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R e p o r t i n g o n M a r i n e B u s i n e s s & T e c h n o l o g y s i n c e 18 78

May 2018

complying with the

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Operators add new ships with fuel, aftertreatment flexibility as 2020 looms CEO SPOTLIGHT: EBDG’s John Waterhouse

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Contents

31

Departments

Features

4E  ditorial Liberty Ships and the Rise of Greek Shipowners

20

CEO Spotlight Elliott Bay Design Group’s John Waterhouse We interview John Waterhouse, Elliott Bay Design Group’s Chief Concept Engineer and discuss the founding of the company, current design trends in the maritime market, and what he sees for the future of the industry

23

Emissions Sulfur Cap: Everyone’s A Loser As the IMO 2020 deadline for the 0.5% sulfur cap looms closer, the question of compliance is top-of-mind. Ironically, however, there’s a lack of initiative in compliance with the new rule throughout the industry in general. So, what’s going on?

26

Hybrid & Electric Humming Along Torqeedo CEO Christoph Ballin provides insight into the strong growth of marine hybrid and all-electric propulsion

29

Propulsion Finding A Workaround ABS’ Chris Leontopoulos explores how industry efforts to improve environmental performance may have inadvertently led to a whole new set of issues for powertrains and what can be done to rectify it

31

Cyber Security Managing Cyber Threats Stelling Cyber Systems’ Jeffrey Menoher provides a primer for cyber security risk assessment

6 Industry Insights 8 Marine Innovations 9W  ellness Column

The Growing Antibiotic Resistance, Part II: Storming the Gates

10 Update

 tena RoRo Orders Newbuild RoPax for S Long-Term Charter to DFDS • Small Shipyard Grant Funds Available • Ingalls to Reactivate East Bank Yard • Rebuilding South Korea’s Shipping Industry •

18 Inside Washington

Senate Bill Looks to Codify BOP, Arctic Drilling Rules

35 Newsmakers TOTE’s Anthony Chiarello Announces Retirement 36 Tech News

Cavotec Revolutionizes Electric Ferry Industry in Norway

40 Safety First

Operating in Remote Locations: Passenger Vessels’ Search & Rescue Plans

2 Marine Log // May 2018

33

Digitalization A Level Playing Field Support continues to grow for an open standard of data-sharing

Cover: Stena Top Left: Maersk Top Right: Shutterstock/ Rawpixel.com

23


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CS-18-A03


EDITOR’S COLUMN

MarineLoG MAY 2018 Vol. 123, NO. 5 ISSN 08970491 USPS 576-910 Subscriptions: 800-895-4389

Tel: +1 (402) 346-4740 (Canada & International) Fax: +1 (402) 346-3670 Email: marinelog@omeda.com PRESIDENT Arthur J. McGinnis, Jr. amcginnis@sbpub.com PUBLISHER & EDITOR-IN-CHIEF John R. Snyder jsnyder@sbpub.com Associate Publisher Jeff Sutley jsutley@sbpub.com

Liberty Ships and the Rise of Greek Shipowners

O

n a visit to Baltimore last month, I had the pleasure of touring the SS John W. Brown, one of two Liberty Ships that are preserved and serve as operational maritime museums in the U.S. The SS John W. Brown was one of 2,710 Liberty Ships completed at 18 U.S. shipyards during World War II to bring cargo, equipment, and munitions to the Allied war effort. The construction of the “ugly ducklings,” pioneered or popularized some important shipbuilding techniques, including modularized construction, assembly line production, and welding. Female and African-American workers also played a significant role in the construction of these vessels and America’s industrial war effort. As the enthusiastic Navy veterans pointed out on the tour, the idea was to build Liberty Ships cheaper and faster than they could be sunk by U-boats. Some 2,400 of the sturdy little ships that survived the war also played a prominent role in the rise of Greek merchant shipping. The Greek fleet had been decimated during the war, and savvy Greek shipowners—including Aristotle Onassis—were able to snatch up hundreds of the ships for a fraction of their original $2 million price tag. The rejuvenation of the Greek fleet changed the fortunes of Greek shipowners,

laying the foundation for their rise. Greek shipowners remain at the top of the world fleet tables (something we highlight in this month’s Industry Insights)—a position they have held for almost 50 years. Attendees to Posidonia in Athens next month will get a glimpse of the global influence of the Greek shipping community on the exhibition floor. Shipowners at the event will also likely discuss strategies to comply with the impending IMO 0.5% Sulfur Cap for 2020, ways to leverage increasing digitalization, AI, and automation, and how to tackle cyber security—topics we cover in this issue. This issue also features interviews with two Chief Executives about rapidly developing technologies: One is Chief Concept Engineer at Elliott Bay Design Group, John Waterhouse, PE, who discusses the latest trends in vessel design; and the other is CEO and Co-founder of Torqeedo, Dr. Christoph Ballin, who discusses the hybrid and all-electric market.

John R. Snyder Publisher & Editor jsnyder@sbpub.com

PRICING: Qualified individuals in the marine industry may request a free subscription. For non-qualified subscriptions: Print version, Digital version, Both Print & Digital versions: 1 year, US $98.00; foreign $213.00; foreign, air mail $313.00. 2 years, US $156.00; foreign $270.00; foreign, air mail $470.00. Single Copies are $29.00 each. Subscriptions must be paid in U.S. dollars only. COPYRIGHT © Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation 2018. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reproduced without permission. For reprint information contact: PARS International Corp., 102 W 38th St., 6th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10018 Phone (212) 221-9595 Fax (212) 221-9195. For Subscriptions, & address changes, Please call (800) 895-4389, (402) 346-4740, Fax (402) 346-3670, e-mail marinelog@omeda.com or write to: Marine Log Magazine, Simmons-Boardman Publ. Corp, PO Box 3135, Northbrook, IL 60062-3135.

4 Marine Log // May 2018

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Paul Bartlett paul.bartlett@live.co.uk European EDITOR Charlie Bartlett charlie.bartlett@runbox.com WEB EDITOR Nicholas Blenkey nblenkey@sbpub.com Art Director Nicole Cassano ncassano@sbpub.com Graphic Designer Aleza Leinwand aleinwand@sbpub.com MARKETING DIRECTOR Erica Hayes ehayes@sbpub.com PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mary Conyers mconyers@sbpub.com REGIONAL SALES MANAGER Elaina Crockett ecrockett@sbpub.com SALES REPRESENTATIVE KOREA & CHINA Young-Seoh Chinn corres1@jesmedia.com CLASSIFIED SALES Jeanine Acquart jacquart@sbpub.com Circulation DIRECTOR Maureen Cooney mcooney@sbpub.com

Marine Log Magazine (Print ISSN 0897-0491, Digital ISSN 2166-210X), (USPS#576-910), (Canada Post Cust. #7204564; Agreement #40612608; IMEX Po Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2, Canada) is published monthly by Simmons-Boardman Publ. Corp, 55 Broad St. 26th Floor, New York, NY 10004. Printed in the U.S.A. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and Additional mailing offices.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Marine Log Magazine, PO Box 3135, Northbrook, IL 60062-3135.

MANAGING EDITOR Shirley Del Valle sdelvalle@sbpub.com

CONFERENCE DIRECTOR Michelle M. Zolkos mzolkos@sbpub.com CONFERENCE ASSISTANT Stephanie Rodriguez srodriguez@sbpub.com CONTRIBUTORS Emily Reiblein Crowley Maritime Corporation emily.reiblein@crowley.com Capt. Matthew Bonvento Good Wind Maritime Services goodwindmaritime@hotmail.com Simmons-Boardman Publishing CORP. 55 Broad Street, 26th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10004 Tel: (212) 620-7200 Fax: (212) 633-1165 Website: www.marinelog.com E-mail: marinelog@sbpub.com


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INDUSTRY INSIGHTS WELCOME TO Industry Insights, Marine Log’s quick snapshot of current trends in the global marine marketplace. This month, we highlight the dominance of the Greek merchant fleet. Greece has dominated the commercial fleet since the early 1970s. Liberty ships built at U.S. shipyards during World War II played a prominent role in the recovery of the Greek fleet, which was decimated during the war. The U.S. built 2,710 of the 10,000 dwt ships, which were built at a cost of about $2 million apiece. In 1946, Greek shipowners began purchasing hundreds of the ships under favorable terms from the U.S. government, laying the foundation for their success today.

Offshore Rigs Operating in the U.S. GOM (on or about April 1 of respective year)

Top Five Fleets (By Value, $ MM) 100

$99.60

43

2013

$89.10 80

$83.50

36

2014 60

29

2015 $47.00

40

2016

$42.90

24

2017 20

22

2018

0

Greece

Japan

China

USA

12

0

Norway

Source: VesselsValue

10

20

30

40

50

Source: Baker Hughes

Greece: World’s Top Shipowner Greek Tanker Fleet (Almost Twice the Value of China’s)

Greek Fleet (Total, Dwt)

Greece $35.7 Billion

Top Flags of Registry (By DWT)

343.4 million Panama 219.4 million Liberia

China $18.6 Billion

216.6 million Marshall Islands 173.3 million Hong Kong 124.2 million Singapore

308.8 Million DWT Source: VesselsValue

Source: UNCTAD

Source: UNCTAD

Recent Contracts, Launches & Deliveries Qty

Type

Owner

Austal USA, Mobile, AL

1

Tulsa (LCS-16)

U.S. Navy

2018

Aluma Marine, Harvey, LA

1

61 ft Survey Vessel

USACE

2018-2Q

FREMM-design FFG(X)

U.S. Navy

Shipyard

Fincantieri MMC, Marinette, WI

Est. $

Est. Del.

15.0

Gladding-Hearn Shipbuilding, Somerset, MA

1

320-PAX Fast Ferry

Rhode Island Fast Ferry

2019

Lake Assault, Superior, WI

1

32 ft Fireboat

TDFPD

2018-2Q

Metal Shark, Jeanerette, LA

6

45 ft Patrol Boats

Vietnam Coast Guard

2018-2Q

Source: Marine Log Shipbuilding Contracts

6 Marine Log // May 2018


A CRUISE SHIP THAT MOVES THOUSANDS OF PASSENGERS And a large-scale project where we were on board from the beginning Why does the world-renowned Meyer Werft shipyard team up with Viega time and again for numerous projects of this scale? In addition to the extremely reliable piping systems made from copper, copper alloys or plastic materials, Viega also supplies the know-how to go with them. Viega. Connected in quality.

