Marine Log February 2019

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R e p o r t i n g o n M a r i n e B u s i n e s s & T e c h n o l o g y s i n c e 18 78

February 2019

SHIP Repair

European yards look for niches

U.S. OFFSHORE WIND The Big Players Move In

Dealing with Digital Distraction

Enter the (Diesel) Electric Towboat


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2P ublisher’s Column Taking a New Direction, but Remembering the Basics


Ship Repair European Repair Yards Get a Three Way Boost, but … Paul Bartlett reports that U.S. LNG exports, cruise conversions and greening of ferries are proving to be promising niches, but tech trends are threatening some revenue streams


Maritime Training Why Looking Out the Bridge Window Still Matters All those electronics may cause some mariners to forget the basics, but COLREGS must still be obeyed


Offshore Wind U.S. Offshore Wind Attracts Big Players Energy majors worldwide want a slice of the U.S. offshore wind market


Inland Marine Waterways Operators Eye Diesel Electric and Hybrid Options Diesel electric is well proven in many sectors and hybrid solutions are becoming more affordable


PORTS U.S. Ports Invest in Infrastructure Ports are gearing up to meet anticipated growth

4 Industry Insight 6 Marine Innovations 9 Wellness Column 10 Update incantieri Bay completes F ATB barge conversion • Foil-born Passenger Vessel Design Promises Huge Fuel Savings • Equinor Continues Drive to Switch PSVs to Batteries and Shoreside Power • Clive Palmer Dusts Off his Titanic II Dream • OSG to build second ATB Barge at Gunderson • Why LNG Makes Sense as a Containership Fuel • More Coastal States Put Restrictions on Open Loop Scrubbers •

16 Inside Washington fter the Shutdown: A the Backlogs and the Bill 31 Newsmakers Captain Ted Dixon Takes the Helm at TOTE 32 Tech News Interest in Hybrid Power is Growing 36 Safety First Hardworking Hands Deserve Protection

February 2019 // Marine Log 1

EDITOR’S COLUMN Publisher’s Letter

MarineLoG FEBRUARY 2019 Vol. 124, NO. 2 ISSN 08970491 USPS 576-910 Subscriptions: 800-895-4389

Tel: +1 (402) 346-4740 (Canada & International) Fax: +1 (402) 346-3670 Email: PRESIDENT Arthur J. McGinnis, Jr. Publisher Jeff Sutley EDITOR Nicholas Blenkey

Taking a New Direction, but Remembering the Basics


he Marine Log family of products continues to evolve. We’ve rolled out a well-received redesign of our flagship monthly print edition. Our daily email newsletter attracts new subscribers every day. Our podcasts have a rapidly growing number of listeners. We have other developments in the works, including new and relevant conferences and seminars. Now we’re rolling out a redesign of our website that, among other things, will enhance our desktop and mobile users’ overall experience, thus more efficiently delivering essential, time sensitive NEWS. Moving into the publisher’s chair, I am excited to continue taking Marine Log into the future by facing new directions that enhance our offering to the industry we serve. While pushing the boundaries of traditional publishing, we will not lose sight of the basics and core value of Marine Log’s 141 year history and whether you’re reading a print edition, using your mobile device, or listening to our podcast channel we will continue to be your trusted source of industry insight. Those basics are to provide accurate, reliable and above all useful information in a timely manner. Years ago, in the days of lead type, editors

at Simmons Boardman Publishing had signs saying “The Reader is Busy.” In today’s hard working marine industry, that’s more true than ever. We expect our editors to remember that. We plan to take every advantage we can of all the useful capabilities digital technology makes available to us, without being side tracked by all the bells and whistles that don’t actually do that much. There are parallels in this to the theme of one of this month’s major features. It deals with training navigators to use and benefit from the rapidly evolving electronics on the bridge, without becoming a victim of “digital distraction” and grounding the ship. In the view of experienced mariners, the lesson is that watchkeepers still need to look out the bridge window to ensure that what they see on the digital display is the same as what’s going on in the real world. We promise to keep looking out the bridge window.

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Paul Bartlett European EDITOR Charlie Bartlett Art Director Nicole D’Antona Graphic Designer Aleza Leinwand MARKETING DIRECTOR Erica Hayes PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mary Conyers REGIONAL SALES MANAGER EAST COAST Elaina Crockett REGIONAL SALES MANAGER MIDWEST/WEST COAST Jim Kingwill Barry Kingwill SALES REPRESENTATIVE KOREA & CHINA Young-Seoh Chinn CLASSIFIED SALES Jeanine Acquart Circulation DIRECTOR Maureen Cooney CONFERENCE DIRECTOR Michelle M. Zolkos



Marine Log Magazine (Print ISSN 0897-0491, Digital ISSN 2166-210X), (USPS#576-910), (Canada Post Cust. #7204564; Agreement #40612608; IMEX Po Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2, Canada) is published monthly by Simmons-Boardman Publ. Corp, 55 Broad St. 26th Floor, New York, NY 10004. Printed in the U.S.A. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY and Additional mailing offices. PRICING: Qualified individuals in the marine industry may request a free subscription. For non-qualified subscriptions: Print version, Digital version, Both Print & Digital versions: 1 year, US $98.00; foreign $213.00; foreign, air mail $313.00. 2 years, US $156.00; foreign $270.00; foreign, air mail $470.00. Single Copies are $29.00 each. Subscriptions must be paid in U.S. dollars only. COPYRIGHT © Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation 2019. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reproduced without permission. For reprint information contact: PARS International Corp., 102 W 38th St., 6th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10018 Phone (212) 221-9595 Fax (212) 221-9195. For Subscriptions, & address changes, Please call (US Only) 1-800-553-8878 (CANADA/INTL) 1-319-364-6167, Fax 1-319-364-4278, e-mail or write to: Marine Log Magazine, Simmons-Boardman Publ. Corp, PO Box 1407, Cedar Rapids, IA. 52406-1407. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Marine Log Magazine, PO Box 1407, Cedar Rapids, IA. 52406-1407.

2 Marine Log // February 2019


CONFERENCE ASSISTANT Stephanie Rodriguez CONTRIBUTORS Emily Reiblein Crowley Maritime Corporation Capt. Matthew Bonvento Good Wind Maritime Services Judy Murray John Wooldridge Michael J. Toohey Waterways Council, Inc. Simmons-Boardman Publishing CORP. 55 Broad Street, 26th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10004 Tel: (212) 620-7200 Fax: (212) 633-1165 Website: E-mail:




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INDUSTRY INSIGHTS WELCOME TO Industry Insights, Marine Log’s quick snapshot of current trends in the global marine marketplace. Equasis has just release its data on the world’s merchant ship fleet and it provides some interesting insight into its composition. While there are some 90,715 ships profiled in the Equasis database, only 17,822 are 25,000 gross tons and above (what are classed as “Large” and “Very Large” vessels — slightly less than 20%. And while 33.1% of the world fleet is 25+ years old, most of that is confined to small and medium size tonnage. Only 6% of the Large and Very Large fleet is 25+ years old.

Offshore Rigs Operating in U.S. GOM (on or about January 1 of respective year)

Monthly Spot Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel) $80


2014 $70


2015 25

2016 $60


2017 17



2019 $40


Jul 2018 Aug 2018 Sep 2018 Oct 2018 Nov 2018 Dec 2018 Jan 2019

Source: EIA, Jan 2019 data as of Jan 2








Source: Baker Hughes

The World Merchant Fleet Largest Types by GT

Age Profile

Bulk carriers Oil/Chem tankers Containerships Others

25+ years

Total World Fleet

34.3% 25.7% 17.9% 22.1%

33.1% of world fleet

90,715 ships

Source: Equasis

Recent Contracts, Launches & Deliveries Qty



Fincantieri Bay Shipbuilding, Sturgeon Bay, WI


155,000 bbl ATB

Kirby Corp.


Gulf Island Shipyards, Houma, LA


98 ft 6 in x 42 ft 8 in Escort Tug

Bay Houston Towing


Huntington Ingalls, Pascagoula, MS


418 ft Nat. Security Cutters

U.S. Coast Guard

Nichols Brothers Boat Builders, Freeland, WA


90 ton Bollard Pull Tractor Tugs

Foss Maritime


Nichols Brothers Boat Builders, Freeland, WA


250-PAX High Speed Ferries

Kitsap Transit



Source: Marine Log Shipbuilding Contracts

4 Marine Log // February 2019

Est. $


Est. Del.


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6 Marine Log // February 2019

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inland waterways

Take The Infrastructure Opportunity

8 Marine Log // February 2019

waterways, “which carry more than 60% of our agricultural products,” he said. “We need to build roads, bridges, airports, locks, dams, and rail that work for this century - not the last one. And let’s not forget about updating our energy grid, repairing and replacing our water infrastructure and sewers, and making sure all Americans have access to broadband.”—Senator Amy Klobuchar

Million dollar question is how to pay for Infrastructure (D-MN). “We need a massive investment in infrastructure in this country.” —Senator Susan Collins (R-ME). Infrastructure is not a Democrat or Republican issue. Both sides agree that the needs are great, an opportunity lies ahead to make meaningful infrastructure fixes, but the million dollar question is how will it be paid for? WCI mission’s is to advocate for a modern, efficient and reliable inland waterways transportation system, and we have a plan to recapitalize this system of crucial infrastructure. We believe the most equitable, effective way to collect monies for construction and major rehabilitation for the inland


Michael J. Toohey President/CEO, Waterways Council, Inc.

