

While economic activity is generally higher amongst all of the minority ethnic groups in the 25 to 74 age group, the white Irish population of the North East once more fares comparatively poorly. In the North East, 56.6% of the white Irish population is economically active in comparison with 61.1% of the region’s total population. Only the Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities have lower levels of economic activity in this age group (46.0% and 52.3% respectively). It is important to remember when looking at economic activity in this age group that 14.3% of the region’s white Irish population is aged between 65 and 74 and are thus likely to be retired and no longer economically active. In comparison, only 9.3% of the region’s white British population is aged between 65 and 74 (see figure 4). Figure 9. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 16 to 24 year old men 80% 70% 60% 50% white Irish

40%

white British

30% 20% 10%

is a

fa m

si ck /d nt ly an e

Pe rm

af te ki ng Lo o

bl ed

ily

d rh om e/

e

st

R et ire

ud e

nt

ed Fu lltim

U ne m

pl oy

ed m pl oy Se lfe

e Fu lltim

Pa rttim e

em pl oy ee

em pl oy ee

0%

64.4% of white British 16 to 24 year olds in the North East were found to be economically active, in comparison with 40.7% of the white Irish population. The chart above suggests that much of this difference comes from the proportion of students – 68.5% of the young white Irish population are full-time students in comparison with just 37.0% of the white British population.

15


A number of factors can influence the size of a student population. These include: - the achievement of appropriate qualifications earlier in life (see section 5: Qualifications) - a community ethos which values and encourages education - migration specifically to attend further or higher education establishments (the Census data does not indicate what proportion of full-time students have come to England specifically for their education and, importantly, what proportion are planning to return to their home country once that education is complete). The high proportion of students may be one of the reasons that levels of full-time employment are lower amongst white Irish men than amongst white British men (18.4% and 39.8% respectively. Additionally, levels of unemployment are higher in the white British population – 11.1% in comparison with 4.6% of the white Irish population. Figure 10. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 16 to 24 year old women 80% 70% 60% 50% white Irish

40%

white British

30% 20% 10%

fa m

ily si ck /d is ab le d

d rh om e/

Lo o

nt ly an e Pe rm

ki ng

af te

Fu lltim

e

st

ud e

R et ire

nt

pl oy ed U ne m

m pl oy ed Se lfe

e Fu lltim

Pa rttim e

em pl oy ee

em pl oy ee

0%

The picture amongst young white Irish women is not dissimilar similar to that of young men – 71.1% of white Irish women aged 16 to 24 are students in comparison with 40.0% of white British women. The main difference between the young male and female populations is that full-time employment is lower amongst young white Irish women and looking after family and/or home is higher – a pattern mimicked in the white British population. Figure 11. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 25 to 74 year old men 60% 50% 40% white Irish

30%

white British

20% 10%

16

bl ed

ily

is a si ck /d nt ly

an e Pe rm

Lo o

ki ng

af te

rh om e/

st e

fa m

d

ud e

R et ire

nt

ed Fu lltim

U ne m

pl oy

ed m pl oy Se lfe

em pl oy ee e

Fu lltim

Pa rttim e

em pl oy ee

0%


As suggested by the higher proportion of older people (see figure 4), 18.7% of the North East’s older white Irish men are retired – in comparison with 15.2% of white British men. Levels of full-time employment are 9.3% lower (41.4% of white Irish men; 50.7% of white British men). 13.3% of white Irish men are not working because of being permanently sick or disabled in comparison with 12.2% of white British men. 8.7% of the older white Irish men are self-employed in comparison with 4.6% of white British men. Figure 12. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 25 to 74 year old women 30% 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

bl ed

ily

is a

fa m

d

si ck /d nt ly

an e Pe rm

Lo o

ki ng

af te

rh om e/

st e

R et ire

ud e

nt

ed Fu lltim

U ne m

pl oy

ed m pl oy Se lfe

Fu lltim

Pa rttim e

e

em pl oy ee

em pl oy ee

0%

Amongst the older women, 23.2% of the white Irish population and 20.6% of the white British population are retired – a differential much smaller than amongst the men. 11.5% of white Irish women are not working because they are looking after their home or family in comparison with 12.1% of white British women. 9.1% of white Irish women are not working due to being permanently sick or disabled as are 8.6% of white British women. Figure 13. Proportion of men who are long-term unemployed – including those who have never worked 16% 14% 12% 10% North East

8%

England

6% 4% 2%

N ev er w

or ke d

an d

lo ng

te

rm

un em pl oy ed W :t hi ot M te al ix ed Br i W -W t W is hi h hi hi te te M te ix Ir i an O ed sh th -W dB er la W hi c h k te ite an Ca M rib d be Bl As ixed a an ia - W ck n As Af o h rA ia r i t i c e n As an si an or an ia d As Bl n B A o ac rit si r A ian i an k Br sh s or -I iti Bl ian nd sh a B Bl - P ian ac ck B ritis C ak h k rit hi o is i ne sh rB B ta se ni - B ang la c or la la k de ck Br O th sh iti C s er ar i ib Et h b B hn e l ac an ic k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

17


In the population as a whole, and in eight of the listed minority ethnic populations, the proportion of people who are long-term unemployed (including those who have never worked) is higher in the North East region than in England as a whole. 4.6% of the men of the North East are long-term unemployed as are 2.9% of the men of England. Amongst white Irish men, the proportion is less than 3.8%, lower than the 4.5% of white British men who are long-term unemployed. Only two populations have lower levels of long-term unemployment - Chinese men (2.7%) and Indian men (3.4%). Figure 14. Proportion of women who are long-term unemployed – including those who have never worked 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

N

ev er w or ke d

an

d

lo ng

te rm

un

em pl oy W ed: M ix h ite tot ed - B al -W W W r hi h M hi itis it t ix ed e a e - te - h n - W d B Oth Iris e h la hi ck r W te an Ca hit M e As ixe d Bl ribb ac As ian d ea W or k As ian Af n As hit r e Bl ian or i a an ican As n ac o d B r i k rit As or As an i ia Bl ian Bri sh n Bl t ac Br ish In ac C k d i hi t ne k o Brit ish - Pa ian se r B ish - B ki or lac - B an sta n k g O th Br lack lad i iti er es C s h Et h a hn - B rib i be la ic c a G ro k A n up fri c - C an hi ne se

0%

4.2% of white Irish women in the North East are long-term unemployed (including those who have never worked) – this compares with 3.1% of white British women. These two populations have the lowest levels of long-term unemployment that exists in the listed populations. By contrast the highest levels are to be found amongst Bangladeshi women (48.2%) and Pakistani women (42.8%).

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section looked at economic activity and found a relatively low level of economic activity amongst the largest age group – 25 to 74 year olds. In the same age group, there were relatively high levels of white Irish people who were retired and people who were not working because of permanent sickness or disability. In the 16 to 24 age group, the most notable feature is the relatively high proportion of white Irish people who were in full-time education. In terms of unemployment (including those who have never worked), figures for the white Irish population are higher than those for the white British population.

18


Section 3. Types of work

_____________________________________________________________________ Having examined overall levels of economic activity in the previous section, this section concentrates on what the Census reveals about the nature of work undertaken by the population. Do different ethnic minority groups tend to do different types of work?

Figure 15. The proportion of men who are managers or senior officials 35% 30% 25% 20%

North East

15%

England

10% 5%

M an ag

er s

an

d

Se ni or

O

ffi ci al s: W to hi ta te M -B l ix ed rit W is W -W h hi hi te hi te t M e I ris ix O an ed th h d er Bl -W W ac hi h k ite te C ar an ib M d be ix Bl ed As an a ia - W ck n A As fri or hi ca te ia As n n an As ia or d n ia As A B n Bl si rit ia or an ac is n h As k Br -I or ia i t n i n s Bl d h Br ac - P ian Bl iti k sh ac ak B rit C k is -B hi ta is or ne h an ni Bl -B se gl ac a l ac k or de Br k sh O C iti th i ar sh er ib -B Et be hn la an ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

In the North East, 17.0% of white Irish men are managers or senior officials. Only four of the other listed minority ethnic groups have a higher proportion of people in this top level of occupation – ‘other white’ (19.7%), Indian (30.8%), Pakistani (21.1%) and Chinese (18.4). According to the Census,13.6% of white British men are working as managers or senior officials. Figure 16. The proportion of women working as managers or senior officials 30% 25% 20% North East

15%

England

10% 5%

M an ag

er s

an

d

Se ni or

O

ffi

ci al s: W to hi ta te M -B l ix rit ed W is W -W h hi hi te hi te -I te M ris O ix an th ed h d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d be i Bl As x e d an a ia - W ck n Af As hi or ric te ia As an n an ia As or d n ia A A B n si si rit Bl an or an is ac h As Br k or ia iti I n sh n d Bl Br ac - P ian Bl iti k sh ak ac Br is k C -B iti ta hi or sh an ni ne B gl la se B a ck la d or ck es Br O hi C iti th ar sh er i bb -B Et ea hn la n ck ic G A fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

Overall, 13.8% of men were working as managers and senior officials. This compares with 8.9% of women. In terms of white Irish women, the proportion working as managers and senior officials falls to sixth of those populations listed. 9.7% of white Irish women are managers or senior officials. This compares with 8.8% of white British women. The highest proportion of women working as managers or senior officials is in the Indian population (25.7%).