Meyer Werft shipyard, Papenburg, Germany

viega.us/About-us


Marine Innovations Bureau Veritas Port State Control Inspection Got You Worried? BV Has An App for That Bureau Veritas has developed an application to assist ship managers and their crews in planning and ensuring readiness for port state control inspections. Called PSC Ready, the cloud-based and secure app is downloadable for both IOS and Android. The app enables PSC awareness to be shared across a company’s fleet, it allows the sharing and analysis of records and performance with management and clients, and the promotion of awareness of specific PSC concentrated inspection campaigns. www.bureauveritas.com

Klüber Lubrication Highlights Multi-Purpose Solutions at OTC Klüber Lubrication showcased a number of its solutions at OTC 2018, including Klübersynth GEM 4 N —a series of synthetic, high-performance gear and multi-purpose oils that provide protection against wear with resistance to micropitting, foaming, and residue formation. The series is used for the lubrication of plain and rolling bearings, toothed couplings, chains, guideways, joints, spindles and pumps. The system provides good thermal stability, high load-carrying capacity, and low friction values that improve the reliability of major components. www.klueber.com

Naval Dome Wins Contract to Secure PCTCs for Stamco Ship Management Maritime cyber security specialist Naval Dome will install its multi-layered maritime cyber defense system on board 55 Pure Car and Truck Carriers (PCTC) for Stamco Ship Management. The systems are designed for shipboard application, requiring no human intervention. Naval Dome will install the system on the vessels’ bridge, navigation, communication, and machinery control systems to deliver maximum, multi-layered protection from any existing or future cyber threat. www.navaldome.com

Parker Kittiwake Launches Breakthrough XRF Analyzer to Test Sulfur Manufacturer of condition monitoring technologies, Parker Kittiwake has debuted its X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer, a portable testing device that can measure the sulfur content in fuel. The XRF provides an accurate indication of sulfur content through the analysis of a small fuel sample in less than three minutes—giving both shipowners and Port State Control the ability to conduct laboratory-standard testing onsite, before non-compliant fuel is bunkered and before a vessel carrying non-compliant fuel leaves port. www.kittiwake.com

Rivertrace Launches SMART ESM Wash Water Monitor for Scrubbers Rivertrace launched its innovative SMART ESM monitor for scrubbers. The wash water monitor is suitable for: both the inlet and outlet of a wet exhaust gas cleaning system, measuring and recording PAH, Turbidity, Temperature and pH, an open-loop, closed-loop and hybrid scrubber systems. Fully compliant with MEPC 259(68), the SMART ESM ensures compliance with the worldwide SOx limits. Its large 10” touch screen display provides graphs showing live data, as well as historic hourly, daily or weekly figures. www.rivertrace.com 8 Marine Log // May 2018


Wellness Column

The Growing Antibiotic Resistance, Part II: Storming the Gates spreads in the environment. Transferred fecal matter on hands, toilet seats, etc., can spread this bacteria to others—so make sure you wash your hands and clean any surfaces you come into contact with. So where does this leave us? Where it always leaves us, with good food both complementing and serving as good medicine.

Good Food:

Shutterstock/ Stephanie Frey

T

he healthcare challenges that face us with regard to the overuse of antibiotics are ever growing and our human ecology is taking a hit. Our bodies provide a symbiotic home for trillions of bacteria representing over 1,000 different species. We rely on them to keep us balanced. When harmful or deadly bacteria overrun our bodies, antibiotics can be employed with lifesaving effects, however there are consequences to storming the gates with such an effective killer as antibiotics. They do not just kill the detrimental bacteria, they kill the helpful ones, too. Bacterial colonies exist throughout the human body. The “gut” houses the largest of these populations in our large intestine. Bacteria break down food, they police each other for dangerous population overgrowth-employing chemical warfare when populations overrun. Our bacteria can alter how we store fat, respond to sugar, change DNA expression, help optimize brain chemistry, and more. A study released December of 2015 in the American Study of Microbiology Journal mBio identified four commonly used antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Ciprofloxacin, and Minocycline) and tracked the response of bacterial colonies in individuals who took them. All antibiotics annihilated internal populations. Amoxicillin allowed for recovery of populations in a month’s time; while after 12 months, still other populations in those who took Ciprofloxacin had not come back. Additionally, Clindamycin and Ciprofloxacin saw a decrease in types of bacteria that produce butyrate. Butyrate matters because

when produced by our colonies, it can help decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in the intestines. This can impact chronic inflammatory conditions like metabolic syndrome, leaky gut, heart disease, diabetes, and more. This study also showed that further exposure to antibiotics enhanced genes impacting antibiotic resistance. Indiscriminate killing of “good” bacteria also allows germs and pathogens to wreak

Antibiotics do not just kill the detrimental bacteria, they kill the helpful ones, too.

havoc. This havoc may not be benign or isolated to just the taker of the pill. Every year the CDC identifies that over 500,000 people are infected with Clostridium Difficile (C. Difficile) resulting in diarrhea, and intestinal conditions such as colitis. This particular bacterial strain impacts seven out of 10 antibiotic takers by overrunning the gut while on or within a month of taking the antibiotics. Unfortunately, without the colonies of friendlies killed off by the antibiotic, the C. Difficile population can run amuck with deadly consequences (15,000 people a year die from C. Difficile infections). Additionally, important to note is that C. Difficile

Probiotics: Probiotics are bacteria in pills or in fermented foods like yogurt. If you are on a vessel, foods like yogurt are usually available. You can also find fermented foods or probiotic pills in most ports. Just mind the sugar content, look for plain products that you can add a dash of sweet to. Sugar laden foods can produce sugary-based colonies in the gut—not so friendly to your recovery and your blood sugar regulation. Prebiotics: Prebiotic fibers are “Miracle Grow” for bacteria. These are non-digestible fibers that ferment and fertilize our recovering trillions. This fermentation process is what makes butyrate. More recent research has also identified that the number of bacteria you harbor and type of colonies may impact obesity rates. Lean individuals tend to have more butyrate producing bacteria, while obese individuals tend to have less. Prebiotic fibers can be found easily in your local grocery store, and are already on most vessels. Examples are asparagus, onions, garlic, jicama, dandelion greens, daikon radish, sweet potato, leeks, bananas, cocoa, seaweed and others.

Finding Balance A storming of the gates may be necessary, but consider and/or mitigate the collateral damage. Trillions of tiny beings keep us healthy and antibiotics kill their balance. Good food can be good medicine and can be a good accompaniment to the recovery of that peaceful balance. Nothing in this article constitutes medical advice. All medical advice should be sought from a medical professional. Emily Reiblein

Crowley Maritime Corporation, Labor Relations-Union Wellness Programs/ Operations Integrity

May 2018 // Marine Log 9


Update

BIZ NOTES Small Shipyard Grant FundS Available

Stena RoRo Orders Newbuild RoPax for Long-Term Charter to DFDS Stena RoRo reports that it recently signed a long-term bareboat charter agreement with DFDS for a 1,000-passenger, 3,100 lane meter capacity newbuild RoPAX for operation on the English Channel. Stena RoRo says it is the fifth Stena E-Flexer RoPax class vessel being built at Chinese shipyard AVIC International. Stena RoRo holds options for three additional vessels for delivery from 2021 and onwards. The newbuild RoPax will be operated by DFDS under a 10-year bareboat charter on the English Channel between Dover and Calais. DFDS will also have the option to buy the vessel after the charter. In 2016, Stena RoRo placed an order for four 214.5m x 27.8m RoPax vessels with AVIC International, with an option for a further four vessels. Designed by Stena in cooperation with Deltamarin Ltd., Turku, Finland, the RoPax vessels are expected to have about 175 cabins for 927 passengers, with a crew of 73. Delivery of the first four vessels is expected between 2019 and 2020.

According to Stena RoRo Managing Director Per Westling, the Stena E-Flexer Class vessels will be “prepared for scrubbers and SCR” with a “GAS READY” class notation. It will reach speeds of up to 22 knots. The delivery of the newbuild for DFDS is expected in mid 2021. 

“The design of the ship will be worked out in close cooperation with DFDS,” says Westling. “The order is part of DFDS’s renewal of its fleet and will replace one of the six ferries currently operating in the English Channel.”

 Westling points out that Stena RoRo concluded a similar deal for one of the previous four newbuilds with the French ferry operator Brittany Ferries. That RoPax will fly the French flag and be delivered in the fall of 2020. The other three newbuilds will be operated by Stena Line on the Irish Sea. DFDS annually transports 5 million passengers, 1 million cars and 1.2 million trucks between Dover – Calais and Dover – Dunkerque on its ferries.

The popular Small Shipyard Grant Program is back. Last month the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) announced that $19.6 million is available for capital and related improvements under the Small Shipyards Grant Program. The grants are made available to U.S. shipbuilders and repairers with no more than 1,200 production workers. Usually the funds are awarded in the amount of $1 million or less and cover everything from the purchase of CNC plasma cutting tables, to welding equipment to drydocks. The funds can also be used to support training programs at the yards. The grants cannot cover more than 75% of the costs of the purchased equipment and must be geared towards improving efficiency, enhancing productivity, and enhancing competitiveness. The deadline for applying for a grant is May 22, 2018. Grant A p p li c a t i o n s s h o u l d b e s e nt to the Associate Administrator for Business and Finance D evelo p me nt, Ro o m W21318, Maritime Adminis tr ation, 120 0 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590. Only applicant s who comply with all submission requirement s described in the Notice will be eligible for award. For more inform a t i o n : w w w. m a r a d . d o t . gov/ships-and-shipping / small-shipyard-grants

The apple didn’t fall far from the tree. The latest development in a father-and-son pollution case has a son’s conviction mirroring his father’s own from a year ago. Randall Fox, one-time captain of the fishing vessel Native Sun, and son of the ship’s owner Bingham Fox, has been found guilty in a U.S. District Court in Seattle, WA, of discharging oily waste directly into the ocean—a felony violation of the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (APPS). 10 Marine Log // May 2018

He faces a maximum of six years in prison and a criminal fine of $250,000. According to the Department of Justice, Randall Fox discharged bilge slops from the Native Sun directly overboard into the ocean using unapproved pumps and hoses. One of these discharge incidents was recorded on video by a crewmember, who then reported the crime to the authorities. Further evidence at trial proved the fishing vessel’s crew had a history of repeatedly

pumping its bilges overboard without the proper equipment. The conviction, says Acting Assistant Attorney General Jeff Wood of the Justice Department’s Environment and Natural Resources Division (ENRD), “shows that illegal dumping in our oceans will not be tolerated. The Department of Justice will continue to work with our partners like the U.S. Coast Guard to aggressively prosecute criminals that pollute the oceans.”

Stena

Another Guilty Verdict in Native Sun Pollution Case


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Update

Wärtsilä Successfully Tests Autodocking System on Norwegian Ferry Driver-assist technologies such as automatic parking systems have been available on some production cars for more than a decade. The idea behind the self-parking system is to enable the car to perform parallel, perpendicular or angle parking safely and conveniently. Wärtsilä wants to bring that same level of safety to vessel operations. It took a big step in that direction last month, when it successfully completed tests of its autodocking technology onboard an 83m Norwegian car ferry.

The tests were carried out over a fourmonth period during actual harbor docking on the hybrid propulsion ferry Folgefonn, owned by Norwegian operator Norled. At no time during the tests did the captain need to take manual control. Wärtsilä’s autodocking project is supported by state-owned Innovation Norway. In the tests, the autodocking system was activated some 2,000 meters from the berth. As the ferry approaches the dock, the system then performs a gradual deceleration, and automatically maneuvers and docks the vessel at the berth. The system can also be used when the ferry departs the dock. Full maneuvering of the vessel, including the steering and propulsion, is automatically controlled by software. However, the master can take manual control at any time. Human error is the cause of about 80% of all maritime accidents. The benefit of the autodocking system is that it allows

the ship’s officers to focus on situational awareness outside the wheelhouse, thereby improving the safety and reliability of the vessel’s operations. “Technologies that improve safety, reduce operating costs, and lower the environmental impact can only be good for our industry,” says Sigvald Breivik, Technical Director, Norled. Folgefonn has a number of Wärtsilä Smart Marine products and systems. Among the Wärtsilä technologies already installed and tested are its energy optimization system, the hybrid propulsion system, wireless inductive battery charging, and energy storage system. The ferry can now be operated with automatic wireless charging, automatic vacuum mooring and automated docking. Wärtsilä Marine Solutions President Roger Holm, says autodocking will lead “the transformation into a new era of high efficiency and profitability for our customers.”