Shutterstock/ Orhan Cam


s I write this, the longest shut-down of the U.S. government in history continues. Dysfunction within the U.S. Congress to reach agreement to re-open shuttered Federal agencies has been frustrating for all Americans. But this partisanship, we pray, shall come to pass. And there is a bright light on the horizon for which both parties within Congress and the Administration can come together: Infrastructure. It can be said that infrastructure is the foundation of a Nation, but investment is required to keep systems functioning today and into the future. But statistics are grim: The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 assessed 148 nations and their economies, ranking the United States 15th in infrastructure and technological readiness. The Council on Foreign Relations notes that on average, Europe spends about 5 percent of its GDP on building and maintaining its infrastructure, while the United States spends just 2.4 percent, roughly the same amount for the past 30 years. McKinsey & Company researchers estimate that $150 billion per year is required between 2017- 2030 to stay on top of U.S. infrastructure needs, with transportation requiring the largest chunk of the funding needs. Our inland waterways locks and dams were largely constructed in the 1920s and 1930s during President Roosevelt’s New Deal, some are now literally falling into the river due to age. Locks and dams require recapitalization and modernization to continue to deliver for the Nation. In a January 14 speech to the American Farm Bureau, President Trump highlighted the inland

waterways continues to be the assessment of the current tax on diesel fuel consumed on the system during operations. In 2014, WCI fought successfully to raise the amount of investment into the inland waterways system by proposing a 45% increase to the diesel fuel tax that inland operators pay (the only user of the waterways system), from $.20-cents-per-gallon to the current $.29-cents-per-gallon fee. That revenue goes into the Inland Waterways Trust Fund (IWTF) to pay for half of the cost of lock construction and major rehab on the system, and is matched by Federal dollars in recognition of the many waterways benefits to all Americans. WCI remains strongly opposed to additional taxation, tolls, lockage fees or adverse changes in cost-sharing for the Inland Waterways Transportation System. Instead, we urge that Energy and Water Appropriations for each fiscal year are of the full amount supportable by the diesel fuel tax going into the IWTF. But we also suggest modifying the cost-sharing for IWTF-financed construction projects to require 25% of the project cost to be derived from the IWTF and the remaining 75% from General Revenues, from the current 50%-50% formula. This would conform the inland navigation program with changes made to Deep Draft Navigation projects by Congress. We also urge strongest fiscal year funding for Army Corps of Engineers’ Civil Works Program Operations and Maintenance (O&M) ($3.74 billion in O&M funding in FY19 was historic), and that O&M remains a fully Federal responsibility as it has been since the founding of the Nation. We also want to see the full amount of fiscal year Energy and Water Development appropriations be drawn from the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund as identified in the Water Resources Reform Development Act (WRRDA) of 2014. We also suggest exploring redirection to the IWTF of a small percentage of the hydropower revenues generated at Corps of Engineers’ dam projects.

Wellness Column

Surviving Cold Zombies with Daisies & Tree Sap into the air. As we enter the zone of airborne plumes from uncontained sneezes and coughs, a large bold daisy can be brought into protection and recovery strategy. Echinacea, also known as Cornflower, treated respiratory ills up until the 1940s when it fell out of fashion in favor of antibiotics (which today we understand should not be used to treat viruses like a cold — commonly rhinovirus, or the flu). However, a 2015 study confirmed what we had forgotten about these pink and white daisies, they have significant bronchodilator and antiinflammatory effects on humans “similar to effects of classic synthetic drugs”. Echinacea can be found in teas and tablets on many supermarket shelves.

Shutterstock/ Rido


s we progress through cold and flu season it is fitting to draw attention to the zombies that come to work zonked out on cold medication and spreading their sickly germs to all they pass. It is time to arm our defense system. In addition to the standard cold and flu protocols, a few things like daisies and tree sap can help combat stress, boost our immune system and assist in the recovery of our respiratory system. When zombie hordes are advancing upon our location, stress is sure to be a factor. Increased stress decreases our immune system function. As physical, environmental and psychological conditions ramp up for fight-or-flight, our brain signals to the pituitary gland that it needs to be ready for action. The pituitary gland in turn kicks a signal to the adrenal glands to release the stress hormone cortisol. Among other things, this hormone sharpens our mind, helps us conserve calories and keeps us more in tune with the environment. All good things for a fight, however high levels of chronic and prolonged cortisol release contribute to immune system deficiencies, sleep deprivation, and other problems, which can all decrease our ability to fight and recover from a cold or flu. Meditation is a good first line of defense when stress increases and hormones ramp up. It decreases cortisol and increases immune system function. In 2003 researchers at the Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin showed that antibodies to fight off infections are higher in those who started to meditate versus a

control group that did not meditate. Incorporating meditation as we anticipate the dangers of being overrun, can help anchor the mind and bring awareness to our mental chase of damaging or negative emotional energy, which weakens our physiology. Where meditation does not appeal or more immune system boost is desired, daisy power can be another good defense. Chamomile is easily found on most super-

Echinacea can be found in teas and tablets in many supermarkets

market shelves around the world. These tiny flowers have Coumarin in them— m a k i n g t h e m a n a t u r a l l y o cc u r r i n g anti-inflammatory and blood-thinning agent. In 2010 an article in the Molecular Medical Report identified that “Chamomile can help in improving cardiovascular conditions, stimulate immune system and provide some protection against cancer.” In 2012 the Medical School at the University of Pennsylvania said that chamomile had “clinically meaningful antidepressant activity,” reducing anxiety and depression. Chamomile flowers come packaged in tea for drinking, tablets for taking and essential oils for vaporizing their delightful scent

The Natural World Has More to Offer The resin of Boswellia Serrata, more commonly known as Frankincense, has considerable impacts on human health and healing. In 1998 a clinical study published in Eur J Med Res showed that the resin from this plant decreased bronchial inflammation producing a 70% decrease in asthma attacks of study participants. Fr ankincense can also help separ ate phlegm deposits from the lungs acting as an expectorant, and has shown positive impacts on inflammation from arthritis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and on memory and mood. Frankincense can be purchased as an essential oil and can be vaporized into the air, added/diluted into a carrier oil for skin contact (although this method is debated), or placed on a piece of paper in your pocket, allowing the scent to surround you with musky smelling protection. Cold and flu season is hitting hard. Staying home to minimize contact that spreads germs and employing some old can mitigate and help prevent the zombie like state that accompanies infection. Nothing in this article constitutes medical advice. All medical advice should be sought from a medical professional.

Emily Reiblein

Crowley Maritime Corporation, Labor Relations-Union Wellness Programs/ Operations Integrity

February 2019 // Marine Log 9

Update Combined with its tug, the Commander operates as an Articulated Tug Barge unit

Fincantieri Bay

completes complex conversion of ATB barge Fincantieri Bay Shipbuilding, Sturgeon Bay, WI, has delivered the newly-converted barge Commander to Port City Marine Services (PCMS) of Muskegon, MI. The Commander is a 495’ by 72’ freight barge that underwent extensive conversion, including the installation of new cargo holds, trunk deck and bow, and a new cargo unloading system. Combined with its tug, the vessel operates as an Articulated Tug Barge unit. “This conversion was quite unique and challenging as it utilized the full breath

of our skilled shipbuilders and the trades they represent along with our engineering and program management team,” said Todd Thayse, Fincantieri Bay Shipbuilding Vice President and General Manager, commenting on the complexity of the 21-month project. “It was our pleasure to work closely with local engineering group Bay Engineering (also located in Sturgeon Bay) and the PCMS management group during the planning and construction phases.” “The costly challenge of expanding Jones Act-compliant dry bulk capacity created a

lengthy deliberation in our camp and with our customer,” said Chuck Canestraight, President of Muskegon, Michigan-based Sand Products Corporation, the owner of Port City Marine Services. “Our history with Fincantieri Bay Shipbuilding, and knowledge of their well-proven skill set, gave our customer, lender and Board of Directors the comfort to approach such a major conversion project. Our thanks to the dedicated workforce at the Sturgeon Bay yard and all of those associated with this project.”

Foil-Born Passenger Vessel Design Promises Huge Fuel Savings G lo s t e n a n d B i e k e r Boats have joined forces to bring modern composite hydrofoil technology to the passenger vessel market in a design combining the proven technologies of ultraefficient hydrofoils, lightweight carbon fiber hull construction, and modern geared propulsion equipment. The result: An ultra-efficient vessel designed to require less than half the installed power of a typical passenger catamaran, delivering three times the passenger miles per gallon of the latest foil assisted low-wake small passenger vessels. The collaboration combines the expertise of the two Seattle firms, drawing on Bieker Boats’ years of experience designing fast foil-born boats and Glosten’s 50 years of designing passenger vessels for public and private clients. 10 Marine Log // February 2019

“Our team is thrilled to offer this proven high-speed hydrofoil technology to the passenger vessel sector,” says Glosten Director of Business Development Kenneth Lane. “The reduced energy consumption results in significant emissions reductions per passenger mile and facilitates optional use of plug-in

electrical approaches.” The vessel’s hull is constructed using room temperature cured resin infused carbon fiber with foam cores above the waterline. This results in a significant weight savings over aluminum construction. The struts and foils are carbon fiber laminates.