19


Figure 17. Occupations amongst men aged 16 to 74 30% 25% 20%

white Irish

15%

white British

10%

all

5%

oc

Pr cu er oc pa se es tio r v s, ns ic e pl oc an cu t& pa m tio ac ns hi ne El op em er at en iv ta es ry oc cu pa tio ns

tra

Sa le s

&

cu

st

om

Pe rs on

Sk ille d

al se rv ic e

de s

oc cu pa

at io up oc c

ria l et a se cr

& Ad m in

tio ns

ns

ns at io

oc cu p

te ch & pr of

e

As

so ci at

M an ag

Pr of e

er s

ss

an

io

d

na l

se

oc

ni or

of

cu pa

tio ns

fic ia ls

0%

The proportion of white Irish men working as managers or senior officials, in professional occupations and in associate professional and technical occupations exceeds the proportion of white British men in the same occupations. The difference is most pronounced in the professional occupations - 27.3% of white Irish men are in professional occupations in comparison with 9.9% of white British men. In contrast, 10.6% of white Irish men are in skilled trades in comparison with 21.7% of white British men. 9.2% of white Irish men are in elementary occupations in comparison with 13.0% of white British men. Figure 18. Occupations amongst women aged 16 to 74 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British 10%

all

5%

oc cu er pa se tio r v s, ns ic e pl oc an cu t& pa m tio ac ns hi ne El op em er at en iv ta es ry oc cu pa tio ns

cu pa al se rv ic

e

oc

Pr oc es

Sa le s

&

cu s

to m

Pe rs on

Sk

ille d

tra

de s

ria l

oc cu p

at io

tio ns

ns

ns

oc cu p

Ad m in

&

se cr et a

te ch & pr of

e so ci at

As

at io

tio ns cu pa

io ss Pr of e

M an ag

er s

an

d

na l

se

oc

ni or

of

fic ia ls

0%

As with the men, there is a larger proportion of white Irish women than white British women in the managerial and professional occupations. Again, this is most pronounced in the professional occupations which employ 23.6% of white Irish women and 8.4% of white British women. By contrast there is a smaller proportion of white Irish women than white British women in administrative and secretarial occupations (13.5% and 21.5% respectively) and sales and customer service occupations (7.9% and 15.3% respectively). The following figures look at employment in terms of what has become known as NSSEC. NS-SEC (National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification) is an attempt to look at social classification by occupation but, instead of being solely an examination of jobs, the NS-SEC is constructed using three pieces of information: occupation,

20


employment status and the size of the establishment in which the person works. To this end, the 2001 Census form asked for a significant amount of information about each respondent’s job, place of work, role and level 9 . The picture created by the following figure will thus differ in some respects from the previous figures which were looking solely at occupation. Figure 19. Men in the North East aged between 16 and 74 – by NS-SEC (excluding those who are unemployed or in full-time education) 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% white Irish 10%

white British all

8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Intermediate Lower Higher managerial & managerial & occupations professional professional occupations occupations

Semi-routine Routine Lower Small employers supervisory occupations occupations and own and technical occupations account workers

When looking at occupations in the North East in terms of the NS-SEC analysis, there are proportionately more white Irish men in the managerial and intermediate occupations when compared with the white British men and the region’s men as a whole. 15.1% of white Irish men are in higher managerial occupations in comparison with 7.9% of white British men. Similarly, 17.4% of white Irish men are in lower managerial occupations in comparison with 14.9% of white British men. In all other areas, there are proportionately fewer white Irish men than white British men. For example, routine occupations include 8.8% of white Irish men, 13.8% of white British men and 13.6% of the region’s population as a whole. The reasons behind the lower levels of white Irish men in the majority of categories include the high proportion of full-time students (see figure 9).

9

A full description of the NS-SEC definitions is to be found in England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data.

21


Figure 20. Women in the North East aged between 16 and 74 – by NS-SEC (excluding those who are unemployed or in full-time education) 25%

20%

15% white Irish white British all 10%

5%

0% Intermediate Lower Higher managerial & managerial & occupations professional professional occupations occupations

Small employers and own account workers

Semi-routine Routine Lower supervisory occupations occupations and technical occupations

While the differentials between the white Irish and white British women are smaller than those of the men, it is still clear that a greater proportion of the white Irish population is in managerial and professional occupations than the population as a whole or the white British population. For example, the higher managerial and professional occupations account for 6.5% of white Irish women and 4.6% of white British women. As with the men, there is a smaller proportion of white Irish women in each of the other NS-SEC areas than white British women or the region’s women as a whole. For example, 11.6% of white Irish women are in semi-routine occupations along with 15.1% of white British women and 14.6% of all the region’s women. Figure 21. Industry areas of the region’s white Irish and white British men 30% 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

Ag ric ul tu re ,m M an in uf in ac g an tu rin d fis g (in hi ng cl ud in g ut ilit ie s) W C o ho ns le tru sa ct le io an n d r e H t a ot il el tra s Tr de an an d sp re or st Fi au ta na ra nd n nt Pu ci c s al om bl an ic m se d un p ct ic ro or at fe io se ss n rv i on ic al es s (in er vi cl ce ud s i ng H ea ed lth uc an at io d n) so ci al se rv ic es

0%

The most notable difference between the industries worked in by white British men in the North East and white Irish men are in manufacturing, public sector services and health and social services.26.4% (more than a quarter) of white British men are in

22


manufacturing in comparison with 16.7% of white Irish men. By contrast, 31.0% (nearly a third) of white Irish men are in public sector services or health and social services in comparison with just 16.4% of white British men. Only the Black Caribbean population has a higher proportion of men working in public services, for example with 19.9%. In each of the other English regions, there is a significantly higher proportion of white Irish men working in construction than other populations. This is not the case in the North East where 12.5% of white Irish men are working in construction in comparison with 12.8% of white British men. While not the highest proportion, however, the white Irish men do have the second highest proportion in construction of all the ethnic populations listed. There are consequences to working in the construction industry as a Mind report of 2003 10 has found: “A major disadvantage of a lifetime of work in the construction industry is that many Irish men are in poor physical health and unable to work. They have not paid insurance contributions and end up without pensions in their old age or when ill.� In the light of this, it is interesting to return to figure 11 which illustrates that 12.3% of men aged between 25 and 74 are not working because of permanent sickness or disability. This is a high proportion of men, particularly when looked at in comparison with the male white British population in which 7.0% are not working because of permanent sickness or disability. We will return to this topic in Section 8: Health. Figure 22. Industry areas of the white Irish and white British working women of the North East 35% 30% 25% 20%

white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

ut

cl ud in g (in

ilit ie s) W C on ho st le ru sa ct le io an n d re H ta ot il el tra s Tr de an an d sp re or st Fi ta au na nd ra nc Pu nt co ia s bl la m ic m n se d u ni pr ct ca or of es tio se s n rv i o ic n al es se (in rv cl ic ud es in H g ea ed lth uc an at io d n) so ci al se rv ic es

ac t M an uf

Ag ric ul tu

re ,

ur in g

m

in in g

an d

fis hi ng

0%

While there is a greater proportion of white British women working in manufacturing and wholesale and retail than white Irish women, a greater proportion of Irish women are in public sector services and health and social services. 32.1% of white Irish women are working in the latter in comparison with 21.7% of the white British women. Only two populations have a higher proportion of women in health and social services – Black Caribbean (42.8%) and Black African (47.6%).