U.S. Coast Guard Drug-Busting Efforts Continue in 2018 Fiscal Year 2017 was a record drug-

busting year for the U.S. Coast Guard. Working with its interagency partners, it seized 455,000 pounds (227.5 tons) of cocaine with a wholesale value estimated at $6 billion. That effort to combat illegal drug trafficking has not slowed down in FY 2018. Ju s t l a s t m o n t h , t h e C o a s t Gu a rd reported that the crew of the 270 ft USCG Cutter Legare, based out of Portsmouth, VA, offloaded about 12 tons of cocaine and one (1) ton of marijuana in Port Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, FL, worth an estimated $390 million—estimated to be worth $1 billion in street value. The drugs were seized in international

waters in the Eastern Pacific off the coasts of Mexico, Central and South America by multiple U.S. Coast Guard cutters and Canadian Naval vessels during 17 separate suspected drug smuggling vessel interdictions. “What these numbers represent is an increased commitment by U.S. and international partners to combat transnational criminal networks and promote stability in the Central American region, along the U.S. southern border, and in the southern maritime approaches to the U.S.,” said Cmdr. Jonathan Carter, Commanding Officer of Legare. Numerous U.S. agencies from the Departments of Defense, Justice and Homeland Security are involved in the effor t to

combat transnational organized crime. The Coast Guard, Navy, Customs and Border Protection, FBI, Drug Enforcement Administration, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement along with allied and international partner agencies play a role in counter-drug operations.

Start Here

Charleston, South Carolina 12 Marine Log // May 2018

On-Time In Budget Top Quality Safety Focused detyens.com

Top: Wärtsilä / Bottom: MARPAC Public Affairs

Smooth, Easy BARGE Repairs


Update

Industry First: AI-Powered Situational Awareness for Maersk shipping giant A.P. Moller-Maersk has signed a contract with Boston-based Sea Machines Robotics to implement its perception and situational awareness technology on one of the company’s new Winter Palace ice-class containerships. Maersk’s overall goal isn’t a future with an autonomous fleet, but rather a more efficient fleet fostered by smart technology. The contract with Sea Machines marks the first time a container vessel will be equipped with the computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and perception software to augment and upgrade transit operations. “ The installation of Sea Machines’ advanced perception and situational awareness software aboard Maersk’s new technologically advanced, class of ships is significant in that it allows us to demonstrate how the technology can increase the safety, predictability and productivity of real-world shipping operations,” says Michael Johnson, Founder and CEO of Sea Machines. “A first for the industry, this collaboration with Maersk marks the start of a coming wave of early adopters and is helping to shape a new era of maritime operations.” The system leads to safer, more efficient maritime operations by using advanced sensors to collect a continuous stream of information from a vessel’s environmental surroundings. The technology identifies and tracks potential conflicts and displays the data in the wheelhouse. “Sea Machines’ software makes Maersk’s operations safer and more efficient by bringing intelligent information about the operational domain directly to the wheelhouse,” explains Mr. Johnson. “The technology can be compared to the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) commonly found in new road vehicles (which

Barges Dry Docks Work Boats Shutterstock/ Fotokon

JMS-Designed

R/V VIRGINIA 93’ x 28’ x 9’-6” draft Accommodations for 12 Designed by JMS for Virginia Inst. of Marine Sci.

Maersk’s new Winter Palace ice-class containership will be the first equipped with AI-powered situational awareness technology

alerts drivers of roadway obstacles and hazards and prevents accidents) and uses sensor data processed with artificial intelligence to notify vessel operators of navigational obstacles long before negative events take place. The vast majority of maritime accidents occur because of human error; these technologies mitigate these challenges because computers and digital systems are always on watch and don’t get tired or distracted like we [humans] do.” Mr. Johnson adds, “Our mission is to propel the maritime industry forward with 21st century technology and it’s exciting to see the growing demand for Sea Machines products.” Sea Machines’ autonomous technology goes beyond shipping operations. “It can also be applied to all types of commercial

vessels, including ships, workboats, research and survey vessels, military and security craft, petroleum and chemical vessels, fishing and aquaculture boats, and yachts,” he notes. “In the future, there will likely be applications for recreational boats, as well, which will make the sector safer and more accessible.” Mr. Johnson also tells Marine Log, that Sea Machines’ autonomous vessel system will be available as a “full commercial product in the third quarter of this year. The SM300 system can be easily retrofitted aboard existing commercial workboats or included in the build plans for new boats at an accessible price point.” The SM300 serves operations looking for level 3 operator-inthe loop autonomy in survey, spill response, dredging and security/surveillance.

Let’s make plans. Naval Architecture Marine Engineering www.JMSnet.com 860.536.0009

May 2018 // Marine Log 13


Update

Keppel Offshore & Marine Churning Out LNG Dual-Fuel Vessels

Keppel Offshore & Marine , Singapore, is on track to deliver South East Asia’s first dual-fuel LNG tug to Keppel Smit Towage. The 65-tonne bollard pull LNG dual-fuel Azimuth Stern Drive (ASD) tug named KST Liberty “marks an important milestone in Singapore’s journey to make LNG bunkering available” at its ports by 2020, said Loh Ngai Seng, Permanent Secretary at Singapore’s Ministry of Transport. The tug’s design “offers more economical

operations with efficient fuel consumption; a simplified bunkering process; optimized deck space that increases the safety and comfort of the crew; and ease of operations,” explains Abu Bakar, Managing Director, Gas & Specialized vessels, Keppel O&M. The LNG fuel is carried in containerized, type-C ISO-certified tanks on the main deck, and the vessel is equipped with a compact, cost-effective and patented LNG vaporizer. Shell will supply LNG fuel for the tug.

FueLNG, a joint venture between Keppel O&M and Shell Eastern Petroleum (Ptd) Ltd., will provide LNG bunkering services. The Keppel O&M group is building seven dual-fuel vessels. It’s Keppel Singmarine subsidiary most recently won a contract to build Singapore’s first LNG dual fueled bunker tanker. The 7,990 dwt tanker will be built to Bureau Veritas requirements and will deliver marine fuels to oceangoing vessels within local port limits. The tanker will be owned and operated by Sinanju Tankers Holdings Pte Ltd. The contract also includes an option to order a second similar tanker to be exercised within six months. “With solutions across the LNG value chain, Keppel O&M is in a strong position to capture opportunities as the industry adopts greener solutions,” says Mr. Bakar. Last October, Keppel O&M delivered the world’s first converted Floating Liquefaction (FLNG) vessel Hilli Episeyo to Golar LNG Ltd. The ship, chartered to Perenco Cameroon, is the first FLNGV project in Africa. It successfully began producing LNG back in March 2018. Golar also plans to convert its 1977-built Golar Gandria at Keppel for FLNG conversion.

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Update

Gladding-Hearn Kicks Off Construction of High-Speed Ferry Construction has officially begun on a second high-speed ferry being built for Rhode Island Fast Ferry, Inc., by GladdingHearn Shipbuilding, Duclos Corporation, Somerset, MA. The 320-passenger, all-aluminum catamaran measures 108.79 ft x 31.5 ft and is scheduled for delivery in 2019. The vessel, designed by Australia’s Incat Crowther, features an “S” bow hull for

excellent seakeeping, directional stability and high tolerance to shifts in trim and displacement. The high-speed ferry will be powered by twin MTU-12V4000M64 diesel engines, each delivering 1,875 Bhp at 1,800 rev/min and enabling the vessel to reach speeds of up to 29 knots. The engines turn a pair of five-blade

Ni-Br-Al propellers through ZF 5055 gearboxes. The ferry will also be equipped with a pair of 55 kW generators and a VT/MDI hydraulic trim tab motion-control system. The new ferry meets increased passenger demand by more than doubling the passenger capacity of the Ava Pearl. The Ava Pearl was the first high-speed ferry delivered from the shipyard to the operator in 2012.

Ingalls to Reactivate East Bank Yard Huntington Ingall s Industries’ Ingalls Shipbuilding division will reactivate its shipbuilding facilities on the east bank of the Pascagoula River in Mississippi. The east bank site—where the original Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp. was founded in 1938—was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. “We are excited to be bringing the east bank back to life,” says Ingalls Shipbuilding President, Brian Cuccias. “As we prepare to celebrate our 80th anniversary, what better way to do that than to announce that the original Ingalls facility will become a productive, vibrant part of the Pascagoula landscape once again!” The reactivation project is expected to take approximately two years to complete and will include the addition of large, covered construction areas for construction as well as the restoration of an outfitting pier. “We are using proven concepts from our west bank modernization as a guide for our east bank reactivation,” explains George Jones, Ingalls’ Vice President for Operations. The project is part of the company’s modernization efforts. “We have some of the best shipbuilders in the country, and they deserve the best shipyard in which to work,” adds Mr. Jones. “We are fortunate to operate in an area that supports shipbuilding and our military at the city, county and state levels,” said Mr. Cuccias. “Together with the State of Mississippi, we are investing hundreds of millions of dollars to provide our shipbuilders the best tools and equipment and the safest, most efficient work environment possible in which to do the great work they do every single day.” The reactivation of the east bank site is expected to support Ingalls current ship construction and modernization programs and help the shipbuilder prepare for the next generation of ships. May 2018 // Marine Log 15


Update

South Korea’s Plan to Rebuild its Shipbuilding and Shipping Industry Following the announcement from

South Korea’s government stating it will implement a Five-Year Plan to Rebuild Korean Shipping, South Korea’s Hyundai Merchant Marine (HMM) disclosed it will order a series of eco-friendly and highly efficient mega containerships for its fleet. HMM says it plans to order a total of 20 mega ships—12 will be above 20,000 TEU and eight will be 14,000 TEU. Request for Proposals (RFPs) went out to shipyards last month. Upon delivery, the ships will be deployed in the Asia-North Europe, and U.S. East Coast trades, respectively. The new ships will meet IMO’s sulfur requirements. HMM says it “will opt for scrubber installation or LNG bunkering” for all the new vessels once shipbuilders are chosen. Along with the fleet expansion, HMM will also set a new mid-long term plan in place to enhance its global competitiveness to promote business normalization and shareholder value, and to create added value between shipping and logistics for mutual growth. To get the job done, it says it will “boost its organization capability, develop IT technology adopted in shipping and expand global networks.” Under South Korea’s Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries mid-term restructuring plan, 200 new commercial vessels are expected to be ordered. The plan is to build 140 bulkers and 60 containerships. Additionally, the Yonhap news agency reports that in order to help local shipbuilders stay afloat the Ministry plans to place orders for 40 public purpose ships, such as patrol boats and military vessels, by 2019.