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Equinor Continues Drive to Switch PSVs to Shoreside Power and Batteries Shoreside power is an important

element of plans by Norwegian energy major Equinor to cut CO2 emissions from

its Norwegian Continental Shelf logistics operations. Last month, supply base operator NorSea opened a shore-to-ship power

Equinor has 13 supply vessels in its contract portfolio that are ready for shore power supply, including Rem Eir from Remøy Shipping

supply station at the Dusavik supply base near Stavanger, making it the latest in a row of supply bases where vessels on Equinor contract can use shore power while at berth and charging of their onboard batteries. Thus far, thirteen supply vessels on longterm contracts with Equinor have installed shore power systems on board, and a further five vessels will be readied during 2019. Norway’s NOX fund is a central financial contributor for shipowners aiming to adapt their vessels to hybrid battery operation and shore power supply. “We need broad cooperation if we are to reduce emissions from our supply chain. Equinor plays a key role in this effort, as we have many suppliers who must be team players if we are to cut emissions,” says Philippe F. Mathieu, head of Equinor’s joint operations support cluster. “We influence operations by our management of day-to-day activities, commercially by rewarding low emissions in contracts and strategically by supporting a business that utilizes vessels, vehicles and helicopters in a proper way.” CLEAN WATERWAYS focuses on spill prevention and response issues specific to inland regions and waterways and is the only event that fully integrates multiple industry sectors with government and regulatory agencies.

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Clive Palmer Retains Deltamarin As He Dusts Off His Titanic II Plan Australian mining billionaire Clive Palmer apparently has not let go of his dream, first announced in April 2012, of building a 21st century version of the RMS Titanic. Palmer originally hoped that his Titanic II, would launch from Chinese shipbuilder CSSC Jinling in 2016. That didn’t happen. Now, though, Turku, Finland, headquartered ship designer Deltamarin says that it has been contracted by Palmer’s Blue Star Line to continue with the design of Titanic II. The contract covers activities and tasks for the design process, consultancy and project management services. Deltamarin, which was involved with the project when it first began, will provide Blue Star Line with outline design services including finalizing and modifying the existing design to comply with the latest rules and regulations. These include the SOLAS 2020 requirements and the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). Deltamarin will also further develop the design together with the selected yard and Blue Star Line, and handle the management of consultations with potential shipyards. “We are delighted that Deltamarin – one of the world’s leading ship design

companies – will once again be working on Titanic II,’’ said Palmer, who is Chairman of Blue Star Line, “Deltamarin was one of the first global companies to come aboard when Titanic II was originally launched in 2012 and we are looking forward to continuing our excellent relationship.”

“We look forward to developing the highest level of design for a challenging project,” said Kristian Knaapi, Head of Sales and Marketing at Deltamarin. “It is a great honor to be part of the history in supporting Blue Star Line in this one-of-a-kind project, the Titanic II.”

Rendering of the Titanic II. The original Titanic, of course, never came within sight of the Statue of Liberty — and did not have covered lifeboats

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February 2019 // Marine Log 13


Why LNG Makes Sense as a Containership Fuel


The SEA\ LNG coalition has released a

O ver seas Shipholding Group, Inc. (NYSE: OSG) has exercised an option to construct a second 204,000 barrel Oil and Chemical ATB barge at Gunderson Marine LLC’s Portland, OR, facility. The barge, scheduled for delivery in the second half of 2020, will be designed and built to be paired with one of OSG’s existing modern tugs, replacing a rebuilt barge unit that is expected to be phased out of service prior to delivery of the new barge. Each of the two barges contracted with Gunderson will be of identical design, meeting all of the latest safety and environmental requirements. OSG intends to finance the construction of the two with a combination of existing cash and future debt financing.

study indicating a strong investment case for LNG as a marine fuel in the container shipping market. The study analyzes the case of a newbuild 14,000 TEU container vessel operating on an Asia-U.S. West Coast (USWC) liner routing and compares six fuel pricing scenarios. SEA\LNG says that it challenged commonly held assumptions about the economic performance of LNG bunkers. “We commissioned this study from independent simulation and analytics expert Opsiana to support shipowners and operators in analyzing their investment opportunities in an informed way, while simultaneously providing deeper analysis of the assumptions that go into the 2020 decision process,” said TOTE Inc. Executive VP Peter Keller, who is SEA\LNG’s Chairman. “The study unequivocally shows that for this vessel type, on this trade route, LNG as a marine fuel delivers the best return on investment on a net present value (NPV) basis over a conservative 10-year horizon, with fast payback periods ranging from one

to two years.” The study indicates that LNG provides a greater ROI than alternative compliance solutions, including the installation of scrubbers, across 5 out of 6 of the fuel scenarios explored. SEA\LNG says that the results are even more compelling given the investment scenarios are compiled and compared based on a route with very little voyage time (8%) in Emission Control Areas (ECAs). LNG is also demonstrated to be the best investment across a broad spectrum of business climates from strong freight markets with elevated vessel operating speeds to weak freight markets where slow steaming is employed. SEA\LNG is collaborating with third parties on further independent research that will analyze the investment case for different vessel types and additional liner trade routes. Keller says, “SEA\LNG will continue its commercially-focused studies to provide authoritative intelligence regarding the investment case for LNG as a marine fuel for shipowners, shipyards, ports and wider stakeholders.”


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More Coastal States Place Restrictions on the Use of Open Loop Scrubbers The Port of Fujairah , United Arab

Emirates, last month joined the growing number of localities placing restrictions on the use of open loop exhaust gas cleaning systems or scrubbers. “Please be advised that Port of Fujairah has decided to ban the use of open-loop scrubbers in its waters,” said a Notice to Mariners issued by Harbor Master Captain

Tamer Masoud. “Ships will have to use compliant fuel once the IMO 2020 sulfur cap comes into force.” Earlier in the month, Norwegian P&I insurer Gard warned that many coastal states are implementing local regulations that restrict or completely prohibit the discharge of washwater from open loop exhaust gas scrubbers or prohibit the use of scrubbers.

Though Gard listed those places that have current regulations affecting on the discharge of exhaust gas scrubber washwater (see map), it said “various other coastal states and ports are discussing enforcing similar bans citing the adverse effects of scrubber washwater on the marine environment” and that warned that it is likely that the list of states/ports regulating open loop scrubber discharges in their waters will grow over time. None of this is music to the ears of the Clean Shipping Alliance (CSA) 2020, which represents shipowners who have made the hefty investment needed to install scrubbers in their ships. “Ports have the right to mandate their own requirements and it is commonplace for local administrations to continually assess their ship discharge requirements. But to link these decisions to sensationalist statements in the scrubber debate, without any reference to scientific data, is unfounded, unreasonable and impacts port clients while perpetuating the spread of factually incorrect information, “ said Ian Adams, Executive Director, CSA 2020. “To start speculating that this will have an impact on global rules or, indeed, the wider take up of open- and closed-loop scrubbers is wrong. It’s peddling fake news.”

February 2019 // Marine Log 15

inside washington

First the shutdown, now the backlog and an $8 billion bill


stop gap spending measure signed into law January 25 reopened those parts of the U.S. Government that had been shuttered , but only through February 15, leaving worries that another shutdown could follow. Meantime many agencies with a direct impact on the maritime industry have been trying to work through the backlog of work that piled up. For the U.S. Coast Guard, an early task was to get to work on making back-pay payments both to active duty personnel and to civilian staff who had been furloughed. Another early priority was for the Coast Guard’s National Maritime Center, which deals with mariner credentialing to issue an update on its efforts to “to address increased levels of application inventory.” While the Coast Guard continued its national security and maritime

safety role throughout the funding lapse, the shutdown underscored the importance of all its other activities, many largely involving civilian employees. Those related to vessel construction, sales, repairs, and financing were hit, affecting people seeking to purchase and document commercial vessels. Lenders and creditors could not obtain information about vessel mortgages and liens and could not record mortgages against vessels to secure loans, noted law firm Winston & Strawn, Also hit were the work of the National Pollution Fund Center with its mostly civilian workforce, and the Coast Guard’s role at IMO. “At MARAD,” says Winston & Strawn, “as of January 11, 466 of a total staff of 740 were at work with the rest furloughed. About 168 of that 466 total work at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy and a significant portion of the rest work

We got this. 16 Marine Log // February 2019

with respect to the Ready Reserve Force of standby national defense cargo vessels.” Another shuttered agency, BOEM, faced the job of turning the “provisional winners” in last December’s record breaking offshore wind lease sale into lease holders. The Federal Maritime Commission entered the shutdown by announcing it was ceasing all operations. Still, two days before the shutdown ended, Louis E. Sola and Daniel B. Maffei o were sworn-in as Commissioners. That brings the Commission up from just two members to four, almost its full strength of five. If anyone still thinks that even partially shutting down government is a practical bargaining tool, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the shutdown delayed $18 billion in federal spending and lowered the projected level of real GDP in the first quarter of 2019 by $8 billion.


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Operators’ Voice

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Basic research and New Engine Developments

Ship Repair By Paul Bartlett, Contributing Editor

European Ship Repairers ge t a three-way boos t


s a labor-intensive business, ship repair usually gravitates to regions where labor is cheap. Based on logistics and price, Chinese repair yards have been vying for top position in the global repair table. However, Chinese labor costs are climbing rapidly and foreign workers from Bangladesh, Pakistan, India and Malaysia are helping heavy hitting Mid East yards compete, with Singapore yards drawing on similar sources. No surprise, then, that over the last few decades, European repair yards have struggled to compete on the international stage, with those located in high-cost Scandinavian countries particularly hard hit. Most European repairers have been forced to come to terms with relying on ships trading regionally for their bread-and-butter

18 Marine Log // February 2019

business, topped off with specialist repairs where they can. Three recent developments are helping to brighten the picture for the European ship repairers and, experts believe, these factors represent the development of a long-trend, rather than a short blip. They believe that this new pattern will accelerate as the cost differential between European workers and historically cheap sources of Asian labor continues to narrow.