10

Mind: Mental health of Irish-born people in Britain, 2003

23


Health and social work (also referred to as health and social care within the Census outputs) will include medicine, nursing, auxiliary nursing, care work, social work etc. Some of these jobs will be highly qualified and well paid roles such as doctors, others will require no qualifications and may well be low paid. A further 22.7% of white Irish women are working in public sector services. This is the second highest proportion of all the populations listed – the highest being the other white population (26.5%).

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section suggests that there is an Irish population which presents two pictures. The first presents a picture of a population which has a relatively high proportion in managerial positions and professional positions. The second presents a picture of a population in which a very high proportion of men are working in construction and a very high proportion of women are working in health and social care. These types of work can have significant effects on a population’s health, well-being and (current and future) financial well-being.

24


Section 4. Unpaid carers

_____________________________________________________________________ Previous sections have examined work as well as retirement and full-time education. However, a significant form of unpaid work has so far been omitted from our discussion – caring for other people. Section 1 outlined the older nature of the white Irish population. Section 8 will look at the relatively high levels of ill health associated with this. This section examines whether these factors impact on the level of unpaid caring carried out by the white Irish population.

The Census divides unpaid care into three different levels depending on the hours an individual devotes to it: a. between 1 and 19 hours a week b. between 20 and 49 hours a week c. 50 or more hours a week The effects of care-giving can be significant. People providing the very highest level of care are unlikely to be able to work at the same time which impacts on their own life as well as on the lives of their dependents. However, even the lowest level of care-giving may restrict full-time and even part-time employment opportunities. Those providing only a low level of care may not be able to work if they have, in addition, their own children to care for. Employment opportunities may also be reduced if the care has to take place at particular hours of the day. Even care which has to be given at anti-social hours (such as through the night) may impede a carer’s ability to work if they don’t have an opportunity to sleep. The Census form defines care as being ‘any help or support [given] to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of long-term physical or mental illhealth or disability; or problems related to old-age’. To get a greater understanding of levels of unpaid care, it is important to look at different elements of the population – men, women, younger people, people of pensionable age – as each has a very different picture of care.

a. Between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care To weave our way through this complex picture, we will take each level of care in turn, starting with those providing between 1 and 19 hours a week below. Figures 23 and 24 look at the working age carers and Figures 25 and 26 look at pensionable age carers.

25


Figure 23. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care 9% 8% 7% 6% 5%

North East

4%

England

3% 2% 1%

W hi te

To

ta l -B rit M is ix W h ed hi W t -W e hi -I te hi ris -O te h M a t h nd ix e ed r Bl W -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M Bl an ix ac ed k As Af ia W ric n hi an or te As As an ia ia d n n As or As Br ia As i ti ia n sh ia n n or Bl B In ac As rit di k is ia an or h n -P Br Bl i ti ac ak s k is h Bl Br ta -B ac ni iti k an s C h or g hi -B la Bl ne de ac la se sh ck k or i Br C ar iti O sh th ib be er -B an Et la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

7.7% of men in the region provide this relatively low level of unpaid care. The proportion amongst white Irish men, 7.2%, is slightly lower than this average but only white British men (7.8%) and Pakistani men (7.6%) have higher proportions of care givers. Figure 24. Proportion women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care 12%

10%

8% North East

6%

England

4%

2%

-B rit is W h hi W t -W e hi t e hi Ir i -O te sh M an th ix er d ed Bl W -W ac hi te k hi C te a rib an be d M Bl an ix ac ed As k -W Af ia ric n hi or an te As As an ia ia n d n or As As Br As ia ia i ti n n ia s h n or Bl B ac As In r i k tis di ia or an h n -P Br Bl ac i ti a s k k Bl h is Br ta -B ac iti ni k an sh C o hi g r l B ne ad B l ac la se es ck k hi or Br C O iti a rib th sh er be -B Et an la hn c k ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se M ix ed

W hi te

To

ta l

0%

For women, the average proportion providing unpaid care of between 1 and 19 hours a week, rises to just 10.6% - 2.9% higher than the proportion of men involved. For white Irish women, however, it does not rise by a similar percentage but is at 7.8%. This remains, however, the fourth highest proportion of all the populations listed.

26


The following figures look at the same level of care – 1 to 19 hours a week – but this time in the pensionable age group. Figure 25. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care 9% 8% 7% 6% 5%

North East

4%

England

3% 2% 1%

W hi te

To

ta l -B r iti M sh ix W ed hi W t -W e hi -I te hi ris -O te h M a t h nd ix e ed rW Bl -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M Bl an ix ac ed k As A ia W fri n hi ca or te n As A an ia s ia d n n A o As si rA Br an ia i ti si sh n an or Bl B ac I As nd rit k is ia ia or h n n -P Br Bl ac i ti a k s k is h Bl Br ta -B ac ni iti k an sh C o gl hi rB a ne B d la la es se ck ck hi or Br C ar iti O sh th ib er be -B an Et la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

5.7% of white Irish men of pensionable age are providing this level of care. This compares with 5.6% of white British men. The highest proportion is found in the white and Asian population (8.5%). A further two populations have higher proportions than that found amongst white Irish men – other white (5.9%) and Indian (5.9%). Figure 26. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0%

North East

-I ris -O h t an he d rW Bl hi ac -W te k hi C te ar ib an be d M an Bl ix ac ed k As Af -W ia ric n hi an te or As an A ia si d an n As or Br As ia As iti n ia sh ia n n o -I Bl r B nd ac As rit is ia k ia h n or n B Bl Pa r i ac tis k is k h Bl ta Br -B ac ni iti an k s h or C g -B la hi B de ne la la sh ck se ck i Br or C ar iti O sh ib th be er -B an Et la hn ck ic A fri G ro ca up n -C hi ne se

sh

M ix ed

M ix ed

-W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

-B rit i

W hi te

To ta l

England

6.2% of white Irish women provide care at this level. This compares with 6.0% of white British women. Three populations of women have higher level of care than the white Irish women – white and Asian (9.4%), Black African (7.1%) and Black Caribbean (6.5%). The following charts look at those people providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care. Figures 27 and 28 look at carers aged between 16 and pensionable age and figures 29 and 30 look at carers of pensionable age.

27


b. Between 20 and 49 hours of care a week Figure 27. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 20 to 49 hours a week of unpaid care

2.5% 2.0% 1.5%

North East England

1.0% 0.5%

-I ris -O h th er W Bl hi ac -W te k hi C te ar ib an be d M an Bl ix ac ed k As Af -W ia ric hi n an t o e rA As an si ia d an n As or Br As ia A n i t ia si is an n h or -I Bl B nd As rit ac is ia k ia h n or n B Pa Bl r iti ac ki s st k h Bl an Br -B ac iti i an k s h or g C la -B hi B de ne la la sh ck ck se i Br C or ar iti O ib sh th be er -B an Et la hn ck ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se

sh -B rit i

an d

M ix ed

M ix ed

-W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

To ta l

0.0%

When looking at the higher level of care of between 20 and 49 hours a week of care (say, between 3 and 7 hours a day, every day), the proportion of men involved falls to 1.4%. Amongst white Irish men, the proportion is lower than this average – 1.0%. Only one population of men has a lower proportion providing such care – other white (0.8%). Highest levels are only found amongst white and Black Caribbean men (1.9%) and Pakistani men (2.1%). Figure 28. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 20 to 49 hours a week of unpaid care 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0%

North East England

1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

W

hi

te

To ta l -B M rit ix is W ed h hi W -W te hi t e hi Iri -O te sh M an th ix er ed d Bl W -W ac hi k te hi C te a an rib be d M Bl an ix ac ed As k -W Af ia n r ic hi or an te As As an ia n ia d n or As As Br As ia ia iti n n i s a Bl h or n -I ac Br As n k i tis di ia or an n h Bl Br -P ac iti ak sh k Bl is Br ac -B ta iti ni k an C sh or hi gl -B ne Bl a ac de se la ck k sh or Br i C O i a t is th r ib h er be -B Et an la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0.0%

When looking at women rather than men, the proportion providing this mid-range of care rises by approximately 1% - to an average for the region of 2.3%. This is the proportion as for white British women. Amongst white Irish women it is just 0.1% lower.