16 Marine Log // May 2018

Crowley Maritime Corp. Fuels First LNG-Powered ConRo Newbuild, El Coquí A significant milestone was marked last month when Crowley Maritime Corporation safely and successfully transferred frigid liquefied natural gas (LNG) into the first of its new Commitment Class ConRo ships, El Coquí. The fill-up was made possible thanks-to Crowley partners Eagle LNG Partners and Clean Energy, who loaded around 410,000 gallons of LNG on 41 trailers. T h e co m p a n i e s t r u c ke d t h e t r a i l ers from their respective LNG plants to the VT Halter Marine shipyard in Pascagoula, MS, where the ship is being constructed. Each trailer load took around an hour to empty into the 2,400 TEU El Coquí—with the entire transfer taking several days to complete. Upon delivery, the ship’s cryogenic, vacuum-insulated system will keep the LNG in a frigid state, around -260 degrees F, until it is ready for use. Once the vessel is operating, Eagle LNG Partner’s new liquefaction facility, near Jacksonville, FL, will exclusively support the ship’s fuel needs. Eagle LNG and Crowley jointly constructed a dockside LNG fuel depot at the JAXPORT Talleyrand Marine Terminal— helping to provide faster, more efficient LNG fueling.

SeaRiver Maritime Tankers Meanwhile, Crowley Alaska Tankers, LLC, has completed the acquisition of three tankers from SeaRiver Maritime Inc. and is now chartering them back to SeaRiver under varying multi-year terms. Built by Philly Shipyard and delivered in 2014 and 2015, respectively, the tankers Liberty Bay and Eagle Bay each have a capacity of 760,000 barrels and transport crude from Alaska to West Coast refineries. The third vessel, the SR American Progress, delivered by Newport News Shipbuilding in 1997, has a capacity of 342,000 barrels and transports refined petroleum between the U.S. Gulf and East Coast ports.

BWMS Manufacturers Form Association B a l l a s t wat e r management sys-

tem manufacturers and stakeholders have formed the Ballastwater Equipment Manufacturers’ Association (BEMA). The need for the association grew from the increasing demand for well-founded information on the practicability of ballast water treatment technologies in addition to the technical and environmental aspects of implementing ballast water management regulations worldwide. BEMA’s mission is to provide coordinated, technical, non-commercial guidance to both the maritime industry and regulatory agencies that are trying to understand the intricacies of ballast water treatment. The association has been a long time in the making, but its formation now comes at a major turning point in the industry. “What makes this time different,” says Hyde Marine’s Mark Riggio, “is the realization that we needed to have a unified voice in the conversation.”

Riggio, who was also elected President of BEMA, says BEMA will be that voice. BEMA will also serve as a resource for shipowners, designers, testing equipment suppliers, and regulators to discuss, openly, how ballast water treatement systems work and what should be the expectations of technology operating across a world fleet. “We have already been approached by ICS, BIMCO, and other shipowner associations to discuss the important implementation challenges,” says Ecochlor CEO Steve Candito. “The industry wants to discuss solutions and we are ready to talk.” Candito is also a member of BEMA’s Board of Directors. BEMA’s Board is comprised of representatives from a variety of BWMS companies including Cathelco, Coldharbour, DESMI Ocean Guard, ERMA FIRST, Evoqua, Optimarin, Panasia, and Wärtsilä. The Association is actively seeking new members. Learn more at www. BWEMA.org


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inside washington

Senate Bill Looks to Codify BOP, Arctic Drilling Rules

O

n April 28, 2017, President Trump signed Executive Order 13795 advancing the administration’s policy of reducing the regulatory burden on the offshore energy industry, while encouraging oil and gas development by opening up areas on the Outer Continental Shelf through lease sales. At the heart of the executive order, “Implementing an America-First Offshore Energy Strategy,” was a direction to the Secretary of the Interior to re c o n s i d e r s e v e r a l

Obama-era rules that were implemented in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In particular, the EO directs the Department of Interior (DOI) to reconsider the Blowout Preventer Systems and Well Control Rule and the Arctic Drilling Rule in order to encourage and prioritize oil and gas exploration and production. Senator Maria Cantwell, however, would like to put the brakes on what she describes as a“roll back of common sense solutions to improve safety and prevent oil spills.” Senator Cantwell (D-WA), the Ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, along with Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA) introduced Senate bill S. 2720, The Clean Coast Act, on April 19, 2018. The act codifies the Blowout Preventer Systems and Well Control Rule and the Arctic Drilling Rule. Blowout Preventer Systems and Well Control Rule, which among

other things, sets minimum requirements for the design, manufacture, repair, and maintenance of BOPs. The Arctic Drilling Rule requires access to appropriate containment and response equipment in the U.S. Arctic OCS. Both those rules were put in place by the DOI under the Obama administration following the Macondo blowout in April 2010 that resulted in the death of 11 offshore oil workers, the loss of the Deepwater Horizon, and spill of an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf. The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), which oversees offshore drilling, has taken a different approach to safety. In March, it implemented a new RiskBased Inspection Program and has a goal to conduct more physical inspections of drilling rigs. The program employs a systematic framework to identify facilities and operations that exhibit a high-risk profile.

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CEO Spotlight

JOHN WATERHOUSE, Chief Concept Engineer, Elliott Bay Design Group

Seattle-based naval architectural firm marks its 30th anniversary

T

his year, naval architectural and marine engineering firm Elliott Bay Design Group (EBDG) will mark its 30th anniversary. Over that 30-year span, the Seattle-based, employee-owned company has built a solid portfolio of commercial vessel designs. In particular, it enjoys an envious reputation among commercial operators for striking a balance between innovative and practical solutions. In the ferries sector alone, EBDG has carved a niche for itself, designing vessels for operators such as the Alaska Marine Highway System, The Woods Hole, Martha’s Vineyard & Nantucket Steamship Authority, and the Staten Island Ferry. MARINE LOG recently sat down with John Waterhouse, Elliott Bay Design Group’s Chief Concept Engineer, to discuss the company’s history, the challenges for naval architects and marine engineers, and some of the current technology trends in the maritime industry. The company’s achievements should come as no surprise to anyone who is familiar with its history. EBDG can trace its roots to Nickum and Spaulding Associates, Inc., which was led by the legendary team of Philip F. Spaulding and George C. Nickum,

20 Marine Log // May 2018

who founded the firm in 1971. Mr. Spaulding, who passed away in 2005 at the age of 92, was recognizable for his trademark bowtie. So, too, is EBDG’s John Waterhouse. “I was an employee of Nickum & Spaulding in 1980,” says Waterhouse. “When they decided to close their doors in 1987, I decided to put together some partners and buy the assets of the company. From that we created the Elliott Bay Design Group.”

Creating its Own Legacy While EBDG has built on the legacy of Nickum and Spaulding Associates, it has established its own brand identity. From the outset, Mr. Waterhouse, along with his founding partners, decided not to continue under the Nickum and Spaulding Associates name. Instead, they wanted a name that would better reflect the firm’s overall approach to design, while paying homage to origins. “It really wasn’t about us—but rather about establishing a new firm for the long haul,” says Waterhouse. Instead, the founding partners opted for a name they felt would encompass what the new group was about. “We felt that the combination of a marine place (Elliott

Bay) with our passion (Design) and our collective approach (Group) made sense,” explains Waterhouse. In 2007, EBDG was acquired by American Commercial Lines (ACL), Jeffersonville, IN. When global acquisition firm Platinum Equity purchased ACL in 2010, it became clear that EBDG needed to be its own company again. That’s when almost two dozen EBDG employees purchased the company from ACL turning it into the fully employeeowned organization it is today. “When we bought ourselves back,” says Waterhouse, “we opened the ownership to a broad base of employees. We have over 20 shareholders in the company right now. We feel that gives us several advantages. “First, it makes our employees feel like they have a piece of the action. They are truly invested in the company. Second, it helps our retention rates because people are excited to see the company grow and be part of that. And, finally, it allows us to share the business information with all our employees. We practice open book management and share information on profit and loss, and the kinds of contracts we have in house. We have a lot of smart people, so why not let them understand the economic drivers of the business, so they can help us be successful.”

People are the Difference As was the case when it was originally founded, EBDG’s strength continues to lie in the depth and experience of its staff. That’s something that is being celebrated in conjunction with its 30th anniversary in an ongoing social media campaign, “Our people are our difference.” The social media posts highlight quotes from everyone from the administrative assistant to the CFO. “In the naval architecture/marine engineering business, your ‘product’ is your people,” says Christina Villiott, EBDG Vice President of Sales & Marketing. “EBDG understands this and has built a team of professional engineers, designers and support staff whose common goal is to help our customers succeed. If you want to provide the best service in the marine industry, you have to hire the best. And that is exactly what we do and why our people are the difference!” Team members have practical knowledge in vessel operations and shipyard experience, and possess a thorough working knowledge of construction practices. As a full service firm, EBDG integrates naval


John Waterhouse architecture, marine engineering, analytics and design to deliver comprehensive solutions that meet the goals and objectives of its clients.

Design Innovator Among EBDG’s most notable projects is the design of the first purpose-built Lightering Support Vessel (LSV) for AET Offshore Service, Galveston, TX. The first of the class, the 185 ft AET Innovator, received awards from several marine industry trade journals for its thoughtful design to streamline ship-to-ship transfers in the U.S. Gulf. At the time the AET Innovator was christened in 2011, AET Offshore General Manager Bill Merritt noted that while lightering had been conducted in the U.S. Gulf since the 1980’s, it had been provided by converted offshore supply vessels. Merritt said the new EBDG-design LSVs would “provide a more stable and effective working platform for our lightering crews and are more maneuverable and able to handle less favorable weather conditions. “This means,” he added, “that our lightering operations will become safer, more efficient and more flexible – which is good for our crews and good for our customers. It also means that we can provide a more comfortable life for our teams who spend 28 days onboard during a normal shift.” EBDG has also been pushing the boundaries on tug and barge design. It counts among its long-time customers Seattle-based Harley Marine Services (HMS), which features a number of EBDG-design tank barges in its fleet. Among those are a series of 83,000 bbl double-hull coastal tank barges that when paired with a series of 4,492 hp tugs make up Articulated Tug Barge units. The ATBs have been an important part of Harley’s quality marine transportation business diversification. Those ATBs have also garnered praise and accolades from industry for their safe and environmentally responsible design.

National Laboratories to take part in a team effort to determine the feasibility of hydrogen fuel cells in a zero-emission, high-speed ferry in San Francisco Bay. In February 2018, EBDG completed a feasibility study for the nation’s largest ferry operator, Washington State Ferries (WSF), that will help assess the impact of converting WSF’s three Jumbo Mark II Class car ferries from diesel-electric propulsion to marine hybrid propulsion. The idea behind the conversion would be to add batteries to replace and augment the vessel’s diesel generator sets. The batteries will be charged primarily from shore-based sources. The study was triggered by the need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ferry system to meet state’s targets for 2020 and beyond. WSF is the largest producer of GHG in the Washington Department of Transportation, accounting for 67% of total emissions—with the three Jumbo Mark II Class ferries consuming 26% of the fuel in the WSF fleet.

Challenges of Naval Architecture “When I started out at the company,” says Waterhouse, “we had hand calculators and drafting boards, and we communicated via telex. Now, we have 3D computer modeling, smart phones, and software tools that we can use in the office that we didn’t even dream of when we started 30 years ago.

“One of the challenges we face is that our customers are expecting us to design for smaller and smaller margins. It used to be when you were doing hand calculations you could give a significant margin to the design in order to account for the unknowns. That was considered acceptable and good engineering practice.” Now, however, customers’ expectations have changed. “Now, we are looking to make ships more economical to build and operate,” he says. “As a result we are trying to shave out those allowances, those contingencies to try and engineer more tightly and more exactly. That’s where computer tools such as computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis and 3D modeling for weight estimating and ship motions allow us to have a better ability to calculate the characteristics of a ship and predict performance.” Waterhouse tells the story of a boatyard he visited in Maine. “[They] had a sign on the wall that read: ‘Price, Quality, Schedule: Pick Two.’ That philosophy is still there for a lot of our customers. They would like to have it all. How can we help our customers reduce their CAPEX, reduce their OPEX, and allow them to compete successfully in what I think is an increasingly competitive world. Our challenge as naval architects and marine engineers is to try and find the best balance of competing factors to make a good design go forward.”