LNG Carrier Repairs The first sector in which European repairers are generating more business is specialized repair of LNG tankers. Although much of Europe’s gas arrives by pipeline from Russia and Norway, European Commission trade officials are working closely with U.S. authorities to raise imports from the U.S. as

a means of diversifying the sources of European supply. According to industry figures, Europe received about 10% of U.S. gas exports in 2017, a doubling of volumes the year before. The trend is continuing. However, in terms of Europe’s total import requirement of about 550 billion cubic meters, volumes from the U.S. remain very small. With prices based on low-cost shale gas at the Henry Hub benchmark in Louisiana, however, U.S. gas is very attractive. For European repair yards with the appropriate high-tech facilities – including expensive cryogenic workshops and clean LNG repair spaces – this is as close to a captive market as is seen anywhere in the global ship repair arena. Key players in the space include Spain’s Navantia, the continent’s leader in LNG repairs.

Damen Shiprepair Brest

U.S. LNG exports, cruise ships and ferry operators’ green goals create opportunities

Ship Repair Two French yards are also booking significant LNG carrier orders. They are Chantiers Naval de Marseille, one third owned by Costa Cruises, and where Dock No 10 is the Mediterranean’s largest dry dock. The other is Damen Shiprepair Brest, with northern Europe’s largest graving dock – 420 m long with a capacity of 550,000 dwt. Palumbo Shipyard Malta is also targeting the sector and has the all-important approval from GTT to undertake the repair of membrane-type gas containment systems. On the other side of the Atlantic, European repairers face limited competition in this space, though Grand Bahama Shipyard has an LNG capability, with a GTT license and engineers trained to service dual-fuel engines. A facility in Trinidad & Tobago, La Brea Drydock, is also seen as potentially providing further capacity in the future.

Corporation is the dominant player in this market, with 29 cruise ship dockings planned for 2019. Significant cruise repairs undertaken recently in Europe include a 12-day refit of Cunard’s Queen Elizabeth, completed recently at Damen Shiprepair Brest in

Proactive yards have generated a third revenue stream: LNG repower

Cruise Sector Successes A second area in which European yards are scoring is the booming cruise sector. Although Singapore remains a prime choice for many cruise ship makeovers, facilities in Europe are an attractive option for cruise lines whose ships operate in the west. Though Grand Bahama Shipyard, majority owned by Royal Caribbean and Carnival

December. Previously drydocked in Germany, the 2010-built vessel underwent an intensive schedule of repairs and upgrades, both above and below the waterline. The refit included installation of two exhaust gas cleaning systems enabling the use of heavy fuel oil beyond January 2020.

LNG and Hybrid Conversions Proactive European repair yards have also generated a third new revenue stream recently as cruise and ferry operators focus closely on environmental performance and LNG is adopted as a marine fuel. One recent example is the decision by Spanish ferry operator Baleària to convert five of its existing vessels to run on LNG. The five ferries that are undergoing conversions are Naples, Abel Matutes, Sicily, Bahama Mama and Martin i Soler. The conversion contracts, worth a total of €EUR 60 million (about $68 million), are already in progress and works will continue to be carried out until mid-2020. Separately, Norwegian coastal operator Hurtigruten recently announced that six of its existing coastal freight and passenger vessels are to be converted to hybrid operation, running on a combination of electricity from batteries, LNG and liquid biogas (LBG) derived from fish waste. The project, in which Rolls-Royce is to provide Bergen engines and fuel management systems, is likely to be completed by 2021. Shipyard executives told Marine Log in December that bids for the conversions are still being assessed but that the projects would probably be undertaken at a North European repair yard.

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February 2019 // Marine Log 19

Ship Repair

Digitalization and drones take a bite out of traditional dry dock business

Advances in Maintenance Management


ew connectivity across the marine space including realtime links between ship and shore are enabling a whole new approach to ship maintenance management. On connected vessels, a broad range of components can now be monitored in real time, and maintenance technology is now transforming the operation of many ships. This is all good news for big name equipment manufacturers now signing shipowners up for fleetwide optimized maintenance programs. But for traditional ship repairers? Maybe not so much. Planned maintenance, which little more than a decade ago was thought to be a pretty advanced approach, is now considered dated. Replacing non-critical components after a certain number of hours is really not very smart, provided that they are functioning perfectly. Condition monitoring, which can now be carried out 20 Marine Log // February 2019

remotely thanks to advances in ship-shore connectivity, opens up a whole range of possibilities in maintenance management, with the latest advances using big data analysis to focus on predictive maintenance.

Business Models Under Threat This may be very appealing for progressive ship operators who recognize the efficiency gains that smart maintenance technology offers. However, for traditional ship repairers, these advances in ship maintenance management threaten to undermine their traditional business models. As ships become more sophisticated, with secure links to shore-based control centers and OEM performance monitoring hubs, what used to be a “spot” business is now becoming much more organized, with potentially major implications for ship repairers’ revenue streams. In the short run, repair yards are cushioned, to some extent, by several factors. One, the world fleet is larger than it has ever

been as the world’s trade shipped by sea continues to expand. Two, in addition to regular dockings that are still scheduled on a temporal basis, there will be additional work for many ships involving the mandatory installation of ballast water treatment systems and, for others, exhaust gas cleaning equipment of various types. Three, for coastal and short-sea vessels working in the Baltic and North Sea, and North American emissions control areas, a range of re-engining projects are likely to keep local yards busy. However, in the longer run, as ship connectivity covers a larger proportion of the fleet and digital maintenance technologies gain ground, traditional repair yards could find themselves particularly vulnerable. Digital twins, drone surveys, 3D printing and predictive maintenance could all undermine the traditional ship repair model which, apart from emergencies, bumps and scrapes, focuses on routine surveys and work scopes drawn up in advance of a docking.

Shutterstock/ Dmitry Kalinovsky

pose challenge for repairers

Ship Repair New Survey System The surveys themselves usually provide a foundation revenue stream – though repairers certainly feel the pinch in depressed markets. However, it is emergent works – unforeseen repairs that are discovered when a ship is docked – where yards can often make a more respectable return. As digitalization and connectivity extends across the fleet, the frequency of unexpected repairs and emergent work will become less likely. Furthermore, the long-established system of dockings based on five-year specials and intermediates at 30 months, give or take, could be replaced with a constant survey system. Most of the major OEMs and a growing number of second-tier equipment providers now use their after-sales support networks as a key marketing tools. ABB has 24/7 Integrated Operations Centers in various locations around the world, spanning every time zone. Rolls-Royce has a similar set-up and is also promoting its powerby-the-hour concept, conceived in the aviation sector, by which a customer pays for Rolls-Royce systems to function effectively all of the time. If they don’t for any reason, Rolls-Royce fixes the problem and pays compensation. Howe ve r, p e r h a p s t h e b e s t k n ow n

Innovations such as drone surveys can cut into repair yard revenues by shortening time in dry dock, eliminating the need for preparatory works such as scaffolding erection

example is that of Finland’s Wärtsilä, which signed a 12-year deal with the world’s largest cruise company, Carnival, two years ago to maximize cruise ship reliability and safety. The EUR 900 million deal involves monitoring and maintenance of engines on board 79 Carnival vessels. Wärtsilä’s Dynamic Maintenance Planning and Condition Based Maintenance systems capture digital data which can then be analysed by specialists.

Equipment condition is optimized, likely maintenance is predicted and the necessary logistics are agreed and arranged. Of course, commercial ships will always need to be drydocked for a variety of reasons. However, the sector’s limited success in the past in getting key customers to sign up for block deals should provide a heads-up. Perhaps repairers need to be plugging in to digital connectivity sooner rather than later.




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NABRICO February 2019 // Marine Log 21

Maritime Training

Why Looking Out the Bridge Window

Still Matters “Any Automatic Identification System (AIS) is perfectly capable of lying to you, and to others”


by Matthew Bonvento, Assistant Professor of Nautical Science and a Licensed Deck Officer and Emil Muccin, Associate Professor of Nautical Science and a Licensed Deck Officer*

ver the last 25 years, a number of studies have reported maritime bridge distractions as having a substantial impact on vessel safety. Also playing a large role are failures to follow bridge rules and misinterpretations of those rules. Additionally, many Deck officers may not fully understand the meaning of basic collision regulations (COLREGS) resulting in decision making delays that can have serious consequences. Older mariners now nearing retirement are not as reliant on electronic equipment including ECDIS and AIS; they are accustomed to looking out the bridge window.

identifying targets, then using the radar. Younger mariners are more conversant with the full array of electronic equipment, without realizing the accompanying risks of paying less attention to looking out the window to properly asses situations. The number of ship and shore based technologies that impact and support mariners’ situational awareness and decision making has proliferated and now includes: Automatic Identification System (AIS) (transmits dynamic position and movement data, voyage related facts and static information on VHF channels), Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS), Integrated Bridge Systems/Integrated Navigation

Systems (IBS/INS), Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) systems, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) and Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS). These all produce data and supply information that affect situational awareness and decision-making. Applications of AIS are expanding daily, for examplie in Virtual Aids to Navigation (Virtual ATON’s), or “virtual” buoys and in messaging services that allow Port Authorities to easily communicate to vessels in range, as a backup, weather and navigational hazard information. It is worth noting that any Automatic Identification System (AIS) is perfectly

* This article is based on a White Paper by the authors entitled Maritime Bridge Distractions. To request a full copy, contact 22 Marine Log // February 2019

Maritime Training ECDIS Training: What’s Required? A number of marine accident investigation reports cite unfamiliarity with ECDIS as playing a factor in a number of groundings and other mishaps. This raises the question of what type of ECDIS training mariners are required to have and what courses are being provided. John Flanagan, Vice Principal at Marine Professional Training ( MPT ), For t L auderdale, provided us with these insights: The mariners that are mandated by SOLAS to have ECDIS training are the bridge watch officers on all ships equipped with ECDIS. The required training, outlined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), can be found in the general ECDIS Model Course 1.27 (40 hours). Completion of this type of course will satisfy the STCW competency requirements for mariners. Maritime Professional Training (MPT) offers this specific course. MPT’s ECDIS Lab is located in itsSimulation for Maritime