28


The following two figures look at the same level of care, but for men and women of pensionable age. Figure 29. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care 16% 14% 12% 10% North East

8%

England

6% 4% 2%

-I ris -O h th er W Bl -W hi ac te k hi C te ar an ib be d M an Bl ix ac ed k As -W Af ia ric n hi an te or As a A nd ia s i n an As or As Br ia As iti n ia sh ia n n or Bl Br I ac As n iti di k sh ia an or n -P Br Bl ak iti ac sh is k Bl ta Br -B ac ni iti an k s h C o g rB hi -B l a ne de la la se ck sh ck i Br or C ar iti O sh ib th b er -B ea Et n la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

sh -B rit i

an d

M ix ed

M ix ed

-W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

To ta l

0%

The above chart is dominated by the 14.3% of white and Black African men providing care at this level. In contrast, 1.6% of white Irish pensionable age men are providing care at this mid-level. This is higher than the proportion of white British men involved (1.5%). Figure 30. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care 8% 7% 6% 5% North East

4%

England

3% 2% 1%

W hi te

To

ta l -B rit M is W h ix ed hi W te -W hi t e Ir i hi -O sh te M th an ix e d r ed W Bl -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M an Bl ix ac ed k As A W fri ia n ca hi or te n As a A nd ia si an n As or Br As ia As i ti n ia sh ia n n o Bl -I r B ac nd As rit is k ia ia h or n n -P Br Bl i a ac tis k is k h Bl ta Br -B ac ni iti an k s h C o g r hi -B la Bl ne de la ac se sh ck k i or Br C ar iti O sh ib th be er -B an Et la hn ck ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se

0%

Amongst women of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care, there is, as with the men, a noticeable anomaly: 7.1% of Black African women are providing this mid-level of care.

29


2.6% of white Irish pensionable age women are involved in this level of care, in comparison with 1.6% of white British women. After the Black African women, there are two other populations of women who have a higher proportion involved in care than the white Irish population – Bangladeshi (3.4%) and white and Black Caribbean (3.0%). The following charts look at those people providing 50 hours or more of care a week. Figures 31 and 32 look at people aged 16 to pensionable age. Figures 33 and 34 look at people of pensionable age. c. 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care Figure 31. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care 2.5% 2.0% 1.5%

North East England

1.0% 0.5%

-I ris -O h th an er d W Bl -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M Bl an ix ac ed k As A W ia fri n ca hi or te n As a A n ia s d ia n As n or As Br ia As iti ia n ia sh n n or Bl Br I ac As nd iti k ia sh ia or n n -P Br Bl iti a ac k s i k h st Bl Br -B an ac iti i an k sh C o gl rB hi a Bl ne d la es ac se ck hi k Br or C ar iti O sh ib th be er -B an Et la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

sh

M ix ed

M ix ed

-W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

-B rit i

W hi te

To ta l

0.0%

White British men and white Irish men provide the largest proportions giving this very high level of unpaid care – more than 7 hours a day on average. For both populations, the proportion is 2.3%. It is Pakistani and white and Black Caribbean men who are providing the next highest levels (2.2% and 1.8% respectively). Figure 32. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 50 or more hours a week of care 6% 5% 4% North East

3%

England

2% 1%

-B rit is M h W ix ed hi W te -W hi -I te ris hi -O te h th M an er ix d ed W Bl hi ac -W te k hi C te ar ib an be d M an Bl ix a ed ck As Af -W ia ric hi n an te or As a As nd ia ia n As n or Br As ia As n iti ia s i n an h or -I Bl B nd As ac rit is ia k ia h n or n B Bl Pa r iti ac k sh is k Bl ta Br -B ac ni iti an k s h or C g la -B hi B de ne la la sh ck se ck i Br or C ar iti O sh ib th be er -B an Et la hn ck ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se

W hi te

To ta l

0%

5.2% of Pakistani women and 4.0% of white and Black Caribbean women are providing more than 50 hours a week of care. In comparison care-giving amongst

30


white Irish women stands at 3.5%, 0.1% lower than the proportion amongst white British women. Figure 33. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing 50 hours or more a week of unpaid care 12% 10% 8% North East

6%

England

4% 2%

-B rit is W h ix ed h W i t e -W hi -I te hi ris -O te h M t a h nd ix e r ed W Bl -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M an Bl ix ac ed k As A W fri ia n ca hi or te n As an As ia d ia n As n or Br As ia As iti n ia s i n an h or Bl Br In ac As iti di k ia sh an or n -P Br Bl iti ak ac sh is k Bl ta Br -B ac ni i t a i k s n h C or gl hi ad Bl Bl ne ac es ac se k hi k or Br C ar iti O sh ib th be er -B an Et la hn ck ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se M

W

hi

te

To ta l

0%

4.4% of white Irish men of pensionable age are providing this high level of care – this compares with 5.5% of white British men. The highest level is to be found amongst Black Caribbean men (10.0% - although this is not mirrored in the England picture) and the lowest level is to be found amongst Chinese men (2.0%). Figure 34. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing 50 hours or more a week of unpaid care 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% North East

5%

England

4% 3% 2% 1%

-B rit is W h hi W te -W hi t e Ir i hi -O sh te M th an ix e d r ed Bl W -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M Bl an ix ac ed k As A W ia fri n ca hi or te n As A a nd ia si an n As or As Br ia As i ti n ia sh ia n n or Bl Br In ac As i ti di k ia sh an or n -P Br Bl i ti a ac ki sh k st Bl Br -B an ac iti i a k sh ng C o rB hi l ad B ne la la es se ck ck hi or Br C a i O t r i s i th bb h er -B ea Et n la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se M ix ed

W hi te

To

ta

l

0%

For women of pensionable age, the population with the highest proportion involved with this highest level of care is the Bangladeshi population (9.1%). White Irish women have the third lowest proportion – 3.8%. Only white and Black Caribbean women (3.0%) and Indian women (1.9%) have lower proportions of pensionable age providing this high level care.

31


The data from this section indicates that there are relatively high levels of care in the white Irish population (in comparison with the other populations listed) in the following population groups: - Working age men – 50 + hours a week of care - Working age women – 50 + hours a week of care

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Providing care for a family member or other person can have a significant impact not only on the person caring but also on the dependents of the carer, as the time devoted to caring may mean that taking on employment is not possible. The above analysis demonstrates a complex pattern of care amongst the minority ethnic populations in the different age bands. What is needed is an assessment of the economic and health impacts of care provision as well as the support needs of those who are caring.

32


Section 5. Qualifications

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at educational achievement as measured by the attainment of qualifications. While there is a whole range of educational attainment, this section examines the topics by two means – the attainment of no qualifications at all, and the attainment of the highest levels of qualifications.

Figure 35. Proportion of 16 to 24 year olds with no qualifications 30% 25% 20% North East

15%

England

10% 5%

N o

qu al ifi ca tio

ns :t W ot hi al te -B M r iti ix sh W ed W hi -W te hi t e hi Ir i -O te sh M an th ix er ed d B W -W la hi ck te hi C te ar an ib d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k Af ia W n ric hi or As te an As ia an n i d a or n As As Br As ia ia iti n n ia s Bl or n h ac -I Br A nd si k i t i an or sh ia n Bl Br -P ac iti a s k Bl ki h B s ac -B ta rit k ni is C an or h hi gl -B ne Bl a a de se la ck ck sh or Br i C O i t a is th r i h bb er ea Bl Et ac n hn k ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se

0%

18.2% of the population aged between 16 and 24 in the North East has no qualifications – 2.4% higher than the 15.8% of England as a whole. With the one exception of the Chinese population (8.1%), the white Irish population has the lowest proportion of people in the North East with no qualifications – 8.7%. It is useful to note in this respect that 69.8% of people in this age group are in full-time education (see figures 8 and 9). Figure 36. Proportion of 16 to 24 years with qualifications at level 4/5 11 35% 30% 25% 20%

North East

15%

England

10% 5%

Le ve l4 /5 :t ot W al hi te -B rit M is ix W h ed hi W t e -W hi -I te hi ris -O te h M t a h nd ix e r ed Bl W -W ac hi te k hi C te ar an ib be d M Bl an ix ac ed k As A W ia fri n hi ca or te n As an As ia d ia n n A o si As rA Br an iti ia si sh n an or Bl B In ac As rit di k is ia an h or n -P Br Bl ac iti a k s k is h Bl Br ta -B ac ni iti k an sh C o gl rB hi a B ne d la la es se ck ck hi or Br C a i O t i r s i th bb h er -B ea Et n la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

11

Level 4/5 equates to a first degree, higher degree, NVQ levels 4-5, HNC, HND, qualified teacher status, qualified medical doctor, qualified dentist, qualified nurse, midwife, health visitor or equivalents.