Forefront of Green Design With vessel owners and operators facing ever-stricter environmental regulations, EBDG has been in the forefront of designing practical solutions that incorporate greener technologies, while improving economic performance. Besides working on projects for alternative fuels, such as Liquefied Natural Gas, EBDG is also exploring the use of hydrogen fuel cells and hybrid propulsion. In 2015, the firm was selected by Sandia May 2018 // Marine Log 21


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Emissions

Sulfur Cap:

Everyone’s A Loser

Shutterstock / Igor Grochev

A

s the IMO’s 2020 deadline for the 0.5% sulfur cap looms ever larger, the question of compliance is top-of-mind for everyone in the maritime industry. However, this is somewhat belied by a lack of initiative in compliance with the new rule throughout the industry in general. While newbuilds are almost always designed to comply, owners of existing tonnage appear to be experiencing a kind of standoff. Plausibly, more brain power is being devoted to the question of compliance in the extraordinary seafaring nation of Denmark than anywhere else. Here, the maritime industry is equivalent to 3% of national GDP — of which Maersk, the world’s largest shipping line, is some 2.5% — and any regulations which impact shipping will have a pronounced knock-on effect. There are various options for compliance. One option is the use of LNG, broadly considered to be a green replacement for fuel oil thanks to its low sulfur and negligible particulate matter (PM) content. While many newbuilds today are being designed with LNG in mind, it is considered prohibitively expensive in most retrofit applications, thanks to the requirement for new, expensive, and larger tanks and associated

By Charlie Bartlett, European Editor reduction in cargo space, as well as new engines. With the ever-shorter lifespan of today’s cargo vessels, the expenditure is almost always seen as unjustified. Another option is the use of low-sulfur heavy fuel oil (LSHFO), a new grade of fuel ready to burn in most engines, in which the sulfur content is refined out of ordinary heavy fuel oil using a visbreaker or coker. A high-opex, low-(or in some cases zero) capex option for shipowners, this is anticipated to be popular for older tonnage. While supply concerns abound, oil majors maintain that steps are being taken to ensure that adequate LSHFO is available. But they will have a job. “A coker unit is a billion-dollar cost investment, and it takes 5 years to install,” explains Charlotte Røjgaard, Global Technical Manager of Marine Fuel Services at Bureau Veritas. “If they are not installing it now, it won’t be ready for 2020.” Owners also have the option to fit scrubbers to their vessels, which wash the sulfur from the exhaust gases, generally depositing the resulting sludge in a sediment tank which is then unloaded in port. The IMO has stipulated that, in conjunction with the use of scrubbers, owners will be allowed to continue using heavy fuel oil. “We read that around 2,000 scrubbers

will be installed ahead of 2020. Of 120,000 ships, that is a very small share,” says Svend Stenberg Morhølt, Group COO of Danish bunker supplier and shipowner, Monjasa. “Similarly, we see less than 1% on LNG.” This inaction could, feasibly, be a sign that the market is waiting for the bigger players to show their hands. Thus far, many have anticipated a market which would divide the industry into winners and losers, with a small number of companies carving out a decisive business advantage over those who failed to back the right horse. But on the other hand, the hour grows late, and Morhølt has a different explanation. “The elephant in the room is non-compliance,” he says. “If we look at the Fujairah conference of bunker suppliers, shipowners and charterers in 2017, where they did a survey, non-compliance was tied with compliance in first place. “The stakes are very high and there are going to be issues if we don’t consider how to deal with non-compliance. We just have to acknowledge that the financial incentives of non-compliance are significant.” The fact is that carrying on burning HFO regardless is and has always been the cheapest option, and the fines associated with being caught in the act simply are not May 2018 // Marine Log 23


Emissions Overhead photo of Maersk Group’s headquarters

particularly high. The fines levied by the port states are likely to be dwarfed by the cost differential between long-term operation on low-sulphur fuel, and HFO. According to many commentators, the lack of regulatory teeth means that shipping bodies might simply carry on as normal, taking any fines in their stride merely as a cost of doing business. No framework currently exists for port states to arrest non-compliance vessels. “Globally, we see bunker suppliers are

saying we see 400m metric tonnes [of LSFO] globally,” says Morhølt. “Maybe that’s going to be $150 extra per tonne, maybe it’s going to a little bit less, maybe a little bit more. We’ve seen estimates between 20 and 100% more expensive. “When the financial incentive goes up, we have to be very concerned with governance. Yes there will be port state controls, yes there will be sniffers. But in Denmark there is not yet any connection between a sniffer

and a fine. We are one of the most closely regulated, government-controlled countries in the world, and the highest fine we have issued to date was $60,000. And when you consider we have around 60,000 ships passing through Danish waters, getting sniffed regularly at the [Oresund] bridge, that statistically suggests a large incentive not to comply. “A new requirement [arriving in March 2020] is that as a shipowner, you need to notify me [a bunker supplier] that you have a scrubber installed, and then I can supply you with 3.5% sulfur HFO. If you don’t have one, which is 99%, then you have to take the 0.5% sulfur fuel.” But even if shipowners do opt to try and buck the system, and even if they manage to evade the resulting fines, it is still unlikely that they will escape unaffected. For refiners, a portion of HFO will have to be redirected into low-sulfur refining, denting the total supply of the 3.5% sulfur fuel; and, as many have noted, a brace of owners who have taken the expense of installing scrubbers represent a captive market. “We are in contact with the majors, who say ‘we are in the process of making it available’,” says Morhølt. “But I’ve read studies suggesting that in 2020, the bunker fuel

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Emissions market as a whole will experience a $25 billion increase in cost.” According to Røjgaard, it is not only the cost of switching, but the process itself which is likely to present major problems for owners. Bunker tanks, especially those which have been used for a number of years, are likely to contain high-sulfur residues, which can contaminate the low-sulfur fuel and cause non-compliance. It will therefore be necessary to clean every last fraction of residue from a ship’s fuel tanks before they can be refueled with LSFO. “You cannot just empty these tanks of heavy fuel and put lowsulfur fuel in there,” Røjgaard explains. Even if shipowners and crews are sufficiently diligent, there are many factors that are outside of their control. “Bunker barge captains are not going to want to scrape out their tanks,” Røjgaard says. And ditto for shore-based tanks. “And if you have a little bit left of those heavy fractions, the remnants of that heavy fuel are going to contaminate the distillates with sulfur.” While refiners may put out enough lowsulfur fuel to bridge the gap, then, it seems as though the sulfur cap will lead to higher costs for everyone, both today and in the future – even those who would try and cheat the system.

ExxonMobil Rolls-Out Compliant Fuels As IMO’s 0.5% Global Sulfur Cap inches its way closer to reality, ship operators are weighing their available options to ensure they meet compliance requirements. One of the big concerns is the availability of compliant fuel. To help oper ator s, E x xo nMo b i l has announced it will supply fuels that comply with IMO’s 0.5% sulfur cap in ports in Northwest Europe, the Mediterranean and Singapore. Additional locations are to be announced before the year is through. “Our new suite of compliant fuels will include residual and distillate grades,” says Luca Volta, Marine Fuels Venture Manager at ExxonMobil. “We are at a very advanced stage in the development of these fuels, therefore making us well positioned to help customers meet the reduced sulfur limit ahead of the IMO’s 2020 implementation date.” Volta adds: “Close collaboration with our global manuf ac tur ing, research and

development teams is crucial to this process. This integrated approach has helped us to develop fuels that not only meet the ISO 8217-2017 specification, but also ensures our customers get the high quality and compliant options they need through our stringent testing protocols and fit-for-use assessments.” E x xo nM o b il’s IM O - c o m p lia nt fuels are for mulated using proprietar y patented technology that help identify potential compatibility issues during the development process—helping address the potential hazards operators could face when mixing fuels.

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May 2018 // Marine Log 25


Hybrid & Electric The city of Suzhou, China has deployed 177 electric vessels, all powered by Torqeedo, to clean up its waterways

HUMMING ALONG

Exclusive to Marine Log

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lectric and hybrid propulsion systems are making impressive inroads in the world maritime industry. To get more insight into this growing market segment, Marine Log spoke with Dr. Christoph Ballin, CEO of Torqeedo, a German company that makes integrated electric propulsion systems for the light commercial marine segment. The company has carved out a niche for itself as a leading supplier of integrated electric and hybrid systems for passenger ferries, excursion vessels, water taxis, harbor support boats and other working vessels.

26 Marine Log // May 2018

The electric propulsion movement in the marine industry is best understood within the larger context of the sustainability and renewable revolution, Ballin told Marine Log. He sees the primary drivers as being regulatory, technology and market forces.

Global Regulatory Drivers Ballin pointed out that many countries are adopting more aggressive timelines to phase out the sale of internal combustion engines. China, for instance, built more electric vehicles—680,000 cars, buses and trucks in 2017—than the rest of the world combined.

By 2019, it will require automakers that produce over 30,000 vehicles annually to build at least 10 percent of them as electric, or buy credits to offset the difference. India will require all new vehicles sold in the country to be emission-free by 2030. France will end the sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles by 2040. The city of Paris is moving the compliance deadline ahead to 2030.The United Kingdom will ban sales of new diesel and gasoline vehicles by 2040. Germany is moving to require all new vehicles to be emission free by 2030. In the United States, California is expected to adopt steep hikes in the

Torqeedo

Torqeedo CEO Christoph Ballin provides insight into the strong growth of marine hybrid and all-electric propulsion


Hybrid & Electric registration fees for non-electric vehicles and is considering measures similar to those underway in China. National and municipal regulators are now also turning their attention to urban waterways. The city of Amsterdam, for instance, has implemented a phased schedule to make its canals and waterways totally emissionfree. Most tourist boats less than 10 meters are already required to be all electric, and two-stroke outboard motors older than 2007 are not permitted for use in the city’s waters. All skippered, large, canal cruise boats must be emission-free by 2025. Amsterdam is also taking steps to create a public charging infrastructure for electric vessels.

electric power provides unique advantages over gas or diesel systems for slower vessels or those with shorter run times. And hybrid solutions—although costlier in terms of initial capital expense—can push larger boats at higher speeds for longer times. Solar panel recharging can also extend the range. Ballin also observed that electric motors intrinsically offer far superior performance over diesel engines in terms of torque at slow speeds. As an example he points to several large, heavy hopper barges working in Germany running on Torqeedo Deep Blue. “The higher capex of electric or hybrid propulsion versus a comparable engine run-

Batteries Lead the Charge Ballin observed that the biggest barrier to overcome in electric marine propulsion is energy storage capacity, effectively limiting vessel cruising range on battery power. Happily, the marine sector is benefiting from the heavy investments being made in battery technology for the much larger land transportation industry. Virtually all major auto manufacturers are rapidly converting their production from combustion to electric or hybrid drives. For instance, Volvo announced last year that it will cease production of non-electric cars in 2019. Jaguar Land Rover will electrify its entire vehicle line by 2020, and MercedesBenz plans to do the same by 2022. Volvo and Tesla are also showing prototype electric long-haul trucks. The automotive industry is pushing the technical boundaries for energy storage, and Torqeedo has formed an alliance with the German auto manufacturer BMW to marinize and integrate BMW’s lithium batteries with its Deep Blue systems. Torqeedo started using the BMW i3 30.5 kWh batteries in July 2017, and added the smaller-footprint 9.1 kWh i8 in 2018. “Our partnership with BMW gives us access to automotive economy of scale in R&D, manufacturing and quality,” he said. “BMW’s automated module production factory in Dingolfing sets the standard in high-precision and extremely robust battery modules built to withstand shock and vibration.”