A s s e s s m e n t R e s e a r c h & Tr a i n i n g (SMART ) Facilit y; which includes 12 f ully- e q uip p e d ECIDS s t atio ns o n an IMO Class C simulator. MPT’s student-focused, hands-on approach to ECDIS training gives students an unparalleled learning experience that they would be hard-pressed to duplicate in any real-world training and assessment environment.” MPT’s ECDIS course is approved by various flag states; including the United States Coast Guard ( USCG), the Maritime & Coastguard Agency of the UK (MCA), and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). By offering this approved course, MPT empowers mariners from all over the world to complete the training and assessment requirement for ECDIS. However; in addition to the internationally mandated general ECDIS course, manufacturers have also started to offer courses on their specific ECDIS terminals. While many flag states do

not require manufacturer-specific training in addition to the general training; many shipping companies require bridge officers to undergo a thorough familiarization of the ship’s specific ECDIS terminal. MPT does not offer manufacturer-specific ECDIS training. When using ECDIS; MPT is always sure to impress upon mariners that they should always be familiar with their ship’s ECDIS. Mariners should also plan and subsequently monitor their route on a recommended scale as specified by the ECDIS. If they do not; many dangers can go unseen and unapprised by the navigator. MPT also stresses that, just like any form of technological aid, a mariner should never solely rely on ECDIS for navigation. We emphasize that mariners should always use every tool available to them to safely navigate their vessel; including but not limited to, lookouts, proper paper chart work, RADAR, AIS, visual bearings, etc.


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February 2019 // Marine Log 23

Maritime Training capable of lying to you and others. AIS information comes in two formats either static or dynamic and it either can be entered incorrectly or not updated in a timely manner. When information is not input properly or the settings are incorrect this will trigger unnecessary data transmissions, which will in turn monopolize the available bandwidth, prohibiting or slowing further transmissions and updates.

From a technical standpoint, the AIS could be transmitting improperly, not at all or intermittently. A mariner may not know this is transpiring and believe that all is in good working order. This can lead to problems as most mariners per a recent survey we conducted indicated that AIS is the end all and if you are not on it, you are out there. This creates an interesting dilemma. Effectively, another vessel is invisible if it does not show up on the AIS, as a majority

of watch standers are now so reliant upon it and other bridge electronics. Another critical tool for the mariner and navigator is ECDIS, now mandatory under SOLAS for most large vessels. However, the question to be asked is whether the information displayed on the ECDIS screen is really, what is happening outside the front window? A series of online blogs have debated why ECDIS still appears to be causing navigators so many operational problems. The answers range beyond training and familiarization to operator interaction with hardware and software as well as the brightness of the screen on the bridge. We’ll look at EDCDIS issues in more detail next month. We will carry further extracts from the authors’ White Paper in our next issue.

COLREGS: The Rules that Must be Obeyed • 877-824-7447 24 Marine Log // February 2019

Like many other professionals Ramachandran Prakash|, Lead Deck Instructor & Simulator Operator at Resolve Maritime Academy agrees that over reliance on elec tronic aids to navigation has cer tainly increased. Officers trust electronics more than their instincts and senses, like eyes and ears. “Over a period of time officers tend to forget, misinterpret and ignore the rules,” he says. Res olve Mar itime Ac ad e my offers a 32-hour course for licensed officers that co-vers the collision regulations and COLREG annexes (inland and international) in detail Prakashi says that the COLREG course reinforces the importance of following the rules by refreshing officers’mknowledge of these rules and reminding them that: • C OLREGS are Mandator y – there are no options. • I t is very important to understand and apply the rules correctly. • A ny avoiding action must be large and taken well in time. • Rules apply to all vessels • R ules apply according to the location of the vessel – Narrow Channel, Tr af fic Separ ation Schemes, Restricted visibility • O fficers should not hesitate in using Engines when require • F inally, Rules are NOT meant to be broken.


U.S. Offshore players have Wind: Big big plans and

Wind turbine service requirements have led to the development of a new breed of Service Operation Vessels offering accommodations for service technicians and giving them walk-towork access to turbines

deep pockets

Development of U.S. offshore wind leases will benefit from lessons learned in North Sea



By Nick Blenkey, Senior Editorial Consultant

he U.S. offshore wind industry is finally about to start delivering on its promise. And signs are that it will deliver big in three ways: big players putting up big money to put in big turbines, Case in point, BOEM’s December offshore wind lease sale of some 390,000 acres offshore Massachusetts drew competitive winning bids from three companies totaling approximately $405 million. That was way more than the previous highest grossing offshore wind lease sale in December 2016 for the lease area offshore New York, which received a winning bid of over $42 million. It was also much more than the $178 million in high bids generated in August’s region-wide Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 251. The provisional winners were: Equinor

Wind US, LLC with a bid of $135 million for lease area OCS-A 0520; Mayflower Wind Energy, LLC with a bid of $135 million for lease area OCS-A 0521 and Vineyard Wind, LLC with a bid of $135.1 million for lease area OCS-A 0522. The high bids are backed by major players in the renewables sector —along with oil giant Shell. Looking at who is behind the three winning bids, one familiar name, Equinor US, is, of course a unit of the Norwegian based company formerly known as Statoil, and was earlier the winning bidder in the December 2016 New York Sale. Vineyard Wind LLC, which is already developing the first large scale U.S. offshore wind project 14 miles south of

Martha’s Vineyard is a 50/50 joint venture between Danish headquartered Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners and Avengrid Renewables, Avengrid, already a major player is U.S. onshore wind is a member of Spanish headquartered international energy giant Iberdrola Group.

Enter Shell So who is Mayflower Wind Energy? It is a 50:50 joint venture between EDPR Offshore North America LLC (EDPR) and Shell New Energies US LLC.. EDPR Offshore is a subsidiary of EDP Renewables (Euronext: EDPR), whose main shareholder is Energias de Portugal, S.A. and is a major world player in solar and wind energy markets. February 2019 // Marine Log 25

offshore wind

Shell’s New Energies Division, created in 2016, already has a significant presence in the U.S. solar energy market and is involved in six U.S. onshore wind projects. In addition, it is part of the consortium that is developing the Borssele windfarm off the Dutch coast. Shell is also involved in New Jersey offshore wind development through, Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind, LLC a 50/50 joint venture formed to develop the OCS-0499 lease area within the New Jersey Wind Energy Area (WEA), Its JV partner is EDF Renewables North America, a subsidiary of Électricité de France S.A .(which is largely owned by the French state and is one of the world’s largest operators of nuclear power plants). The lease for OCS-0499 was originally awarded to U.S. Wind, a subsidiary of Italy’s Toto Holding SpA, for a bid just over $1 million in 2015. According to Bloomberg, the lease has now been acquired by Électricité de France for $250 million. That figure is even higher than any of the bids submitted in this month’s record Massachusetts offshore wind sale. “Once in the European offshore wind market in the emerging U.S. market,” said Tristan Grimbert, President & CEO of EDF Renewables North America. gives some insights into why U.S, offshore wind leases are now so valuable: “As the costs of offshore wind are declining, the U.S. offshore wind industry is quickly advancing with strong Federal and State support. The industry is well-positioned to meaningfully contribute to the New York and New Jersey economies through employment and 26 Marine Log // February 2019

supply chain opportunities.” EDF Renewables already has 2,800 MW of offshore wind in development or operation in Europe putting in what it calls “a position to efficiently transform the U.S. offshore wind sector, beginning in New Jersey.”

Ørsted Buys In The world leader in offshore wind, Danish headquartered Ørsted has also emerged as a significant player in the, agreeing to pay the D.E. Shaw Group $510 million to acquire a 100% equity interest in Rhode Island-based Deepwater Wind. Deepwater Wind’s portfolio includes Block Island (30MW), the only operational offshore wind farm in the U.S. and three offshore wind development projects in Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland and New York totaling 810MW of capacity with long-term revenue contracts in place or pending finalization. Ørsted’s other current U.S. offshore wind interests include Ocean Wind, a proposed offshore wind project located 10 miles off the coast of Atlantic City, NJ, and Bay State Wind, a proposed offshore wind project located 25 miles off the Massachusetts South Coast, and 15 miles off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. The project is a 50-50 joint venture between Ørsted and New England power transmission builder Eversource.

Bigger Turbines The major world players now emerging as U.S. market leaders will undoubtedly be deploying the same cutting edge technology they are using elsewhere in the world — including

Offshore Service Opportunities Worldwide, the offshore wind industry has created a need for a broad range of new vessel designs, from jack up installation vessels to SOVs (service operation vessels). As the American offshore wind industry starts to be built out, it remains to be seen to what extent it will be possible to meet its needs with existing offshore services vessels. This raises interesting questions about what new types of vessel will be needed, who will build them, and, not least, who will own them. Meantime, the industry’s needs continue to evolve. Illustrating this, ABS has just granted Approval in Principal to Germany’s Neptun Ship Design for its Blue Azarit Wind Turbine Transport Vessel design, the first to support transporting parts for turbines greater than 9 MW. The 178 m long Blue Azurit design allows wind turbine manufacturers to produce full length welded towers ready for installation. The energy-efficient vessel is designed to pick up components direct from the supplier’s berth, transport parts to an offshore harbor, or feed them to the installation vessel. “The scale of offshore wind turbines continues to increase steadily, offering greater efficiencies to the market,” says Wei Huang, ABS Director, Global Offshore. “We are working with Neptun to verify compliance with ABS Rules, as it strives to deliver enhanced vessel capabilities supporting the wind industry’s continued growth, while increasing reliability and efficiency.”