33


8.7% of the 16 to 24 year old population of the North East has attained these higher level of qualifications. Amongst the white Irish population, however, this increases to 23.8%. Only the ‘white other’ group and the Chinese population have higher levels of 16 to 24 years with levels 4 or 5 – 26.3% and 31.4% respectively. Figure 37. The proportion of the population with no qualifications 80% 70% 60% 50% white Irish 40%

white British all

30% 20% 10% 0% 16 - 24

25 - 34

35 -49

50 - 59

60 - 64

65 - 74

The chart above clearly indicates how the older generations have a far greater proportion of people with no qualifications than the younger generations, largely reflecting changes in education. For example, while 7.8% of 25 to 34 year old white Irish people had no qualifications, this rises to 68.0% of those aged between 65 and 74. This development is the same in the white British population and in the population of the North East as a whole but it is clear that in all age groups other than the 50 to 59 age group, a smaller proportion of white Irish people have no qualifications than the population as a whole. For example, 19.2% of white Irish 35 to 49 year olds in comparison with 25.9% of white British 35 to 49 year olds. Figure 38. The proportion of the population with qualifications at levels 4 or 5 60% 50% 40% white Irish 30%

white British all

20% 10% 0% 16 - 24

25 - 34

35 -49

50 - 59

60 - 64

65 - 74

With the exception of the 16-24 age group many members of which may not have had time to reach higher levels of qualifications thus far, the general trend is downward as the older generations have fewer individuals with higher levels of qualifications. It is very apparent from the figure above that more of the white Irish population are achieving these higher levels of qualifications than the rest of the population of the North East. For example, 54.2% of the white Irish population aged between 25 and 34 have higher levels of qualifications in comparison with 19.5% of the white British population. In the oldest age group shown – 65 to 74 years old – 13.9% of the white

34


Irish population have higher levels of qualifications in comparison with 9.9% of the white British population and 10.0% of the population as a whole. Hickman and Walter (1997) 12 notice the trend for a high proportion of the Irish population to have high level qualifications and term it a ‘brain drain’ – a tendency for some migrants to be highly qualified. They also recognise the tendency for other migrants to be ‘on the other end of the scale’ and have no qualifications at all. They create a picture of two extremes.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Hickman and Walter (ibid) found a dual picture of Irish people in Britain. A high proportion of Irish people with high level qualifications and a high proportion of people with no qualifications. However, in terms of the younger sections of the white Irish population (those in the age bands below 35 years of age), there is also a relatively small proportion of people with no qualifications at all.

12

Hickman MJ and Walter B (1997) Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain, The Commission for Racial Equality

35


Section 6. Home tenure and accommodation type

_____________________________________________________________________ The type of housing in which a community lives can say much about its position in society and about the impact of other community characteristics such as economic activity and income. Type and nature of housing can also impact on a community and affect how it functions in terms of, for example, health and well-being. This section looks at type of housing in broad terms – such as ownership and whether it is shared.

Figure 39. Proportion of the population which owns own home 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

North East

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

sh W hi W te -W hi te -I hi ris -O te h M a t he ix n d ed rW Bl -W ac hi te k hi C te a r an ib be d M Bl an ix ac ed As k A ia W fri n hi ca or te As n A a ia n s ia n d n or As As Br As ia ia iti n ia n sh n or Bl Br ac As I nd iti k ia sh ia or n n -P Bl Br ac iti a ki sh k Bl st Br -B ac an iti k i an sh C or hi g -B la Bl ne d a l ac se es ck k hi or Br C iti O a r sh th ib er be -B an Et la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

-B rit i

M ix ed

W hi te

O w ns

ho m e:

to ta l

0%

65.7% of the population of the North East own their own home. In England as whole, 69.3% own their own home. In the North East, the Pakistani and Indian populations have the highest proportion of home ownership of the ethnic groups listed with 74.9% and 73.0% respectively. The lowest level of home ownership is found in the Black African population (35.8%). 60.8% of the white Irish population own their own home – the fourth highest level amongst those listed. In comparison, 66.0% of white British people own their own home. These figures include people who own their own home outright (have no further payments to make on it) and those who own it with the help of a mortgage or other loan. The following charts give this breakdown.

36


Figure 40. Proportion of the population who own their own home outright 30% 25% 20% North East

15%

England

10% 5%

O w ns

ou tri gh t: W to ta hi l te -B M r i t ix is W ed h W hi -W te hi te -I hi ris -O te M h an th ix er ed d Bl W -W ac hi k te hi C te a an rib d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k A ia W fri n hi ca or As te n As an ia n i d an or As As B As ia ia rit n n ia is Bl or n h ac -I Br A n si k i tis di an or h an Bl Br -P ac iti a sh k Bl k is Br ac -B ta iti k ni C sh an or hi gl -B ne Bl ad ac se la es ck k or hi Br C O iti ar th sh ib er be -B Et an la hn ck ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

20.9% of the population of the North East own their own homes outright – a proportion 3.2% lower than that of the population of England as a whole. In the white Irish population, 24.4% own their own homes outright – only the Indian population (24.5%) and Pakistani population (27.0%) of the North East have higher levels of outright ownership. This pattern is reflected in the population of England as a whole. Figure 41. Proportion of the population who own their own home with a mortgage or loan 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

O w

ns

w i th

m

or tg a

ge :t W ot hi al te -B M ix r iti ed W sh W hi -W hi te te hi te Ir i -O M sh an ix th ed d e rW Bl -W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i b d M be Bl ix an ed ac As k ia A W n fri hi or As ca te As ia n a n n ia d or As n A Br As ia si n i ti an ia Bl sh or n ac B A k r s I i n ia tis or di n h an Bl Br -P ac i t Bl i ak k s h ac Br is -B ta iti k C sh ni or hi an ne Bl -B gl se a ac l d a k es ck or Br hi O C iti th ar sh er ib b Et ea Bl hn ac n ic k Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

44.8% of the population of the North East own their own home but do so with the aid of a mortgage or loan. The proportion in the white Irish population is 36.4% reflecting the high proportion of people who own their homes outright in the previous figure. Of the white British population, 21.0% own their own homes outright and 45.1% have a mortgage or loan.

37


Figure 42. Proportion of the population in social housing 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

W hi te

So ci al r

en t: to ta l -B M rit ix is W ed h hi W -W te hi t e hi Ir i -O te sh M an th ix er d ed Bl W -W ac hi k te hi C te a rib an be d M Bl an ix ac ed As k Af ia W ric n hi or an te As A a ia s n ia n d n or As As Br As ia ia i ti n n ia s h or Bl n Br ac As I nd i ti k ia sh or ia n n Bl -P Br ac i ti a sh ki k Bl st Br ac -B an iti k an sh i C or hi g -B ne Bl la de ac la se ck sh k or Br i C O iti ar th sh ib er be Et Bl an ac hn k ic A G fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

In the North East, 24.3% of the population is in social housing (including properties rented from the local council). This is a higher proportion than is found in England as a whole – 17.6%. 19.4% of the white Irish population is in social housing – higher than ‘other white’ group (15.8%); the Pakistani population (8.4%); the Chinese population (7.6%) and the Indian population (5.4%) but lower than each of the other ethnic populations listed. Figure 43. Proportion of the population in private rented accommodation 35% 30% 25% 20%

North East

15%

England

10% 5%

Pr iv at e

re nt ed :t W ot hi al te -B M rit ix is W ed h hi W -W te hi te -I hi ris -O te M h an th ix er d ed B W -W la hi ck te hi C te ar an ib be d M Bl an ix ac e d As k -W Af ia ric n hi or an te As As an ia n ia d or n As As Br As ia ia iti n n i a s Bl or h n ac -I Br A nd si iti k an sh or ia n Bl -P Br ac iti a sh ki k Bl st Br ac -B an iti k sh an C i or hi g Bl ne l a B ac de la se ck k sh or Br i C O iti ar th sh i bb er -B ea Et la n hn ck ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se

0%

13.7% of the white Irish population of the North East is in privately rented accommodation. This is more than double the proportion of the white British population in such accommodation – 6.3%. It is important to remember in looking at these figures at the relative age differences between the white British population and the white Irish population. Given that a third of the white Irish population is aged more than 60 years old (see figure 4), one might expect these figures of accommodation type to reflect this.