Market Drivers In addition to cleaner air and water, Ballin makes a compelling economic argument for electric propulsion for certain types of boats and usage patterns. He admits that a pure electric drive system is not currently suitable for large vessels that travel at high speeds for long periods of time. On the other hand,

The sustainability revolution is sweeping through the marine world...it’s time for everyone to get on board.

ning on fossil fuels is offset by lower opex in terms of fuel savings, reduced maintenance costs and increased uptime. Electricity prices are less expensive and much more stable than fuel prices, eliminating fuel cost volatility. We calculate that if a boat’s annual fuel costs exceed $5,600, electric propulsion can yield a return on investment in just a few years. After that, the savings really start to kick in,” he says. Fuel costs are zero, and Torqeedo offers a long-term battery capacity warranty of up to nine years after commissioning, even if they’re being used every day. As Ballin reminds us there are also intangible benefits, such as improving the health of crew and the enjoyment of passengers, by reducing their exposure to noise, exhaust, vibration and fumes.

Each is driven by a Torqeedo electric propulsion system, including a 10kW electric outboard and 16 lithium batteries, with a built-in shore power connection for fast recharging. The barges are designed to cruise at about four knots and operate up to 12 hours without recharging. In Europe, Watertaxi Rotterdam added the first hybrid vessel in its fleet in 2016. The boat is powered by a Torqeedo Deep Blue 50kW electric motor, with an integrated energy management system. Two 20kW generators keep the batteries charged when operating at speeds up to 13.5 knots on the River Meuse in the center of the city. The operator claims that the new boat is 70 percent more fuel-efficient than the other 15 water taxis in the fleet. Also in the Netherlands, a purpose-built solar/electric passenger ferry commenced operations at the Port of Harlingen in late 2017. The boat has a unique integrated propulsion system with two independently controlled Torqeedo 4kW counter-steering pod drives fore and aft, providing an extraordinary level of maneuverability. The city of Suzhou in eastern China recently deployed a fleet of 177 electric vessels, all powered by Torqeedo, to clean up trash and debris on its extensive canals and waterways. Torqeedo also has major projects underway in Vietnam and Thailand, according to Ballin. Beyond that, Torqeedo is providing the integrated all-electric propulsion system for Spain’s first solar-powered passenger ferry, which will enter service this summer. The 18m all-aluminum catamaran, with deployable and retractable rooftop sliding solar panels, has no auxiliary engine and will operate solely on solar energy and batteries. The Torqeedo propulsion system consists of two 50 kW Deep Blue electric motors for a total of 100 kW, driven by eight 30.5 dWh BMW i3 batteries. The vessel can run up to eight hours on batteries without sunshine. “The future is now,” says Ballin. “The sustainability revolution is already sweeping through the marine world, and it’s time for everyone in the industry to get on board.”

Recent Deployments Ballin pointed to a number of successful deployments of Torqeedo’s battery-electric and hybrid-electric systems over the last 12 to 18 months worldwide. In the U.S., the city of San Antonio placed into service a fleet of 43 electric passenger boats on its River Walk downtown canal system. The 40 passenger, 27-ft vessels were designed by Houston-based Metalab and built by Lake Assault Boats, Superior, WI. May 2018 // Marine Log 27


AN ELECTRIC FUTURE DNV GL’s Maritime Battery Workshop brings together industry experts

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ith batter y-electric marine propulsion applications on the rise, leading experts in the field recently gathered at The Maritime Battery Workshop at DNV GL’s offices in Houston to assess the regulatory, economic, societal, and technological market drivers. By next year, there should be in excess of 200 vessels in service or under construction that have batteries installed, according data presented at the workshop by Dr. Ben Gully, an engineer contributing to Research & Innovation at DNV GL. About two-thirds of those vessels are made up of ferries, passenger vessels, and offshore service vessels. In recent months, momentum for battery-electric vessels has picked up in the U.S., with American vessel owners ordering newbuilds or retrofits of ferries, OSVs, and even the first hybrid battery cargo vessel. The keel for that as yet unnamed vessel, ordered by Connecticut-based Harbor Harvest, was laid at Derecktor Shipyards in Mamaroneck, NY. It will be fitted with a BAE Systems’ HybriDrive Marine Propulsion System. Publicly traded Seacor Marine has also committed to retrofitting four Platform Supply Vessels (PSVs) owned by its Mexican joint venture, Mantenimiento Express Marítimo SAPI de CV (MEXMAR), with Kongsberg Maritime hybrid propulsion technology. Another six PSV newbuilds for 28 Marine Log // May 2018

SEACOSCO, a joint venture between Seacor Marine and COSCO, will integrate hybrid technology from Rolls-Royce. And, Washington State Ferries is developing an RFP to convert its three Jumbo Mark II class ferries to hybrid electric propulsion and upgrade its infrastructure at terminals in Seattle, Bainbridge, Edmonds, and Kingston. While U.S. vessel owners are making solid investments in hybrid and all-electric propulsion, Norway remains the global leader, with almost a 40% market share of the vessels in operation. This is thanks to a strong “green” national agenda. For years, Norway has been actively working through the IMO to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping and, domestically, has pursued a similar policy. Norway has been and continues to be a leader in the promotion of battery-electric car ferries through public procurement as a climate measure. R&D programs under the Research Council of Norway, Innovation Norway and Enova have also supported the industry’s growth. This has led to the introduction of such award-winning vessels as the all-electric ferry MS Ampere, the 400-passenger hybrid propulsion tourist boat Vision of the Fjords, and the recently launched tourist vessel Future of the Fjords, which was built by Brødrene AA for The Fjords. It will sail between Gudvangen and Flåm in the Nærøyfjord— a world heritage fjord.

Another key factor driving the investment in battery-electric propulsion technologies has been financing. The Norwegian NOx Fund is an industry-authority tax relief program aimed at reducing nitrogen oxides from emissions. Norwegian businesses that join the NOx Fund pay a lower NOx fee to the fund instead of paying higher taxes on those emissions to the Norwegian government. Businesses that belong to the fund then can apply for financial support that can cover up to 80% of the cost of installing NOx-reducing technologies that will lower emissions beyond the current regulatory framework. Battery-electric and hybrid, hydrogen fuel cells, LNG as a marine fuel, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), EGR, engine replacements, etc. are just some of the technologies that can gain funding. The support from the NOx Fund will be available until 2025. More than 1,000 projects across all industries in Norway have benefitted from over NOK6 billion in support from the fund, according to a presentation by Sverre Eriksen, Principal Engineer, DNV GL. Those projects have resulted in a reduction of an estimated 34,000 tons of NOx annually. Now, Norway is going a step further with the creation of what would be the world’s first zero emission zones at sea. Norway’s parliament, Storting, has adopted a resolution to halt emissions from cruise ships and ferries in the Norwegian world heritage fjords as soon as technically possible and no later than 2026. Norway has about 1,190 fjords. Hege Økland, CEO of the maritime industrial cluster NCE Maritime CleanTech, says the decision will be of great significance for the marine industry. She compares it to Storting’s decision to require that all ferries in new tenders from 2015 must have low or zero emission technology. This has led to an electric revolution in the Norwegian fjords, as more than 60 electrical ferries will be operating within the next few years. “Norway has become a world-leading maritime supplier of low- and zero-emissions solutions,” says Økland. “The decision on zero-emission fjords can secure our industry’s position in this area, so that Norwegian business will be strengthened and we can provide green solutions also to the rest of the world.” The decision means in practice that all cruise and tourist ships currently sailing along the coast of Norway immediately have to plan for how to halt emissions. Existing ships must be equipped for electric propulsion with battery packs and, in the future, hydrogen.

Scandlines Deutschland GmbH

Hybrid & Electric


propulsion Feature The introduction of EEDI has initiated design trends in vessel powertrains

FINDING A

workaround Calculating Barred Speed Range During Simulations & Sea Trials By Chris Leontopoulos, Manager Corporate Technology, ABS

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aritime industry efforts to improve environmental performance have led to the production of next generation engines and propellers that can be too efficient for the designs of some powertrains, particularly those powering common commercial vessels such as bulkers, tankers and containerships. The trend has reduced power and torque

margins and increased the use of thinner and shorter shaft lines that are more vulnerable to external disturbances, such as the forces from heavy propellers or from operating in heavy weather. Those margins are presently managed by regulating the time it takes for the powertrain to accelerate through what is known as the “Barred Speed Range” (BSR). An extended passage through the BSR can cause

fatigue-related failure of the vessel’s shaft line or problems maneuvering in heavy seas. Research projects to address this issue are on-going at the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) and at CIMAC, the International Council on Combustion Engines. For its part, ABS is helping to establish industry solutions at both forums. In the interim, there is no official guidance May 2018 // Marine Log 29


PROPULSION to help prevent owners from having vessels delivered with this issue, but there is a workaround until the Rules are established.

The introduction in 2013 of the IMO’s Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) initiated trends that have affected the design of vessel powertrains, including the adoption of larger diameter propellers, de-rated engines with lower revolutions per minute (RPM), shorter shaft lines and decreased space for engine rooms. As a result, a growing number of ship operators are reporting unacceptable durations through the BSR while undergoing sea trials, leading to requests for estimates of shaft-line fatigue and BSR passage times at the plan-approval stage. This poses a challenge for class societies, shipyards, and engine makers alike. Tr aditionally, IACS members have approved the torsional-vibration characteristics of a powertrain according to an established Rule (IACS UR M68), which defines two “semi-empirical” limits stemming from a recognized approach to fatigue prevention and industry records. In addition to applying IACS UR M68, most supplemental class Rules would include a qualitative clause such as “to be passed through as quickly as possible” to avoid accumulating potential fatigue cycles. Before the EEDI era, the BSR passage was limited to a few seconds, and an insignificant number of torsional cycles. Post-EEDI, the small power margins (PM) attained by the new eco-efficient engines can result in the creation of an insufficient amount of torque to ensure a quick passage through the BSR.

Sorting Out BSR with Computational Simulations The substantial increase in the time needed to pass through the BSR has vessel operators questioning the continued validity of the IACS UR M68, largely because it focuses on determining the upper and lower limits of the BSR, rather than exploring the potential effects of extended time durations. To assess the effect of duration times, computational simulations that seek to predict the performance need to consider data such as shaft-line acceleration times throughout the operating range, including within the BSR. Simulations of this nature require data from the engine-control system, including speed governor functions and fuel indices to establish torque-versusspeed ratios. Data is also required to define the 30 Marine Log // May 2018

Predicting the impact of BSR transit times requires data and information that may not be available at the plan-approval stage.

dynamic torque capacity and engine’s acceleration performance under load, which would necessarily include any torque-limiting function of the engine’s control system, and the potential effects from turbochargers or additional details from the combustion process. Any simulation would also require da t a on ve s s e l dyn a mic s —in cludin g but not limited to the torque and thrust coefficients and the advance coefficient of the propeller. An assumption regarding the propeller’s “light running margin” (LRM) is required, as are the initial and final vessel speeds (in knots) and ship resistance (RS). The volume and complexity of the data required is significant, if the calculations are to inform the plan-approval process and some assumptions will have to be made.