Blue Azarit Wind Turbine Transport Vessel has been designed the first to support transporting parts for turbines greater than 9 MW.

ever larger offshore wind turbines. Wind turbines have been described as “airplanes on sticks.” But new generation offshore turbines have rotor diameters that dwarf the wing spans of even the largest airplanes. While the Block Island offshore wind farm delivers a total 30 MW from five 6 MW turbines, each with a rotor diameter of 150 m (about 492 ft), MHI Vestas has launched what it calls the world’s first double digit offshore wind turbine, the V164-10.0 MW. Developed from the company’s 9.5 MW unit, currently the world’s most powerful wind turbine, the 10 MW version has a rotor diameter of 164 m (about 538 ft). It will be ready for installation from 2021. Siemens Gamesa is also offering a 10 MW turbine, the SG 10.0-193 , with a 193 m (about 633 ft) diameter rotor). Its 94-meterlong-blades provide a swept area of 29,300 m². Each blade is almost the same length as one soccer field. The prototype is expected to be installed in 2019 with commercial market deployment expected in 2022.

inland Feature Market Externally, ABB’s electric towboat looks much like any other: Inside, though, is a sophisticated ABB electric drive solution

Waterways operator start eyeing dieseL-Electric and hybrid


Already proven in other sectors, electric drive solutions have much to offer


hile nobody is yet even contemplating all electric plug-in towboats, regulatory changes and chang ing economics are persuading traditionally conservative inland waterways operators to explore whether diesel-electric and hybrid solutions make sense. In a bid to drive down emissions, regulatory bodies are imposing measures such as EPA’s Tier 4 standards. At the same time, prices are coming down for diesel-electric technology, now in its fifth generation across the broader marine market. “The two trends are being discussed a lot and propelling the hybrid and diesel electric


Inside ABB’s Electric Towboat

By Jennifer Pallanich conversation even further,” says Tim Taggart, VP marine and propulsion at Twin Disc, which is working on its first inland tow hybrid project. “Operators are seeing that for certain types of applications, a hybrid makes sense.” Diesel-mechanical engines are fuel efficient when operating at a constant RPM but become less efficient when RPM varies, such as when engaging and disengaging from a tow. A tow vessel equipped for hybrid operations could switch to an electric motor for such maneuvers, Taggart notes, and see benefits in reduced fuel use. According to Ed Schwarz, vice president of sales for ABB Marine & Ports, towboat owners are considering more advanced systems in light of the regulatory environment. “They are looking to comply and achieve operational gains,” Schwarz says. “These electric systems bring flexibility.” ABB is “working to reach out to the market so they understand diesel-electric is an option,” Schwarz says. “The market seems to come with a lot of predisposed notions of what’s possible. A lot of new technology is available, and there are a lot of new ways of doing things.”

Peter Brooks, OEM account manager for Global Marine at BAE Systems, says he’s seen a slow uptake in diesel-electric for the inland tow market, but that there are signs the sector is slowly trending toward adoption of the new technology as it proves reliable.

Fuel Logs Offer Some Insights Josh Sebastian, engineering manager at The Shearer Group, says fuel logs can offer much insight into operating profiles and suggest whether choosing diesel-electric systems would benefit an owner. “We’d always assumed an 80% load all of the time, so there was little room for the efficiency pickup that diesel-electric would give,” Sebastian says. Studying a “treasure trove” of information provided by one owner’s fuel logs helped the company understand that “what we thought was a typical profile” was not, in fact, typical. “They spent a lot of time under 50% load,” which left plenty of room for the diesel-electric option to provide efficiency gains, Sebastian says. Another operating profile, he adds, might show that only 1% or 2% efficiency gain could be achieved by switching to diesel-electric, February 2019 // Marine Log 27

inland market

in which case the expense of diesel-electric technology wouldn’t make sense. Further, Sebastian says, diesel-electric systems provide redundancy and improve safety.

Diesel Electric Is Proven Technology Electrical motors can generate full torque at zero speed, making power available immediately to improve operational safety, according to ABB. Karl Senner is working on full diesel-electric solutions with and without batteries, as well as a hybrid combination of a dieselmechanical arrangement with an integrated electric motor. When considering dieselelectric or hybrid solutions, Senner says, it’s important to understand the power loads of the vessel and the route. “Dieselelectric is going to be most advantageous when the operator can shut engine-generators sets off,” Senner says. For a run up river, the operator may need to operate all diesel-generators, but be able to shut off generator(s) on the run down river when less power is needed. The company provides EPD EOS modules, or prefabricated rooms to house the generator control and switch gear. The plug and play room is pre-wired and pretested for delivery to the shipyard. “This greatly reduces the time needed to build a dieselelectric vessel and also reduces liability for the shipyard,” Senner says. Diesel-electric technology has been widely embraced by other marine sectors, notes Steve Berthold, VP of sales and marketing for Eastern Shipbuilding, and the inland tow market stands to benefit from that experience. “We took what we knew from the 30 diesel-electric PSVs that we built” and applied that to designing a comparable solution for the inland tow market, Berthold says. 28 Marine Log // February 2019

Eastern Shipbuilding is now marketing its diesel electric propulsion inland towboat design. “We have a lot of background in the technology. We’re not concerned about putting it out on the market.” Eastern Shipbuilding’s Thunderbolt and Lightning Bolt designs, which are 120 feet and 82 feet respectively, are offered with Caterpillar or Cummins generator solutions. The design calls for AAA V-Pod propulsion units, steering and controls, and propulsion drives, as well as AAA Propulsion and VACON’s variable frequency drives. Beier Integrated System’s machinery alarm and power management systems and South Coast Electric’s switchboard and distribution panel round out the design. ABB offers a complete electrical propulsion package, integrating generators, switchboards, drives, thruster motors and automation and control. “We’re focused on making the equipment simple to operate,” Schwarz says. A decade ago, such technology required the presence of an electrical engineer onboard. “Now it’s run without a regular onboard interface.” Equipment can be remotely monitored and repaired, Schwarz says. So far, customers have taken up the ABB solution for inland tow in South America, but “we’re still waiting” to get a first reference in the North America inland tow market. “We’re getting very close with a couple of owners,” he says, and ABB could deliver the electrical propulsion packages for those vessels this year or next. Twin Disc is taking its entry into the marine hybrid market “very seriously,” Taggart says. At the end of 2018, Twin Disc shipped its MGX-5321 marine transmission with its brand new MC75 master clutch system for a Great Lakes hybrid tug designed by Damen, being built by Great

HybriGen Zero BAE System says that its compact HybriGen Zero genset provides operators with up to 200 kW of electric power on demand, providing power for all hotel loads while the main engine is running. Efficiency is realized by taking minimal power off the main engine when the engine is running at its most efficient point. Turning off or eliminating the vessel’s diesel generators helps save maintenance and fuel due to decreased use. BAE Systems’ Peter Brooks says the compact genset has “virtually no serviceable parts,” making it more reliable than other gensets. The HybriGen has been widely used in other markets around the world and can decrease fuel consumption and engine maintenance, he adds. “No one wants to risk their operations on unproven or complex technology, but they’re keen to move forward and get operational savings,” Brooks says. “We’re trying to get the technology to the market.”

Eastern Shipbuilding

Eastern Shipbuilding’s diesel electric towboat designs draw on its experience in building more than 30 diesel electric PSVs

Lakes Shipyard and operated by Great Lakes Towing. Some owners worry that diesel-electric or hybrid systems will require too much room. “We’ve been able to make [systems] fit in towboats of the same size. We have not had to sacrifice living space to make them work, but we had to spend extra time on layout and arrangement and systems to get that to work,” Taggart says. More weight, however, might be added to the vessel due to firefighting and cooling requirements associated with diesel-electric or hybrid systems, he says. He says Twin Disc prefers to partner with firms with electrical expertise to ensure proper electrical integration of the equipment. Sebastian says he expects the inland tow market will be slow to adopt dieselelectric technology, but that The Shearer Group is “close” to signing contracts with a few clients. “In the next year or two, someone’s going to have one out in inland rivers,” whether it’s diesel-electric or diesel-electric with storage, Sebastian says. For clients in other sectors of the marine industry with lots of idle and loiter time, diesel-electric solutions have been able to reduce total engine hours by 10% to 20%, while diesel-electric plus energy storage reduced engine hours by more than half. “This has a very positive impact on maintenance costs,” Sebastian says. “Instead of changing the oil every month, it’s every six months. They can push maintenance out, push overhauls out.”