38


Figure 44. Proportion of the population in communal establishments 12% 10% 8% North East

6%

England

4% 2%

Li vi ng

in

co

m m

un al e

st

ab lis hm en t: W to hi ta te M l ix Br ed i tis W -W W hi h hi te hi te M te - O - Ir ix a is ed nd th h er -W Bl ac W hi hi k te an Car te M ib d ix be Bl As ed a an ia - W ck n As A or h f r ite ia ic As n an As an ia or n ia d A n Br Bl A s si ia or ac iti an n As k Br sh or ia iti I n n Bl sh d Br ac Bl - P ian iti k ac sh B a C k rit hi - B kist or is ne an h Bl se - B ang i ac la or la k de ck Br O s iti th C hi sh er a Et - B ribb hn e la an ic ck G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

The proportion of people living in communal establishments varies significantly – from 0.2% (Bangladeshi) to 11.4% (‘white other’) between the ethnic groups listed. 1.7% of the North East’s population as a whole is living in communal establishments, including 4.2% of the white Irish population. These figures can be disaggregated into medical and care communal establishments and other care establishments. 1.3% of the white Irish population is living in medical and care communal establishments. This is the third highest proportion after the Black Caribbean population (1.8%) and the Indian population (1.6%). A further 2.8% of the white Irish population lives in other communal establishments along with 0.6% of the white British population. Figure 45a. Proportion of men in key examples of communal establishments in the North East (not including staff members) – by establishment type. (whole numbers are given in parenthesis, neg. suggests <20)

Psychiatric hospitals and homes Nursing homes Residential care homes Prison service establishments Probation/bail hostels

White Irish population 0% (neg.) 0.19% (neg.) 0.42% (neg.) 0.78% (33) 0% (neg.)

39

White British population 0.04% (524) 0.19% (2,255) 0.25% (2,942) 0.23% (2,737) 0.01% (88)

Whole population 0.05% (590) 0.21% (2,602) 0.27% (3,348) 0.25% (3,055) 0.01% (91)


Figure 45b. Proportion of women in key examples of communal establishments in the North East (not including staff members) – by establishment type. (whole numbers are given in parenthesis, neg. suggests <20)

Psychiatric hospitals and homes Nursing homes Residential care homes Prison service establishments Probation/bail hostels

White Irish population 0% (neg.) 0.41% (neg.) 0.99% (44) 0.09% (neg.) 0% (neg.)

White British population 0.04% (471) 0.44% (5,570) 0.57% (7,119) 0.02% (297) 0% (28)

Whole population 0.04% (530) 0.50% (6,437) 0.62% (8,104) 0.03% (330) 0% (28)

For white Irish men, it can be seen that there is three times the proportion of the population in prison than the North East’s population as a whole. Amongst women, the proportion in residential care homes is a third higher than in the region’s female population as a whole. Given that a quarter of the white Irish population is aged more than 64 (see figure 4), the proportion of the white Irish population in nursing and residential care homes is perhaps not as high as one might expect. The proportion in prison service establishments is higher in the white Irish population than in the white British population. Discussion surrounding a high proportion of Black Caribbean people in prisons and in psychiatric units suggests that direct and indirect racism 13 has a significant role. This was the similar finding of Bracken et al 1998 14 in terms of hospital admissions for mental health issues for Irish people. They found that the neglect of the Irish community in this regard is untenable. Figure 46. Proportion of households comprising a lone pensioner 20% 18% 16% 14% 12%

North East

10%

England

8% 6% 4% 2%

O

ne

pe n

si on e

rh ou

se ho ld s: W to hi ta te l M -B ix r ed i t i W sh W -W hi hi te te hi t e M -O Ir i an ix sh th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i bb M d ix Bl ea ed As a n - W ck A ia n fri As hi or ca te ia As n an n ia As or d n ia As A B n si rit Bl ia an or is n ac h As Br k or In iti ia sh n d Bl Br ac - P ian iti Bl k a s ac Br h ki st k -B C iti an or hi sh an ne i Bl gl se Bl ac ad ac k or es B k O rit hi C th is ar er h ib -B be Et hn la an ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

13

Direct racism is where a person is directly refused a service or receives physical abuse because of racism. Indirect racism is where a condition is imposed on a service which consequently means that an individual cannot achieve it. 14 Bracken P, Greenslade L, Griffin B, Smyth M, 1998, Mental health and ethnicity: an Irish dimension. British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 172 pp103-105

40


Given that 24.7% of the white Irish population is aged more than 64, it is perhaps unsurprising that the white Irish population has the highest level of sole pensioner households â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 16.7%. However, given that, for example just 16.9% of the white British population is aged more than 64 and the proportion of sole pensioner households is 15.9% - less than 1% below the level in white Irish households, the surprise is perhaps that the differential is not larger. Figure 47. Proportion of households with more than one related pensioner 12% 10% 8% North East

6%

England

4% 2%

O

ne

fa m ily

ho u

se ho ld s,

al l

pe n

si on er s: W hi to M te ta ix ed -B l rit -W W W is hi hi h hi te te M te ix -O -I an ed ris t d -W h Bl her ac W hi k te h ite an Ca M rib As ixe d B b d e l ia an - W ack n As or Af hi ia r A t n i As e si or an can an Bl ian As Br d A ac or ia si it k n an or Asi Br ish an -I iti Bl sh nd ac Br Bl k - P ian ac C Br itish k a hi iti or ne - B kis s h Bl se an tan a B i ck g or O Br lack lade th sh C er itish ar i Et hn - Bl ibbe ac ic an k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

Again, the proportion of households which comprise more than one related pensioner (say, a married couple) is highest in the white Irish population â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 9.8%. In total, 26.5% of households in the white Irish population comprise solely of pensioners in comparison with 24.9% of the white British population and 24.5% of the population of the North East as a whole.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Housing can be very important in terms of a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health and well-being. The analysis of the relevant data in this section suggests that the white Irish population has a relatively high level of home ownership and, in comparison with the white British populations, a relatively high proportion living in rented accommodation (both social and private). A relatively high proportion of Irish people live in medical and care establishments including nursing homes, residential care homes, prison and psychiatric homes. There is a relatively high proportion of lone pensioner households in the white Irish population.

41


Section 7. Amenities

_____________________________________________________________________ There are certain measures which are used by researchers to assess the quality of life of households. In the Census these include central heating, overcrowding, bathroom sharing and car ownership.

Figure 48. Proportion of the population living without central heating 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% North East

10%

England

8% 6% 4% 2%

se ne

an

hi

ric up

-C

Af k

la c G

ro

-B Et

hn

ic

sh iti Br k

er

ac O

th

Bl or

or k C

hi ne

se

ac

an

hi

be ar ib

C k la c

-B

Br k ac

Bl

Bl

or k

es

ni ta

gl ad

is

an -B sh

iti

n ia As

or ia n

ac Bl

As

ak -P Br i ti sh

n ia As

or ia n

As

ia n

n -I

Br i ti sh

Br i ti sh

n ia As

or ia n

As

nd

As

ric

d an

te hi

-W

d ix e

d

an M

ia

an

an Af k

Bl ac

C k -W

hi

te

d an

te M

ix e

d

hi -W d ix e M

ar ib

W Bl ac

te hi W

ce o N

be

hi te

h ris -O

W

th

hi

er

te

-B

g:

te

ti n

hi W

ea lh nt

ra

-I

rit

to

is

ta

h

l

0%

The proportion of the population living in accommodation without central heating is lower in the North East than it is in England as a whole. 3.1% of people in the North East are without central heating in comparison with 7.3% of Englandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population. Amongst the white Irish population, 4.3% are without central heating. The only others of the ethnic groups listed to have higher levels without central heating are the Pakistani population (6.1%), the Black Caribbean population (5.5%) and the Chinese population (5.0%). It is interesting that outright home ownership, and thus investment in the home, is very high amongst the Pakistani and white Irish populations (see figure 25) and yet these are also the populations with higher levels of people living without central heating. There are a number of factors which may have an impact on the different levels of central heating. These include: - Expense Central heating is an expensive investment. Economic activity is comparatively low amongst both white Irish men and white Irish women (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity). This leaves a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population living on forms of income other than earnings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; pensions, benefits etc. In such situations, affording central heating may not be possible. - Home ownership Tenants may have no say in the type of heating provided by a landlord (private or otherwise). It is only when a home is owned by the occupier that they can make their own decisions about heating adaptations. There is a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population living in homes that they own (figure 39).