Over-Boosting the Torque Inside the BSR Any acceleration challenges on operational ships traditionally have been resolved by changing engine parameters to increase the dynamic torque; propeller modifications often can achieve similar results. Increasing the engine torque in the BSR is achieved by increasing the index limiters, allowing more fuel to be injected, while ensuring that the EEDI value remains unaffected. Experience from vessel sea trials appears to indicate that, by “over-boosting” the torque inside the BSR, the stress levels on the shaft line are slightly reduced during acceleration within the range. This is thought to be caused by the shorter time spent on the resonance—resulting in less time for vibration to build to maximum levels—and increased propeller damping due to its heavier curve during acceleration. In terms of fatigue lifetime, there may be an optimum BSR transit time; any further reduction to that by “over-boosting the torque” has the potential to cause stress/

torque amplitude responses that shorten the lifetime of powertrain components. Quantifying the BSR transit time not only affects the fatigue life of the shaft line, but it can also affect the maneuverability of the vessel. The power margin varies depending on the propeller curve, such as during the scantling trial, design trial, ballast trial and Bollard Pull curve. A small PM or a small LRM indicates reduced acceleration capability and reduced maneuverability. According to engine makers, a minimum value of at least 10% of PM at the upper limit of BSR using the Bollard Pull curve of the proposed propeller should be required to provide enough acceleration capability to pass through the BSR. They say that transit times should never exceed 30 seconds during sea trials. If the 10% limit cannot be achieved, specialized fatigue calculations may be required to demonstrate acceptable powertrain fatigue lifetimes and maneuverability.

Conclusion When a BSR transit time is unacceptably long, engine makers use software to intervene in the engine control system and increase torque by using Dynamic Limiter Functions (DLF). Measurements appear to indicate that this approach does not increase the vibratory stresses unless excessive power is used. Predicting the impact of BSR transit times requires data and information that is usually not available at the plan-approval stage. These “transient analysis” types of calculations also require engineering assumptions, which affect the accuracy and the sensitivity of fatigue lifetime estimations. Accordingly, it may be more advantageous to use the power-margin approach to assess BSR transit times, rather than modify the IACS UR M68 methodology, as the main engine makers have proposed to IACS.

ABS

EEDI Impacts Design of Vessel Powertrains


cyber security Feature

As technology evolves, sound cyber risk management practices are necessary

Managing

Cyber Threats

By Jeffrey Menoher, Stelling Cyber Systems

A Primer for Cyber Security Risk Assessment

Shutterstock/ Rawpixel.com

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arine Log’s February 2018 article on the tragic loss of steamship El Faro and its crew highlighted the value of forensic investigation in order to determine cause, take corrective action, and reduce the likelihood of future tragedies. This sad event can teach us a great deal about managing risk in situations where confluences of people and technology operate in perilous environments. Maritime technology developments that focus on information and global network connectivity have already yielded extraordinary Return on Investment (ROI), and promise more, but they also create risks that cannot be ignored. This article describes methods for framing and assessing information technology IT risks, also known as cyber security risks, in order to manage them cost effectively. It is useful to remember that the global communication network we call “the internet” was originally created for military use, which included naval operations. Information flowing through military networks was encrypted and managed by carefully vetted and highly trained personnel.

Communication terminals were always subject to access restrictions. As the internet evolved for public use and an increasing number of commercial enterprises came to rely on it, a number of important safeguards were forgotten and must now be relearned. Before the internet, issues of maritime security and safety were more familiar. If you didn’t have pirates or saboteurs on board, you could rely on a properly trained crew to manage the ship. Now, through the internet, a saboteur or virtual pirate might penetrate the computer control systems of the ship from anywhere in the world. The good news is that the maritime industry has a highly developed risk management culture and methods of cyber security risk management prove surprisingly familiar when framed in the proper context. Let’s list some risk factors that we have already mentioned or implied: • Technology Investment • Training of Personnel • Encrypted Communications • Restricted Access These are, in fact, cornerstones of cyber security risk management. Though the concepts are familiar in broad terms, the details

of implementation can be technology specific and evolve rapidly. One of the more difficult problems in cyber security risk management is the methodology used to provide reliable, consistent information for the risk acceptance decision. For most who embark on the cyber security risk management voyage, thousands of pages of security standards documents can induce a fog that seems impenetrable. The first rule of navigation is to know where you are. Then you can determine a course to your destination and proceed there. Most organizations don’t know where they are. Information systems are complicated, and professional expertise expensive. This problem is exacerbated by the rapid pace of technological evolution that exceeds the cultivation rate of human technical skill. The problem is not just technical. Cultur a l cl a s he s a r is e w ithin o t her w ise well-functioning organizations from legitimate differences of perspective; often pitting technical professionals and operations managers against each other. Technicians see cyber security issues at close range, while managers are trying to move the ship and cargo from one place to another efficiently. May 2018 // Marine Log 31


cyber security Executives who are authorized to make risk acceptance decisions see a much larger picture with less detail. The three groups don’t speak the same language. Again, there is good news. Guidance, in the form of national and international standards, is available that provide a common language and objective methods for assessing and accepting the appropriate level of cyber security risk. There are also highly developed methods for visualizing risk that help clarify and streamline risk decision processes. When cyber security risks are understood, they can be managed cost-effectively. Guidance for cyber security risk management is available from a variety of highly respected source organizations including (but not limited to) the following: • International Standards Organization (ISO), “27000 series standards family” • International Society for Automation (ISA), “62443 documents” • U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) Which is the best standard to use? It hardly matters. The most important subject matter is common to all of them, and their respective requirements (document sections) have been mapped to each other. This author (who confesses significant bias and whose customers are largely U.S. based) prefers NIST because its guidance is entirely free of charge and comprehensive enough to be used by the U.S. Department of Defense, and has been the basis for most other standards developed. Let’s play the role of an executive investing in an Information System (IS) to perform a valuable business function. The IS might control a ship’s powerplant or accumulate data during a voyage to measure operational efficiency. The investment cost and expected ROI are well defined when the IS is acquired. After deployment, we find that the IS functions as expected; and yields the expected ROI. Is all well? Maybe not, as we shall see. While the lifecycle of a ship spans decades, the lifespan of a typical computer platform, even an industrial one, is measured in months. Obsolete computer products are routinely cut off from factory maintenance by their vendors, and unmaintained computer systems are famously vulnerable to cyber attack. When the warranty expires, who maintains the computer platform? We now encounter our first meaningful example for framing cybersecurity risk, which requires some kind of assessment in order to determine a plan of action. How to proceed? Firstly, focus on the definition of 32 Marine Log // May 2018

risk. Risk is about likelihood (probability) and impact (value). Applied to a maritime IS, what is the probability that the cyber pirate can disrupt its operation? If the disruption occurs, what loss of value might follow? These are answerable questions. Since failure probabilities for complex systems are difficult to calculate, let’s consider the impact component of cyber security risk first. If a ship’s powerplant or navigation system are computer-controlled and the computer fails, the potential loss includes the entire ship and crew. That is why these high-priority information systems are candidates for special hardening and access restrictions. Significantly, NIST recently published an Internal Report (NISTIR 8179) on the topic of Prioritizing Systems and Components based on a Criticality Analysis Process Model. This is just one example of guidance available to risk management executives to help focus their investments in cyber security for the greatest benefit.

Cyber security is as much about people as it is about technology.

Let’s step back into our executive role and consider an IS on which our enterprise depends and that presents a known vulnerability. What are our decision options? We might take it offline (with potential loss of efficiency), invest in a plan to update the IS (with associated cost), or accept the risk of a cyber intrusion (no immediate cost, but potentially large future cost). This is the nature of cyber risk decision-making. What kind of information do we need to make these risk decisions in a rational and objective way? Let’s go through the major steps of an objective and repeatable cyber security risk assessment process, using terminology derived from the NIST Risk Management Framework as an example. Based on a clear understanding of priorities, the scope of the assessment will be focused on what matters most. 1) The initial step is called “Framing the risk”; which includes setting goals, establishing priorities, and assigning responsibility. At this step we define the Target of Evaluation (TOE) as a “black box.”

2) The next step involves categorization of information types, which determines what level of confidentiality, integrity, and availability are required for information handling. At this step, we begin to see there are different kinds of cyber security risks. 3) After information is categorized, recommended risk mitigation methods may be selected from an established catalog from one of the respected security controls standards organizations. A suite of applicable security controls, known as a “security profile,” functions as an objective reference for the overall cyber security assessment process. 4) Create a rigorous description of the TOE that includes an inventory of all its components to a level of detail sufficient to map their functions to individual security controls in the security profile. 5) Come up with a plan to inspect, test, or otherwise investigate each security control implementation; documented to a level of detail that is sufficient for an external organization to execute. This assures repeatability and quality control. 6) Execute the assessment plan and document the results. This is the “raw evidence” phase of the assessment process. 7) Summarize and report the assessment results to responsible parties identified in the initial risk framing step. This is the “decision support” phase where information is provided to a “Risk Executive” who is empowered to authorize a Plan of Action and Milestones. 8) Having completed the assessment process steps listed above, with assessment results in hand, we can make informed decisions about which cyber security risks to accept, and which risks must be mitigated with investment of resources. Some cyber risks are not easily mitigated and must be accepted in a formalized decision process. With knowledge and experience, along with continuous training, cyber security becomes a part of business culture and deeply ingrained so the risk decision acceptance methodology is consistent, reliable and efficient.

About the Author Jeffrey Menoher is President and CTO of Stelling Cyber Systems, a Connecticut-based company that specializes in cyber security risk assessment, management, and automation. Stelling personnel have served U.S. government customers in the Intelligence Community, Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, and commercial customers. You can reach Jeff at jcm@stellingcybersystems.com


DIGITALIZATION

A LEVEL

PLAYING FIELD Shutterstock/Peshkova

Support grows for an open standard of data-sharing

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arious parties in the Danish maritime industry are looking to accelerate the pace of their operations by digitizing vital aspects. Yet, some of the long-established barriers remain. Like a number of others in the vessel performance management business, Jakob Buus Petersen, Director and Co-Founder of Vessel

By Charlie Bartlett, European Editor Performance Solutions (VPS), has joined a chorus of support for an open standard of data-sharing. “There are many providers of performance solutions out there today, and every shipping company is using one, two, sometimes even five or more. And every time there’s a big problem with exchanging the data. We wanted to stop that by developing

a standard, so that if you comply with that standard you can easily send your data to another provider. “I’m a provider myself, so I’m not sure this is such a great idea… but the drivers are based on the needs of the shipping companies, and they want to be able to exchange data.” While it might seem like a shot in the foot, May 2018 // Marine Log 33


DIGITALIZATION

development of a standardized model could be the only way for smaller companies like VPS to survive. Some of the biggest classification societies are now developing their own data exchange platforms, with large amounts of data from classed vessels to give them a head start. If one of these companies develops its own standard first—akin to Microsoft’s .doc format in the 1990s—and OEMs are forced to use it by their customers, it could dominate or even monopolize the vessel performance management market. On top of this, an open standard would retain as much innovation as possible, by making it possible for smaller players with good ideas to compete. “The open standard will enable us to have a good understanding of how to get access to the operational data,” says Buus Petersen. “We are exchanging some of the first datasets between Torm and Lauritzen, and we have the interface up and running. The final adjustments are being made. Both shipping companies will use this open standard as the way we communicate, so from that perspective it has been a success. “What is not so clear is the future situation, but hopefully if we can get a few more partners on board we can make this an ISO standard,” he adds.