Recovery & Growth

U.S. ports bolster capacity, infrastructure with key investments

Port Canaveral.


ecord rainfall and historic levels of flooding caused by Hurricane Harvey in August 2017 wrecked havoc across southeast Texas, devastating the region’s ports. In the days that followed, Texas ports assessed the damage and began the recovery process in earnest. “Harvey was not kind to this region,” explains Sade Chick, Manager of Corporate Affairs for the Port of Beaumont. “The Beaumont-Port Arthur MSA was the hardest hit region by the storm, causing the unemployment rate to exceed 8% for a short period of time.” Responsible for more than 12,608 jobs in the region, the port is responsible for approximately $1.8 billion in economic annual output. The fifth largest port in the U.S. in terms of tonnage, the Port of Beaumont is one of the fastest growing, according to Forbes magazine. It is also the largest strategic military port in the nation with the 842nd Transportation Battalion moving more than 55,000 pieces of military cargo annually. To support the recovery efforts in the

region, last October, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Economic Development Administration (EDA) announced it was investing $10 million to Texas portsaffected by Hurricane Harvey. “Hurricane Harvey’s 135 mph winds and historic flooding left the Texas Gulf Coast, including Port Arthur and Port Beaumont, with 250 miles of devastation,” said U.S. Senator Ted Cruz at the time of the investment announcement. “Through the funding provided by Congress to the Department of Commerce in the disaster relief funding bill passed earlier this year, and with the support of federal, state, and local partners, Port Arthur and the Port of Beaumont continue making strides down the road to recovery..” Under the EDA’s plan, the Port of Beaumont w ill receive $5 million to help reconstruct three docks in support of the Main Street Terminal 1 – Phase 1 Dock Project. The project, explains Sade Chick, is “part of Hurricane Harvey recovery” and will “aid in the construction of a new stateof-the-art dock, which will make the port more resilient if another severe weather

event were to occur.” The Main Street Terminal 1 – Phase 1 Dock Project will be the first step in rebuilding Docks 2, 3 and 4 and will increase berthing capacity at the port by approximately 25%. The increase is expected to have a significant impact on the region and will make way for the creation of an additional 3,150+ jobs (direct, indirect, induced and related user jobs) and the added capacity will provide the 842nd Transportation Battalion the space needed to effectively and efficiently transport military equipment around the globe. Early last year, the port stated that the rebuilding of the new docks would cost some $79 million. This, says the port, would include the demolition of the failed dock and the rebuilding of the new dock. The Port of Beaumont Board of Commissioners had already approved a $695 million Capital Improvement Program for Fiscal Year 2018/2019. The Program is comprised of 20 projects including the construction of Main Street Terminal 1. Harvey’s damage went beyond destroying February 2019 // Marine Log 29

Ports resiliency that is vital to our Nation’s transportation system,” says MARAD Legislative Affairs Specialist Catherine Simons. “With anticipated regional growth specifically, and in our nation broadly, there is expected to be significant growth in freight volumes, requiring transportation alternatives for shippers. Our nation’s vast network of inland waterways and coastal routes has substantial excess capacity that can absorb growth.” The Port of Everett currently offers Container on Barge service from its shipping terminals in Everett to the Mount Baker Terminal. The service, however, has been limited to the aerospace industry. That all changes with the new designation which enables the port to ship non-aerospace containerized freight via the marine highway from Everett to the Ports of Seattle and Tacoma, removing as many as 300 containers per month from the I-5 corridor—one of the most traffic congested in the country.

Port Canaveral to Launch New Terminal To help meet the demand of the booming cruise shipping industry, the Canaveral Port Authority Board of Commissioners has given the green light to award Ivey’s Construction Inc. a $78.98 million to construct the Port’s Cruise Terminal 3 project and a $29.53 million for an adjacent parking garage that will fit 1,800 vehicles. “We’re creating a world-class cruise terminal, and with these contract awards, the project is mobilizing and moving ahead,” 30 Marine Log // February 2019

said Port CEO Captain John Murray. “We are confident that this state-of-the-art facility will be constructed on schedule and on budget.” Port Canaveral’s 188,000 square-foot terminal Port Cruise Terminal 3 (CT-3) will be the homeport for Carnival Cruise Line’s largest ship, the Mardi Gras. The ship, expected to be delivered Spring 2020 and in operation later in the fall, will be the first LNG-powered cruise ship based in North America. The ship will have capacity for 6,500 passengers and 2,000 crew members. The design for CT-3 takes its inspiration from the nearby Kennedy Space Center. Technological features at the terminal will include an integrated mobile passenger check-in to expedite the boarding process and modernized facilities to help facilitate U.S. Customs and Border Protection screenings.

Port of Everett Designated a Marine Highway Last month, the Port of Everett, Everett, WA, announced that it had received designation as a Federal Maritime Administration Marine Highway Project for the Puget Sound Container on Barge Service under the America’s Marine Highway Program. The designation is the first for a port on the west coast and makes the Port of Everett eligible for future grant funding from the Marine Highway Grant Program. “This service highlights the importance of expanding waterborne options that can relieve congestion on local roads and rail networks while introducing additional

Cargo Volume Reaches All-Time High U.S. – China trade disputes may have had the stock exchange on a roller coaster ride, but the tension prompted shippers to accelerate imports—ahead of the tariffs— leading to a cargo volume increase at the Port of Oakland. The Port last year had its busiest year to date. Beyond the fear of tariffs, other factors in increasing cargo flow included “A strong dollar that made U.S. exports costlier overseas; and a buildup of empty containers in the U.S. that required repositioning to Asia because of the import surge.” According to the Port of Oakland, import cargo volume increased 5 percent, while exports declined 3.5 percent; and the volume of empty containers returned to their original destination for future import loads increased 19.7 percent. The plan now, says John Driscoll, Maritime Director of the Port of Oakland, is “to build on this performance to grow import and export volume.” South of Oakland, the Port of Los Angeles is also setting records. Closing off 2018, the port announced that it had exceeded 800,000 TEUs for the fifth consecutive month in November 2018—making the month the sixth busiest in the port’s history. The port has long been committed to creating a green port and has a number of initiatives in place helping to reduce emissions. These include a voluntary Vessel Speed Reduction that rewards shipping lines for reducing emissions by slowing ships down to 12 knots as they near the Port of LA.

Port of Beaumont.

docks. Chick points out some of its partners= were particularly hit hard by the storm. Noting that, “Allegiant Industrial—CB&I at the time Hurricane Harvey hit—experienced significant flooding,” CB&I eventually went on to close its doors due to the damage, but, says Chick, the Port was able to enter “into a partnership with Allegiant Industrial Island Park, LLC to rehabilitate the property and bring 200+ jobs back to Southeast Texas.” The Allegiant Industrial Island Park Campus is a 75-acre fabrication and paint facility boasting more than 500,000 square feet of shop space, welding and fabrication facilities, and the largest blast and coating facilities in the state. In the last year, the Port of Beaumont has seen an increase—172%—at its liquid bulk terminal, operated by Jefferson Energy Companies. To help meet the increased demand, the port along with Jefferson Energy Companies has initiated an expansion effort that will see the construction of the third berth at the terminal.


Captain Jeff Dixon Takes Over as President of TOTE Following the retirement of Rear Admiral Phil Greene Jr., Captain Jeff Dixon has assumed the role of President of TOTE Services. He joined TOTE Services in May 2017 as the Vice President of Marine Operations – Government and Commercial. Wärtsilä has appointed Torsten Buessow as Director of its Transas business. He joins the group from DNV GL where he worked for more than a decade—serving in a variety of roles including as Vice President of the company’s Maritime Software Business Unite and VP of Fleet Performance Management, its Maritime Digital Business Unit.

Following the announcement of its new East Coast office, Elliott Bay Design Group has appointed Catherine Hale to help establish the team’s presence on the East coast. She is a Systems Engineer and certified Port Executive. Jackie Gonsalez has been promoted to Vice President, Apparel and Retail Supply Chain Business Development for Crowley Logistics. She will lead a team of solutionsoriented professionals servicing customers primarily within Crowley’s core markets. The Clean Shipping Alliance (CSA) 2020 has appointed Ian Adams as its Executive Director. He is the former Chief Executive of the

International Bunker Industry Association. Global marine and offshore vessel management and support services provider, V.Group, has named Nils Aden as Managing Director of V.Ships Germany in Hamburg. He joins V.Group from Zeaborn Ship Management where he held the position of CEO. Jeff Stollenwork has joined the Duluth Seaway Port Authority as the new Director of Government & Environmental Affairs. He brings with him over 28 years of environmental and legislative experience, including the development and implementation of regulatory policy on navigational dredge material reuse and mitigating environmental risks for maritime vessel discharges.

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February 2019 // Marine Log 31

TECH NEWS Domenic Carlucci, Director - Machinery, Propulsion, Electrical & Controls, Corporate Technology, ABS

Interest in Hybrid Power Continues to Grow For decades, conventional ship propulsion has consisted of the diesel engine, propeller, and shaft (and sometimes a gearbox). Rapid advances in technologies such as energy storage systems and tightening emissions regulations, however, have generated increasing interest in hybrid power and electrification propulsion. Domenic Carlucci, Director - Machinery, Propulsion, Electrical & Controls, Corporate Technology, ABS, says there are a number of economic and environmental benefits of using hybrid power, notably the ability to reduce fuel consumption, lower maintenance costs, and cut emissions, such as NOx, SOx and CO2. Carlucci notes that one of the key benefits of hybrid and electric propulsion is that operators can improve overall efficiency of auxiliary engines and gensets. For example, instead of providing power from two generators at low load, an operator could use just one at a higher load and therefore more efficient operating point. This power generation setup is then supported by the “spinning reserve” of an energy storage system. This would reduce fuel consumption and the wear on the auxiliary generators. Hybrid power can also be used to provide 32 Marine Log // February 2019

peak power for a vessel as needed. This allows the operator to select lower horsepower engines resulting in improved fuel consumption and lower emissions while still providing the appropriate necessary power for operations. ABS has partnered with a number of vessel owners and operators to collaborate with them on the implementation of hybrid power solutions. ABS, for example, classed the first offshore support vessel in the Gulf of Mexico to operate using hybrid power. In 2018, the SEACOR Maya, operated by SEACOR Marine, was the first of a series of OSVs in GOM to be retrofitted to operate on hybrid lithium battery power propulsion and received the class notation BATTERY-Li. Besides meeting MARPOL Annex VI emissions regulations, SEACOR Marine expects to realize as much as 20% reduction in fuel consumption. To support its clients with evaluating the challenges of hybrid electric power systems, ABS has published a number of guidance materials, including the ABS Advisory on Hybrid Electric Power Systems and Guide for use of Lithium Batteries in the Marine and Offshore Industries.