42


Figure 49. Proportion of population with an occupancy rating of –1 or less 15 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

M ix e

d

d

M ix e

-W hi te

an d

-O

th

-I

er W Bl hi ac -W te k hi C te ar ib an be d M an Bl ix a ed ck As Af -W ia ric hi n an te or As an A si ia d an n As or Br As ia As n iti ia s ia n h n or Bl Br In As ac iti di sh k ia an or n -P Br Bl ak iti ac sh is k Bl ta Br -B ni ac iti a k sh n o g C rB la -B hi de ne la la sh ck ck se i Br C or a i tis O rib th h b er ea -B Et n la hn ck ic Af G ric ro an up -C hi ne se

ris h

sh rit i

W hi te

W hi te

-B

W hi te

To ta l

0%

An occupancy rating of –1 or less suggests overcrowding. In the North East, 6.9% of the population is in accommodation with an occupancy rating of –1 or less. In the white Irish population, 7.6% are living with an occupancy rating of –1 or less. Only the white British population has a lower proportion – 6.5%. The four ethnic groups listed with the highest level of a –1 occupancy rating are the Bangladeshi population (34.9%), the Pakistani population (26.4%), the Chinese population (23.8%) and the white and Black African population (19.1%). Figure 50. Proportion of the population living in households without sole use of shower/bath and toilet 1.4% 1.2% 1.0% 0.8%

North East England

0.6% 0.4% 0.2%

w ith ou ts

ol e

us e

of s

ho w er

/b a

th

an d

to il W et: to hi M te ta ix -B l ed r it -W W W is hi hi h hi te te M te ix a ed Iri O nd t sh -W Bl her ac W hi k te h ite an Ca M r d As ixe Bl ibbe d ac ia an n k As Af or Wh ia i r t A i n e ca As si or an n an As Bl ian Br d A ac or ia s i t n k i As an or Br ish ia -I it i Bl sh nd ac n B Bl r - P ian k ac C Br itish k ak hi iti or ne is B ta Bl sh se - B an ni a ck g or l l a a O Br c d k es th C er itish h ar Et ib i hn - Bl be a ic a G ck A n ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0.0%

15

The occupancy rating in the Census assumes that every household, including one-person households, requires a minimum of two common rooms (excluding bathrooms). An occupancy rating of –1 implies that there is one room too few and that there is thus overcrowding in the household.

43


In the North East of England, none of the white Irish population were living in households without sole use of a shower/bath and toilet at the time of the Census. The ethnic populations with the highest proportions without sole use of these basic bathroom facilities are the Bangladeshi and Chinese populations (0.7% and 0.9% respectively). Figure 51. The proportion of the population which does not own a car or van 60%

50%

40% North East

30%

England

20%

10%

an er d W Bl hi ac -W te k C hi ar te i bb an ea d Bl M n ac ix ed k A As -W fri ia ca hi n n te or a As As nd ia i a A n n si or Br an As As iti s ia ia h n n -I or Br nd Bl As iti ac ia sh ia n k n or P B Bl a r i ki tis ac st h k an -B Bl Br i ac iti a ng sh k or la C d B hi Bl es la ne ac ck hi se k C B or ar rit ib is O be h th -B er an la Et c hn k ic Af ric G ro an up -C hi ne se M ix e

d

-O

th

-I

M ix e

d

-W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

W hi te

-B

rit i

sh

ris h

0%

35.9% of the white British population of the North East does not own either a car or a van. The group with the highest level of car or van ownership is the Indian population (20.3% does not own one). Conversely, 54.8% of the Black African population, 52.3% of the white and Black Caribbean population and 47.6% of the white and Back African population does not own a car or van as does 39.7% of the white Irish population. One factor in low levels of car ownership in the white Irish population could be expense – with low levels of economic activity (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity) leaving a proportion of the population reliant on forms of income other than a salary. Hickman and Walter (1997) suggest that, in large part, such issues as car ownership could be dependent on the tendency of the Irish population to ‘cluster’ in urban areas.

__________________________________________________________________ In summary Like housing tenure, the picture provided by the Census data on amenities is a complex one. This section illustrates that the white Irish population has a relatively high proportion of the population living without central heating; a high proportion of people living in overcrowded accommodation in comparison with the white British population, although a relatively low proportion in comparison with other minority ethnic populations. Each of these high proportions of ‘doing without’ may point, at least in part, towards relative poverty, although other factors will also play a part.

44


Section 8. Health

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at the health of the population. This is not based on medical records or hospital admissions but on questions in the Census about how people rated their own health. There are two questions – whether people have limiting long-term illness and whether people feel themselves to be in good or poor health.

Respondents were asked, in the Census form, whether they had ‘any long-term illness, health problem or disability which limits your daily activities or the work you can do’. The illnesses or disabilities that people were thinking of when answering this question must inevitably cover a very wide range of health issues including both physical and mental complaints. The key issue that the question presents is that of the long-lasting nature of the health issue or disability. A second question in the Census on health relates to people’s own analysis of their own health in the previous twelve months. This is examined in the figures at the end of this section. The following figures look at the proportion of the population that said yes, they did have a limiting long-term illness. Figure 52. Proportion of 0 to 15 year old girls with limiting long-term illness 7% 6% 5% 4%

North East

3%

England

2% 1%

Li m iti n

g

lo ng

W

-te rm

illn es s: to hi ta te l -B M ix r i ed t i W sh W hi -W hi te te hi te Iri -O M sh an ix th ed d er B -W W la ck hi hi te te C ar an ib d M be Bl ix an ed a As - W ck A ia n fri hi As or ca te As ia n an n i a As or d n As ia As Br n ia iti ia Bl or n sh n ac As Br -I k iti ia or n di sh n Bl an Br -P ac iti Bl k a s k ac h Br is -B k iti ta C sh or hi ni an ne Bl g Bl la se ac d a k es or ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er i bb Et Bl ea hn ac n ic k Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

In the general North East population, 4.3% of girls have a limiting long-term illness or disability. Amongst white Irish girls, this rises to 6.0%, a proportion which is only higher in the white and Black Caribbean population of girls (6.4%).

45


Figure 53. Proportion of 0 to 15 year old boys with limiting long-term illness 8% 7% 6% 5%

North East

4%

England

3% 2% 1%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s: W to hi ta te l -B M ix r i ed t i W sh W hi -W hi te te hi te Ir i -O M sh an ix th ed d er B -W W la ck hi hi te te C ar an ib M d be ix Bl an ed a As - W ck A ia n fri hi As or ca te ia As n an n i a As or d n As ia As Br n ia iti ia Bl or n sh n ac As Br -I k iti ia or n di sh n Bl an Br -P ac iti Bl k a s k ac h Br is -B k iti ta C or sh hi ni an ne Bl g Bl la se ac d a k es or ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er i bb Et Bl ea hn ac n ic k Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

Levels of limiting long-term illness are generally higher amongst boys aged 0 to 15 than amongst girls – 6.0%. For the North East’s white Irish population, the proportion is lower than this average for the region - 5.8%. This is the fifth highest proportion of all the ethnic populations listed. The highest level of limiting long-term illness is to be found amongst white and Asian boys (7.0%). Figure 54. Proportion of 16 to 49 year old women with limiting long-term illness 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% North East

1.50%

England

1.00% 0.50%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s

:t W ot hi al te M -B ix r ed iti W sh W -W hi hi te te hi t e M -O Ir i an ix sh th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i bb M d ix Bl ea ed As a n - W ck A ia n fri As hi or ca te ia As n an n ia As or d n ia As A B n si rit Bl ia an or is n ac h As Br k or In iti ia sh n d Bl Br ac - P ian iti Bl k ak sh ac Br is k -B C iti ta or hi sh ni an ne Bl g se Bl ac la ac de k or Br k sh O C iti i th ar sh er i bb -B Et ea hn la n ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0.00%

1.2% of women in the North East aged between 16 and 49 have a limiting long-term illness. Amongst white Irish women, this rises to 1.6%. Highest levels of limiting long-term illness are in the ‘other white’ and the white and Back African populations (2.6% and 2.5% respectively).