Quality of Data One of the main issues with data is the quality. Many of the operational changes suggested by performance management 34 Marine Log // May 2018

software are based on the assumption of flawless data collection. But different data recording systems have different degrees of accuracy. In some cases, if the data collected in the initial stages is inaccurate, acting on said data can make a ship perform worse. “A lot of people say that instead of noon [report] data, you can have auto-log data. There’s always the question of quality of data, and that goes for noon or auto-log,”

An open standard would make it possible for smaller players with good ideas to compete.

Buus Petersen explains. “A lot of people say noon data is poor quality and auto-log is the only right way. Other people who have had a bit more experience say the opposite.” Although VPS has no say in how the data is collected in the initial instance, there are still actions that can be taken to remedy the data’s quality. “We take the data that the client can give

to us. That means we have very little control over the data collection process. So we have put in a lot of effort into quantifying the quality of this data. One of the things we were able to do was to delineate the types of problems that we can get with the data— timelines not met, completeness, validity, integrity, consistency, and accuracy. “You have key performance indicators, one of them is for the fleet efficiency, the other is for data quality. When we get a dataset from a shipping company, we can rank it in terms of these measures, and then the shipowner can immediately see which of the ships in his fleet has a problem.” Being able to work backwards in this fashion now will pay dividends later. As a mounting wealth of available ship data is collected, anonymized or not, vessel performance management will become more accurate, with kinks and anomalies in the data trends much more likely to be identified before they can pollute the rest. Even if the systems are not perfect, shipowners would be foolish to write off the incredible benefits that performance optimization technologies bring, Buus Petersen says. “Let’s say that you’re a company that has done absolutely nothing in digitalization. I would say [the potential for improvement] is around 10-15%. It depends on where you start. The difference in these savings is very likely to mean the difference between [a] positive number on your bottom line and a negative.”

VPS

Jakob Buus Petersen, left, with co-founder Kristian Bendix Nielsen


Newsmakers

TOTE’s Anthony Chiarello Announces Retirement After nearly 39 years in the industry, Anthony Chiarello, President and CEO of TOTE Inc., will retire this summer. Vigor has welcomed two maritime industry veterans to its team: Bill Blount and Richard McCreary. Mr. Blount has been named Manager of International Business Development and Mr. McCreary has been appointed VP of Business Development. Radio Holland Group has named Phillip Bannerman as Regional Director, Americas. He will be based in Houston and will be responsible for all offices and activities in the Americas region.

Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) has named Latitia D. McCane as its new Director of Education for the Apprentice School at its Newport News Shipbuilding division. HII also named Jon Arena as Vice President and Chief Counsel of Newport News. He succeeds Jim Gildea who retired last month. Peter Holm has been hired to lead Sea Machines Robotics’ new office in Hamburg, Germany. He will be primarily responsible for the deployment of the company’s Sea Machines 300 technology in Europe. Evac Group has appointed Tuomo Valkonen, M.Sc. (Econ) as its new CFO. He brings with him more than 20 years of experience.

Take Your Business to New Heights

The U.S. Coast Guard has selected Command Master Chief Jason M. Vanderhaden as the 13th Master Chief Petty Officer of the U.S. Coast Guard. The post is the service’s most senior enlisted member and advises the Commandant on matters related to the workforce. Tidewater Inc. has appointed David Darling as Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer and Mark Parker to the post of Vice President, Corporate Taxation. Stephan Schaller has taken on the lead role at the Corporate Board of Management at Voith GmbH & Co. KGaA. He succeeds the long-serving head of the Board, Dr. Hubert Lienhard, who is retiring.

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May 2018 // Marine Log 35


TECH NEWS Cavotec Revolutionizes Electric Ferry Industry

MacGregor Gives Cargo Boost to Hapag-Lloyd C-Class MacGregor, part of Cargotec, has upgraded and optimized the container stowage systems on board seven 9,300 TEU Hapag-Lloyd C-class containerships. The work is being carried out under a MacGregor Cargo Boost service, designed to increase the earning potential of existing container vessels through improving cargo carrying efficiency. The Cargo Boost is part of MacGregor’s PlusPartner concept, a forward-thinking approach to ship design that consider all parts of the cargo handling system as a whole. According to MacGregor, these upgrades were designed to provide greater cargo system flexibility and allow for higher stack weights—for 40 ft containers. Under the contract, MacGregor will also

update any relevant documentation, coordinating loading computer revisions, project management and full supervision during the modification works on board. “We have worked very closely with MacGregor on numerous newbuilding projects and upgrades, which have been carried out during scheduled drydockings,” says LutzMichael Dyck, Director Technical Fleet Management at Hapag-Lloyd. In regards to these vessels, it wasn’t possible to take them out of service so all work had to be performed and completed under a tight schedule. Upgrade on the first vessel was completed in February and the last ship is expected to be completed this month. www.cargotec.com

Deep Learning Techniques for ASV, BMT Joint Research Project Unmanned marine specialist ASV Global (ASV) is partnering with BMT in a research project that it hopes will enhance the safety and reliability of autonomous navigation. Partly funded by Innovate U.K. the project will enhance situational awareness enabling unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to operate in extreme and congested marine environments. The team will use deep learning machine vision systems trained with a unique combination of simulated and real world data. The combination will create deep learning algorithms, helping to improve reliability of an existing system, extending safe operations into complex environments with a wide 36 Marine Log // May 2018

range of objects to detect, classify and avoid. The project will use BMT’s REMBRANDT Simulator to train and validate ASV Global’s vision algorithms to detect and classify objects at sea. “This work will provide a significant step in the capability of ASV Global’s ASView autonomous control and navigation system,” said Richard Daltry, R&D Director, ASV Global. BMT’s Managing Director, Phil Thompson adds: “This research will play a pivotal role in helping to accelerate the wider adoption of unmanned systems and increase trust in their feasibility.”  www.bmt.org www.asvglobal.com

Electric ferry (e-ferr y) terminals across Nor way are about to b e revo lu t io nize d. Sw i t ze r la n d headquar tered C avotec SA will deliver and maintain its automated, unmanned, moor ing sys tem MoorMaster for e-ferry terminals in Norway. The order is worth EURO 9 million (about $11 million). MoorMaster units keep vessels in pre-programmed positions to maximize the amount of time available to charge ship battery units. The technology also reduces overall CAPEX for operators and delivers substantial operational and safety benefits, says Sofus Gedde-Dahl, Sales Director E-Ferries, Cavotec. The system provides a number of advantages by improving productivity, flexibility and safety and reducing both infrastructure investment and environmental impact. Benefits include mooring vessels in 30 seconds (and detaching in 10 seconds); Reducing OPEX; increased container throughput due to reduced vessel motion; Improved STS crane produc tivit y; Improved operator and ship crew safety; Real time monitoring of mooring processes and forces; Reduced emissions and fuel savings; and a reliable system that can operate even in extreme environmental conditions. Upon the projec ts completion, Cavotec will have equipped more than 40 e-ferr y terminals in Scandinavia with MoorMaster systems. The system has moored and charged the world’s first fully electric car ferry, the MF Ampere, since it entered service in 2015. To d a t e , m o r e t h a n 2 6 0 MoorMaster units have performed some 330,000 moorings worldwide.

www.cavotec.com


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SAFETY FIRST

Remote Locations: Passenger Vessels’ Search & Rescue Plans

40 Marine Log // May 2018

facilities as are deemed practicable and necessary, having regard to the density of the seagoing traffic and the navigational dangers, and shall, so far as possible, provide adequate means of locating and rescuing such persons.* 2. Each Contracting Government undertakes to make available information to the Organization concerning its existing search and rescue facilities and the plans for changes therein, if any.

Being able to coordinate with rescuers while operating in near isolation is extremely important. 3. Passenger ships to which chapter I (Regulation 2.f A passenger ship is a ship which carries more than 12 passengers) applies shall have on board a plan for cooperation with appropriate search and rescue services in the event of an emergency. The plan shall be developed in co-operation between the ship, the company, as defined in regulation IX/1, and the search and rescue services. The plan shall include provisions for periodic exercises to be undertaken to test its effectiveness. The plan shall be developed based on the guidelines developed by the Organization.”

Matthew Bonvento Good Wind Maritime Services, Owner, Regulatory and Training Consultant

Shutterstock/ evenfh

A

s a Mariner one commandment I live by is Article 98 of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. In part, Article 98 says, “Duty to render assistance 1. Every State shall require the master of a ship flying its flag, in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship, the crew or the passengers: (a) to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost.” To a mariner, this commandant is the oldest and most sacred of all. Keeping this in mind, one area I wanted to examine is operational best practices for passenger vessels, which have begun to sail more frequently in harsh Arctic conditions. On August 27, 2010 the Clipper Adventurer ran aground in the Canadian Arctic. Luckily no one was injured. This was due to a number factors on board, including improper voyage planning and failure to maintain charts. (It was however noted that charts in these regions are not regularly surveyed.) This could have been a much more catastrophic event. Many vessels traversing these waters are not Ice or Polar class nor able to withstand the extreme climate conditions. However, the IMO does err on the side of caution in this arena. SOLAS, Chapter V, Regulation 7 states: “1. Each Contracting Government undertakes to ensure that necessary arrangements are made for distress communication and co-ordination in their area of responsibility and for the rescue of persons in distress at sea around its coasts. These arrangements shall include the establishment, operation and maintenance of such search and rescue

This rule is swiftly becoming of considerable importance due to the growth of trade on the Northern Passage route and increased commercial activity in polar waters. Clearly there are going to be a plethora of matters that must be addressed for these voyages to ensure the safety of the vessel, passengers, and crew. Being able to coordinate with rescuers while operating in near isolation is of extreme importance. The plans themselves are simple to develop and templates are available through any Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) within the areas where the vessel is operating or by submitting to the UK MCA Search and Rescue Cooperation Plan, where they will keep the record on file and provide to any rescue coordination center that requests it. The plan themselves consist of five (5) basic sections: The company name and contact details, routes and services; the basic details, communications equipment, deck plans for the ships; the SAR Data Provider and contact details; media relations; and periodic exercises. One way to ensure the usefulness of the plan is to drill with the RCC that your plan is registered with, or one in which you transit their Area of Responsibility frequently. A drill can be a simple table top exercise. It is wise to conduct an actual physical drill every few years with the local RCC to enable your crew to have a better working knowledge of what to do in such a rescue scenario. A plan is useless if your crew and officers do not know how to implement it. In coordination with the office staff, vessels should drill frequently against emergencies, incorporating the SAR plan whenever possible, even if only theoretically. Especially for vessels operating in Arctic or Antarctic waters where there is little to no rescue infrastructure nearby. An AMVER type system, operating on MF/HF should be contemplated by the coastal states. Until such time as there is a better rescue system in place owners and operators of cruise ships operating in these remote areas should be prepared for any emergency, with ample supply of resources until rescue arrives.


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Marine Log May 2018  
Marine Log May 2018