Furuno Debuts New FAR 14x6 Series Radars T wo new r adars created by Furuno to meet the demands of the workboat and commercial fishing markets made their debut last month. The radars, the 12 kW FAR1416 and 25 kW FAR1426, incorporate new features that enable a simplified operation process in a versatile and spacesaving package. A c c o r d i n g t o Fu r u n o, eve r y thing is incorporated in the radar’s 15-inch color display, even the system’s processor, and the display can be installed in portrait or landscape orientation. The radars include Furuno’s legendary target detection as well as new technologies including: Fast Target Tracking- the radar can immediately display the speed and course vector of a target once selected; Automatic Clutter Elimination (ACE)which adjusts clutter reduction filters and gain automatically according to sea and weather conditions; and Furuno’s Target Analyzer Functionwhich tells the operator what the moving target on the screen is (dangerous targets are red, safe targets are green and rain patches are gray). The radar’s Chart Plotter features the Chart/Radar Overlay which allows the navigator to display Radar targets on quality MapMedia vector charts. The FAR1416/1426 can maintain a database of 30,000 marks and lines, 3,500 waypoints, and 200 routes with up to 100 waypoints each.

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34 Marine Log // February 2019

Legal Notices IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE No. CR-2018-009151 BUSINESS AND PROPERTY COURTS OF ENGLAND AND WALES INSOLVENCY AND COMPANIES LIST (ChD) IN THE MATTER OF ROYAL & SUN ALLIANCE INSURANCE PLC - and IN THE MATTER OF THE MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED - and IN THE MATTER OF MERCANTILE INDEMNITY COMPANY LIMITED - and IN THE MATTER OF THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT 2000 Notice is hereby given that on 17 January 2019 an Application was made under section 107 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (the “Act”) in the High Court of Justice of England and Wales by the above-named Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance plc (“RSAI”) and The Marine Insurance Company Limited (“MIC”) (together the “Transferors”) and Mercantile Indemnity Company Limited (the “Transferee”) for Orders: (1) Under section 111 of the Act sanctioning a scheme (the “Scheme”) for: (a) the transfer to the Transferee of certain direct and reinsurance business of the Transferors, namely certain UK-based commercial general insurance business; and (b) the making of ancillary provisions under section 112 of the Act for implementing the Scheme. The following documents are available and may be obtained by any person free of charge by downloading them from the website ( or by making a request by email to, or in writing at RSA Insurance Group, 20 Fenchurch Street, London EC3M 3AU, United Kingdom (Attention: Jonathan Colson) or by calling the Scheme helpline on +44 121 415 0966 at any time until the making of an order sanctioning the Scheme: - a copy of the Scheme document; - a copy of the report on the terms of the Scheme prepared by an independent expert in accordance with Section 109 of the Act; - a communications pack, which includes a statement setting out the terms of the Scheme and a summary of the independent expert’s report. Anyone who has any questions regarding the proposed Scheme or would like further information should contact us using the above details. The specific nature of the transferred business differs between RSAI and MIC, but in both cases constitutes part of their respective commercial general insurance businesses. It is intended that the Scheme will transfer from RSAI to the Transferee certain commercial general insurance policies that include liability cover and that were either: (i) written by or on behalf of RSAI prior to 2006, or (ii) written by or on behalf of another insurer prior to 2006 and transferred to RSAI prior to 7 February 2017. Policies that relate exclusively to marine or motor liabilities, or were underwritten by a branch or agency incorporated or domiciled outside the UK are excluded from the Scheme, as are certain other specifically excluded policies. It is intended that the Scheme will transfer from MIC to the Transferee the following categories of commercial general insurance policies that were either written: (i) by or on behalf of MIC, or (ii) written by or on behalf of another insurer and transferred to MIC prior to 7 February 2017: (A) all marine energy policies written prior to 2004; (B) all other marine policies written prior to 1997; and (C) all aviation policies written prior to 2009. The Scheme will also transfer various business contracts from each of RSAI and MIC to the Transferee, including all or part of certain outwards reinsurance contracts. The business of the Transferors, comprising policies and business contracts, and associated assets and liabilities, that is to be transferred to the Transferee by the Scheme forms the “Transferred Business”. The Scheme will transfer the Transferors’ rights and obligations under the commercial general insurance policies forming part of the Transferred Business (referred to as the “Transferred Policies”) without alteration to Mercantile. The holders of the Transferred Policies (and any persons entitled to beneficial rights under such Transferred Policies) will, with effect from 00.01 BST (British Summer Time) on 1 July 2019 (or at such other later time and/or such other date as the Transferors and Transferee may agree) (the “Effective Date”), become entitled, to the exclusion of any rights which they may have had against the Transferors under a Transferred Policy, to the same rights against the Transferee. Similarly, the holders of the Transferred Policies shall be liable to account to the Transferee for any further or additional premiums or other sums attributable or referable thereto, as and when they become due and payable. Responsibility for handling all claims under the Transferred Policies, which are currently being handled by, or on behalf of, the Transferors will transfer to the Transferee. The Transferee shall be entitled to any and all defences, claims, counterclaims and rights of set-off under the Transferred Policies, which would have been available to the Transferors prior to the Effective Date. Subject to certain exclusions, at and with effect from the Effective Date, all assets and liabilities that are comprised in, arising from or in connection with the Transferred Business shall transfer to the Transferee. Various business contracts will also transfer so that they will become agreements between the Transferee and the relevant third party. The Scheme will be valid and binding on counterparties to such contracts notwithstanding any restriction on transfer or assignment contained in any such contract. The Application is due to be heard at the High Court of Justice of England and Wales (High Court), 7 Rolls Buildings, Fetter Lane, London, EC4A 1NL, United Kingdom on 13 June 2019. Any person who considers that he or she may be adversely affected by the Scheme has the right to make representations and/or to appear at the Court hearing. It is requested that any person intending to make representations (either in writing or by telephone) and/or appear at the hearing (either in person or using legal representation), please contact RSA on +44 121 415 0966 or in writing at the email address below as soon as possible and before 13 June 2019 to set out the nature of their representations. This will enable the Transferors and the Transferee to provide notification of any changes to the hearing and, where possible, to address any concerns raised in advance of the hearing. If the requested notice is not given, attendance at the Court hearing, either in person or using legal representation, will still be permitted. Jonathan Colson RSA Insurance Group 20 Fenchurch Street, London EC3M 3AU, United Kingdom

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February 2019 // Marine Log 35


Hard Working Hands Deserve Protection


s mariners. we work in an environment w here we can easily damage our hands everyday. Mitigating that damage is part of our own personal responsibility. While all OSHA standards are not always applicable to the maritime industry, they can provide sound advice regarding hand protection: “Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees’ hands are exposed to hazards such as those from skin absorption of harmful substances; severe cuts or lacerations; severe abrasions; punctures; chemical burns; thermal burns; and harmful temperature extremes.” As for selecting hand wear, OSHA says: “Employers shall base the selection of the appropriate hand protection on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified.” Hand safety should be part of every Safety Management System. In the maritime environment we must be aware that our hands are subject to cuts, burns, impacts, extreme cold, bruising , and chemical exposure. Just like with all other Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) the first thing to do is to make sure that whatever we use, it fits us properly. Two of the most important components when choosing the proper glove are impact resistance and manual dexterity, according

36 Marine Log // February 2019

to Anthony Thomas, Vice President, Ringers Gloves. If a glove does not allow your hand to do the job, you are less likely to wear it, no matter how good it is. And ships must carry enough types of gloves for the different types of jobs on board. According to Christina Beahm, Senior Vice President, Ringers Gloves, when selecting gloves, it is imperative to remember the three F’s, “Form, Fit, and Function.”

As we transition in to the age of the digital seafarer, our approach to problem solving will evolve and change

When working with chemicals, for example, rubber gloves specifically designed for chemical handling must be used. There are a lot of requirements concerning gloves that must be remembered. 1 . T h e m a n u f a c t u re d a te m u s t b e checked. If the gloves are over a year old, the insulation may have degraded enough that their ability to protect the wearer may be compromised. 2. The glove classification. Is the glove rated to handle the proposed job?

3. Regular Maintenance. Inspect all gloves for cuts and wear. If the glove appears compromised, don’t use it. So when do you know when the gloves have outlived their useful lives? “That really depends on the conditions that the gloves have been exposed to and used in,” says Beahm. “In the field, gloves are often exposed to harsh minerals and high temperatures. If the gloves are full of mud and minerals and shoved in a bag or left out in the high heat, the minerals or the sun can break down the materials at a rapid rate. We encourage the end users to wash the gloves and dry them on low heat for best results. Gloves should be replaced when the user feels that the integrity of the glove is compromised. If abrasion has caused holes exposing fingers or palms injuries can occur. Again, each task has different levels of risk and will result in different wear and tear rates.” According to George Washington Medical University’s Dr. Neal Sikka, gloves not only prevent the initial injury, but also lessen the repercussions from these injuries. Infections, abscesses, sutures, etc. can all occur if the there is a hand injury. These problems can easily decommission a mariner for days or even weeks. When it comes to any job on board, especially those that require PPE, we must remember the following: 1. Ensure that everything we wear fits properly, especially PPE, but down to our pants (can’t have them falling down while going aloft); 2. Plan jobs in advance as much as possible; 3. Ensure that all PPE is in proper working condition; 4. Ensure a safe job analysis and tool box talk is conducted with all team members; 5. Ensure compliance with company SMS; 6. Never “gundeck” a job 7. Never cut towards yourself, and use a dry knife and keep it sharp. Gloves are essential items because they protect our hands from the hazardous marine environment.

Matthew Bonvento A licensed deck officer and Assistant Professor of Nautical Science



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