46


Figure 55. Proportion of 16 to 49 year old men with limiting long-term illness 20% 18% 16% 14% 12%

North East

10%

England

8% 6% 4% 2%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s: W to hi ta te l -B M ix r i ed t i W sh W hi -W hi te te hi te Ir i -O M sh an ix th ed d er B -W W la ck hi hi te te C ar an ib M d be ix Bl an ed a As - W ck A ia n fri hi As or ca te ia As n an n i a As or d n As ia As Br n ia iti ia Bl or n sh n ac As Br -I k iti ia or n di sh n Bl an Br -P ac iti Bl k a s k ac h Br is -B k iti ta C sh or hi ni an ne Bl g Bl la se ac d a k es or ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er i bb Et Bl ea hn ac n ic k Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

Amongst men in this middle age group, limiting long-term illness rises dramatically, from 1.2% of the North East’s women to 12.9% of the North East’s men. Amongst white Irish men, the percentage is 11.6% - the fourth highest proportion of all those populations listed. White and Black Caribbean men have the highest level of limiting long-term illness – 18.9%. Figure 56. Proportion of 50 to 64 year old women with limiting long-term illness 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s

:t W ot hi al te M -B ix r ed iti W sh W -W hi hi te te hi t e M -O Ir i an ix sh th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i bb M d ix Bl ea ed As a n - W ck A ia n fri As hi or ca te ia As n an n ia As or d n ia As A B n si rit Bl ia an or is n ac h As Br k or In iti ia sh n d Bl Br ac - P ian iti Bl k ak sh ac Br is k -B C iti ta or hi sh ni an ne Bl g se Bl ac la ac de k or Br k sh O C iti i th ar sh er i bb -B Et ea hn la n ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

33.7% of the older women of the North East have a limiting long-term illness – a rate higher than in England as a whole – 25.8%. White Irish women have one of the lowest levels of limiting long-term illness in this age group (33.6%), Pakistani women have the highest – 53.1%.

47


Figure 57. Proportion of 50 to 64 year old men with limiting long-term illness 60% 50% 40% North East

30%

England

20% 10%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s: W to hi ta te l -B M ix r i ed t i W sh W hi -W hi te te hi te Ir i -O M sh an ix th ed d er B -W W la ck hi hi te te C ar an ib M d be ix Bl an ed a As - W ck A ia n fri hi As or ca te ia As n an n i a As or d n As ia As Br n ia iti ia Bl or n sh n ac As Br -I k iti ia or n di sh n Bl an Br -P ac iti Bl k a s k ac h Br is -B k iti ta C sh or hi ni an ne Bl g Bl la se ac d a k es or ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er i bb Et Bl ea hn ac n ic k Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

As with all age groups, the level of limiting long-term illness is higher amongst men than it is amongst women. Amongst white Irish men, the proportion is 40.6%. This is the fifth highest proportion after Bangladeshi men (54.5%), white and Black Caribbean men (49.4%), Pakistani men (45.7%) and Black Caribbean men (42.7%). Figure 58. Proportion of women aged 65 or older with limiting long-term illness 80% 70% 60% 50% North East

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s

:t W ot hi al te M -B ix r ed iti W sh W -W hi hi te te hi t e M -O Ir i an ix sh th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i bb M d ix Bl ea ed As a n - W ck A ia n fri As hi or ca te ia As n an n ia As or d n ia As A B n si rit Bl ia an or is n ac h As Br k or In iti ia sh n d Bl Br ac - P ian iti Bl k ak sh ac Br is -B k C iti ta or hi sh ni an ne Bl g se Bl ac la ac de k or Br k sh O C iti i th ar sh er i bb -B Et ea hn la n ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

58.9% of the women of North East England aged 65 or older, have a limiting, longterm illness. Amongst white Irish women, the proportion is 54.4% - only the Bangladeshi (53.7%), Chinese (51.1%) and Black Caribbean (38.2%) populations have smaller proportions of women with limiting long term illness.

48


Figure 59. Proportion of men aged 65 or older with limiting long-term illness 70% 60% 50% 40%

North East

30%

England

20% 10%

Li m

iti n

g

lo ng -te

rm

illn es s: W to hi ta te l -B M ix r iti ed W sh W -W hi hi te te hi t Iri -O e M sh an ix th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d b ix Bl ea ed a As n - W ck A ia n fri hi As or c te an ia As an n ia As or d n A ia As Br si n iti Bl ia an or sh n ac As Br k In iti or ia sh di n Bl an Br -P ac iti Bl k a s ac ki h Br st -B k iti C an or sh hi an ne i Bl g se Bl ac la de ac k or Br k sh O C iti i th ar sh er i b -B be Et hn an la ck ic Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

What is interesting about the 65 and older age group is that there is reduced difference between the genders in comparison with other age groups. The large disparity seen in the working age groups has disappeared. 58.0% of all the men in the North East aged 65 and over have a limiting long-term illness, in comparison with 53.9% of white Irish men. This is the fifth lowest proportion of all the populations of men listed. On the subject of health, the Census form also asked people if, over the previous 12 months, they would say that their health had been good, fairly good or not good. As health can fluctuate in a 12 month period, it is the responsibility of the respondent to find some form of average or overall feeling of health which may, of course, be affected by how the respondent was feeling, health-wise, at the time of completing the Census form. For under 16 year olds, it may be that parents are completing their Census details on their behalf which means that the health rating is likely to be the parentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assessment rather than the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own assessment. The following two figures look at those respondents who rated their health as being not good.

49


Figure 60. Proportion of women in the region who rated their health as being not good 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00%

white Irish white British

15.00%

All

10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 0 - 15

16 - 49

50 - 64

65 +

It is clear from the data that being in not good health increases with age as we would expect. What is interesting is that there is greater experience of being in not good health amongst white Irish women between the ages of 50 and 64. 21.7% of white Irish women and 19.5% of white British women aged between 16 and 64 are not in good health. Figure 61. Proportion of men in the region who rated their health as being not good 30.00%

25.00%

20.00% white Irish 15.00%

white British All

10.00%

5.00%

0.00% 0 - 15

16 - 49

50 - 64

65 +

Amongst the men of the North East, the disparity between the experience of the white Irish population and that of the white British population is greater although the pattern is very similar. 25.2% of white Irish men aged between 50 and 64 are not in good health. This compares with 22.2% of white British men. The health of a population is a complex issue with many inter-linked factors at play. Relatively high rates of long-term illness amongst Irish people are discussed at some length by Hickman and Walter (1997) as well as other commentators. What is clear is that there is no single answer to the matter of why there are relatively high levels of ill-health (and mortality) amongst Irish populations. The following are some of those factors which could be at play: Poverty and housing As established earlier in this report, the white Irish population has a comparatively low level of economic activity (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity) which implies reliance on other forms of income such as pensions and benefits. Likewise a

50


relatively high proportion of the white Irish population is living in social housing (figure 42). Both of these factors may have an impact on the health of individuals. Socio-economic status As well as practical issues related to class, people of lower social classes may also view their own health differently bringing about reporting differences. Changes brought about by the act of migration Living in a rural setting in Ireland and moving to an inner-city area of Birmingham, for example, can represent a significant change in a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life which may impact on their health. Negative experiences of host country and racism Many commentators have documented racism and discrimination experienced by Irish people in England both in the past and currently. Lifestyle factors The links between excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and poor diet and poor health are now clearly established and need to be taken into consideration when looking at any population experiencing poor health. Genetics In any discussion of health, genetics may play a factor. Certain illnesses (e.g. cancers) have strong genetic components. In a single community of people this may impact on the incidence of those illnesses. Occupation It has been established that a relatively high proportion of white Irish men work in construction (figure 21) and an even higher proportion of white Irish women work in health and social care (figure 22). While the Census data does not indicate the type of work undertaken in these broad fields, we know that construction includes many roles which are dangerous or cause ill-health and that many roles in health and social care involve long, anti-social hours, lifting and stress.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary The data in this section suggests that health is a particular issue for white Irish people in the region. This relates particularly to white Irish men of working age who are experiencing relatively high levels of limiting long-term illness. It also relates to men and women of older working age who rate their own health as being not good.

51


FIS exists to represent and develop our members and our community


This report, one of a suite of twenty four, is an outcome of a research project on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. The data and commentaries in the suite of reports are presented in a comparative context at national, regional and selected local levels, and on the basis of the full sixteen categories from the 2001 Census Ethnic Group Question. ... there are sections of the Irish population who have multiple needs, are marginalised, and have information, support and service needs ... to be addressed. We have been disappointed by the structuring of much of the analysis of ethnicity data from the 2001 Census published todate, particularly the use of various “combined ethnic group categories” and the failure to disaggregate the White ”combined group” data. Increasingly, microdecisions about delivery of services take place at a local level. ... Those with local responsibility under the Race Relations Acts for addressing inequalities must have the best possible local data on all significant communities (including minority ethnic communities) at their disposal, and must use it in an inclusive way to inform their policies. Dr Mary Tilki Chair, Federation of Irish Societies

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North East England THE IRISH DIMENSION